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Calcitonin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142006/characterization-of-neuroendocrine-tumors-in-heterozygous-mutant-menx-rats-a-novel-model-of-invasive-medullary-thyroid-carcinoma
#1
Sara Molatore, Andrea Kügler, Martin Irmler, Tobias Wiedemann, Frauke Neff, Annette Feuchtinger, Johannes Beckers, Mercedes Robledo, Frederico Roncaroli, Natalia S Pellegata
Rats affected by the MENX syndrome spontaneously develop multiple neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) including adrenal, pituitary and thyroid gland neoplasms. MENX was initially reported to be inherited as a recessive trait and affected rats were found to be homozygous for the predisposing Cdkn1b mutation encoding p27. We here report that heterozygous MENX mutant rats (p27+/mut) develop the same spectrum of NETs seen in the homozygous (p27mut/mut) animals but with slower progression. Consequently, p27+/mut rats have a significantly shorter lifespan compared with their wild-type (p27+/+) littermates...
November 15, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141003/trpa1-and-trpv1-are-required-for-lidocaine-evoked-calcium-influx-and-neuropeptide-release-but-not-cytotoxicity-in-mouse-sensory-neurons
#2
Mirjam Eberhardt, Thomas Stueber, Jeanne de la Roche, Christine Herzog, Andreas Leffler, Peter W Reeh, Katrin Kistner
BACKGROUND: Local anaesthetics (LA) reduce neuronal excitability by inhibiting voltage-gated Na+ channels. When applied at high concentrations in the direct vicinity of nerves, LAs can also induce relevant irritation and neurotoxicity via mechanisms involving an increase of intracellular Ca2+. In the present study we explored the role of the Ca2+-permeable ion channels TRPA1 and TRPV1 for lidocaine-induced Ca2+-influx, neuropeptide release and neurotoxicity in mouse sensory neurons. METHODS: Cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from wildtype and mutant mice lacking TRPV1, TRPA1 or both channels were explored by means of calcium imaging, whole-cell patch clamp recordings and trypan blue staining for cell death...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136400/changes-in-bone-turnover-and-calcium-homeostasis-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-in-mammals-a-meta-analysis
#3
Diego A Torres, Mariella B Freitas, Reggiani V Gonçalves
Large amounts of calcium are required during pregnancy and lactation to support fetal and neonatal bone growth and calcification. An inadequate supply of calcium during these stages can lead to unsuccessful reproduction or impaired offspring fitness. During reproduction, female mammals undergo numerous physiological changes, including adaptations to allow an adequate supply of calcium. The lack of quantitative studies analysing these physiological changes from a comparative perspective limits our ability to explain and understand these adaptations...
November 15, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136283/population-pk-analyses-of-ubrogepant-mk-1602-a-cgrp-receptor-antagonist-enriching-in-clinic-plasma-pk-sampling-with-outpatient-dried-blood-spot-sampling
#4
Chi-Chung Li, Marissa Dockendorf, Ken Kowalski, Bei Yang, Yang Xu, Iris Xie, Huub Jan Kleijn, Rolien Bosch, Christopher Jones, Bob Thornton, Eugene E Marcantonio, Tiffini Voss, Kevin P Bateman, Prajakti A Kothare
Merck & Co., Inc. (Kenilworth, New Jersey) has recently published an integrated strategy for implementation of dried blood spots (DBS) in late-stage trials for population pharmacokinetic (PK) modeling. We applied this strategy for another late-stage clinical program: ubrogepant (MK-1602), a novel oral calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist for acute treatment of migraine. At the time of implementation, ubrogepant was entering phase 2 development. DBS was implemented to acquire PK information proximal to an acute migraine event to enable exposure-response modeling...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132068/secretoneurin-and-pe-11-immunoreactivity-in-the-human-dental-pulp
#5
René Steiner, Reiner Fischer-Colbrie, Athanasia Bletsa, Johannes Laimer, Josef Troger
OBJECTIVE: To explore whether there are differences in the concentration of the secretogranin II-derived peptide secretoneurin and the chromogranin B-derived peptide PE-11 between the healthy and inflamed human dental pulps. Furthermore, colocalization studies with calcitonin gene-related peptide were performed to confirm the sensory origin of the peptidergic nerves in the dental pulp. DESIGN: The concentrations of secretoneurin and PE-11 were determined by highly sensitive radioimmunoassays in extracts of dental pulps, the molecular form of secretoneurin immunoreactivities by RP-HPLC with subsequent radioimmunoassay and colocalization studies with calcitonin gene-related peptide were performed by double immunofluorescence...
