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Xiao-Mei Shi, Gao-Chao Fan, Xueying Tang, Qingming Shen, Jun-Jie Zhu
Sensitive and specific detection of DNA is of great significance for clinical diagnosis. In this paper, an effective cascade signal amplification strategy was introduced into photoelectrochemical (PEC) biosensor for ultrasensitive detection of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) DNA. This proposed signal amplification strategy integrates λ-exonuclease (λ-Exo) aided target recycling with hybridization chain reaction (HCR) and enzyme catalysis. In the presence of target DNA (tDNA) of HTLV-I, the designed hairpin DNA (h1 DNA) hybridized with tDNA, subsequently recognized and cleaved by λ-Exo to set free tDNA...
March 13, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Peisheng Liang, Wangyong Zhu, Tianjun Lan, Qian Tao
Saliva secretion disorder is one of the most common symptoms in primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS). Salivary biomarkers related to saliva secretion disorder were identified in a pSS murine model, NOD/ShiLtJ mouse, using differential proteomic analysis. Candidate biomarkers were screened with Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis and validated in saliva and salivary glands by western blotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Biological functions were detected using ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA)...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Neyla Ben Gdara, Amel Belgacem, Ikram Khemiri, Safa Mannai, Lotfi Bitri
In this study, phycocyanin (Pc) extracted from Spirulina platensis was used to evaluate its antioxidants effects after ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) using the ex-vivo model of isolated perfused rat liver. The rats were divided into eight groups : Control group, where livers were directly perfused after their removal; Cold Ischemia group (CI), livers were treated in the same way as the control group, except that after their collection, they were stored for 12 h and 24 h in the Krebs Henseleit (KH) preservation solution at 4 °C and Treated group (PHY), livers were preserved in the same way as the preceding group except that the KH solution was enriched with phycocyanin at two different concentrations...
March 17, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Tatiana Robledo-Mahón, Elisabet Aranda, Chiara Pesciaroli, Alfonso Rodríguez-Calvo, Gloria Andrea Silva-Castro, Jesús González-López, Concepción Calvo
Sewage sludge composting is a profitable process economically viable and environmentally friendly. In despite of there are several kind of composting types, the use of combined system of semipermeable cover film and aeration air-floor is widely developed at industrial scale. However, the knowledge of the linkages between microbial communities structure, enzyme activities and physico-chemical factors under these conditions it has been poorly explored. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial dynamic and community structure using next generation sequencing coupled to analyses of microbial enzymatic activity and culturable dependent techniques in a full-scale real composting plant...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Yide Huang, Yafei Zhang, Lilin Ge, Yao Lin, Hang Fai Kwok
The protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family is involved in multiple cellular functions and plays an important role in various pathological and physiological processes. In many chronic diseases, for example cancer, PTP is a potential therapeutic target for cancer treatment. In the last two decades, dozens of PTP inhibitors which specifically target individual PTP molecules were developed as therapeutic agents. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors and is the second most lethal cancer worldwide due to a lack of effective therapies...
March 20, 2018: Cancers
Jin Liu, Yu Chen, Jing-Ya Li, Cheng Luo, Jia Li, Kai-Xian Chen, Xu-Wen Li, Yue-Wei Guo
Phidianidines A and B are two novel marine indole alkaloids bearing an uncommon 1,2,4-oxadiazole ring and exhibiting various biological activities. Our previous research showed that the synthesized phidianidine analogs had the potential to inhibit the activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), a validated target for Type II diabetes, which indicates that these analogs are worth further structural modification. Therefore, in this paper, a series of phidianidine derivatives were designed and rapidly synthesized with a function-oriented synthesis (FOS) strategy...
March 20, 2018: Marine Drugs
Jill N Tirabassi, Lucianne Olewinski, Morteza Khodaee
BACKGROUND: Significant elevations of traditional biomarkers of liver injury can occur as a result of running an ultramarathon. HYPOTHESIS: Traditional serum biomarker levels of liver injury will significantly increase as the result of participating in this 161-km race at altitude. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3. METHODS: A total of 64 (before) and 83 (after) volunteer runners participated in a prospective observational field-based study at the Leadville 100 ultramarathon race...
