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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331491/investigating-the-relationship-between-cardiac-interoception-and-autonomic-cardiac-control-using-a-predictive-coding-framework
#1
Andrew P Owens, Karl J Friston, David A Low, Christopher J Mathias, Hugo D Critchley
Predictive coding models, such as the 'free-energy principle' (FEP), have recently been discussed in relation to how interoceptive (afferent visceral feedback) signals update predictions about the state of the body, thereby driving autonomic mediation of homeostasis. This study appealed to 'interoceptive inference', under the FEP, to seek new insights into autonomic (dys)function and brain-body integration by examining the relationship between cardiac interoception and autonomic cardiac control in healthy controls and patients with forms of orthostatic intolerance (OI); to (i) seek empirical support for interoceptive inference and (ii) delineate if this relationship was sensitive to increased interoceptive prediction error in OI patients during head-up tilt (HUT)/symptom provocation...
January 9, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330594/coding-valence-in-touchscreen-interactions-hand-dominance-and-lateral-movement-influence-valence-appraisals-of-emotional-pictures
#2
Sergio Cervera Torres, Susana Ruiz Fernández, Martin Lachmair, Peter Gerjets
The Body-Specificity Hypothesis postulates that the space surrounding the dominant hand is perceived as positive due to the motor fluency of this hand, whereas the space surrounding the non-dominant hand is perceived as negative. Experimental studies based on this theoretical framework also revealed associations between affective valence and hand dominance (i.e., dominant hand-positive; non-dominant hand-negative), or lateral movements of the hands (i.e., right hand toward the right space-positive; left hand toward the left space-positive)...
January 12, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326336/arid5b-as-a-critical-downstream-target-of-the-tal1-complex-that-activates-the-oncogenic-transcriptional-program-and-promotes-t-cell-leukemogenesis
#3
Wei Zhong Leong, Shi Hao Tan, Phuong Cao Thi Ngoc, Stella Amanda, Alice Wei Yee Yam, Wei-Siang Liau, Zhiyuan Gong, Lee N Lawton, Daniel G Tenen, Takaomi Sanda
The oncogenic transcription factor TAL1/SCL induces an aberrant transcriptional program in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cells. However, the critical factors that are directly activated by TAL1 and contribute to T-ALL pathogenesis are largely unknown. Here, we identified AT-rich interactive domain 5B (ARID5B) as a collaborating oncogenic factor involved in the transcriptional program in T-ALL. ARID5B expression is down-regulated at the double-negative 2-4 stages in normal thymocytes, while it is induced by the TAL1 complex in human T-ALL cells...
January 11, 2018: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325572/modeling-the-relationship-between-women-s-perceptions-and-future-intention-to-use-institutional-maternity-care-in-the-western-highlands-of-guatemala
#4
Emily Peca, John Sandberg
BACKGROUND: Despite global gains, women in hard-to-reach areas are at a relatively higher risk of death and disability related to childbirth. Traditional methods of measuring satisfaction may mask negative experiences (such as disrespect and abuse) that can drive down demand for institutional care. Better measurement of women's perceptions of care quality, especially among marginalized populations with historically low utilization of institutional care, are needed to inform how to improve services and foster greater utilization of (potentially life-saving) clinical care...
January 11, 2018: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324451/aromatase-deficiency-due-to-a-homozygous-cyp19a1-mutation-in-a-46-xx-egyptian-patient-with-ambiguous-genitalia
#5
Inas Mazen, Ken McElreavey, Aya Elaidy, Alaa K Kamel, Mohamed S Abdel-Hamid
Aromatase deficiency (AD) is a very rare disorder resulting from mutations in the CYP19A1 gene encoding aromatase, a cytochrome P450 enzyme that plays a pivotal role in androgen conversion to estrogens. AD is inherited in an autosomal recessive trait, and to date only 35 cases have been described in the literature. Herein, we depict a new patient reared as a male, who presented at the age of 21 years with no palpable testis, hypoplastic scrotum, penis-like phallus (3 cm), and penoscrotal hypospadias. The patient was born to consanguineous parents, his karyotype was 46,XX, and SRY was negative...
January 12, 2018: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324247/mglu5-dependent-modulation-of-anxiety-during-early-withdrawal-from-binge-drinking-in-adult-and-adolescent-male-mice
#6
Kaziya M Lee, Michal A Coelho, MacKayla A Class, Karen K Szumlinski
Binge alcohol-drinking elicits symptoms of negative affect such as anxiety upon cessation, which is a source of negative reinforcement for perpetuating this pattern of alcohol abuse. Binge-induced anxiety during early (24 h) withdrawal is associated with increased expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) within the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) of adult male mice, but was unchanged in anxiety-resilient adolescents. Herein, we determined the role of mGlu5 signaling in withdrawal-induced anxiety via pharmacological manipulation using the mGlu5 negative allosteric modulator MTEP and the positive allosteric modulator CDPPB...
