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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331645/realising-the-potential-of-various-inhaled-airway-challenge-agents-through-improved-delivery-to-the-lungs
#1
REVIEW
Anne J Lexmond, Dave Singh, Henderik W Frijlink, Graham W Clarke, Clive P Page, Ben Forbes, Maarten van den Berge
Inhaled airway challenges provoke bronchoconstriction in susceptible subjects and are a pivotal tool in the diagnosis and monitoring of obstructive lung diseases, both in the clinic and in the development of new respiratory medicines. This article reviews the main challenge agents that are in use today (methacholine, mannitol, adenosine, allergens, endotoxin) and emphasises the importance of controlling how these agents are administered. There is a danger that the optimal value of these challenge agents may not be realised due to suboptimal inhaled delivery; thus considerations for effective and reproducible challenge delivery are provided...
January 10, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322818/evolution-of-ph-buffers-and-water-homeostasis-in-eukaryotes-homology-between-humans-and-acanthamoeba-proteins
#2
Abdul M Baig, R Zohaib, S Tariq, H R Ahmad
AIM: This study intended to trace the evolution of acid-base buffers and water homeostasis in eukaryotes. Acanthamoeba castellanii  was selected as a model unicellular eukaryote for this purpose. Homologies of proteins involved in pH and water regulatory mechanisms at cellular levels were compared between humans and A. castellanii. MATERIALS & METHODS: Amino acid sequence homology, structural homology, 3D modeling and docking prediction were done to show the extent of similarities between carbonic anhydrase 1 (CA1), aquaporin (AQP), band-3 protein and H+ pump...
January 11, 2018: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317286/the-a-enth-domain-containing-protein-ateca4-is-an-adaptor-protein-involved-in-cargo-recycling-from-the-trans-golgi-network-early-endosome-to-the-plasma-membrane
#3
Hong Hanh Nguyen, Myoung Hui Lee, Kyungyoung Song, Gyeongik Ahn, Jihyeong Lee, Inhwan Hwang
Endocytosis and subsequent trafficking pathways are crucial for regulating the activity of plasma membrane-localized proteins. Depending on cellular and physiological conditions, the internalized cargoes are sorted at (and transported from) the trans-Golgi network/early endosome (TGN/EE) to the vacuole for degradation or recycled back to the plasma membrane. How this occurs at the molecular level remains largely elusive. Here we provide evidence that the ENTH domain-containing protein AtECA4 plays a crucial role in recycling cargoes from the TGN/EE to the plasma membrane...
January 6, 2018: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313412/physicochemical-screening-for-chemical-stabilizer-of-erythropoietin-to-prevent-its-aggregation
#4
Mehri Mortazavi, Mohammad Ali Shokrgozar, Soroush Sardari, Kayhan Azadmanesh, Reza Mahdian, Hooman Kaghazian, Seyed Nezamedin Hosseini, Elnaz Shams
Recombinant protein aggregation is a problematic issue and can provoke immunological response. The aim of this study was to analyze the stability of erythropoietin, as a therapeutic protein expressed in mammalian cells, in the presence of different chemicals and find a specific stabilizer for erythropoietin. The effects of several chemicals, including mannitol, betaine, trehalose, taurine, linoleic acid, beta cyclodextrin, copper sulfate, spermidine, maltose, maltodextrin, sucrose, dextran, beta alanine, myo-inositol and cysteine, on protein stabilization through the thermally induced aggregation of erythropoietin were monitored...
January 9, 2018: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306258/the-reno-protective-effects-of-atorvastatin-in-crush-syndrome-and-rhabdomyolysis-is-there-a-dilemma
#5
Demet Acar, Mustafa Gülpembe, Can Gökay Yıldız, Emine Nur Özdamar, Kerem Açıkgöz, Ahmet Çağlar, Başar Cander
Background/aim: We aim to determine the effects of low-dose atorvastatin treatment together with crush fluid resuscitation on renal functions and muscle enzyme levels in a rat model of crush syndrome. Materials and methods: The study involved female Wistar Albino rats weighing 250-300 g that were housed with free access to food and water. The crush model was obtained by compression. Rats were randomly divided into four groups: control (C) group, atorvastatin + crush fluid (ACF) group, crush fluid (CF) group, and hypertonic saline (%3) + mannitol + sodium bicarbonate (SM) group...
