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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815597/cardiac-action-potential-repolarization-re-visited-early-repolarization-shows-all-or-none-behaviour
#1
Beatriz Trenor, Karen Cardona, Javier Saiz, Denis Noble, Wayne Giles
In healthy mammalian hearts the action potential (AP) waveform initiates and modulates each contraction, or heartbeat. As a result, action potential height and duration are key physiological variables. In addition, rate-dependent changes in ventricular action potential duration (APD), and variations in APD at a fixed heart rate, are both reliable biomarkers of electrophysiological stability. Present guidelines for the likelihood that candidate drugs will increase arrhythmias rely on small changes in APD and Q-T intervals as criteria for Safety Pharmacology decisions...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810223/effects-of-an-allelochemical-in-phaeodactylum-tricornutum-filtrate-on-heterosigma-akashiwo-morphological-physiological-and-growth-effects
#2
Rui Wang, Qiaona Xue, Jiangtao Wang, Liju Tan, Qingchun Zhang, Yue Zhao, Donald M Anderson
The effects of an allelochemical extracted from the culture filtrate of diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum on the raphidophyte Heterosigma akashiwo were investigated using a series of morphological, physiological and biochemical characters. Growth experiments showed that H. akashiwo was significantly inhibited immediately after exposure to the allelochemical, with many cells rapidly dying and lysing based on microscopic observation. The effects of the allelochemical on the surviving cells were explored using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Flow cytometry (FCM), the latter by examination of a suite of physiological parameters (membrane integrity, esterase activity, chlorophyll-a content, membrane potential)...
August 7, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809710/double-mode-microparticle-manipulation-by-tunable-secondary-flow-in-microchannel-with-arc-shaped-groove-arrays
#3
Qianbin Zhao, Sheng Yan, Dan Yuan, Jun Zhang, Haiping Du, Gursel Alici, Weihua Li
In this paper, we proposed a microparticle manipulation approach, by which particles are able to be guided to different equilibrium positions through modulating the Reynolds number. In the microchannel with arc-shaped groove arrays, secondary flow vortex arisen due to the pressure gradient varies in the aspects of both magnitude and shape with the increase of Reynolds number. And the variation of secondary flow vortex brings about different focusing modes of microparticles in the microchannel. We investigated the focusing phenomenon experimentally and analyzed the mechanism through numerical simulations...
August 14, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808606/middle-cerebral-artery-dissection-causing-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-and-cerebral-infarction-trapping-with-high-flow-bypass-preserving-the-lenticulostriate-artery
#4
Hideaki Ono, Tomohiro Inoue, Shinya Suematsu, Takeo Tanishima, Akira Tamura, Isamu Saito, Nobuhito Saito
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous intracranial arterial dissection (IAD) is an increasingly important cause of stroke, such as subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and hemodynamic or thromboembolic cerebral ischemia. IAD usually occurs in the posterior circulation, and is relatively rare in the anterior circulation including the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Various surgical and endovascular methods to reduce blood flow in the dissected lesion have been proposed, but no optimum treatment has been established...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807988/high-flow-nasal-cannula-therapy-versus-intermittent-noninvasive-ventilation-in-obese-subjects-after-cardiothoracic-surgery
#5
François Stéphan, Laurence Bérard, Saida Rézaiguia-Delclaux, Priscilla Amaru
BACKGROUND: Obese patients are considered at risk of respiratory failure after cardiothoracic surgery. High-flow nasal cannula has demonstrated its non-inferiority after cardiothoracic surgery compared to noninvasive ventilation (NIV), which is the recommended treatment in obese patients. We hypothesized that NIV was superior to high-flow nasal cannula for preventing or resolving acute respiratory failure after cardiothoracic surgery in this population. METHODS: We performed a post hoc analysis of a randomized, controlled trial...
