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Phosphatases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936402/influence-of-triethyl-phosphate-on-phosphatase-activity-in-shooting-range-soil-isolation-of-a-zinc-resistant-bacterium-with-an-acid-phosphatase
#1
Sandra Story, Robin L Brigmon
Phosphatase-mediated hydrolysis of organic phosphate may be a viable means of stabilizing heavy metals via precipitation as a metal phosphate in bioremediation applications. We investigated the effect of triethyl phosphate (TEP) on soil microbial-phosphatase activity in a heavy-metal contaminated soil. Gaseous TEP has been used at subsurface sites for bioremediation of organic contaminants but not applied in heavy-metal contaminated areas. Little is known about how TEP affects microbial activity in soils and it is postulated that TEP can serve as a phosphate source in nutrient-poor groundwater and soil/sediments...
December 6, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936393/suppression-of-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-ptpn22-gene-induces-apoptosis-in-t-cell-leukemia-cell-line-jurkat-through-the-akt-and-erk-pathways
#2
Elham Baghbani, Behzad Baradaran, Fatemeh Pak, Leila Mohammadnejad, Daryoush Shanehbandi, Behzad Mansoori, Vahid Khaze, Noushin Montazami, Ali Mohammadi, Parviz Kokhaei
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of specific PTPN22 small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) on the viability and induction of apoptosis in Jurkat cells and to evaluate apoptosis signaling pathways. In this study, Jurkat cells were transfected with specific PTPN22 siRNA. Relative PTPN22 mRNA expression was measured by Quantitative Real-time PCR. Western blotting was performed to determine the protein levels of PTPN22, AKT, P-AKT, ERK, and P-ERK. The cytotoxic effects of PTPN22 siRNA were determined using the MTT assay...
December 6, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936238/trehalose-6-phosphate-mediated-toxicity-determines-essentiality-of-otsb2-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-vitro-and-in-mice
#3
Jan Korte, Marina Alber, Carolina M Trujillo, Karl Syson, Hendrik Koliwer-Brandl, René Deenen, Karl Köhrer, Michael A DeJesus, Travis Hartman, William R Jacobs, Stephen Bornemann, Thomas R Ioerger, Sabine Ehrt, Rainer Kalscheuer
Trehalose biosynthesis is considered an attractive target for the development of antimicrobials against fungal, helminthic and bacterial pathogens including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The most common biosynthetic route involves trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P) synthase OtsA and T6P phosphatase OtsB that generate trehalose from ADP/UDP-glucose and glucose-6-phosphate. In order to assess the drug target potential of T6P phosphatase, we generated a conditional mutant of M. tuberculosis allowing the regulated gene silencing of the T6P phosphatase gene otsB2...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936234/cell-density-dependent-increase-in-tyrosine-monophosphorylated-erk2-in-mdck-cells-expressing-active-ras-or-raf
#4
Noriyuki Kawabata, Michiyuki Matsuda
The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is one of the principal hub proteins that transmit growth signals from upstream oncogene products including Ras and BRaf to downstream effector proteins. However, there are both reports supporting and refuting the increase in ERK activity in cancer tissues expressing the active Ras and BRaf proteins. We considered that the cell density might account for this discrepancy. To examine this possibility, we prepared Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells that expressed an active HRas, NRas, KRas, or BRaf and an ERK biosensor based on the principle of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936183/molecular-evolution-of-pten-pseudogenes-in-mammals
#5
Jingsi Tang, Ruihong Ning, Bo Zeng, Ying Li
Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a tumor-suppressor gene. PTEN pseudogene (PTENp) acts as an endogenous RNA, which regulates its parental gene by competitively binding to the 3' UTR of PTEN gene in the human. Despite the importance of this pseudogene, little is known about the molecular evolution of PTENp in mammals. In this study, we identified 37 pseudogenes from 65 mammalian genomes. Among them, 32 were from rodents or primates. Phylogenetic analyse showed a complex evolutionary history of this gene family...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936095/dual-specificity-phosphatase-5-is-essential-for-t-cell-survival
#6
