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angiogenesis and fibroblast

Eleonora Bassino, Edoardo Vallariello, Franco Gasparri, Luca Munaron
The biological importance of circulatory blood supply and angiogenesis for hair growth is now well recognized, but the their regulatory mechanisms require more mechanistic investigation. In vitro cocultures and tricultures can be successfully employed to greatly improve our knowledge on paracrine crosstalk between cell types that populate the dermal-epidermal interface and cutaneous vasculature. Here we report that human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) promote viability and proliferation of microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC), while HMVEC are not mitogenic for NHDF...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Mi Yu, Jun Young Lee
BACKGROUND: Polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) is an active compound that can promote wound healing. PDRN stimulates wound healing by enhancing angiogenesis and increasing fibroblast growth rates. Laser skin resurfacing is a popular cosmetic procedure for skin rejuvenation. Despite excellent improvement of photo-damaged skin and acne scarring, it is accompanied with drawbacks, such as prolonged erythema and crusting. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to assess the effect of PDRN on wounds induced by fractional laser resurfacing...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy: Official Publication of the European Society for Laser Dermatology
Yuen Ting Lam, Laura Lecce, Joanne T M Tan, Christina A Bursill, David J Handelsman, Martin K C Ng
Increasing evidence indicates that androgens regulate ischemia-induced neovascularization. However, the role of genomic androgen action mediated by androgen receptor (AR), a ligand-activated nuclear transcription factor, remains poorly understood. Using an AR knockout mouse strain that contains a transcriptionally inactive AR (AR(Δex3)KO), we examined the role of AR genomic function in modulating androgen-mediated augmentation of ischemia-induced neovascularization. Castrated wildtype (AR(WT)) and AR(Δex3)KO mice were implanted with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or placebo pellets following hindlimb ischemia (HLI)...
October 18, 2016: Endocrinology
Gwendal Lazennec, Paula Y Lam
Tumor microenvironment plays a crucial role in coordination with cancer cells in the establishment, growth and dissemination of the tumor. Among cells of the microenvironment, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their ability to evolve into cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) have recently generated a major interest in the field. Numerous studies have described the potential pro- or anti-tumorigenic action of MSCs. The goal of this review is to synthesize recent and emerging discoveries concerning the mechanisms by which MSCs can be attracted to tumor sites, how they can generate CAFs and by which way MSCs are able to modulate the growth, response to treatments, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis of tumors...
October 14, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Fernanda Paula Yamamoto Silva, Andrielle Dias, Carolinne Almeida Coelho, Eliete Neves Guerra, Ana Elizia Mascarenhas Marques, Daniel de Almeida Decurcio, Andrea Mantesso, Sérgio Elias Vieira Cury, Brunno Santos de Freitas Silva
Multicystic and unicystic ameloblastomas are benign odontogenic tumors that present distinct biological behavior. The investigation of stem cells has become an important branch of tumor biology, with several studies addressing the possible role of these cells in tumor growth, angiogenesis, progression, infiltration and invasiveness. This study evaluated the immunohistochemical expression of CD90(Thy-1) and P75NTR stem cell markers in multicystic and unicystic ameloblastomas. Seventeen (17) samples of ameloblastomas (multicystic, n = 10; unicystic, n = 7) were submitted to immunohistochemical reactions and graded semi-quantitatively...
October 10, 2016: Brazilian Oral Research
Alexandre Lamaro Cardoso, Maria Márcia Bachion, Júlia de Miranda Morais, Marcelo Silva Fantinati, Vera Lúcia Lima de Almeida, Ruy Souza Lino
PURPOSE: To analyze the healing effects of stromal vascular fraction (SVF) application compared to wound dressing with 2% silver sulfadiazine in full thickness burn wounds in rats. METHODS: Animals were divided into two groups: 2% silver sulfadiazine group and SVF group. Both groups received occlusive bandages while the first one was treated with 2% silver sulfadiazine and the latter was treated with injections of SVF prepared from adipose tissue extracted from an animal donor...
