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Negative reinforcement

Jeremy S Juern, David Milia, Panna Codner, Marshall Beckman, Lewis Somberg, Travis Webb, John A Weigelt
INTRODUCTION: Blunt pelvic fractures can be associated with major pelvic bleeding. The significance of contrast extravasation (CE) on computed tomography (CT) is debated. We sought to update our experience with CE on CT scan for the years 2009-2014 to determine the accuracy of CE in predicting the need for angioembolization. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of the trauma registry and our electronic medical record from a Level I trauma center. Patients seen from July 1, 2009 to September 7, 2014 with blunt pelvic fractures and contrast enhanced CT were included...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
August F Holtyn, Wendy Donlin Washington, Todd W Knealing, Conrad J Wong, Ken Kolodner, Kenneth Silverman
We sought to identify behavioral factors associated with response to an employment-based intervention, in which participants had to provide drug-free urine samples to gain access to paid employment. The present secondary analysis included data from a randomized clinical trial. The trial evaluated whether employment-based reinforcement could decrease cocaine use in community methadone patients. Participants (N=56) in the trial worked in a model workplace for 4 hr every weekday and earned about $10 per hr. After a 4-week baseline, participants were randomly assigned to an Abstinence & Work (n = 28) or Work Only (n = 28) condition and could work for an additional 26 weeks...
June 2016: Translational Issues in Psychological Science
Mariel S Bello, Raina D Pang, Gregory S Chasson, Lara A Ray, Adam M Leventhal
The association between obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptomatology and smoking is poorly understood, particularly in African Americans-a group subject to smoking- and OC-related health disparities. In a non-clinical sample of 253 African American smokers, we tested the negative reinforcement model of OC-smoking comorbidity, purporting that smokers with higher OC symptoms experience greater negative affect (NA) and urge to smoke for NA suppression upon acute tobacco abstinence. Following a baseline visit involving OC assessment, participants completed two counterbalanced experimental visits (non-abstinent vs...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Carlota Saldanha
Nitric oxide (NO) produced by endothelial cells interacts with erythrocyte through band 3 protein, being scavenged by haemoglobin. A signal transduction mechanism involving protein Gi and protein band 3 stimulates erythrocyte NO efflux when acetylcholine (ACh) binds to erythrocyte membrane acetylcholinesterase. Binding of normal plasma fibrinogen (Fib) levels, to erythrocyte membrane CD47 decreases the NO efflux. When high Fib concentration and ACh were present the efflux of NO from erythrocytes was normalized...
October 20, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Michelle E Roley-Roberts, Melissa J Zielinski, Gabriela Hurtado, Joseph D Hovey, Jon D Elhai
Research into factors for suicide has revealed relations between trauma exposure and suicidality (e.g., Bridge, Goldstein, & Brent, ; Joiner, Sachs-Ericson, Wingate, Brown, Anestis, & Selby, ) wherein painful and provocative experiences (e.g., nonsuicidal self-injury [NSSI]) are an important link (e.g., Van Orden, Witte, Cukrowicz, Braithwaite, Selby, & Joiner, ; Smith, ). No prior research has assessed the relationship between functions of NSSI and suicidality among childhood trauma survivors. Participants who endorsed childhood trauma exposure (N = 121; Mage  = 18...
October 21, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Matthew T Keough, Jeffrey D Wardell, Christian S Hendershot, R Michael Bagby, Lena C Quilty
Gray's Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) predicts that the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) may relate to coping-motivated problem gambling, given its central role in anxiety. Studies examining the BIS-problem gambling association, however, are mixed. The revised RST posits that the Behavioral Approach System (BAS) may moderate the effect of the BIS on coping-motivated problem gambling. A concurrently strong BAS may highlight the negatively reinforcing effects of gambling, which may strengthen coping motives and increase gambling-related harms...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Gambling Studies
Denise D Walker, Robert S Stephens, Claire E Blevins, Kelsey E Banes, Lauren Matthews, Roger A Roffman
OBJECTIVE: Brief interventions for adolescent marijuana users offered in schools reach users who would not otherwise present for treatment. The current study builds on previous trials of a school-based, 2-session motivational enhancement therapy (MET) intervention by adding periodic, brief motivational check-ins to reinforce gains and bolster motivation. METHOD: Adolescent participants were randomly assigned to a motivational check-in (MCI; n = 128) or assessment-only check-in (ACI; n = 124) comparison condition...