Raman G Kutty, Gang Xin, David M Schauder, Stephanie M Cossette, Michelle Bordas, Weiguo Cui, Ramani Ramchandran
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway regulates many key cellular processes such as differentiation, apoptosis, and survival. The final proteins in this pathway, ERK1/2, are regulated by dual specificity phosphatase 5 (DUSP5). DUSP5 is a nuclear, inducible phosphatase with high affinity and fidelity for ERK1/2. By regulating the final step in the MAPK signaling cascade, DUSP5 exerts strong regulatory control over a central cellular pathway. Like other DUSPs, DUSP5 plays an important role in immune function...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935860/t-lymphocyte-shp2-deficiency-triggers-anti-tumor-immunity-to-inhibit-colitis-associated-cancer-in-mice
#7
Wen Liu, Wenjie Guo, Lihong Shen, Zhen Chen, Qiong Luo, Xiaolin Luo, Gen-Sheng Feng, Yongqian Shu, Yanhong Gu, Qiang Xu, Yang Sun
Nonresolving inflammation is involved in the initiation and progression process of tumorigenesis. Src homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2) is known to inhibit acute inflammation but its role in chronic inflammation-associated cancer remains unclear. The role of SHP2 in T cells in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and azoxymethane-DSS-induced colitis-associated carcinogenesis was examined using SHP2CD4-/- conditional knockout mice. SHP2 deficiency in T cells aggravated colitis with increased level of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IFN-γ and IL-17A...
December 7, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935858/paradoxical-induction-of-growth-arrest-and-apoptosis-by-egf-via-the-up-regulation-of-pten-by-activating-redox-factor-1-egr-1-in-human-lung-cancer-cells
#8
Je-Won Ryu, Sung Sik Choe, Seung-Hee Ryu, Eun-Young Park, Byoung Wook Lee, Tae Keun Kim, Chang Hoon Ha, Sang-Wook Lee
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling promotes cell proliferation and survival in several types of cancer. Here, however, we showed that EGF inhibits proliferation and promotes programmed cell death in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. In A549 cells, EGF increased redox factor-1 (Ref-1) expression and the association of Ref-1 with zinc finger-containing transcriptional regulator (EGR1) via activation of p22phox, RAC1, and an NADPH oxidase subunit. EGF increased p22phox and RAC1 expression through activation of purinergic receptors (P2Y)...
December 7, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935824/helicobacter-pylori-vaca-acting-through-receptor-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-%C3%AE-is-crucial-for-caga-phosphorylation-in-human-duodenum-carcinoma-cell-line-az-521
#9
Masayuki Nakano, Kinnosuke Yahiro, Eiki Yamasaki, Hisao Kurazono, Junko Akada, Yoshio Yamaoka, Takuro Niidome, Masanori Hatakeyama, Hidekazu Suzuki, Taro Yamamoto, Joel Moss, Hajime Isomoto, Toshiya Hirayama
Helicobacter pylori, a major cause of gastroduodenal diseases, produces vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) and cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA), which seem to be involved in virulence. VacA exhibits pleiotropic actions in gastroduodenal disorders via its specific receptors. Recently, we found that VacA induced the phosphorylation of cellular Src kinase (Src) at Tyr418 in AZ-521 cells. Silencing of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP)α, a VacA receptor, reduced VacA-induced Src phosphorylation. Src is responsible for tyrosine phosphorylation of CagA at its Glu-Pro-Ile-Tyr-Ala (EPIYA) variant C (EPIYA-C) motif in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells, resulting in binding of CagA to SHP-2 phosphatase...
December 1, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935243/mocdc14-is-important-for-septation-during-conidiation-and-appressorium-formation-in-magnaporthe-oryzae
#10
Chaohui Li, Shulin Cao, Chengkang Zhang, Yonghui Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Jin-Rong Xu, Chenfang Wang
As a typical foliar pathogen, appressorium formation and penetration are critical steps in the infection cycle of Magnaporthe oryzae. Because appressorium formation and penetration are closely co-regulated with cell cycle and Cdc14 phosphatases have antagonistic relationship with CDKs on proteins related to mitotic exits and cytokinesis, in this study we functionally characterized the MoCDC14 gene in M. oryzae. The Mocdc14 deletion mutant was significantly reduced in growth rate and conidiation. It also was defective in septum formation and nuclear distribution...
