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Samuel N Rodman, Jacquelyn M Spence, Tyler J Ronnfeldt, Yueming Zhu, Shane R Solst, Rebecca A O'Neill, Bryan G Allen, Xiangming Guan, Douglas R Spitz, Melissa A Fath
The goal of this study was to determine if depletion of glutathione (GSH) and inhibition of thioredoxin (Trx) reductase (TrxR) activity could enhance radiation responses in human breast cancer stem cells by a mechanism involving thiol-dependent oxidative stress. The following were used to inhibit GSH and Trx metabolism: buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), a GSH synthesis inhibitor; sulfasalazine (SSZ), an inhibitor of xc(-) cysteine/glutamate antiporter; auranofin (Au), a thioredoxin reductase inhibitor; or 2-AAPA, a GSH-reductase inhibitor...
September 19, 2016: Radiation Research
Amy L Schaefer, Yasuhiro Oda, Bruna Goncalves Coutinho, Dale A Pelletier, Justin Weiburg, Vittorio Venturi, E Peter Greenberg, Caroline S Harwood
UNLABELLED: Homologs of the LuxR acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum-sensing signal receptor are prevalent in Proteobacteria isolated from roots of the Eastern cottonwood tree, Populus deltoides Many of these isolates possess an orphan LuxR homolog, closely related to OryR from the rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae OryR does not respond to AHL signals but, instead, responds to an unknown plant compound. We discovered an OryR homolog, PipR, in the cottonwood endophyte Pseudomonas sp. strain GM79...
2016: MBio
Anika Habener, Arpita Chowdhury, Frank Echtermeyer, Ralf Lichtinghagen, Gregor Theilmeier, Christine Herzog
The iron-sulfur cluster containing protein mitoNEET is known to modulate the oxidative capacity of cardiac mitochondria but its function during myocardial reperfusion injury after transient ischemia is unknown. The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of mitoNEET on oxidative stress induced cell death and its relation to the glutathione-redox system in cardiomyocytes in an in vitro model of hypoxia and reoxygenation (H/R). Our results show that siRNA knockdown (KD) of mitoNEET caused an 1.9-fold increase in H/R induced apoptosis compared to H/R control while overexpression of mitoNEET caused a 53% decrease in apoptosis...
2016: PloS One
Yosuke Watanabe, Colin E Murdoch, Soichi Sano, Yasuo Ido, Markus M Bachschmid, Richard A Cohen, Reiko Matsui
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are increased in ischemic tissues and necessary for revascularization; however, the mechanism remains unclear. Exposure of cysteine residues to ROS in the presence of glutathione (GSH) generates GSH-protein adducts that are specifically reversed by the cytosolic thioltransferase, glutaredoxin-1 (Glrx). Here, we show that a key angiogenic transcriptional factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α is stabilized by GSH adducts, and the genetic deletion of Glrx improves ischemic revascularization...
May 24, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Dres Damgaard, Mads Emil Bjørn, Maria A Steffensen, Ger J M Pruijn, Claus H Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Citrullination catalysed by peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) plays an important pathogenic role in anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA)-positive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and, possibly, several other inflammatory diseases. Non-physiological reducing agents such as dithiothreitol (DTT) are normally added to the reaction buffer when determining PAD activity in vitro. We investigated the ability of reduced glutathione (GSH), the most abundant intracellular small-molecule thiol in vivo, to activate PADs...
2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Tomas Petrasek, Martina Skurlova, Kristyna Maleninska, Iveta Vojtechova, Zdena Kristofikova, Hana Matuskova, Jana Sirova, Karel Vales, Daniela Ripova, Ales Stuchlik
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most serious human, medical, and socioeconomic burdens. Here we tested the hypothesis that a rat model of AD (Samaritan; Taconic Pharmaceuticals, USA) based on the application of amyloid beta42 (Abeta42) and the pro-oxidative substances ferrous sulfate heptahydrate and L-buthionine-(S, R)-sulfoximine, will exhibit cognitive deficits and disruption of the glutamatergic and cholinergic systems in the brain. Behavioral methods included the Morris water maze (MWM; long-term memory version) and the active allothetic place avoidance (AAPA) task (acquisition and reversal), testing spatial memory and different aspects of hippocampal function...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Sobia S Hussaini, Reamer L Bushardt, Wanda C Gonsalves, Virginia O Hilton, Brad J Hornberger, Frank A Labagnara, Kevin M OʼHara, Cody Sasek, Benjamin J Smith, Jennifer S Williams
No consensus definition exists for postgraduate physician assistant (PA) training. This report from the AAPA Task Force on Accreditation of Postgraduate PA Training Programs describes the types of clinical training programs and their effects on hiring and compensation of PAs. Although completing a postgraduate program appears to have no effect on compensation, PAs who complete these programs may be favored in the hiring process and frequently report greater confidence in their skills. More research is needed and program accreditation is key to monitoring the effectiveness of these programs...
May 2016: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
James F Cawley, Noel Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
Darron T Smith, Cardell K Jacobson
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether racial, gender, and ethnic salary disparities exist in the physician assistant (PA) profession and what factors, if any, are associated with the differentials. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: We use a nationally representative survey of 15,105 PAs from the American Academy of Physician Assistants (AAPA). STUDY DESIGN: We use bivariate and multivariate statistics to analyze pay differentials from the 2009 AAPA survey...
