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Eun Ju Chun, Jin Hee Han, Seung Min Yoo, Hwa Yeon Lee, In Sup Song, Charles S White
BACKGROUND: The CT finding of "vulnerable plaque" is widely regarded as similar to that of a culprit lesion in an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, this hypothesis may not be accurate, since "vulnerable plaques" may substantially change their morphology when they rupture to cause an ACS. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated coronary CT angiography data sets of 25 patients with ACS who had vulnerable (n = 10) or culprit plaques (n = 15). We analyzed CT features including positive remodeling (PR), low attenuation plaque (LAP), the napkin ring sign (NRS), degree of stenosis (normal, <50%, 50-99%, 100%), and myocardial hypoperfusion in the left ventricle...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
Yong Sup Ihn, Yosep Kim, Vincenzo Tamma, Yoon-Ho Kim
We report the observation of a counterintuitive phenomenon in multipath correlation interferometry with thermal light. The intensity correlation between the outputs of two unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometers (UMZIs) with two classically correlated beams of thermal light at the input exhibits genuine second-order interference with the visibility of 1/3. Surprisingly, the second-order interference does not degrade at all no matter how much the path length difference in each UMZI is increased beyond the coherence length of the thermal light...
December 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Martin Dorber, Roel May, Francesca Verones
Increasing hydropower electricity production constitutes a unique opportunity to mitigate climate change impacts. However, hydropower also impacts aquatic and terrestrial biodiversity through freshwater habitat alteration, water quality degradation, and land use and land use change (LULUC). Today, no operational model exists that covers any of these cause-effect pathways within Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This paper contributes to the assessment of LULUC impacts of hydropower electricity production in Norway in LCA...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Junyan Zou, Weijia Song, Weiguang Xie, Bo Huang, Huidong Yang, Zhi Luo
Here, we report a simple strategy to prepare highly sensitive surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates based on Ag decorated Cu<sub>2</sub>O nanoparticles by combing two commom techniques, viz, thermal oxidation growth of Cu<sub>2</sub>O nanoparticles and magnetron sputtering fabrication of Ag nanopartilce film. Methylene blue was used as raman analyte for the SERS study, and the substrates fabricated under optimized conditions have very good sensitivity (analytical enhancement facor ~10<sup>8</sup>) , stablility and reproducibility...
January 12, 2018: Nanotechnology
Christoph W Lerche, Theodoros Kaltsas, Liliana Caldeira, Juergen J Scheins, Elena Rota Kops, Lutz Tellmann, Uwe Pietrzyk, Hans Herzog, Nadim Jon Shah
One challenge for PET-MR hybrid imaging is the correction for attenuation of the 511 keV annihilation radiation by the required RF transmit and/or RF receive coils. Although there are strategies for building PET transparent Tx/Rx coils, such optimised coils still cause signicant attenuation of the annihilation radiation leading to artefacts and biases in the reconstructed activity concentrations. We present a straightforward method to measure the attenuation of Tx/Rx coils in simultaneous MR-PET imaging based on the natural <sup>176</sup>Lu background contained in the scintillator of the PET detector without the requirement of an external CT scanner or PET scanner with transmission source...
January 12, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Gokhan Ariturk, Yusuf Ziya Ider
Magnetic resonance electrical properties tomography (MR-EPT), aiming at reconstructing the EP's at radio frequencies, uses the H<sup>+</sup> field (both magnitude and phase) distribution within the object. One of the MR-EPT algorithms, cr-MREPT, accurately reconstructs the internal tissue boundaries however it faces an artifact which occurs at the regions where the convective field, [ (∂H<sup>+</sup> / ∂x ) - i(∂H<sup>+</sup> / ∂y) i((∂H<sup>+</sup> / ∂x ) - i(∂H<sup>+</sup> / ∂y)) ] , has a low magnitude (at the noise level)...
January 12, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Amit Khare, Jaekwang Lee, Jaeseoung Park, Gi-Yeop Kim, Si-Young Choi, Takayoshi Katase, Seulki Roh, Tae Sup Yoo, Jungseek Hwang, Hiromichi Ohta, Junwoo Son, Woo Seok Choi
Transition metal oxides with brownmillerite (BM) structures possess one-dimensional oxygen vacancy channels, which play a key role in realizing high ionic conduction at low temperatures. The controllability of the vacancy channel orientation, thus, possess a great potential for practical applications, and would provide a better visualization of the diffusion pathways of ions in transition metal oxides. In this study, the orientations of the oxygen vacancy channels in BM-SrFeO2.5 are stabilized along two crystallographic directions of the epitaxial thin films...