September 2016: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
M Moazzem Hossain, Guangyi Zhao, Moon-Sook Woo, James H-C Wang, Jian-Ping Jin
Cell traction force (CTF) plays a critical role in controlling cell shape, enabling cell motility, and maintaining cellular homeostasis in many biological processes such as angiogenesis, development, wound healing, and cancer metastasis. Calponin is an actin filament-associated cytoskeletal protein in smooth muscles and multiple types of non-muscle cells. An established biochemical function of calponin is the inhibition of myosin ATPase in smooth muscle cells. Vertebrates have three calponin isoforms. Among them, calponin 2 is expressed in epithelial cells, endothelial cells, macrophages, myoblasts and fibroblasts, and plays a role in regulating cytoskeleton activities such as cell adhesion, migration and cytokinesis...
October 13, 2016: Biochemistry
Patience Meo Burt, Liping Xiao, Caroline Dealy, Melanie C Fisher, Marja M Hurley
Humans with X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) and Hyp mice, the murine homologue of the disease, develop severe osteoarthropathy and the precise factors that contribute to this joint degeneration remain largely unknown. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is a key regulatory growth factor in osteoarthritis. Although there are multiple FGF2 isoforms the potential involvement of specific FGF2 isoforms in joint degradation has not been investigated. Mice that overexpress the high molecular weight FGF2 isoforms in bone (HMWTg mice) phenocopy Hyp mice and XLH subjects and Hyp mice overexpress the HMWFGF2 isoforms in osteoblasts and osteocytes...
October 12, 2016: Endocrinology
Xiaochu Ding, Jin Gao, Zhouguang Wang, Hassan Awada, Yadong Wang
We designed and tested a versatile hydrogel for tissue regeneration by preserving the bioactivity of growth factors. The shear-thinning gel self-assembles within 1 min from heparin and Laponite-a silicate nanoparticle, thus the name HELP gel. By not covalently modifying heparin, it should retain its natural affinity towards many proteins anchored in the extracellular matrix. In principle, HELP gel can bind any heparin-binding growth factor; we use fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) in this study to demonstrate its utility...
September 30, 2016: Biomaterials
Christian Faul
Fibroblast growth factors (FGF) are mitogenic signal mediators that induce cell proliferation and survival. Although cardiac myocytes are post-mitotic, they have been shown to be able to respond to local and circulating FGFs. While precise molecular mechanisms are not well characterized, some FGF family members have been shown to induce cardiac remodeling under physiologic conditions by mediating hypertrophic growth in cardiac myocytes and by promoting angiogenesis, both events leading to increased cardiac function and output...
October 7, 2016: Bone
Fatemeh Sharifpanah, Sascha Behr, Maria Wartenberg, Heinrich Sauer
OBJECTIVES: Differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells may be regulated by mechanical strain. Herein, signaling molecules underlying mechanical stimulation of vasculogenesis and expression of angiogenesis guidance cues were investigated in ES cell-derived embryoid bodies. METHODS AND RESULTS: Treatment of embryoid bodies with 10% static mechanical strain using a Flexercell strain system significantly increased CD31-positive vascular structures and the angiogenesis guidance molecules plexinB1, ephrin B2, neuropilin1 (NRP1), semaphorin 4D (sem4D) and robo4 as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) as evaluated by Western blot and real time RT-PCR...
October 8, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Sudong Kim, Minhwan Chung, Jungho Ahn, Somin Lee, Noo Li Jeon
A crucial yet ill-defined phenomenon involved in the remodeling of vascular networks, including angiogenic sprouting, is flow-mediated endothelial dynamics and phenotype changes. Despite interstitial flow (IF) being ubiquitously present in living tissues surrounding blood capillaries, it is rarely investigated and poorly understood how endothelial cells respond to this flow during morphogenesis. Here we develop a microfluidic 3D in vitro model to investigate the role of IF during vasculogenic formation and angiogenic remodeling of microvascular networks...
October 18, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Tianlin Liu, Xin Zhang, Yuan Luo, Yuanliang Huang, Gang Wu
Bone tissue engineering technique is a promising strategy to repair large-volume bone defects. In this study, we developed a 3-dimensional construct by combining icariin (a small-molecule Chinese medicine), allogeneic bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), and a siliceous mesostructured cellular foams-poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (SMC-PHBHHx) composite scaffold. We hypothesized that the slowly released icariin could significantly promote the efficacy of SMC-PHBHHx/allogeneic BMSCs for repairing critical-size bone defects in rats...