December 19, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305981/the-effect-of-formulation-additives-on-in-vitro-dissolution-absorption-profile-and-in-vivo-bioavailability-of-telmisartan-from-brand-and-generic-formulations
#6
Enikő Borbás, Zsombor K Nagy, Brigitta Nagy, Attila Balogh, Balázs Farkas, Oksana Tsinman, Konstantin Tsinman, Bálint Sinkó
In this study, brand and four generic formulations of telmisartan, an antihypertensive drug, were used in in vitro simultaneous dissolution-absorption, investigating the effect of different formulation additives on dissolution and on absorption through an artificial membrane. The in vitro test was found to be sensitive enough to show even small differences between brand and generic formulations caused by the use of different excipients. By only changing the type of filler from sorbitol to mannitol in the formulation, the flux through the membrane was reduced by approximately 10%...
January 3, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305272/effect-of-hyperosmolar-therapy-on-outcome-following-spontaneous-intracerebral-hemorrhage-ethnic-racial-variations-of-intracerebral-hemorrhage-erich-study
#7
Manan Shah, Lee Birnbaum, Jennifer Rasmussen, Padmini Sekar, Charles J Moomaw, Jennifer Osborne, Anastasia Vashkevich, Daniel Woo
PURPOSE: We aimed to identify the effect of hyperosmolar therapy (mannitol and hypertonic saline) on outcomes after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in the Ethnic/Racial Variations of Intracerebral Hemorrhage (ERICH) study. METHODS: Comparison of ICH cases treated with hyperosmolar therapy versus untreated cases was performed using a propensity score based on age, initial Glasgow Coma Scale, location of ICH (lobar, deep, brainstem, and cerebellar), log-transformed initial ICH volume, presence of intraventricular hemorrhage, and surgical interventions...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304733/cobalt-chloride-compromises-transepithelial-barrier-properties-of-caco-2-bbe-human-gastrointestinal-epithelial-cell-layers
#8
K M DiGuilio, M C Valenzano, E Rybakovsky, J M Mullin
BACKGROUND: Elevation of the transcription factor HIF-1 is a prominent mediator of not only processes that accompany hypoxia, but also the tumor microenvironment and tissue regeneration. This study uses mediators of "chemical hypoxia" to ask the question whether HIF-1α elevation in a healthy epithelial cell layer leads to leakiness in its tight junctional seals. METHODS: Transepithelial electrical resistance and transepithelial diffusion of 14C-D-mannitol and other radiolabeled probes are used as indicators of transepithelial barrier function of CaCo-2 BBe human gastrointestinal epithelial cell layers cultured on permeable supports...
January 5, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304106/bovine-dairy-complex-lipids-improve-in-vitro-measures-of-small-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-integrity
#9
Rachel C Anderson, Alastair K H MacGibbon, Neill Haggarty, Kelly M Armstrong, Nicole C Roy
Appropriate intestinal barrier maturation is essential for absorbing nutrients and preventing pathogens and toxins from entering the body. Compared to breast-fed infants, formula-fed infants are more susceptible to barrier dysfunction-associated illnesses. In infant formula dairy lipids are usually replaced with plant lipids. We hypothesised that dairy complex lipids improve in vitro intestinal epithelial barrier integrity. We tested milkfat high in conjugated linoleic acid, beta serum (SureStart™Lipid100), beta serum concentrate (BSC) and a ganglioside-rich fraction (G600)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300533/the-efficacy-and-safety-of-mannitol-challenge-in-a-workplace-setting-for-assessing-asthma-prevalence
#10
Marcelo B de Menezes, Erica Ferraz, John D Brannan, Edson Z Martinez, Elcio O Vianna
OBJECTIVE: There is no standard definition of asthma for epidemiological purposes; most surveys use symptoms and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Few studies tested mannitol challenge test (MCT) in occupational settings. We sought to determine efficacy and safety of MCT in detecting subjects with asthma symptoms in the workplace. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study we recruited 908 workers in 2 universities; they underwent a respiratory questionnaire, spirometry, skin prick tests, and MCT...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299951/renal-tubular-epithelial-cells-injury-induced-by-mannitol-and-its-potential-mechanism
#11
Jinwan Shi, Jiuzhan Qian, Hui Li, Hongjun Luo, Wenhong Luo, Zhexuan Lin
Administration of mannitol with high dose could induce extensive isometric renal proximal tubular vacuolization and acute renal failure in clinic. We previously demonstrated that mannitol-induced human kidney tubular epithelial cell (HK-2) injury. The objective of our present work was to further study the cytotoxicity of mannitol in HK-2 cells and its potential mechanism. Cell viability was assessed by an MTT method. Cell morphological changes were observed. Furthermore, levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) were measured...