August 14, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806621/traumatic-common-hepatic-artery-injury-causing-isolated-right-hepatic-ischemia-due-to-a-left-accessory-artery-a-case-report
#6
Eduardo Fernandes, Corrado Pedrazzani, Marielia Gerena, Ellen Omi
INTRODUCTION: Hepatic arterial liver flow is renowned for its redundancy. Previous studies have demonstrated that the common hepatic artery is not essential for liver survival. We present a case of a 31year-old involved in a high-speed motor vehicle accident whose liver survived thanks to the presence of an accessory hepatic artery. PRESENTATON OF THE CASE: We present the case of a 31year-old male who sustained a traumatic injury of the proper hepatic artery following a motor vehicle accident...
August 8, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803269/the-callosal-relay-model-of-interhemispheric-communication-new-evidence-from-effective-connectivity-analysis
#7
Saskia Steinmann, Jan Meier, Guido Nolte, Andreas K Engel, Gregor Leicht, Christoph Mulert
Interhemispheric auditory connectivity via the corpus callosum has been demonstrated to be important for normal speech processing. According to the callosal relay model, directed information flow from the right to the left auditory cortex has been suggested, but this has not yet been proven. For this purpose, 33 healthy participants were investigated with 64-channel EEG while performing the dichotic listening task in which two different consonant-vowel syllables were presented simultaneously to the left (LE) and right ear (RE)...
August 12, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803243/lithium-sensitivity-of-store-operated-ca2-entry-and-survival-of-fibroblasts-isolated-from-chorea-acanthocytosis-patients
#8
Lisann Pelzl, Bhaeldin Elsir, Itishri Sahu, Rosi Bissinger, Yogesh Singh, Basma Sukkar, Sabina Honisch, Ludger Schoels, Mohamed Jemaà, Elisabeth Lang, Alexander Storch, Andreas Hermann, Christos Stournaras, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND: The widely expressed protein chorein fosters activation of the phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K) pathway thus supporting cell survival. Loss of function mutations of the chorein encoding gene VPS13A (vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein 13A) causes chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc), a neurodegenerative disorder paralleled by deformations of erythrocytes. In mice, genetic knockout of chorein leads to enhanced neuronal apoptosis. PI3K dependent signalling upregulates Orai1, a pore forming channel protein accomplishing store operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE)...
August 11, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801079/re-raising-muscle-flaps-a-randomised-controlled-animal-study
#9
K Bradshaw, M Wagels
BACKGROUND: In the experience of our centre, 33% of reconstructed compound lower limb injuries will need an orthopaedic revision.(1) A flap may be re-raised through numerous methods, and historically, the approach of choice has been based on the principle of protecting the vascular pedicle rather than the inset. Our aim was to determine whether a marginal versus a split approach to re-raising inferred a higher risk of flap necrosis and whether more attention should be paid to protecting the inset of the flap, particularly at the distal portion...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799442/the-use-of-innervated-radial-artery-superficial-palmar-branch-perforator-free-flap-for-complex-digital-injuries-reconstruction
#10
Zhenglin Chi, Georgios Pafitanis, Luis Eduardo Parra Pont, Roshan Vijayan, Stefano Marcelli, Weiyang Gao, Zan Li, Xiao Zhou, Dajiang Song, Peng Yang
Loco-regional flaps have been widely used for the reconstruction of digital injuries without requiring microvascular anastomosis, however, they result in scarring and compromised functional outcomes. This study demonstrates our experience utilizing the innervated radial artery superficial palmar branch (RASPB) perforator free flap for complex digital injury reconstruction. From May 2007 to March 2014, the innervated RASPB perforator free flap was used to reconstruct 79 distal complex hand and digital soft tissue defects of which 14 were used to re-vascularise the distal digit in a flow-through fashion...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798843/an-easily-fabricated-three-dimensional-threaded-lemniscate-shaped-micromixer-for-a-wide-range-of-flow-rates
#11
Mehdi Rafeie, Marcel Welleweerd, Amin Hassanzadeh-Barforoushi, Mohsen Asadnia, Wouter Olthuis, Majid Ebrahimi Warkiani
Mixing fluid samples or reactants is a paramount function in the fields of micro total analysis system (μTAS) and microchemical processing. However, rapid and efficient fluid mixing is difficult to achieve inside microchannels because of the difficulty of diffusive mass transfer in the laminar regime of the typical microfluidic flows. It has been well recorded that the mixing efficiency can be boosted by migrating from two-dimensional (2D) to three-dimensional (3D) geometries. Although several 3D chaotic mixers have been designed, most of them offer a high mixing efficiency only in a very limited range of Reynolds numbers (Re)...