November 2016: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
Oscar Almarza, Katherine Valderrama, Manuel Ayala, Cristopher Segovia, Javier Santander
Piscirickettsia salmonis, a Gram-negative fastidious facultative intracellular pathogen, is the causative agent of the salmonid rickettsial septicemia (SRS). The P. salmonis iron acquisition mechanisms and its molecular regulation are unknown. Iron is an essential element for bacterial pathogenesis. Typically, genes that encode for the iron acquisition machinery are regulated by the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein. P. salmonis fur sequence database reveals a diversity of fur genes without functional verification...
March 2016: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
Paul L Plener, Marc Allroggen, Nestor D Kapusta, Elmar Brähler, Jörg M Fegert, Rebecca C Groschwitz
BACKGROUND: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a proposed new "condition for further study" in the DSM-5. To date no prevalence data has been available on this diagnostic entity from a representative sample of the general population. METHODS: A representative sample of the German population (N = 2509, mean age = 48.8 years, SD = 18.1, female 55.4 %) completed the NSSI section of the German version of the Self-Injurious Thoughts and Behaviors Interview (SITBI-G)...
October 19, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Diane M Orihel, David W Schindler, Nathaniel C Ballard, Lindsey R Wilson, Rolf D Vinebrooke
The effects of reducing nutrient inputs to lakes and reservoirs are often delayed by hysteresis resulting from internal phosphorus (P) loading from sediments. Consequently, controlling harmful algal blooms (HABs) in many eutrophic ecosystems requires additional management to improve water quality. We manipulated iron (Fe) concentrations in a hypereutrophic lake to determine if Fe amendment would suppress HABs by inhibiting P release from sediments. Our experiment consisted of 15 in situ mesocosms, 12 of which each received a different dose of Fe (ranging from 2 to 225 g/m(2) ); the remaining three were unmanipulated to serve as controls...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Yun Lin, Chao Wang, Jiaxing Wang, Zheng Dou
Cognitive radio sensor networks are one of the kinds of application where cognitive techniques can be adopted and have many potential applications, challenges and future research trends. According to the research surveys, dynamic spectrum access is an important and necessary technology for future cognitive sensor networks. Traditional methods of dynamic spectrum access are based on spectrum holes and they have some drawbacks, such as low accessibility and high interruptibility, which negatively affect the transmission performance of the sensor networks...
October 12, 2016: Sensors
Wolfgang Löscher, Michel Gillard, Zara A Sands, Rafal M Kaminski, Henrik Klitgaard
The synaptic vesicle glycoprotein SV2A belongs to the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) of transporters and is an integral constituent of synaptic vesicle membranes. SV2A has been demonstrated to be involved in vesicle trafficking and exocytosis, processes crucial for neurotransmission. The anti-seizure drug levetiracetam was the first ligand to target SV2A and displays a broad spectrum of anti-seizure activity in various preclinical models. Several lines of preclinical and clinical evidence, including genetics and protein expression changes, support an important role of SV2A in epilepsy pathophysiology...
October 17, 2016: CNS Drugs
David Mathar, Leonora Wilkinson, Anna K Holl, Jane Neumann, Lorenz Deserno, Arno Villringer, Marjan Jahanshahi, Annette Horstmann
Incidental learning of appropriate stimulus-response associations is crucial for optimal functioning within our complex environment. Positive and negative prediction errors (PEs) serve as neural teaching signals within distinct ('direct'/'indirect') dopaminergic pathways to update associations and optimize subsequent behavior. Using a computational reinforcement learning model, we assessed learning from positive and negative PEs on a probabilistic task (Weather Prediction Task - WPT) in three populations that allow different inferences on the role of dopamine (DA) signals: (1) Healthy volunteers that repeatedly underwent [(11)C]raclopride Positron Emission Tomography (PET), allowing for assessment of striatal DA release during learning, (2) Parkinson's disease (PD) patients tested both on and off L-DOPA medication, (3) early Huntington's disease (HD) patients, a disease that is associated with hyper-activation of the 'direct' pathway...