November 2018: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299701/effects-of-drying-process-on-an-igg1-monoclonal-antibody-using-solid-state-hydrogen-deuterium-exchange-with-mass-spectrometric-analysis-sshdx-ms
#12
Ehab M Moussa, Nathan E Wilson, Qi Tony Zhou, Satish K Singh, Sandeep Nema, Elizabeth M Topp
PURPOSE: Lyophilization and spray drying are widely used to manufacture solid forms of therapeutic proteins. Lyophilization is used to stabilize proteins vulnerable to degradation in solution, whereas spray drying is mainly used to prepare inhalation powders or as an alternative to freezing for storing bulk drug substance. Both processes impose stresses that may adversely affect protein structure, stability and bioactivity. Here, we compared lyophilization with and without controlled ice nucleation, and spray drying for their effects on the solid-state conformation and matrix interactions of a model IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb)...
January 3, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295625/anti-hydroxyl-radical-activity-redox-potential-and-anti-ache-activity-of-amanita-strobiliformis-polysaccharide-extract
#13
Maja Karaman, Ljiljana Janjušević, Dragica Jakovljević, Filip Šibul, Boris Pejin
This study outlines antioxidant and anti-AChE activities of the polysaccharide (PSH) extract from the mushroom species Amanita strobiliformis. Both the presence of α and ß glucans within the aforementioned extract was recorded. PSH extract displayed a profound scavenging activity of OH radicals (IC50 value, 11.86 ± 0.59 μg/mL) and high potential for reduction of Fe3+ ions (174.11 ± 8.70 mg eq. AA/g d.w.) being almost 48- and 5-fold more effective than mannitol and butylated hydroxytoluene used as a positive control, respectively...
January 2, 2018: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290941/eucalyptol-ameliorates-snail1-%C3%AE-catenin-dependent-diabetic-disjunction-of-renal-tubular-epithelial-cells-and-tubulointerstitial-fibrosis
#14
Dong Yeon Kim, Min-Kyung Kang, Sin-Hye Park, Eun-Jung Lee, Yun-Ho Kim, Hyeongjoo Oh, Yean-Jung Choi, Young-Hee Kang
Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis is an important event in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Under pathologic conditions, renal tubular epithelial cells undergo transition characterized by loss of cell-cell adhesion and increased cell migration. This study investigated that eucalyptol inhibited tubular epithelial cell disjunction and tubulointerstitial fibrosis stimulated by glucose. Human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells were incubated for up to 72 h in media containing 27.5 mM mannitol as osmotic controls or 33 mM glucose in the presence of 1-20 μM eucalyptol...
December 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289081/role-of-freeze-drying-in-the-presence-of-mannitol-on-the-echogenicity-of-echogenic-liposomes
#15
Krishna N Kumar, Sanku Mallik, Kausik Sarkar
Echogenic liposomes (ELIPs) are an excellent candidate for ultrasound activated therapeutics and imaging. Although multiple experiments have established their echogenicity, the underlying mechanism has remained unknown. However, freeze-drying in the presence of mannitol during ELIP preparation has proved critical to ensuring echogenicity. Here, the role of this key component in the preparation protocol was investigated by measuring scattering from freshly prepared freeze-dried aqueous solution of mannitol-and a number of other excipients commonly used in lyophilization-directly dispersed in water without any lipids in the experiment...
