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Wei-Wen Su
Purpose: Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) is a neurocutaneous disorder characterized by facial cutaneous venous dilatation (port-wine stain), leptomeningeal angioma, and ocular abnormalities. Here we report a case of SWS who experienced acute primary angle-closure in the same side of the nevus flammeus. Observations: A 64-years-old female patient with SWS port wine stain on the left side of her face was referred to our ER for acute primary angle-closure (PAC). The IOP was 64 mmHg in the left eye (12 mmHg in OD) and the visual acuity was 20/100...
June 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Cynara Oliveira Possamai, Ana Carolina Loss, Adriana Oliveira Costa, Aloisio Falqueto, Cinthia Furst
Free-living amoeba of the genus Acanthamoeba can eventually act as parasites, causing infections in humans. Some physiological characteristics of Acanthamoeba have been related to the grade of pathogenicity, allowing inferences about the pathogenic potential. The main goal of this study was to characterize isolates of Acanthamoeba obtained in Brazil and evaluate properties associated with their pathogenicity. A total of 39 isolates obtained from keratitis cases (n = 16) and environmental sources (n = 23) were classified into morphological groups and genotyped by sequencing the 18S rDNA fragments ASA...
March 12, 2018: Parasitology Research
Hojun Song, Cheol Moon, Beom-Jin Lee, Euichaul Oh
Herein, we aimed to prepare porous granules of pravastatin and evaluate their applicability to orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs). Pravastatin solid dispersion granules (PSDGs-A) were prepared by dispersing pravastatin sodium in D-mannitol (the dispersion medium) in the presence of ammonium bicarbonate (the sublimation agent) using a spray-drying process. The PSDGs-A were round, irregularly shaped, mesoporous agglomerates with appropriate particle size, bulk density, and flowability for the tableting process...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Alexandre Lobo-da-Cunha, Diogo Amaral-de-Carvalho, Elsa Oliveira, Ângela Alves, Vítor Costa, Gonçalo Calado
Mannitol oxidase and polyol dehydrogenases are enzymes that convert polyalcohols into sugars. Mannitol oxidase was previously investigated in terrestrial snails and slugs, being also present in a few aquatic gastropods. However, the overall distribution of this enzyme in the Gastropoda was not known. Polyol dehydrogenases are also poorly studied in gastropods and other mollusks. In this study, polyalcohol oxidase and dehydrogenase activities were assayed in the digestive gland of 26 species of gastropods, representing the clades Patellogastropoda, Neritimorpha, Vetigastropoda, Caenogastropoda and Heterobranchia...
2018: PloS One
Davinia Brouckaert, Laurens De Meyer, Brecht Vanbillemont, Pieter-Jan Van Bockstal, Joris Lammens, Severine Therese F C Mortier, Jos Corver, Chris Vervaet, Ingmar Nopens, Thomas De Beer
Near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) is an emerging tool for process monitoring, since it combines the chemical selectivity of vibrational spectroscopy with spatial information. Whereas traditional near-infrared spectroscopy is an attractive technique for water content determination and solid-state investigation of lyophilized products, chemical imaging opens up possibilities for assessing the homogeneity of these critical quality attributes (CQAs) throughout the entire product. In this contribution, it is aimed to evaluate NIR-CI as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool for at-line inspection of continuously freeze-dried pharmaceutical unit doses, based on spin freezing...
March 12, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Jacqueline Horn, Julia Schanda, Wolfgang Friess
PURPOSE: Mannitol/sucrose formulations are employed to generate lyophilizates for biopharmaceuticals with an elegant cake appearance. The aim of this study was to dry protein/mannitol/sucrose formulations as fast as possible without loss of cake appearance and protein stability. Glycerol was included as potential additional protein stabilizer. Three proteins (lysozyme and two monoclonal antibodies) at low and high concentration were analyzed comparing fast with conservative freeze-drying...
March 6, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Yali Liu, Peng Li, Rong Qian, Tianyu Sun, Fangzhi Fang, Zonghua Wang, Xue Ke, Bohui Xu
The primary objective of this study was to mask bitter taste and decrease the disintegration time of carbinoxamine maleate (CAM) orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs). In order to screen the prescription of ODTs, a novel modified in vitro disintegration method (MIVDM) was developed to measure the in vitro disintegration time. In this method, different concentrations of ethanol served as disintegration medium in order to delay the in vitro water absorption and disintegration process of tablets. The MIVDM demonstrated good in vitro and in vivo correlation (IVIVC) and proved more precise and discriminative than other reported methods...