January 12, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Il Sup Kim, Jae Taek Hong, Jung Jae Lee, Jong Bum Lee, Chul Bum Cho, Seung Ho Yang, Jae Hoon Sung
PURPOSE: Cervical laminectomy has two major disadvantages: post-laminectomy adhesion of dural membrane and the lack of a fusion bed. The objective of this study was to determine whether simultaneous laminoplasty with fusion (CLPF) might overcome these unwanted outcomes. METHODS: Cases of CLPF for treating various cervical myelopathy with instability who were followed up for at least 12 months were enrolled. Preoperative and postoperative Neck Disability Index (NDI), Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scores before and after surgeries, recovery rates (RRs), C2-7 lordosis, and fusion success rates were evaluated...
January 8, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Silva Suvi, Martin Mooses, Saima Timpmann, Luule Medijainen, Daria Narõškina, Eve Unt, Vahur Ööpik
The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of sodium citrate (CIT) ingestion (600 mg·kg<sup>‒1</sup>) during recovery from dehydrating cycling exercise (DE) on subsequent 40-km cycling performance in a warm environment (32 °C). Twenty male non-heat-acclimated endurance athletes exercised in the heat until 4% body mass (BM) loss occurred. After 16 h recovery with consumption of water ad libitum and prescribed diet (evening meal 20 kcal·kg<sup>‒1</sup>, breakfast 12 kcal·kg<sup>‒1</sup>) supplemented in a double-blind, randomized, crossover manner with CIT or placebo (PLC), they performed 40-km time-trial (TT) on a cycle ergometer in a warm environment...
January 11, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Joerg C Schefold, Anders Perner, Theis Lange, Jørn Wetterslev, Matt P Wise, Mark Borthwick, Stepani Bendel, Frederik Keus, Anne Berit Guttormsen, Søren Marker, Mette Krag, Morten Hylander Møller
BACKGROUND: Proton pump inhibitors are often used in critically ill patients to prevent gastrointestinal bleeding despite limited evidence for benefit. Patients with acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) are at high risk of gastrointestinal bleeding as (pre-)uremia induces coagulopathy through effects on platelets and coagulation cascades. No high-quality randomized clinical trials have previously assessed the benefits and harms of prophylactic proton pump inhibitor use in this high-risk population of adult critically ill patients...
January 10, 2018: Trials
Kyu Been Kwon, Teyoun Kang, Hyung Seon Song, Young-Kuk Kim, Bernhard Ersfeld, Dino A Jaroszynski, Min Sup Hur
Emission of radiation from electrons undergoing plasma oscillations (POs) at the plasma frequency has attracted interest because of the existence of intriguing and non-trivial coupling mechanism between the electrostatic PO and the emitted electromagnetic wave. While broadband emission from plasma waves in inhomogeneous plasma is well known, the underlying physics of narrowband emission at the plasma frequency observed in experiments and in solar radio-bursts is obscure. Here we show that a spatially-localized plasma dipole oscillation (PDO) can be generated when electrons are trapped in a moving train of potential wells produced by the ponderomotive force of two slightly detuned laser pulses that collide in plasma and give rise to a burst of quasi-monochromatic radiation...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Bo-Rong Peng, Mei-Chin Lu, Mohamed El-Shazly, Shwu-Li Wu, Kuei-Hung Lai, Jui-Hsin Su
Our continuous search for marine bioactive secondary metabolites led to the screening of crude extracts from a variety of aquaculture soft corals. The ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract of Lobophytum crassum showed a distinctive chemical profile that was different from the wild type. It demonstrated significant anti-proliferative activity against Molt 4 leukemia cell with an IC50 value of 1 μg/mL after 24 h. Chemical investigation focusing on the unique peaks in L. crassum profile led to the discovery of a new α-tocopherol crassumtocopherol C (1), and two new cembrane-based diterpenoids culobophylins D (2) and E (3), along with ten known cembranoids (4-13)...