November 9, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131327/cgrp-and-ptx3-as-predictors-of-efficacy-of-onabotulinumtoxin-type-a-in-chronic-migraine-an-observational-study
#6
Clara Domínguez, Alba Vieites-Prado, María Pérez-Mato, Tomás Sobrino, Xiana Rodríguez-Osorio, Ana López, Francisco Campos, Francisco Martínez, José Castillo, Rogelio Leira
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to find a relation between several biomarkers in peripheral blood and outcome after treatment with onabotulinumtoxin A (OnabotA). BACKGROUND: OnabotA is an effective treatment in chronic migraine (CM). Different studies have tried to find predictors of response to treatment, either with clinical characteristics, neuroimaging features, or molecular biomarkers; however, it is still not possible to predict the individual outcome...
November 13, 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129515/amygdalin-improves-microcirculatory-disturbance-and-attenuates-pancreatic-fibrosis-by-regulating-the-expression-of-endothelin-1-and-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-in-rats
#7
Xiangqun Zhang, Jiangong Hu, Yuzhen Zhuo, Lihua Cui, Caixia Li, Naiqiang Cui, Shukun Zhang
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a complex process of interaction between tissue injury and repair, which involves microcirculatory disturbance. Amygdalin, an effective component extracted from Semen Persicae (a kind of Chinese herbal medicine), can decrease blood viscosity and improve microcirculation. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of amygdalin on pancreatic fibrosis in rats with CP. METHODS: The rat CP model was induced by injecting dibutyltin dichloride (DBTC) into the right caudal vein...
November 9, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126344/genetic-and-epigenetic-of-medullary-thyroid-cancer
#8
Fatemeh Khatami, Seyed Mohammad Tavangar
Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is an infrequent, calcitonin producing neuroendocrine tumor and initiates from the parafollicular C cells of the thyroid gland. Several genetic and epigenetic alterations are collaterally responsible for medullary thyroid carcinogenesis. In this review article, we shed light on all the genetic and epigenetic hallmarks of MTC. From the genetic perspective, RET, HRAS, and KRAS are the most important genes that are characterized in MTC. From the epigenetic perspective, Ras-association domain family member 1A, telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter methylations, overexpression of histone methyltransferases, EZH2 and SMYD3, and wide ranging increase and decrease in non-coding RNAs can be responsible for medullary thyroid carcinogenesis...
November 11, 2017: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124912/metastatic-medullary-thyroid-carcinoma-or-calcitonin-secreting-carcinoid-tumor-of-lung-a-diagnostic-dilemma-in-a-patient-with-lung-mass-and-thyroid-nodule
#9
Shifteh Vahidi, Jimmie Stewart, Khalid Amin, Emilian Racila, Faqian Li
Calcitonin-secreting neuroendocrine tumors are rare and have been reported in literature as case reports or case series in various organs including lung, pancreas, larynx, bladder, and ovary. These tumors have similar cytologic features and immunohistochemical profile to medullary thyroid carcinoma and thus it is difficult to distinguish them, especially when calcitonin-secreting neuroendocrine tumors are intermediate or higher grade and there is a mass lesion in the thyroid gland. Here, we report a rare case of calcitonin secreting atypical carcinoid tumor of the lung in a patient with thyroid nodule...
