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Calcitonin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324630/morphological-and-neurochemical-differences-in-peptidergic-nerve-fibres-of-the-mouse-vagina
#1
Christine Barry, Esther Ji, Harman Sharma, Lara Beukes, Pat Vilimas, Yvette DeGraaf, Dusan Matusica, Rainer V Haberberger
The vagina is innervated by a complex arrangement of sensory, sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve fibres that contain classical transmitters plus an array of neuropeptides and enzymes known to regulate diverse processes including blood flow and nociception. The neurochemical characteristics and distributions of peptide-containing nerves in the mouse vagina are unknown. This study used multiple labelling immunohistochemistry, confocal imaging and analysis to investigate the presence and colocalization of the peptides vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP), neuropeptide tyrosine (NPY) and the nitric oxide synthesizing enzyme neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in nerve fibres of the murine vaginal wall...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324021/endogenous-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-regulates-lipid-metabolism-and-energy-homeostasis-in-male-mice
#2
Tian Liu, Akiko Kamiyoshi, Takayuki Sakurai, Yuka Ichikawa-Shindo, Hisaka Kawate, Lei Yang, Megumu Tanaka, Xian Xian, Akira Imai, Liuyu Zhai, Kazutaka Hirabayashi, Kun Dai, Keiya Tanimura, Teng Liu, Nanqi Cui, Kyoko Igarashi, Akihiro Yamauchi, Takayuki Shindo
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a bioactive peptide produced by alternative splicing of the primary transcript of the calcitonin/CGRP gene. CGRP is largely distributed in the cardiovascular and nervous systems, where it acts as a regulatory factor. CGRP is also expressed in organs and tissues involved in metabolic regulation, including white adipose tissue (WAT), where its function is largely unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of endogenous CGRP on metabolic function. When we administered a high-fat diet to CGRP knockout (CGRP-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice for 10 weeks, we observed that food intake did not differ between the two groups, but body weight and visceral fat weight were significantly lower in CGRP-/- mice...
January 20, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318158/-protective-effect-of-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-against-oxidative-damage-in-mc3t3-e1-osteoblasts
#3
Guo Junfeng, Zhang Huiyu, Zhang Gang, An Yang, Yang Yang, Wang Fei, Tan Yinghui
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to observe the protective effect of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), as well as its potential mechanism, against oxidative damage in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. METHODS: 1) MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts were treated with different hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) concentrations (10⁻¹, 10⁻², 10⁻³, 10⁻⁴, and 10⁻⁵ mol·L⁻¹) for 12, 24, 36, and 48 h to build an oxidative damage model, to determine cell proliferation activity in each group by using CCK-8 assay, and to determine the optimal modeling concentration...
December 1, 2016: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317098/cgrp-receptor-activity-in-mice-with-global-expression-of-human-receptor-activity-modifying-protein-1
#4
Keegan J Bohn, Baolin Li, Xiaofang Huang, Bianca N Mason, Anne-Sophie Wattiez, Adisa Kuburas, Christopher S Walker, Peiyi Yang, Jianliang Yu, Beverly A Heinz, Kirk W Johnson, Andrew F Russo
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: CGRP is a potent vasodilator and nociceptive neuropeptide linked to migraine. CGRP receptors are heterodimers of receptor activity-modifying protein-1 (RAMP1) and either calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR), which forms the canonical CGRP receptor, or calcitonin receptor (CTR), which forms the amylin-1 (AMY1 ) receptor. The goal of this study was to test whether transgenic mice globally expressing human RAMP1 (hRAMP1) have increased CGRP receptor activity and whether the receptors are sensitive to the human selective antagonist telcagepant...
March 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314897/transient-osteoporosis-of-the-hip-review-of-the-literature
#5
REVIEW
K Asadipooya, L Graves, L W Greene
Transient osteoporosis of the hip (TOH) is a temporary clinical condition of unknown etiology which usually resolves with conservative therapy though may be complicated by fracture or progression to avascular necrosis (AVN). TOH may be slightly more prevalent in men but when it occurs in women, it is most often seen in the latter part of pregnancy. Though fracture is a rare complication of TOH when it occurs, it is most often associated with TOH occurring in pregnancy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the best method to diagnosis TOH...
March 17, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304090/osteoporosis-treatment-efficacy-for-men-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Smita Nayak, Susan L Greenspan
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of treatment options to reduce osteoporotic fracture risk in men. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. SETTING: Randomized clinical trials that evaluated the efficacy of a treatment for osteoporosis or low bone mineral density for adult men and reported fracture outcomes. PARTICIPANTS: Men. MEASUREMENTS: PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases were searched for relevant studies...
March 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303458/calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-and-pain-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Wendy Sophie Schou, Sait Ashina, Faisal Mohammad Amin, Peter J Goadsby, Messoud Ashina
BACKGROUND: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is widely distributed in nociceptive pathways in human peripheral and central nervous system and its receptors are also expressed in pain pathways. CGRP is involved in migraine pathophysiology but its role in non-headache pain has not been clarified. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search on PubMed, Embase and ClinicalTrials.gov for articles on CGRP and non-headache pain covering human studies including experimental studies and randomized clinical trials...