January 2017: Biomicrofluidics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798842/a-low-cost-plug-and-play-inertial-microfluidic-helical-capillary-device-for-high-throughput-flow-cytometry
#12
Xiao Wang, Hua Gao, Nadja Dindic, Necati Kaval, Ian Papautsky
Glass capillary tubes have been widely used in microfluidics for generating microdroplets and microfibers. Here, we report on the application of glass capillary to inertial focusing of microparticles and cells for high-throughput flow cytometry. Our device uses a commercially available capillary tube with a square cross-section. Wrapping the tube into a helical shape induces the Dean vortices that aid focusing of cells or microbeads into a single position. We investigated the inertial focusing of microbeads in the device at various Re and concentrations and demonstrated 3D focusing with ∼100% efficiency for a wide range of microparticle diameters...
January 2017: Biomicrofluidics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798217/multicenter-experience-with-fred-jr-flow-re-direction-endoluminal-device-for-intracranial-aneurysms-in-small-arteries
#13
M A Möhlenbruch, O Kizilkilic, M Killer-Oberpfalzer, F Baltacioglu, C Islak, M Bendszus, S Cekirge, I Saatci, N Kocer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Flow diverters are emerging as an endovascular treatment alternative for proximally located intracranial aneurysms. However, treatment of aneurysms at and beyond the circle of Willis is not well-established. We assessed the clinical safety and efficacy of the Flow Re-Direction Endoluminal Device Jr (FRED Jr) dedicated to small-vessel diameters between 2.0 and 3.0 mm. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a multicenter observational clinical study of 42 patients with 47 aneurysms treated by a flow-direction technique with the FRED Jr...
August 10, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794797/acute-mesenteric-ischemia-guidelines-of-the-world-society-of-emergency-surgery
#14
REVIEW
Miklosh Bala, Jeffry Kashuk, Ernest E Moore, Yoram Kluger, Walter Biffl, Carlos Augusto Gomes, Offir Ben-Ishay, Chen Rubinstein, Zsolt J Balogh, Ian Civil, Federico Coccolini, Ari Leppaniemi, Andrew Peitzman, Luca Ansaloni, Michael Sugrue, Massimo Sartelli, Salomone Di Saverio, Gustavo P Fraga, Fausto Catena
Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is typically defined as a group of diseases characterized by an interruption of the blood supply to varying portions of the small intestine, leading to ischemia and secondary inflammatory changes. If untreated, this process will eventuate in life threatening intestinal necrosis. The incidence is low, estimated at 0.09-0.2% of all acute surgical admissions. Therefore, although the entity is an uncommon cause of abdominal pain, diligence is always required because if untreated, mortality has consistently been reported in the range of 50%...
2017: World Journal of Emergency Surgery: WJES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793912/re-evaluation-of-hypoplastic-left-heart-syndrome-from-a-developmental-and-morphological-perspective
#15
A Crucean, A Alqahtani, D J Barron, W J Brawn, R V Richardson, J O'Sullivan, R H Anderson, D J Henderson, B Chaudhry
BACKGROUND: Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) covers a spectrum of rare congenital anomalies characterised by a non-apex forming left ventricle and stenosis/atresia of the mitral and aortic valves. Despite many studies, the causes of HLHS remain unclear and there are conflicting views regarding the role of flow, valvar or myocardial abnormalities in its pathogenesis, all of which were proposed prior to the description of the second heart field. Our aim was to re-evaluate the patterns of malformation in HLHS in relation to recognised cardiac progenitor populations, with a view to providing aetiologically useful sub-groupings for genomic studies...