November 10, 2017: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124749/prediction-of-bleeding-and-thrombosis-by-standard-biochemical-coagulation-variables-in-haematological-intensive-care-patients
#10
L Russell, M B Madsen, M Dahl, P Kampmann, A Perner
PURPOSE: We assessed the value of standard biochemical coagulation parameters in predicting bleeding, thrombosis and mortality in adult Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients with haematological malignancies. METHODS: We screened all patients with acute leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndrome admitted to a university hospital ICU during 2008-2012. Data were obtained from the clinical chemistry laboratory database and patient files. We graded bleeding according to the World Health Organisation (WHO)-system within 24-h, within 5-days and during the whole ICU stay...
November 9, 2017: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118989/patients-with-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-associated-with-high-stimulated-serum-calcitonin-levels
#11
Kursad Unluhizarci, Hulya Akgun, Bahadır Oz, Zuleyha Karaca, Fatih Tanriverdi, Fahrettin Kelestimur
Among various substances produced by C-cells, the most important one is calcitonin (CT) that is used for detection, post-operative follow-up and evaluation of individuals at risk of developing medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). However, the role of serum CT measurement in the evaluation of thyroid nodules has been widely discussed, and there is still no consensus about the role of CT in the initial evaluation of all thyroid nodules. Two patients with thyroid nodules whose fine-needle aspiration results were compatible with benign cytology besides having mildly elevated basal serum calcitonin levels were reported...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116598/cgrp-monoclonal-antibodies-for-migraine-rationale-and-progress
#12
Hsiangkuo Yuan, Clinton G Lauritsen, Eric A Kaiser, Stephen D Silberstein
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a neuropeptide abundant in the trigeminal system and widely expressed in both the peripheral and central nervous systems, has recently emerged as a promising target for migraine management. While known as a potent arterial vasodilator, the role of CGRP in migraine is likely mediated by modulating nociception and sustaining neurogenic inflammation that leads to further peripheral and central pain sensitization. Functional blockade of CGRP, which involves either CGRP receptor antagonists or monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to CGRP or its receptor, has recently shown clinical efficacy in migraine management...
November 7, 2017: BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115578/characterization-of-prostate-cancer-cell-progression-in-zebrafish-xenograft-model
#13
Wei Xu, Brittany A Foster, Mackenzie Richards, Kenneth R Bondioli, Girish Shah, Christopher C Green
Early diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) is critical for the application of efficient treatment to PCa patients. However, the majority of PCas remains indolent from several months to several years before malignancy. Current diagnosis methods have limitations in their reliability and are inefficient in time cost. Thus, an efficient in vivo PCa cell xenograft model is highly desired for diagnostic studies in PCas. In the present study we present a standardized procedure to create a PCa cell xenograft model using zebrafish (Danio rerio) as the host...
November 6, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113945/changes-in-the-expression-and-localization-of-signaling-molecules-in-mouse-facial-motor-neurons-during-regeneration-of-facial-nerves
#14
Jeongtae Kim, Shiori Kobayashi, Chigusa Shimizu-Okabe, Akihito Okabe, Changjong Moon, Taekyun Shin, Chitoshi Takayama
After injury, peripheral axons usually re-extend toward their target, and neuronal functions recover. Previous studies have reported that expression of various molecules are transiently altered in motor neurons after nerve injury, but the time course of these changes and their relationship with functional recovery have not been clearly demonstrated. We used the mouse facial nerve transection and suturing model, and examined the changes in expression of five molecules, choline acetyl transferase (ChAT), galanin, calcitonin gene-related protein (CGRP), gephyrin, and potassium chloride co-transporter 2 (KCC2) in the facial motor neurons after surgery until recovery...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112508/estrogen-modulates-corneal-nociception-and-maintains-corneal-homeostasis-in-rat-eye
#15
Vinod Kumar, Vishma Pratap Sur, Rajdeep Guha, Aditya Konar, Sarbani Hazra
PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of estrogen in corneal nociception, its influence on lacrimal secretion, and development of dry eye. METHODS: Ovariectomy was performed in normal healthy female rats (OVX). Estrogen replacement was performed in a population of these rats (OVX+E). Tests for dry eye and corneal sensitivity were performed and compared with rats in proestrus (PRO) as controls. Gene expression of neuropeptides such as substance P, calcitonin gene receptor-like protein (CGRP), estrogen receptor α, TRPV1, and TRPM8 was evaluated in the cornea and trigeminal ganglion...