2016: Stem Cells International
Somayeh Tavana, Mahnaz Azarnia, Mojtaba Rezazadeh Valojerdi, Abdolhossein Shahverdi
One of the problems encountered during ovarian transplantation is that the number of primordial follicles in the grafts is considerably reduced 2 d after transplantation due to post-transplantation ischemia. This study investigates if the use of hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel (HABH) with and without vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) could prevent or minimize ischemia-induced follicle loss during ovarian autotransplantation and thereby restore ovarian tissue function in the rat model...
October 6, 2016: Biomedical Materials
Min Tu, Cheng Lu, Nan Lv, Jishu Wei, Zipeng Lu, Chunhua Xi, Jianmin Chen, Feng Guo, Kuirong Jiang, Qiang Li, Junli Wu, Guoxin Song, Shui Wang, Wentao Gao, Yi Miao
Vasohibin 2 (VASH2) is an angiogenic factor and cancer-related protein that acts via paracrine mechanisms. Here, we investigated the angiogenic function and mechanism of action of VASH2 in 200 human breast cancer tissues by performing immunohistochemical staining, western blot, indirect sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and a semi-quantitative sandwich-based antibody array. Breast cancer cells stably overexpressing VASH2 or with knocked-down VASH2 were established and used for in vivo and in vitro models...
October 1, 2016: Cancer Letters
Lin Xiao, Andrew C Dudley
In the heart and other organs, endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) has emerged as an important developmental process that involves coordinated migration, differentiation, and proliferation of the endothelium. In multiple disease states including cancer angiogenesis and cardiovascular disease, the processes that regulate EndMT are recapitulated, albeit in an uncoordinated and dysregulated manner. Members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) super-family are well known to impart cellular plasticity during EndMT by the timely activation (or repression) of transcription factors and miRNAs in addition to epigenetic regulation of gene expression...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Pathology
Sofia Theodoropoulou, David A Copland, Jian Liu, Jiahui Wu, Peter J Gardner, Ema Ozaki, Sarah L Doyle, Matthew Campbell, Andrew D Dick
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of central vision loss worldwide. Loss of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a major pathological hallmark in AMD with or without pathological neovascularization. Although activation of the immune system is implicated in disease progression, pathological pathways remain diverse and unclear. Here, we report an unexpected protective role of a pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-33 (IL-33) in ocular angiogenesis. IL-33 and its receptor (ST2) are expressed constitutively in human and murine retina and choroid...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Pathology
Justin D Schumacher, Grace L Guo
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are a family of growth factors critically involved in developmental, physiological, and pathological processes, including embryogenesis, angiogenesis, wound healing, and endocrine functions. In the liver, several FGFs are produced basally by hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Upon insult to the liver, expression of FGFs in HSCs is greatly upregulated, stimulating hepatocyte regeneration and growth. Various FGF isoforms have also been shown to directly induce HSC proliferation and activation thereby enabling autocrine and paracrine regulation of HSC function...
2016: BioMed Research International
Bulent Kaya, Onur Çiçek, Fatih Erdi, Siddika Findik, Yasar Karatas, Hasan Esen, Fatih Keskin, Erdal Kalkan
The present study was designed to evaluate the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) with and without intratumoral hemorrhage. Surgically resected human GBM samples from 20 patients who underwent surgery at our institute were extracted from the histopathological specimens and divided into two groups. A total of 10 samples from each type of GBM (World Health Organization grade IV, intratumoral hemorrhage-positive or -negative) were included in each group...
October 2016: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Evangeline E Fernandes, Anubha V Pulwale, Gauri A Patil, Alpana S Moghe
BACKGROUND: Molecules stimulating regeneration and proliferation of cells are of significance in combating ailments caused due to tissue injury, inflammation, and degenerative disorders. Moringa oleifera is one of the most valued food plants having the profile of important nutrients and impressive range of medicinal uses. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential of M. oleifera aqueous leaf and flower extracts to promote the proliferation of cells and explore their effect on cancer cell lines for assessment of safety...
October 2016: Pharmacognosy Research
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