August 10, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793281/photosynthetic-limitation-and-mechanisms-of-photoprotection-under-drought-and-recovery-of-calotropis-procera-an-evergreen-c3-from-arid-regions
#16
Rebeca Rivas, Gabriella Frosi, Diego G Ramos, Silvia Pereira, Ana M Benko-Iseppon, Mauro G Santos
Calotropis procera is a C3 plant native from arid environmental zones. It is an evergreen, shrubby, non-woody plant with intense photosynthetic metabolism during the dry season. We measured photosynthetic parameters and leaf biochemical traits, such as gas exchange, photochemical parameters, A/Ci analysis, organic solutes, and antioxidant enzymes under controlled conditions in potted plants during drought stress, and following recovery conditions to obtain a better insight in the drought stress responses of C...
July 31, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782689/flow-diverter-treatment-of-tandem-intracranial-aneurysms
#17
Seby John, Mark Bain, Russell Cerejo, Andrew Bauer, Thomas Masaryk, Muhammad S Hussain, Peter Rasmussen, Gabor Toth
OBJECTIVE: The application of flow diversion (FD) for treatment of multiple, tandem intracranial aneurysms has not been well studied. We sought to assess technical success, and clinical and imaging outcomes of FD treatment for tandem intracranial aneurysms. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of patients treated with FD for tandem intracranial aneurysms. RESULTS: Twenty female patients were included with a mean (± SD) age of 60 ±12 years. Only one patient was treated after subarachnoid hemorrhage...
August 3, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776269/apparent-brain-temperature-imaging-with-multi-voxel-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-compared-with-cerebral-blood-flow-and-metabolism-imaging-on-positron-emission-tomography-in-patients-with-unilateral-chronic-major-cerebral-artery-steno-occlusive-disease
#18
Takamasa Nanba, Hideaki Nishimoto, Yoshichika Yoshioka, Toshiyuki Murakami, Makoto Sasaki, Ikuko Uwano, Shunrou Fujiwara, Kazunori Terasaki, Kuniaki Ogasawara
PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to determine whether apparent brain temperature imaging using multi-voxel proton magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy correlates with cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism imaging in the deep white matter of patients with unilateral chronic major cerebral artery steno-occlusive disease. METHODS: Apparent brain temperature and CBF and metabolism imaging were measured using proton MR spectroscopy and (15)O-positron emission tomography (PET), respectively, in 35 patients...
August 3, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773958/physical-properties-of-pdms-polydimethylsiloxane-microfluidic-devices-on-fluid-behaviors-various-diameters-and-shapes-of-periodically-embedded-microstructures
#19
Changhyun Roh, Jaewoong Lee, ChanKyu Kang
Deformable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic devices embedded with three differently-shaped obstacles (hexagon, square, and triangle) were used to examine the significant challenge to classical fluid dynamics. The significant factors in determining a quasi-steady state value of flow velocity (v)QS and pressure drop per unit length (∆P/∆x)QS were dependent on the characteristic of embedded microstructures as well as the applied flow rates. The deviation from the theoretical considerations due to PDMS bulging investigated by the friction constant and the normalized friction factor revealed that the largest PDMS bulging observed in hexagonal obstacles had the smallest (∆P/∆x)QS ratios, whereas triangle obstacles exhibited the smallest PDMS bulging, but recorded the largest (∆P/∆x)QS ratios...
October 15, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771742/experimental-and-modelling-evidence-of-shortening-heat-in-cardiac-muscle
#20
Kenneth Tran, June-Chiew Han, Edmund John Crampin, Andrew James Taberner, Denis Scott Loiselle
When a muscle shortens against an afterload, the heat that it liberates is greater than that produced by the same muscle contracting isometrically at the same level of force. This excess heat is defined as 'shortening heat', and has been repeatedly demonstrated in skeletal muscle but not in cardiac muscle. Given the micro-structural similarities between these two muscle types, and since we imagine that shortening heat is the thermal accompaniment of cross-bridge cycling, we have re-examined this issue. Using our flow-through microcalorimeter, we measured force and heat generated by isolated rat trabeculae undergoing isometric contractions at different muscle lengths and work-loop (shortening) contractions at different afterloads...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Physiology
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