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Jérôme Casas, Claudio Lazzari, Teresita Insausti, Pascal Launois, Florence Fouque
Major emergency efforts are being mounted for each vector-borne disease epidemiological crisis anew, while knowledge about the biology of arthropods vectors is dwindling slowly but continuously, as is the number of field entomologists. The discrepancy between the rates of production of knowledge and its use and need for solving crises is widening, in particular due to the highly differing time spans of the two concurrent processes. A worldwide web based search using multiple key words and search engines of onsite and online courses in English, Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian and German concerned with the biology of vectors identified over 140 courses...
October 13, 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Kleio Koutra, George Kritsotakis, Manolis Linardakis, Nikoleta Ratsika, Anna Kokkevi, Anastas Philalithis
BACKGROUND: Smoking is among the health risk behaviors taken up by many adolescents with lifelong consequences and associations with multiple health risk behaviors. Smoking and smoking initiation in adolescence involves an interaction between micro-, meso-, and macro systems, including neighborhoods and the greater community. OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations of individual social and economic capital with self-reported health, life satisfaction, and smoking behavior in adolescents...
October 19, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Tonghua Wu, Biao Yin, Yuanchang Zhu, Guangui Li, Lijun Ye, Chunmei Chen, Yong Zeng, Desheng Liang
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous abortion (SA) is the most common complication of pregnancy, and chromosome aberrations are the principal cause of the first trimester abortuses in natural conception (NC) The increasing use of assisted reproductive technology (ART) has raised concern about chromosome abnormalities in ART-initiated pregnancies. Up to date, the literature on the risk of aneuploidy in failed pregnancies among various ART factors remain limited and inconclusive. This study aimed to explore the genetic etiology of pregnancy loss conceived from varying ART procedures...
2016: Molecular Cytogenetics
Andromachi Spanouli, Joeri Hofmans
Amidst a struggling economy, organizations are ruled by the survival of the fittest paradigm but it is the employees who tend to pay the price, with increased demands which, oftentimes, fall outside their job scope. In the present paper, we examined whether pressuring people to engage in such organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) might in fact backfire and lead to increased Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB) because of compensatory mechanisms. We propose a typology of OCB that distinguishes between discretionary and elicited OCB, hypothesizing that elicited but not discretionary OCB, positively relates to CWB...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Minghui Chen, Xueshi Wang, Daolong Zha, Fangfang Cai, Wenjing Zhang, Yan He, Qilai Huang, Hongqin Zhuang, Zi-Chun Hua
Apigenin (APG) is an edible plant-derived flavonoid that shows modest antitumor activities in vitro and in vivo. APG treatment results in cell growth arrest and apoptosis in various types of tumors by modulating several signaling pathways. In the present study, we evaluated interactions between APG and TRAIL in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. We observed a synergistic effect between APG and TRAIL on apoptosis of NSCLC cells. A549 cells and H1299 cells were resistant to TRAIL treatment alone. The presence of APG sensitized NSCLC cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by upregulating the levels of death receptor 4 (DR4) and death receptor 5 (DR5) in a p53-dependent manner...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Emilie Cauchie, Mathieu Gand, Gilles Kergourlay, Bernard Taminiau, Laurent Delhalle, Nicolas Korsak, Georges Daube
In order to control food losses and wastage, monitoring the microbial diversity of food products, during processing and storage is important, as studies have highlighted the metabolic activities of some microorganisms which can lead to spoilage. Knowledge of this diversity can be greatly improved by using a metagenetic approach based on high throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing, which enables a much higher resolution than culture-based methods. Moreover, the Jameson effect, a phenomenon described by Jameson in 1962, is often used to classify bacterial strains within an ecosystem...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Azita Hamedani, Basmah Safdar, Emily Aaronson, Thomas H Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
Abby R Rosenberg, Joanne Wolfe, Lori Wiener, Maureen Lyon, Chris Feudtner
Importance: For clinicians caring for adolescent patients living with progressive, life-threatening illness, discussions regarding prognosis, goals of care, and treatment options can be extremely challenging. While clinicians should respect and help to facilitate adolescents' emerging autonomy, they often must also work with parents' wishes to protect patients from the emotional distress of hearing bad news. Observations: We reviewed the ethical justifications for and against truth-telling, and we considered the published ethical and practice guidance, as well as the perspectives of patients, parents, and clinicians involved in these cases...
October 17, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
David S Mathai, Christopher D Verrico, Daryl Shorter, John H Coverdale, Thomas R Kosten
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Certain medical consequences seem unique to synthetic cannabinoid (SC) and not cannabis use. We report the case of an adolescent, whose drug expectancies appear to minimize the severity of SC-related adverse events. METHODS/RESULTS: An 18-year-old male presented with altered mental status and seizure, complicated by respiratory failure. He was stabilized and on discharge, despite counseling on the harms of SC usage, the patient planned to resume use, insisting that the hospitalization was "just one bad high"...
October 17, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Yali Chen, Qianxiang Zhou, Lei Zhang, Ran Wang, Meihua Jin, Yuling Qiu, Dexin Kong
Increasing resistance of imatinib, a BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor, hinders its use in the therapy of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The PI3K pathway is known to be closely involved in BCR-ABL transformation and the tumorigenesis of CML, suggesting that PI3K may be a potential target for CML therapy. Idelalisib, a specific inhibitor of PI3K p110δ, has been approved for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, the antileukemia effect of idelalisib on CML remains unknown. In the present study, the antileukemia activity of idelalisib alone or in combination with imatinib was investigated by use of K562 cells...