January 7, 2018: Marine Drugs
Yuri Lee, Wonhwa Lee, Hyun-Ha Chang, Shin-Woo Kim, Jaehong Kim, Jong-Sup Bae
The development of new sepsis-specific biomarkers is mandatory to improve the detection and monitoring of the disease. Testican-1 is a highly conserved, multidomain proteoglycan that is most prominently expressed in the thalamus of the brain, and is upregulated in activated astroglial cells of the cerebrum. The aim of this study was to evaluate blood levels of Testican-1 in septic patients. A prospective study of 82 patients with sepsis was conducted. Furthermore, C57BL/6 mice were administrated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein or subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) surgery...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Yang Lu, Hui Li, Yue Geng
δ-Tocopherol (δ-TOH) is a form of vitamin E with higher bioactivity. In this study, we studied the bioactivity of δ-TOH using the IC50 of δ-TOH on RAW264.7 (80 μM) and K562 (110 μM) cells. We compared the differential metabolites from the cell lines with and without δ-TOH treatment by 1H-NMR metabonomics analysis. It was found that δ-TOH affected the protein biosynthesis, betaine metabolism, and urea cycle in various ways in both cell lines. Metabolic levels of the cell lines were changed after treatment with δ-TOH as differential metabolites were produced...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Noha Abdel Gawad, Khalid Mohamed, Doo-Sup Choi, Osama A Abulseoud
This study investigates phenotypic differences of manic-like behaviors during voluntary ethanol (vs. water) intake in alcohol preferring (P) rats, using the lateral hypothalamus kindled (LHK) rat mania model. Alcohol preferring (P) rats exhibited classic manic-like behaviors during kindling and the post-kindling intervals in all coded behaviors (p < 0.0001), lending further validity to the lateral hypothalamus kindled rat as a useful model to study mania. However, there was no significant phenotypic difference between alcohol and water drinking alcohol preferring (P) rats...
January 2, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Kristin Bergum, Heine Nygard Riise, Sandeep Gorantla, Per Lindberg, Ingvild Julie Thue Jensen, Anette Gunnaes, Augustinas Galeckas, Spyros Diplas, Bengt Svensson, Edouard Monakhov
Cuprous oxide (Cu<sub>2</sub>O) is a promising material for large scale photovoltaic applications. The efficiencies of thin film structures are, however, currently lower than those for structures based on Cu<sub>2</sub>O sheets, possibly due to their poorer transport properties. This study shows that post-deposition rapid thermal annealing (RTA) of Cu<sub>2</sub>O films is an effective approach for improving carrier transport in films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Young Kim, Zhe Zhang, Jae-Hyuck Shim, Tae Sup Lee, Ching-Hsuan Tung
Cell therapies are promising up-and-coming therapeutic strategies for many diseases. For maximal therapeutic benefits, injected cells have to navigate their way to a designated area, including organ and tissue; unfortunately, the majority of therapeutic cells are currently administered without a guide or homing device. To improve this serious shortcoming, a functionalization method was developed to equip cells with a homing signal. Its application was demonstrated by applying an Azadibenzocyclooctyne-bisphosphonate (ADIBO-BP) and azide paired bioorthogonal chemistry on cells for bone specific homing...
December 26, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Hyunjong Yu, Young Hwan Son, Hak-Jin Kim, Keesung Kim, Pahn-Shick Chang, Ho-Sup Jung
An immobilized liposome electrode (ILE)-based sensor was developed to quantify conformational changes of the proteins under various stress conditions. The ILE surface was characterized by using a tapping-mode atomic force microscopy (TM-AFM) to confirm surface immobilization of liposome. The uniform layer of liposome was formed on the electrode. The current deviations generated based on the status of the proteins under different stress were then measured. Bovine carbonic anhydrase (CAB) and lysozyme were tested with three different conditions: native, reduced and partially denatured...
January 5, 2018: Sensors
Fahimeh Dehkhoda, Ahmed Soltan, Nikhil Ponon, Andrew Jackson, Anthony G O'Neill, Patrick Degenaar
This work presents a method to determine the surface temperature of microphotonic medical implants like LEDs. Our inventive step is to use the photonic emitter (LED) employed in an implantable device as its own sensor and develop readout circuitry to accurately determine the surface temperature of the device. There are two primary classes of applications where microphotonics could be used in implantable devices; opto-electrophysiology, and fluorescence sensing. In such scenarios, intense light needs to be delivered to the target...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Joanna Morawska, Ewa Niebudek-Bogusz, Justyna Wiktorowicz, Mariola Śliwińska-Kowalska
BACKGROUND: Given the growing number of occupational voice users, easy and quick broad-scale screening is necessary to provide prophylaxis of voice disorders. The aim of the study was to assess applicability of the Voice Related Quality of Life questionnaire (V-RQOL) to screening occupational voice disorders. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The research comprised 284 subjects divided into 3 groups: 0 - the control group of normophonic subjects, non-professional voice users (N = 60), 1 - occupational voice users with objectively confirmed voice disorders (N = 124), 2 - the non-randomized group of occupational voice users with and without voice problems (N = 100)...
December 28, 2017: Medycyna Pracy
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