March 9, 2018: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Enshe Jiang, Andrew D Chapp, Yuanyuan Fan, Robert A Larson, Taija Hahka, Michael J Huber, Jianqun Yan, Qing-Hui Chen, Zhiying Shan
Accumulating evidence indicates that inflammation is implicated in hypertension. However, the role of brain proinflammatory cytokines (PICs) in salt sensitive hypertension remains to be determined. Thus, the objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that high salt (HS) diet increases PICs expression in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and leads to PVN neuronal activation. Eight-week-old male Dahl salt sensitive (Dahl S) rats, and age and sex matched normal Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into two groups and fed with either a HS (4% NaCl) or normal salt (NS, 0...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Majda Biasizzo, Stanka Vadnjal, Urska Henigman, Manja Krizman, Andrej Kirbis, Urska Jamnikar-Ciglenecki
There is no recommended protocol for detecting and isolating Clostridium difficile present in food samples. Here, we have evaluated the recovery of C. difficile in meat samples after incubating them in various enrichment broths. The media were as follows: cycloserine-cefoxitin fructose broth supplemented with taurocholic acid, d-cycloserine, cefoxitin, and lysozyme; cycloserine-cefoxitin mannitol broth with taurocholate and lysozyme; and cycloserine-cefoxitin fructose broth supplemented with taurocholic acid, C...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Daniëlle Vaartjes, Kutty Selva Nandakumar, Rikard Holmdahl, Bruno Raposo
High salt consumption has since long been associated with elevated blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Recently, mouse studies suggested that a high dietary salt intake exacerbates the clinical manifestations of autoimmunity. Using naïve cells ex vivo after pre-exposure of mice to high salt intake, we show that increased salt exposure affects the viability and effector functions of immune cells. CD4+ T cells evidenced a pro-inflammatory phenotype characterized by increased secretion of IFNγ and IL-17A, when exposed to high salt concentrations in vitro...
March 7, 2018: Immunology
Maria-Eleni Roumelioti, Todd S Ing, Helbert Rondon-Berrios, Robert H Glew, Zeid J Khitan, Yijuan Sun, Deepak Malhotra, Dominic S Raj, Emmanuel I Agaba, Glen H Murata, Joseph I Shapiro, Antonios H Tzamaloukas
Osmotic diuresis results from urine loss of large amounts of solutes distributed either in total body water or in the extracellular compartment. Replacement solutions should reflect the volume and monovalent cation (sodium and potassium) content of the fluid lost. Whereas the volume of the solutions used to replace losses that occurred prior to the diagnosis of osmotic diuresis is guided by the clinical picture, the composition of these solutions is predicated on serum sodium concentration and urinary sodium and potassium concentrations at presentation...
March 6, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Zoe Yi Ng, Geok Yuan Annie Tan
Tioman Island is one of many sources for underexplored actinobacterial diversity in Malaysia. Selective isolation, molecular profiling, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analyses were carried out to highlight the diversity of the marine actinobacterial community in a sediment collected off Tioman Island. A high number of diverse actinobacteria were recovered using skim milk/HEPES pre-treatment on a mannitol-based medium. A total of 123 actinobacterial strains were isolated, including thirty obligate marine actinobacteria putatively identified as Salinispora spp...
March 6, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Pablo Serrano-Castañeda, Jose Juan Escobar-Chavez, Isabel Marlen Rodriguez-Cruz, Luz Maria Melgoza, Jessica Martinez-Hernandez
The microneedles technology has found applications in many health-related fields. For example, their application in drugs and vaccines delivery as well, as the determination of biomarkers, has been reported. They also have a place in the dermatology and cosmetic areas such as the treatment of wounds from burns, scars, acne, depigmentation, and alopecia will be shown. Microneedles are used in therapeutic applications and are manufactured using materials such as metal (steel, titanium, nickel), polymer (oly-glycolic acid (PGA), poly-lactide-co-glycolide acid (PLGA), poly-L-lactic acid (PLA), chitosan), glass, silicon, ceramic, carbohydrates (trehalose, sucrose, mannitol)...