October 17, 2016: Oncology Reports
Sven Fischer, Kristoffel Grechenig, Nicolas Meier
We run several experiments which allow us to compare cooperation under perfect and imperfect information in a centralized and decentralized punishment regime. Under perfect and extremely noisy information, aggregate behavior does not differ between institutions. Under intermediate noise, punishment escalates in the decentralized peer-to-peer punishment regime which badly affects efficiency while sustaining cooperation for longer. Only decentralized punishment is often directed at cooperators (perverse punishment)...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
André Gonçalves, Marinho Almeida, Luís Malheiro, J Costa-Maia
INTRODUCTION: Meckel's diverticulum is the most common congenital abnormality of the gastrointestinal tract. The perforation of a Meckel's diverticulum by a foreign body is a very rare complication. CASE PRESENTATION: A 61-year-old male presented to the Emergency Department with complaints with abdominal pain and fever, and abdominal rebound tenderness on physical examination. An intestinal perforation by a foreign body was diagnosed by CT scan. The patient was submitted to a diagnostic laparoscopy and a perforation of a Meckel's diverticulum by a foreign body was identified...
September 7, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Francesco Martino, Paolo Emilio Puddu, Feliciana Lamacchia, Chiara Colantoni, Cristina Zanoni, Francesco Barillà, Eliana Martino, Francesco Angelico
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of Mediterranean diet (MD) and physical activity on metabolic syndrome (MS) prevalence in children and adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out in 863 boys and 780 girls, 6-14years old, from primary and secondary schools in a 14-town Southern Italian community. We modified the KIDMED questionnaire to adapt it to the local reality. RESULTS: Poor adherence to MD was seen in 18...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Umberto Maggiore, Julio Pascual
Cancer immunotherapy, especially the use of checkpoint inhibitors, is expanding and can be efficacious in organ transplant recipients with malignant neoplasia. In this review, we summarize clinical findings and evolution of several patients treated with CTL4-4 or PD-1 inhibitors reported in the literature. The CTL-4 inhibitor ipilimumab has been safely used in several liver and kidney allograft recipients. PD1-inhibitors look promising for tumor shrinking, but acute rejection is the rule, so they should be avoided in recipients of life-saving organs...
September 2016: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
Matteo Ciocci, Egidio Iorio, Felicia Carotenuto, Haneen A Khashoggi, Francesca Nanni, Sonia Melino
The improvement of solubility and/or dissolution rate of poorly soluble natural compounds is an ideal strategy to make them optimal candidates as new potential drugs. Accordingly, the allyl sulfur compounds and omega-3 fatty acids are natural hydrophobic compounds that exhibit two important combined properties: cardiovascular protection and antitumor activity. Here, we have synthesized and characterized a novel formulation of diallyl disulfide (DADS) and α-linolenic acid (ALA) as protein-nanoemulsions (BAD-NEs), using ultrasounds...
October 12, 2016: Oncotarget
Ulrich B Hoff, Johann Kollath-Bönig, Jonas S Neergaard-Nielsen, Ulrik L Andersen
A novel protocol for generating quantum superpositions of macroscopically distinct states of a bulk mechanical oscillator is proposed, compatible with existing optomechanical devices operating in the bad-cavity limit. By combining a pulsed optomechanical quantum nondemolition (QND) interaction with nonclassical optical resources and measurement-induced feedback, the need for strong single-photon coupling is avoided. We outline a three-pulse sequence of QND interactions encompassing squeezing-enhanced cooling by measurement, state preparation, and tomography...
September 30, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Joseph Caspermeyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Zoi Triandafilidis, Jane M Ussher, Janette Perz, Kate Huppatz
In this article, we explore how young women encounter and counter discourses of smoking-related stigma. Twenty-seven young Australian women, smokers and ex-smokers, took part in interviews. A sub-sample of 18 participants took photographs to document their smoking experience, and took part in a second interview. Data were analyzed through Foucauldian discourse analysis. Four discourses were identified: "smoking as stigmatized," "the smoking double standard," "smoking as lower class," and "smokers as bad mothers...
October 13, 2016: Qualitative Health Research
Kate Churruca, Jane M Ussher, Janette Perz
Bulimia, an eating disorder that affects more women than men, involves binging and compensatory behaviors. Given the importance of food in experiences of these behaviors, in this article, we examine constructions of food in accounts of bulimic behavior: how these constructions relate to cultural discourses, and their implications for subjectivity. Fifteen women who engaged in bulimic behaviors were interviewed. Through a thematic decomposition of their accounts, we identified six discursive constructions of food: "good/healthy" or "bad/unhealthy," "contaminating body and soul," "collapsed into fat," "pleasurable reward," "comfort," and "fuel for the body...
October 13, 2016: Qualitative Health Research
Lewis Mehl-Madrona
INTRODUCTION: Suicide is disproportionately common among Aboriginal people in Canada. METHODS: Life stories were collected from 54 Aboriginal suicide attempters in northern Saskatchewan. Constant comparison techniques and modified grounded theory identified common themes expressed. RESULTS: Three common plots/themes preceded suicide attempts: 1) relationship breakup, usually sudden, unanticipated, involving a third person; 2) being publicly humiliated by another person(s), accompanied by high levels of shame; and 3) high levels of unremitting, chronic life stress (including poverty) with relative isolation...
November 2016: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
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