June 2016: Health Services Research
H Steven Moffic, Sy Atezaz Saeed, Stuart Silver, Steve Koh
As with all professional ethical principles, those in psychiatry have to evolve over time and societal changes. The current ethical challenges for psychiatric administration and leadership, especially regarding for-profit managed care, need updated solutions. One solution resides in the development by the American Association of Psychiatric Administrators (AAPA) of the first set of ethical principles designed specifically for psychiatric administrators. These principles build on prior Psychological Theories of leadership, such as those of Freud, Kernberg, and Kohut...
September 2015: Psychiatric Quarterly
Iain P Hartley, Timothy C Hill, Thomas J Wade, Robert J Clement, John B Moncrieff, Ana Prieto-Blanco, Mathias I Disney, Brian Huntley, Mathew Williams, Nicholas J K Howden, Philip A Wookey, Robert Baxter
Quantifying landscape-scale methane (CH4 ) fluxes from boreal and arctic regions, and determining how they are controlled, is critical for predicting the magnitude of any CH4 emission feedback to climate change. Furthermore, there remains uncertainty regarding the relative importance of small areas of strong methanogenic activity, vs. larger areas with net CH4 uptake, in controlling landscape-level fluxes. We measured CH4 fluxes from multiple microtopographical subunits (sedge-dominated lawns, interhummocks and hummocks) within an aapa mire in subarctic Finland, as well as in drier ecosystems present in the wider landscape, lichen heath and mountain birch forest...
October 2015: Global Change Biology
Varoon Singh, Sridhar Chinthakindi, Ajay Kumar Purohit, Deepak Pardasani, Vijay Tak, Devendra Kumar Dubey
A sample preparation method involving extraction, enrichment and derivatization of acidic degradation products of nerve agents was developed using magnetic strong anion exchange resins (MSAX). The method was performed in a single vial involving magnetic dispersive solid phase extraction (MDSPE). Analytes were derivatized with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) in the presence of resins. MSAX were custom synthesized using Fe3O4 nanoparticles as core, 4-vinylpyridine-co-divinylbenzene as polymer shell and quaternary pyridinium function as anion-exchanger...
May 22, 2015: Journal of Chromatography. A
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2015: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Karen A Wright, Venetia L Orcutt
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify factors related to physician assistant (PA) graduates' specialty choice. METHODS: A web-based cross-sectional study of PAs graduating between 2007 and 2009 was conducted (N = 12,128). Factor analysis was performed on 897 useable survey responses. The cohort profile resembles that of recent AAPA census data regarding demographic and specialty choice distribution. RESULTS: Principal component factor analysis of perception items identified five factors that explained 52...
2011: Journal of Physician Assistant Education
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2009: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
Brandon T Sawyer, Adit A Ginde
OBJECTIVES: This was a study of the scope of practice and autonomy of emergency medicine (EM) physician assistants (PAs) practicing in rural versus urban emergency departments (EDs). METHODS: Using the American Academy of Physician Assistants (AAPA) Masterfile, a random sample of 200 U.S. EM PAs were surveyed, with oversampling of an additional 200 rural PAs. Location was classified by zip code-based rural-urban commuting area codes, and responses were compared about conditions managed, procedures performed, and physician supervision between rural versus urban groups...
May 2014: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Jiashu Xie, Ashley Potter, Wei Xie, Christophina Lynch, Teresa Seefeldt
Thiol redox state (TRS) refers to the balance between reduced thiols and their corresponding disulfides and is mainly reflected by the ratio of reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG). A decrease in GSH/GSSG, which reflects a state of thiol oxidative stress, as well as thiol modifications such as S-glutathionylation, has been shown to have important implications in a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, research models for inducing thiol oxidative stress are important tools for studying the pathophysiology of these disease states as well as examining the impact of pharmacological interventions on thiol pathways...
May 2014: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
David Zicho, Neil Cartwright, Federico Bizzarri, Christopher Malkin, Michael Cross, Simon Mcpherson, Pankaj Kaul, Sapna Puppala
Ascending aorta pseudoaneurysm (AAPA) is an uncommon complication following replacement of the ascending aorta with a prosthetic graft, carry a high risk of rupture, and warrant urgent intervention. The open surgical procedure "gold standard" of care is not always favorable, as the reoperations are technically more difficult or patient's general condition doesn't allow proceeding. Case discussed is an 80-year-old male patient who presented with worsening cough and hemoptysis. He underwent ascending aorta replacement 10 years ago...
April 2014: Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Mary L Warner, Christopher Maio, Karen Suchanek Hudmon
OBJECTIVES: A distinguishing characteristic of the physician assistant (PA) profession is career flexibility to move between specialties without further training or certification. The objectives of this study were to characterize the number and type of practice specialties and to explore attitudes towards career flexibility. METHODS: Practice patterns were examined using a survey of AAPA member and non-member graduates from the classes of 1978, 1988, and 1998. RESULTS: Overall, respondents (n = 1,703; 31%) reported practicing in an average of 1...
June 2013: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
Thomas Moreau
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2012: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
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