December 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301400/the-role-of-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-in-peripheral-and-central-pain-mechanisms-including-migraine
#8
Smriti Iyengar, Michael H Ossipov, Kirk W Johnson
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a 37-amino acid peptide found primarily in the C and Aδ sensory fibers arising from the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia, as well as the central nervous system. Calcitonin gene-related peptide was found to play important roles in cardiovascular, digestive, and sensory functions. Although the vasodilatory properties of CGRP are well documented, its somatosensory function regarding modulation of neuronal sensitization and of enhanced pain has received considerable attention recently...
April 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297754/-clinicopathologic-characteristics-of-head-and-neck-carcinoma-showing-thymus-like-element
#9
X J Cui, C Y Zhang, P Su, B Lyu, Y B Ren, X S Fan, X F Zhang, Y Wang, Y H Song, Z Y Liu
Objective: To investigate clinicopathological features of carcinoma showing thymus-like elements (CASTLE) in the head and neck regions. Methods: Clinicopathological data of 7 patients with CASTLE in the head and neck regions were retrospectively reviewed.Immunohistochemical staining and in situ hybridization for EBER were performed. BRAF(V600E) mutation was examined by ARMS method in 6 cases. Results: There were 5 females and 2 males with age between 49 and 78 years (average of 65.6 years). All tumors were solitary nodular lesions with an infiltrative border, including 6 intrathyroid tumors and 1 extrathyroid tumor in the laryngeal pharynx...
March 8, 2017: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295313/peripheral-and-central-anatomical-organization-of-cutaneous-afferent-subtypes-in-a-rat-nociceptive-intersegmental-spinal-reflex
#10
Hyun Joon Lee, Jason M White, Jumi Chung, Keith E Tansey
Stimulation of rat segmental dorsal cutaneous nerves (DCNs) evokes the nociceptive intersegmental cutaneus trunci muscle (CTM) reflex. The reflex consists of early and late responses, mediated by Aδ and C fibers respectively based on required stimulation strengths, and shows segmental differences in terms of amplitude and duration. We have now investigated whether the peripheral or central anatomy of nociceptive afferent subtypes in different DCNs also vary in a segmental manner. The numbers of different axon subtypes, determined by axon diameter, were analyzed across peripheral DCNs from T6 to L1...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293917/increasing-calcium-level-limits-schwann-cell-numbers-in-vitro-following-peripheral-nerve-injury
#11
Kai J Yang, Yuhui Yan, Lin-Ling Zhang, Michael A Agresti, Hani S Matloub, John A LoGiudice, Robert Havlik, Ji-Geng Yan
Background After peripheral nerve injury, there is an increase in calcium concentration in the injured nerves. Our previous publications have shown that increase in calcium concentration correlated well with degree of nerve injury and that local infusion of calcitonin has a beneficial effect on nerve recovery. Schwann cells play a pivotal role in regeneration and recovery. We aim to examine cultured Schwann cell survivals in various concentrations of calcium-containing growth media and the effect of calcitonin in such media...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292761/optimization-of-tolerability-and-efficacy-of-dual-amylin-and-calcitonin-receptor-agonist-kbp-089-through-dose-escalation-and-combination-with-a-glp-1-analogue
#12
Sofie Gydesen, Kim Vietz Andreassen, Sara Toftegaard Hjuler, Lars I Hellgren, Morten Asser Karsdal, Kim Henriksen
Amylin and GLP-1 agonism induce a well-known anorexic effect at dose initiation, which is managed by dose escalation. In this study, we investigated how to optimize tolerability, while maintaining efficacy of KBP-089. Furthermore, we tested the GLP-1 add-on potential of KBP-089 in HFD rats. KBP-089 potently activated both the amylin and calcitonin receptors in vitro, demonstrated a prolonged receptor activation, and potently reduced acute food intake. HFD rats dosed every or every second day obtained equal weight loss at study end, albeit with an uneven reduction in both food intake and bodyweight in rats dosed every second day...
March 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287437/the-influence-of-low-doses-of-zearalenone-and-t-2-toxin-on-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-like-immunoreactive-cgrp-li-neurons-in-the-ens-of-the-porcine-descending-colon
#13
Krystyna Makowska, Kazimierz Obremski, Lukasz Zielonka, Slawomir Gonkowski
The enteric nervous system (ENS) can undergo adaptive and reparative changes in response to physiological and pathological stimuli. These manifest primarily as alterations in the levels of active substances expressed by the enteric neuron. While it is known that mycotoxins can affect the function of the central and peripheral nervous systems, knowledge about their influence on the ENS is limited. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of low doses of zearalenone (ZEN) and T-2 toxin on calcitonin gene related peptide-like immunoreactive (CGRP-LI) neurons in the ENS of the porcine descending colon using a double immunofluorescence technique...