March 1, 2018: Sports Health
Ruoxing Lei, Jessica P Lee, Matthew B Francis, Sanjay Kumar
Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) play central roles in numerous cellular processes. While IDP structure and function are often regulated by multisite phosphorylation, the biophysical mechanisms linking these post-translational modifications to IDP structure remain elusive. For example, the intrinsically disordered C-terminal sidearm domain of the neurofilament heavy subunit (NFH-SA) forms a dense brush along axonal NF backbones and is subject to extensive serine phosphorylation. Yet, biophysical insight into the relationship between phosphorylation and structure has been limited by the lack of paradigms in which NF brush conformational responses can be measured in the setting of controlled phosphorylation...
March 20, 2018: Biochemistry
Guo Liu, Shengwei Sun, Baoyan Guo, Benchun Miao, Zhen Luo, Zumeng Xia, Danyang Ying, Fei Liu, Bin Guo, Jian Tang, Yong Cao, Jianyin Miao
Casein phosphopeptides (CPPs) have been demonstrated to be calcium chelators. Unfortunately, few studies have been reported on the effects of CPPs on the mechanism of the uptake and absorption of Ca2+ and bone metabolism. In this study, a monomeric peptide fraction isolated by RP-HPLC (F6-1) that possessed high calcium transport capacity in Caco-2 cell monolayers was separated and characterized. The effects of F6-1 on the absorption mechanisms of Ca2+ in a Caco-2 monolayer model and bone metabolism in rats were investigated...
March 20, 2018: Food & Function
Christopher B Lietz, Thomas Toneff, Charles Mosier, Sonia Podvin, Anthony J O'Donoghue, Vivian Hook
Neuropeptides are vital for cell-cell communication and function in the regulation of the nervous and endocrine systems. They are generated by post-translational modification (PTM) steps resulting in small active peptides generated from prohormone precursors. Phosphorylation is a significant PTM for the bioactivity of neuropeptides. From the known diversity of distinct neuropeptide functions, it is hypothesized that the extent of phosphorylation varies among different neuropeptides. To assess this hypothesis, neuropeptide-containing dense core secretory vesicles from bovine adrenal medullary chromaffin cells were subjected to global phosphopeptidomics analyses by liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometry (MS/MS)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Kavitha Ranganathan, Eric Simon, Jeremy Lynn, Alicia Snider, Yu Zhang, Noah Nelson, Alexis Donneys, Jose Rodriguez, Lauren Buchman, Dawn Reyna, Elke Lipka, Steven R Buchman
PURPOSE: Amifostine (AMF), a radioprotectant, is FDA-approved for intravenous administration in cancer patients receiving radiation therapy (XRT). Unfortunately, it remains clinically underutilized due to adverse side effects. The purpose of this study is to define the pharmacokinetic profile of an oral AMF formulation potentially capable of reducing side effects and increasing clinical feasibility. METHODS: Calvarial osteoblasts were radiated under three conditions: no drug, AMF, and WR-1065 (active metabolite)...
March 19, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
J Aleksova, S Kurniawan, G J Elder
Fracture risk increases in end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), but bone mineral density (BMD) measurement is less predictive of risk than in the general population. In this study of patients with ESKD, a lower trabecular bone score (TBS), indicative of microarchitectural deterioration, was associated with higher bone turnover markers and prevalent non-vertebral fracture. INTRODUCTION: Declining renal function carries increased fracture risks, but BMD is less predictive of fracture for dialysis patients than the general population...
March 19, 2018: Osteoporosis International
Sakiko Fujii, Katsumi Fujimoto, Noriko Goto, Yoshimitsu Abiko, Asayo Imaoka, Jinchang Shao, Kazuko Kitayama, Masami Kanawa, Agung Sosiawan, Ketut Suardita, Fusanori Nishimura, Yukio Kato
Dental pulp cells (DPCs) are promising candidates for use as transplantable cells in regenerative medicine. However, ex vivo expansion of these cells typically requires culture media containing fetal bovine serum, which may cause infection and immunological reaction following transplantation. In addition, the proliferation and differentiation of DPCs markedly depend upon serum batches. Therefore, the present study examined whether DPCs could be expanded under serum-free conditions. DPCs obtained from four donors were identified to proliferate actively in the serum-free medium, STK2, when compared with those cells in control medium (Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium containing 10% serum)...
April 2018: Biomedical Reports
Nan Mu, Jintao Gu, Nannan Liu, Xiaochang Xue, Zhen Shu, Kuo Zhang, Tonglie Huang, Chu Chu, Wangqian Zhang, Li Gong, Huadong Zhao, Bo Jia, Dakuan Gao, Lei Shang, Wei Zhang, Qingdong Guo
Purpose: Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive type of primary brain malignancy and is associated with a poor prognosis. Previously, we found that phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3) was significantly up-regulated in glioblastoma as determined by a microarray analysis. However, the function of PRL-3 in glioblastoma remains unknown. We aimed to investigate the clinical relationship between PRL-3 and glioblastoma, and uncover the mechanisms of PRL-3 in the process of glioblastoma. Methods: PRL-3 expression was evaluated in 61 glioblastoma samples and 4 cell lines by RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry...