January 5, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317437/infant-feeding-practices-among-hiv-exposed-infants-less-than-6-months-of-age-in-bomet-county-kenya-an-in-depth-qualitative-study-of-feeding-choices
#7
Purity Chepkorir Lang'at, Irene Ogada, Audrey Steenbeek, Noni E MacDonald, Sophie Ochola, Wesley Bor, Godfrey Odinga
BACKGROUND: In children, HIV can be acquired from the mother during pregnancy, delivery and through breast milk. The WHO recommends exclusive breast feeding or exclusive replacement feeding for the first 6 months after birth for HIV-exposed infants. Barriers such as HIV-related stigma, inadequate resources, lack of access to safe water and negative cultural beliefs have been shown to influence infant feeding among HIV-exposed infants in some settings. In Kenya, there is limited literature on the barriers...
January 9, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314556/barriers-and-reinforcing-factors-to-self-management-behaviour-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients-a-qualitative-study
#8
M Chaleshgar-Kordasiabi, B Enjezab, M Akhlaghi, I Sabzmakan
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to explore the view of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients about the barriers and reinforcing factors in practising self-management behaviour (SMB). METHODS: This was a qualitative study based on directed content analysis of in-depth semi-structured interviews with 30 patients. The participants were selected using a purposeful sampling approach. The interviews continued until data saturation was reached. The study was conducted over 6 months in 2014-2015 at the Rheumatology Clinic of Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran...
January 5, 2018: Musculoskeletal Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306412/automated-and-simultaneous-determination-of-priority-substances-and-polychlorinated-biphenyls-in-wastewater-using-headspace-solid-phase-microextraction-and-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#9
Irene Domínguez, Francisco Javier Arrebola, Rafael Gavara, José Luis Martínez Vidal, Antonia Garrido Frenich
The re-use of wastewater has been in growing demand but a possible negative feature is the possibility of organic pollutants being present after its treatment. In order to control the presence of contaminants in wastewater, a completely automated methodology capable of determining a total of 55 organic pollutants including pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at ultra-trace levels has been developed. The proposed method is based on an on-line combination of headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography coupled to double-focusing magnetic sector high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS)...
March 9, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305827/influence-of-socioeconomic-and-psychological-factors-in-glycemic-control-in-young-children-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#10
Carlos Jefferson do Nascimento Andrade, Crésio de Aragão Dantas Alves
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of socioeconomic and psychological factors on glycemic control in young children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study assessing prepubertal children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The authors analyzed the socioeconomic status using the Brazil Economic Classification Criterion (Critério de Classificação Econômica Brasil [CCEB]) and psychological conditions through the Brazilian version of the Problem Areas in Diabetes, associated with glycemic control, measured by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c)...
January 3, 2018: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302219/individual-differences-in-the-neuropsychopathology-of-addiction
#11
Olivier George, George F Koob
Drug addiction or substance-use disorder is a chronically relapsing disorder that progresses through binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect and preoccupation/anticipation stages. These stages represent diverse neurobiological mechanisms that are differentially involved in the transition from recreational to compulsive drug use and from positive to negative reinforcement. The progression from recreational to compulsive substance use is associated with downregulation of the brain reward systems and upregulation of the brain stress systems...
September 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291505/the-effects-of-alcohol-on-heartbeat-perception-implications-for-anxiety
#12
Kenneth Abrams, Kate Cieslowski, Stacey Johnson, Sam Krimmel, Gabby Bierlein-De La Rosa, Kirstie Barton, Pombie Silverman
INTRODUCTION: It is well established that some individuals self-medicate their anxiety with alcohol. Though much evidence exists that alcohol consumption can be negatively reinforcing, there remains uncertainty regarding what mediates the relationship between alcohol and anxiety. An unexplored possibility is that, for some, alcohol impairs interoceptive sensitivity (the ability to accurately perceive one's physiological state), thereby decreasing state anxiety. Consistent with this, highly accurate heartbeat perception is a risk factor both for elevated trait anxiety and anxiety disorders...
December 20, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287208/diminishing-covariation-bias-in-women-with-a-negative-body-evaluation-and-the-potential-roles-of-outcome-aversiveness-and-interpretation-of-social-feedback
#13
Jessica M Alleva, Bobby G Stuijfzand, Carolien Martijn
Women with a more negative body evaluation perceive that their body is associated with more negative social feedback. This covariation bias could reinforce negative body evaluation. We investigated whether covariation bias could be diminished and explored the potential roles of outcome aversiveness and interpretation of negative social feedback associated with one's body. Ninety-seven undergraduate women completed a computer task wherein photos of their body, a control woman's body, and a neutral object were followed by negative social feedback or nothing...