2018: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
José A Damasceno-Ferreira, Leonardo A S Abreu, Gustavo R Bechara, Waldemar S Costa, Marco A Pereira-Sampaio, Francisco J B Sampaio, Diogo B De Souza
BACKGROUND: Mannitol has been employed to ameliorate renal warm ischemia damage during partial nephrectomy, however, there is limited scientific evidence to support the use of mannitol during partial nephrectomy. The objective of the present study was to investigate the glomerular number after renal warm ischemia, with and without the use of mannitol in a Pig Model. METHODS: Twenty-four male pigs were assigned into three groups. Eight animals were allocated to the sham group that was subjected to laparoscopic dissection of the left renal hilum, without renal ischemia...
March 6, 2018: BMC Urology
Christopher Inglefield, Ulf Emanuel Samuelson, Marina Landau, Dale DeVore
Background: Despite the increasing popularity of facial contouring with hyaluronic acid, innovation has been limited to iterations that feature different particle sizes, concentrations and degrees of crosslinking. Bio-dermal restoration is a new approach for correcting facial tissue defects by supplementing the natural dermal structure providing a scaffold for fibroblast adherence and proliferation. Objective: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the safety of RPC Pure-Collagen for the treatment of facial contours...
March 2, 2018: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
Smita Raithore, Devin G Peterson
The influence of polyol type and particle size on the flavor release profile of chewing gum was investigated in vivo. Four chewing gum samples with an average particle size of 62 or 246 μm for sorbitol and 57 or 184 μm for mannitol were analyzed. Chewing gum formulated with mannitol, in general, had a higher aroma release than chewing gum formulated with sorbitol. Polyol type did not influence the release profile of the high intensity sweeteners (HIS) aspartame and acesulfame K. However, a smaller particle size resulted in a significantly higher release of HIS...
July 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
F Ayca Ozdemir Olgun, Ayşem Üzer, Birsen Demirata Ozturk, Reşat Apak
Antioxidant activity (AOA) assays using nanotechnology are recently developed utilizing nanoparticles of transition metal oxides, especially nanoceria that can switch between trivalent and tetravalent oxidation states of cerium. Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO-NPs) may act as both an oxidant and an antioxidant, depending on the preparation method and particle size. A novel colorimetric sensor for AOA assay is proposed with the use of poly(acrylic acid) sodium salt (PAANa)-coated CeO-NPs. PAANa-coated CeO-NPs oxidized tetramethyl benzidine (TMB), a peroxidase substrate, in a slightly acidic solution at pH 4...
May 15, 2018: Talanta
Rebecca K Campbell, Kerry J Schulze, Saijuddin Shaikh, Rubhana Raqib, Lee S F Wu, Hasmot Ali, Sucheta Mehra, Keith P West, Parul Christian
Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) and systemic inflammation (SI) are common in developing countries and may cause stunting. In Bangladesh, >40 % of preschool children are stunted, but EED and SI contributions are unknown. We aimed to determine the impact of EED and SI (assessed with multiple indicators) on growth in children (n 539) enrolled in a community-based randomised food supplementation trial in rural Bangladesh. EED was defined with faecal myeloperoxidase, α-1 antitrypsin and neopterin and serum endotoxin core antibody and glucagon-like peptide-2, consolidated into gut inflammation (GI) and permeability (GP) scores, and urinary lactulose:mannitol α-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) characterised SI...
February 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Shujie Tang, Zhuomao Mo, Renwen Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate evidence for the effectiveness of acupuncture in the treatment of lumbar disc herniation (LDH). METHODS: Electronic databases were searched to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of acupuncture for LDH. A meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan 5.3 and the evidence level was assessed using GRADE methodology. RESULTS: Thirty RCTs involving 3503 participants were included in the study. Meta-analysis showed that acupuncture had a higher total effective rate than lumbar traction (RR=1...
March 1, 2018: Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society
Jian Ji, Pei Zhu, Ivana Blaženović, Fangchao Cui, Morteza Gholami, Jiadi Sun, Jean Habimana, Yinzhi Zhang, Xiulan Sun
Urine metabolic profiling of mice was conducted utilizing gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to investigate the combinatory effect of mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) on the metabolism of the mice. Experiments were conducted by means of five-week-old mice which were individually exposed to 2 mg/kg DON, 20 mg/kg ZEN and the mixture of DON and ZEN (2 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, respectively). The intragastric administration was applied for three weeks and urine samples were collected for metabolic analysis...
February 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
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