2018: Theranostics
Jun Liu, Lei Huang, Pengxiao Su, Tao Song, Wentao Zhang, Jinzhu Fan, Yang Liu
A number of studies have attempted to elucidate the association between mircoRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) and cancer-associated processes. The aim of the present study was to determine how miR-499a-5p intervenes in human osteosarcoma cell proliferation and differentiation. The cancerous tissues and adjacent non-cancerous tissues of 62 patients with osteosarcoma (OS) were collected. miRNA microarray analysis revealed that 29 miRNAs were upregulated while 26 were downregulated, among which miR-499a-5p expression was the most decreased...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Siddhant Bhoir, Althaf Shaik, Vijay Thiruvenkatam, Sivapriya Kirubakaran
Human Tousled-like kinases (TLKs) are highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinases responsible for cell proliferation, DNA repair, and genome surveillance. Their possible involvement in cancer via efficient DNA repair mechanisms have made them clinically relevant molecular targets for anticancer therapy. Innovative approaches in chemical biology have played a key role in validating the importance of kinases as molecular targets. However, the detailed understanding of the protein structure and the mechanisms of protein-drug interaction through biochemical and biophysical techniques demands a method for the production of an active protein of exceptional stability and purity on a large scale...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Syazrah Salam, Orla Gallagher, Fatma Gossiel, Margaret Paggiosi, Arif Khwaja, Richard Eastell
Background Renal osteodystrophy is common in advanced CKD, but characterization of bone turnover status can only be achieved by histomorphometric analysis of bone biopsy specimens (gold standard test). We tested whether bone biomarkers and high-resolution peripheral computed tomography (HR-pQCT) parameters can predict bone turnover status determined by histomorphometry. Methods We obtained fasting blood samples from 69 patients with CKD stages 4-5, including patients on dialysis, and 68 controls for biomarker analysis (intact parathyroid hormone [iPTH], procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide [PINP], bone alkaline phosphatase [bALP], collagen type 1 crosslinked C-telopeptide [CTX], and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b [TRAP5b]) and scanned the distal radius and tibia of participants by HR-pQCT...
March 19, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Michael Perron, H Saragovi
Src-family kinases (SFK) govern cellular proliferation of bone marrow derived cells. SFKs are regulated by the protein tyrosine phosphatase enzymatic activity of CD45. All lymphoid cells express CD45 but only proliferating cells are dependent on CD45 activity. We postulated that a selective inhibitor of CD45 phosphatase activity, compound 211, could preferentially affect actively proliferating cells, but spare resting lymphoid cells. Compound 211 inhibited CD45 and induced inappropriate SFK signalling, leading to a G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death...
March 19, 2018: Molecular Pharmacology
Hee Kyoung Chung, Shelley R Wang, Lan Xiao, Navneeta Rathor, Douglas J Turner, Peixin Yang, Myriam Gorospe, Jaladanki N Rao, Jian-Ying Wang
The mammalian intestinal epithelium is a rapidly self-renewing tissue in the body and its homeostasis depends on a dynamic balance among proliferation, migration, apoptosis, and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). The PP2A-associated protein α4 controls the activity and specificity of serine/threonine phosphatases and is thus implicated in many cellular processes. Here we investigated the mechanisms whereby α4 controls the homeostasis of the intestinal epithelium using a genetic approach...
March 19, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Frank Zach, Franziska Polzer, Alexandra Mueller, André Gessner
The sequestosome 1 gene encodes the p62 protein and is the major genetic risk factor associated with Paget's disease of bone. In 2004, p62 was reported to up-regulate osteoclast differentiation by activating the transcription factors Nfatc1 and NF-κB. Here, we characterized the osteoclastogenic potential of murine p62-/- -derived cells compared with WT cells. Our data confirmed previous findings indicating that that p62 is induced during murine osteoclast differentiation. Surprisingly, an indispensable role for p62 in i n vitro osteoclast differentiation was not reproducible, since p62-deficient osteoclasts exhibited robust activation of Nfatc1, NF-κB, and osteoclast marker enzymes...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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