December 9, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934940/accelerated-craniofacial-bone-regeneration-through-dense-collagen-gel-scaffolds-seeded-with-dental-pulp-stem-cells
#11
Frédéric Chamieh, Anne-Margaux Collignon, Benjamin R Coyac, Julie Lesieur, Sandy Ribes, Jérémy Sadoine, Annie Llorens, Antonino Nicoletti, Didier Letourneur, Marie-Laure Colombier, Showan N Nazhat, Philippe Bouchard, Catherine Chaussain, Gael Y Rochefort
Therapies using mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) seeded scaffolds may be applicable to various fields of regenerative medicine, including craniomaxillofacial surgery. Plastic compression of collagen scaffolds seeded with MSC has been shown to enhance the osteogenic differentiation of MSC as it increases the collagen fibrillary density. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the osteogenic effects of dense collagen gel scaffolds seeded with mesenchymal dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) on bone regeneration in a rat critical-size calvarial defect model...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934929/use-of-polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine-solution-for-sterilisation-and-preservation-improves-mechanical-properties-and-osteogenesis-of-allografts
#12
Yantao Zhao, Xiantong Hu, Zhonghai Li, Fuli Wang, Yang Xia, Shuxun Hou, Hongbin Zhong, Feimin Zhang, Ning Gu
Allografts eliminate the disadvantages associated with autografts and synthetic scaffolds but are associated with a disease-transmission risk. Therefore, allograft sterilisation is crucial. We aimed to determine whether polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine (PVP-I) can be used for sterilisation and as a new wet-preservation method. PVP-I-sterilised and preserved allografts demonstrated improved mechanical property, osteogenesis, and excellent microbial inhibition. A thigh muscle pouch model of nude mice showed that PVP-I-preserved allografts demonstrated better ectopic formation than Co60-sterilised allografts (control) in vivo (P < 0...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934660/ezh2-deletion-in-early-mesenchyme-compromises-postnatal-bone-microarchitecture-and-structural-integrity-and-accelerates-remodeling
#13
Sarah Hemming, Dimitrios Cakouros, John Codrington, Kate Vandyke, Agneiszka Arthur, Andrew Zannettino, Stan Gronthos
In this study, we examined the functional importance of EZH2 during skeletal development and homeostasis using the conditional deletion of Ezh2 (Ezh2(fl/fl)) in early mesenchyme with the use of a Prrx-1-cre driver mouse (Ezh2(+/+)). Heterozygous (Ezh2(+/-)) newborn and 4-wk-old mice exhibited increased skeletal size, growth plate size, and weight when compared to the wild-type control (Ezh2(+/+)), whereas homozygous deletion of Ezh2 (Ezh2(-/-)) resulted in skeletal deformities, reduced skeletal size, growth plate size, and weight in newborns, and 4-wk-old mice...
December 1, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933834/alginate-bead-based-hexagonal-close-packed-3d-implant-for-bone-tissue-engineering
#14
Tarun Agarwal, Prajna Kabiraj, Gautham Hari Narayana, Senthilguru Kulanthaivel, Uvanesh Kasiviswanathan, Kunal Pal, Supratim Giri, Tapas K Maiti, Indranil Banerjee
Success of bone tissue engineering (BTE) relies on the osteogenic microarchitecture of the biopolymeric scaffold and appropriate spatiotemporal distribution of therapeutic molecules (growth factors and drugs) inside it. However, the existing technologies have failed to address both the issues together. Keeping this perspective in mind, we have developed a novel three-dimensional (3D) implant prototype by stacking hexagonal close packed (HCP) layers of calcium alginate beads. The HCP arrangement of the beads lead to a patterned array of interconnected tetrahedral and octahedral pores of average diameter of 142...
November 30, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933762/nanocomputed-tomography-imaging-of-bacterial-alkaline-phosphatase-activity-with-an-iodinated-hydrogelator
#15
Zhen Zheng, Anming Tang, Yong Guan, Liang Chen, Fuqiang Wang, Peiyao Chen, Weijuan Wang, Yufeng Luo, Yangchao Tian, Gaolin Liang
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is an important enzyme, but direct imaging of ALP activity with high spatiotemporal resolution remains challenging. In this work, we rationally designed an iodinated hydrogelator precursor Nap-Phe-Phe(I)-Tyr(H2PO3)-OH (1P) which self-assembles into nanofibers to form hydrogel under the catalysis of ALP. With this property of concentrating iodine atoms at the locations of ALP, 1P was successfully applied for direct nanocomputed tomography (nano-CT) imaging of ALP activity in bacteria for the first time...