December 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283193/synthesis-of-d-mannitol-based-crown-ethers-and-their-application-as-catalyst-in-asymmetric-phase-transfer-reactions
#16
Tamás Nemcsok, Zsolt Rapi, György Keglevich, Alajos Grün, Péter Bakó
A few new d-mannitol-based monoaza-15-crown-5 type chiral lariat ethers and 18-crown-6 type macrocycles were synthesized. These crown compounds were used as phase transfer catalysts in asymmetric Michael addititons and in a Darzens condensation under mild conditions to afford the corresponding products in a few cases in good to excellent enantioselectivities. In the Michael addition of diethyl acetoxymalonate to trans-chalcone, in the addition of diethyl acetamidomalonate to ß-nitrostyrene, in the reaction of diethyl bromomalonate with benzylidene malononitriles, in the cyclopropanation reaction of diethyl bromomalonate and 2-benzylidene-1,3-indandione, and in the Darzens condensation of α-chloroacetophenone with benzaldehyde, maximum enantioselectivities of 39%, 65%, 99%, 56%, and 62%, respectively, were obtained in the presence of the d-mannitol-based macrocycles as the catalysts...
December 28, 2017: Chirality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278770/identification-of-the-aqp-members-involved-in-abiotic-stress-responses-from-arabidopsis
#17
Zhi-Juan Feng, Sheng-Chun Xu, Na Liu, Gu-Wen Zhang, Qi-Zan Hu, Zhao-Shi Xu, Ya-Ming Gong
Aquaporins (AQPs) constitute a highly diverse family of water channel proteins that play crucial biological functions in plant growth and development and stress physiology. In Arabidopsis, 35 AQPs are classified into four subfamilies (PIPs, TIPs, NIPs and SIPs). However, knowledge about the roles of different subfamily AQPs remains limited. Here, we explored the chromosomal location, gene structure and expression patterns of all AQPs in different tissues or under different abiotic stresses based on available microarray data...
December 23, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278321/design-and-evaluation-of-lyophilized-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-and-its-protection-against-ischemia-cerebral-injury
#18
Xuanxin Yang, Qi Hui, Bingjie Yu, Zhen Huang, Peipei Zhou, Panfeng Wang, Zhitao Wang, Shucai Pang, Jinghang Li, Hanshi Wang, Li Lin, Xiaokun Li, Xiaojie Wang
This study investigated the effect of the excipients, including glycine, mannitol, arginine, trehalose, sorbitol, and poloxamer188 on the stability of recombinant human fibroblast growth factor 21(FGF21) during the process of lyophilization and storage. The glass transition temperature (Tg), protein secondary structure, aggregation ratio and the bioactivity of lyophilized FGF21 were measured. We furthermore investigated the effect of FGF21 against ischemia cerebral injury using the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model in rats...
December 26, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276257/production-standard-and-stability-of-compounded-del-nido-cardioplegia-solution
#19
Luis M Pereira, Gregory S Matte, Peter Lutz, Alana Arnold, Al Patterson
Background: The del Nido cardioplegia solution (dNCS) was originally developed for pediatric cardiac surgery, being now also used for adult patients. Hospital pharmacies frequently resort to internal dNCS production which has led to an increase in the need for validated parameters for compounding and storage. Objective: This report defines in-house production standards, as well as the stability of dNCS under optimal storage conditions. Methods: All ingredients were sterile and United States Pharmacopeia (USP)/National Formulary (NF) certified...
December 2017: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275430/the-histone-acetyltransferase-mst2-sustains-the-biological-control-potential-of-a-fungal-insect-pathogen-through-transcriptional-regulation
#20
Juan-Juan Wang, Qing Cai, Lei Qiu, Sheng-Hua Ying, Ming-Guang Feng
Histone lysine acetylation orchestrates transcriptional activity essential for diverse cellular events across organisms, but it remains poorly understood how an acetylated lysine affects cellular functions in filamentous fungal pathogens. Here, we show the functions of a histone acetyltransferase that is phylogenetically close to Mst2 in fission yeast and specifically acetylates histone H3K14 in Beauveria bassiana, a fungal insect pathogen widely applied in arthropod pest management. Deletion of mst2 in B. bassiana resulted in moderate growth defects on rich and minimal media, delayed conidiation, and drastic reduction (75%) in conidiation capacity under normal culture conditions...
December 23, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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