March 10, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283568/nanostructure-and-stability-of-calcitonin-amyloids
#14
Federica Rigoldi, Pierangelo Metrangolo, Alberto Redaelli, Alfonso Gautieri
Calcitonin is a 32 amino acid thyroid hormone that can form amyloid fibrils. The structural basis of the fibril formation and stabilization is still debated and poorly understood. The reason is that NMR data strongly suggest antiparallel β-sheets calcitonin assembly, while modelling studies on the short DFNKF peptide (corresponding to sequence from Asp15 to Phe19 of human calcitonin and reported as the minimal amyloidogenic module) show that it assembles with parallel β-sheets. In this work, we first predict the structure of human calcitonin through two complementary molecular dynamics (MD) methods, finding that human calcitonin forms an alpha helix...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281109/neuropeptides-as-a-marker-for-chronic-headache
#15
REVIEW
Nuria Riesco, Eva Cernuda-Morollón, Julio Pascual
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to revise current evidence on trigemino-vascular system (TVS) neuropeptides as potential biomarkers for chronic primary headaches, mainly for chronic migraine (CM). RECENT FINDINGS: Within sensory neuropeptides, released by an activated trigeminal nerve, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) levels seem to be a good biomarker of acute migraine and somewhat sensitive and specific for CM. CGRP, however, is not increased in 20-30% of CM patients, which suggests that CGRP is not the only neuropeptide involved in migraine pain generation and maintenance...
April 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280798/endometrial-expression-of-%C3%AE-3-integrin-calcitonin-and-plexin-b1-in-the-window-of-implantation-in-women-with-unexplained-infertility
#16
Mehran Dorostghoal, Hamid-O-Allah Ghaffari, Nahid Shahbazian, Maryam Mirani
BACKGROUND: Endometrial receptivity plays a key role in the establishment of successful implantation and its impairment may contribute to subfertility and limit the assisted reproduction techniques (ART) success. OBJECTIVE: The aim of present study was to investigate endometrial receptivity in terms of β3 integrin, calcitonin and plexin-B1 expression in women with unexplained infertility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated expression of β3 integrin, calcitonin and plexin-B1 through mRNA level measurement with real-time RT-PCR, in the endometrium of 16 infertile women with unexplained infertility and 10 fertile women...
January 2017: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271659/effects-of-electroacupuncture-at-2-and-100-hz-on-rat-type-2-diabetic-neuropathic-pain-and-hyperalgesia-related-protein-expression-in-the-dorsal-root-ganglion
#17
Xiao-Fen He, Jun-Jun Wei, Sheng-Yun Shou, Jian-Qiao Fang, Yong-Liang Jiang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the analgesic effects of electroacupuncture (EA) at 2 and 100 Hz on type 2 diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) and on the expressions of the P2X3 receptor and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). METHODS: Rat type 2 DNP was induced by a high calorie and high sugar diet fed for 7 weeks, plus a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) after 5 weeks. EA at 2 and 100 Hz was carried out once every day after 7 weeks for 7 consecutive days...
2017: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270193/cutaneous-neurogenic-inflammation-in-the-sensitized-acupoints-induced-by-gastric-mucosal-injury-in-rats
#18
Wei He, Xiao-Yu Wang, Hong Shi, Wan-Zhu Bai, Bin Cheng, Yang-Shuai Su, Xiao-Chun Yu, Xiang-Hong Jing, Bing Zhu
BACKGROUND: In acupuncture practice, the most important step is to confirm the location of a sensitized acupoint which reflects a diagnosis and can be stimulated with a specialized needle to treat the disease. Abnormal symptoms such as hyperalgesia or allodynia at the sensitized acupoints in patients with visceral disorders are considered to be in relation with referred pain and neurogenic inflammation. Yet, limited study has investigated the cutaneous neurochemical changes of the sensitized acuponits...
March 7, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270183/the-link-between-obesity-and-migraine-in-childhood-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
G Farello, P Ferrara, A Antenucci, C Basti, A Verrotti
Obesity and headache are two highly prevalent diseases both in adults and children and they are associated with a strong personal and social impact. Many studies suggest that obesity is comorbid with headache in general, and migraine in particular and obesity seems to be a risk factor for migraine progression and for migraine frequency both in adults and in children. Research shows that there are multiple areas of overlap between migraine pathophysiology and the central and peripheral pathways regulating feeding: inflammatory mediators such as the calcitonin gene-related protein (CGRP), neurotransmitters such as serotonin, peptides such as orexin and adipocytokines such as adiponectin (ADP) and leptin could explain the common pathogenesis...
March 7, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263849/chemical-profiles-and-pharmacological-activities-of-chang-kang-fang-a-multi-herb-chinese-medicinal-formula-for-treating-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#20
Qian Mao, Lei Shi, Zhi-Gang Wang, Yu-Hui Luo, Yin-Yu Wang, Xue Li, Min Lu, Jian-Min Ju, Jin-Di Xu, Ming Kong, Shan-Shan Zhou, Min-Qin Shen, Song-Lin Li
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Chang-Kang-Fang formula (CKF), a multi-herb traditional Chinese medicinal formula, has been clinically used for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The mechanisms of CKF for treating IBS and the components that are responsible for the activities were still unknown. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the chemical profiles and effects of CKF on IBS model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The chemical profiles of CKF were investigated by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q/TOF-MS/MS)...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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