December 9, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933572/relation-between-the-stability-of-dental-implants-and-two-biological-markers-during-the-healing-period-a-prospective-clinical-study
#16
Choknapa Tirachaimongkol, Peraphan Pothacharoen, Peter A Reichart, Pathawee Khongkhunthian
OBJECTIVES: The purposes of this study were to examine the correlation between the stability of dental implants and bone formation markers during the healing period and to monitor the stability of dental implants using the resonance frequency analysis (RFA) method. The null hypothesis of the study is no correlation between the stability of dental implant and bone formation markers. METHODS: The study is a prospective clinical study during the 3-month healing period of implant...
December 2016: International Journal of Implant Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933467/osteosarcoma-overview
#17
REVIEW
Brock A Lindsey, Justin E Markel, Eugenie S Kleinerman
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignancy of bone and patients with metastatic disease or recurrences continue to have very poor outcomes. Unfortunately, little prognostic improvement has been generated from the last 20 years of research and a new perspective is warranted. OS is extremely heterogeneous in both its origins and manifestations. Although multiple associations have been made between the development of osteosarcoma and race, gender, age, various genomic alterations, and exposure situations among others, the etiology remains unclear and controversial...
December 8, 2016: Rheumatology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933336/shp-1-activation-inhibits-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-proliferation-and-intimal-hyperplasia-in-a-rodent-model-of-insulin-resistance-and-diabetes
#18
Weier Qi, Qian Li, Chong Wee Liew, Christian Rask-Madsen, Samuel M Lockhart, Lars Melholt Rasmussen, Yu Xia, Xuanchun Wang, Mogher Khamaisi, Kevin Croce, George L King
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Accelerated migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) enhances arterial restenosis after angioplasty in insulin resistance and diabetes. Elevation of Src homology 2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) induces apoptosis in the microvasculature. However, the role of SHP-1 in intimal hyperplasia and restenosis has not been clarified in insulin resistance and diabetes. METHODS: We used a femoral artery wire injury mouse model, rodent models with insulin resistance and diabetes, and patients with type 2 diabetes...
December 9, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933329/the-effects-of-cadmium-exposure-on-cadmium-fractionation-and-enzyme-activities-in-the-rhizosphere-of-two-radish-cultivars-raphanus-sativus-l
#19
Juan Xin, Xiaohu Zhao, Qiling Tan, Xuecheng Sun, Xin Wen, Shiyu Qin, Chengxiao Hu
The effects of increasing Cd additions on plant growth and Cd fractionation and enzyme activities in rhizosphere soil of two radish cultivars were investigated. The results showed that Cd concentrations in shoot and root of cultivar 4 were both higher than for cultivar 19 under different Cd levels. Compared with cultivar 19, the total, shoot and root biomasses of cultivar 4 were significantly reduced with increasing Cd levels. A decrease in soil pH was observed for cultivar 4. The exchangeable Cd concentration of soil from cultivar 4 was significantly higher than for soil from cultivar 19, while the carbonate-bound Cd concentration of soil from cultivar 4 was significantly lower than for cultivar 19...
December 8, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933172/brown-tumor-of-the-jaw-after-pregnancy-and-lactation-in-a-men1-patient
#20
Anna Casteràs, Lídia Darder, Carles Zafon, Juan Antonio Hueto, Margarita Alberola, Enric Caubet, Jordi Mesa
: Skeletal manifestations of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) include brown tumors (BT), which are osteoclastic focal lesions often localized in the jaws. Brown tumors are a rare manifestation of pHTP in Europe and USA; however, they are frequent in developing countries, probably related to vitamin D deficiency and longer duration and severity of disease. In the majority of cases, the removal of the parathyroid adenoma is enough for the bone to remineralize, but other cases require surgery...
2016: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
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