November 6, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110503/cgrp-a-target-for-preventive-therapy-in-migraine-and-cluster-headache-systematic-review-of-clinical-data
#16
Sabrina Khan, Astrid Olesen, Messoud Ashina
Introduction Migraine and cluster headache are challenging to manage, with no tailored preventive medications available. Targeting the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) pathway to treat these headaches may be the first focused therapeutic option to date, with the potential for promising efficacy. Methods We systematically searched PubMed and clinicaltrials.gov for randomized controlled trials investigating the preventive potential of monoclonal antibodies against the CGRP pathway in the treatment of migraine and cluster headache...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108503/stress-during-development-of-experimental-endometriosis-influences-nerve-growth-and-disease-progression
#17
Marielly Cuevas, Myrella L Cruz, Antonio E Ramirez, Idhaliz Flores, Kenira J Thompson, Manuel Bayona, Michael W Vernon, Caroline B Appleyard
PURPOSE: We have previously shown that stress prior to induction worsens clinical presentation and inflammatory parameters in a rat model of endometriosis. This study was designed to examine whether stress during the development of endometriosis can affect the growth of endometriotic implants through nerve growth and immune alterations. METHODS: Endometriosis was surgically induced in female Sprague-Dawley rats by suturing uterine horn implants onto the small intestine mesentery...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107933/local-administration-of-calcitonin-inhibits-alveolar-bone-loss-in-an-experimental-periodontitis-in-rats
#18
Chie Wada-Mihara, Hiroyuki Seto, Hirofumi Ohba, Kaku Tokunaga, Jun-Ichi Kido, Toshihiko Nagata, Koji Naruishi
Calcitonin (CTN), a calcium regulatory hormone, promotes calcium diuresis from the kidney and suppresses bone resorption. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the topical and intermittent application of CTN inhibits alveolar bone resorption using ligature-induced experimental periodontitis in rats. Experimental periodontitis was induced by placing a nylon ligature around maxillary molars of 8-week-old male Wistar rats for 20 days. Thirty-two rats were divided into four groups: basal sham control group, periodontitis group, periodontitis plus 0...
November 3, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107144/osteon-myospalacem-baileyi-attenuates-osteoclast-differentiation-through-rankl-induced-nfat-pathways
#19
Yulei Cui, Xiaoying Zhao, Lijuan Mei, Jinjin Pei, Shuo Wang, Yun Shao, Yanduo Tao, Xiaoling Zhang, Lei Jiang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Osteon Myospalacem Baileyi, known as Sai long gu (Tibetan language, means "blind rat bone"), is the whole skeleton of Tibet plateau rodentia animal Myospalacem Baileyi. Osteon Myospalacem Baileyi had been widely used in the Tibet region as an anti-osteoporosis drug and since 1991 Osteon Myospalacem Baileyi has been listed in the Pharmacopoeia of People's Republic of China as the first-class animal new medical material. However, the mechanism of its anti-osteoporosis activities is still unclear...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105562/reduced-retinoblastoma-protein-expression-is-associated-with-decreased-patient-survival-in-medullary-thyroid-cancer
#20
Anisley Valenciaga, Elizabeth G Grubbs, Kyle Porter, Paul E Wakely, Michelle D Williams, Gilbert J Cote, Vasyl V Vasko, Motoyasu Saji, Matthew D Ringel
BACKGROUND: The Retinoblastoma (RB) transcriptional corepressor 1 protein functions to slow cell cycle progression. Inactivation of RB by reduced expression and/or hyperphosphorylation allow for enhanced progression through cell cycle. Murine models develop medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) after generalized loss of RB; however, RB expression in MTC has been evaluated only in a small number of tumors with differing results. The objective of this study is to determine whether reduced expression of RB and/or overexpression of hyperphosphorylated RB predict MTC aggressive behavior...
November 4, 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
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