December 26, 2017: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286112/upregulation-of-bag3-with-apoptotic-and-autophagic-activities-in-maggot-extract%C3%A2-promoted-rat-skin-wound-healing
#14
Jian-Li Dong, Hai-Cao Dong, Liang Yang, Zhe-Wen Qiu, Jia Liu, Hong Li, Li-Xia Zhong, Xue Song, Peng Zhang, Pei-Nan Li, Lian-Jie Zheng
Maggot extract (ME) accelerates rat skin wound healing, however its effect on cell maintenance in wound tissues remains unclear. B‑cell lymphoma (Bcl) 2‑associated athanogene (BAG)3 inhibits apoptosis and promotes autophagy by associating with Bcl‑2 or Beclin 1. Bcl‑2, the downstream effector of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling, is enhanced in ME‑treated wound tissues, which may reinforce the Bcl‑2 anti‑apoptotic activity and/or cooperate with Beclin 1 to regulate autophagy during wound healing...
December 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283984/stigmatization-of-mentally-ill-patients-through-media
#15
Dragan Babić, Romana Babić, Ivan Vasilj, Esmina Avdibegović
The stigmatization of mentally ill patients has negative labelling, marginalization and exclusion of people simply because they have a mental illness. Stigma has negative consequences for the individual and his family, as well as for psychiatry as a profession and the entire community. Stigma weakens the mentally ill, reinforcing a sense of alienation, which has negative consequences on the course of the illness. The media can inform the public about the treatment of mentally ill patients by conveying correct information, who can then act positively towards improving the quality of treatment...
December 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283602/personal-costs-and-benefits-of-employee-intrapreneurship-disentangling-the-employee-intrapreneurship-well-being-and-job-performance-relationship
#16
Jason C Gawke, Marjan J Gorgievski, Arnold B Bakker
Ample studies have confirmed the benefits of intrapreneurship (i.e., employee behaviors that contribute to new venture creation and strategic renewal activities) for firm performance, but research on the personal costs and benefits of engaging in intrapreneurial activities for employees is lacking. Building on job demands-resources and reinforcement sensitivity theories, we examined how employees' reinforcement sensitivity qualified the relationship among their intrapreneurial behavior, subjective well-being, and other-rated job performance...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282586/genetic-counsellors-and-private-practice-professional-turbulence-and-common-values
#17
Sarah Collis, Clara Gaff, Samantha Wake, Alison McEwen
Genetic counsellors face tensions between past and future identities: between established values and goals, and a broadening scope of settings and activities. This study examines the advent of genetic counsellors in private practice in Australia and New Zealand from the perspectives of the small numbers working in this sector and those who have only worked in public practice. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 genetic counsellors who had experience in private practice, and 14 genetic counsellors without private sector experience...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277046/the-effect-of-intravesical-instillations-with-hyaluronic-acid-on-sexual-dysfunction-in-women-with-recurrent-urinary-tract-infections-ruti
#18
Gemma Nightingale, Qasem Shehab, Chandrakumaran Kandiah, Lorraine Rush, Clare Rowe-Jones, Christian H Phillips
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether sexual dysfunction in women with recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) improved following treatment with intravesical Hyaluronic Acid (HA) instillations. STUDY DESIGN: Ethical approval was obtained for a prospective study to be performed. Patients referred for bladder instillations to treat RUTI, and who were sexually active, were recruited to the study. A selection of validated questionnaires (ICIQ-UI, ICIQ-VS, FSDS-R, ICIQ-FLUTS, O'Leary/Sant and PGI-I) were completed at baseline, three, six and 12 months after initiation of treatment with bladder instillations...
December 15, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277001/a-computational-approach-to-unraveling-tlr-signaling-in-murine-mammary-carcinoma
#19
Chun Wai Liew, Tiffany Phuong, Carli B Jones, Samantha Evans, Justin Hoot, Kendall Weedling, Damarcus Ingram, Stacy Nganga, Robert A Kurt
We developed an agent-based model to simulate a signaling cascade which allowed us to focus on the behavior of each class of agents independently of the other classes except when they were in physical contact. A critical piece was the ratio of the populations of agents that interact with one another, not their absolute values. This ratio reflects the effects of the density of each agent in the biological cascade as well as their size and velocity. Although the system can be used for any signaling cascade in any cell type, to validate the system we modeled Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling in two very different types of cells; tumor cells and white blood cells...
December 18, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276678/understanding-bicycling-in-cities-using-system-dynamics-modelling
#20
Alexandra Macmillan, James Woodcock
Background: Increasing urban bicycling has established net benefits for human and environmental health. Questions remain about which policies are needed and in what order, to achieve an increase in cycling while avoiding negative consequences. Novel ways of considering cycling policy are needed, bringing together expertise across policy, community and research to develop a shared understanding of the dynamically complex cycling system. In this paper we use a collaborative learning process to develop a dynamic causal model of urban cycling to develop consensus about the nature and order of policies needed in different cycling contexts to optimise outcomes...
December 2017: Journal of Transport & Health
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