September 19, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Joanna Myriam Moussally, Tobias Brosch, Martial Van der Linden
Using a dot-probe discrimination task and a between-subjects design, we examined the time course of attentional biases (facilitated attention, delayed disengagement, and avoidance) toward thin versus fat bodies and explored the influence of body dissatisfaction (BD) on attention allocation among a sample of 163 women from the general population. Three stimulus presentation times were used: 100ms, 500ms, and 1500ms. We also used neutral body-shape-related stimuli as neutral stimuli related to the concept of interest to overcome the limitations of previous studies...
October 14, 2016: Body Image
Jonathan M Highsmith, Karl L Wuensch, Tuan Tran, Alexandra J Stephenson, D Erik Everhart
ERP studies commonly utilize gambling-based reinforcement tasks to elicit feedback negativity (FN) responses. This study used a pattern learning task in order to limit gambling-related fallacious reasoning and possible affective responses to gambling, while investigating relationships between the FN components between high and low reward expectation conditions. Eighteen undergraduates completed measures of reinforcement sensitivity, trait and state affect, and psychophysiological recording. The pattern learning task elicited a FN component for both high and low win expectancy conditions, which was found to be independent of reward expectation and showed little relationship with task and personality variables...
April 18, 2016: Brain Informatics
M Pereira, J Guerra, J Gonçalves, A Santana, C Nascimento, A G da Costa
Hyperacute rejection (HAR) is a rare event that can be prevented by crossmatch tests that detect anti-human leukocyte antigen antibodies against the donor. We present the case of a 43-year-old man who underwent a deceased-donor kidney transplantation with a negative complement-dependent cytotoxicity and a negative flow cytometry crossmatch. Luminex technology detected anti-DQ donor-specific antibodies (DSA) with a mean fluorescence intensity of 11,000. A single plasmapheresis session was carried out, followed by immunosuppression with immunoglobulin, antithymocyte globulin, tacrolimus, and methylprednisolone...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Mireia Jané, Mª José Vidal, Mar Maresma, Ana Martínez, Gloria Carmona, Ana Rodés, Nuria Torner, Josep Álvarez, Maria-Rosa Sala, Irene Barrabeig
The Ebola outbreak in Guinea Conakry was notified to the World Health Organization (WHO) in March 2014. It is the most complex Ebola outbreak to date, affecting Guinea Conakry as well as the surrounding countries and with a risk of the disease spreading outside Africa. For this reason, the World Health Organization declared this Ebola outbreak an international public health emergency in August 2014. The Public Health Agency of Catalonia, through the Spanish Alert and Emergencies Coordination Network, initiated public health actions in March 2014, developing a single protocol of action to be applied by all the health care providers in the whole Catalan territory, advice for travellers and voluntary workers arriving from affected countries and a weekly newsletter addressed to health professionals...
October 11, 2016: Gaceta Sanitaria
Pierluca Vitale, Noemi Arena, Fabrizio Di Gregorio, Umberto Arena
The study investigates the potential environmental impacts related to the end-of-life phase of a residential building, identified in a multifamily dwelling of three levels, constructed in the South of Italy by utilizing conventional materials and up-to-date procedures. An attributional life cycle assessment has been utilised to quantify the contributions of each stage of the end-of-life phase, with a particular attention to the management of the demolition waste. The investigation takes into account the selective demolition, preliminary sorting and collection of main components of the building, together with the processes of sorting, recycling and/or disposal of main fractions of the demolition waste...
October 11, 2016: Waste Management
Mihee Song, Yong Sang Jo, Yeon-Kyung Lee, June-Seek Choi
The lateral habenula (LHb) is an epithalamic brain structure that provides strong projections to midbrain monoaminergic systems that are involved in motivation, emotion, and reinforcement learning. LHb neurons are known to convey information about aversive outcomes and negative prediction errors, suggesting a role in learning from aversive events. To test this idea, we examined the effects of electrolytic lesions of the LHb on signaled two-way active avoidance learning in which rats were trained to avoid an unconditioned stimulus (US) by taking a proactive shuttling response to an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS)...
October 9, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
E Patitucci, A J D Nelson, Dominic M Dwyer, R C Honey
Laboratory rats can exhibit marked, qualitative individual differences in the form of acquired behaviors. For example, when exposed to a signal-reinforcer relationship some rats show marked and consistent changes in sign-tracking (interacting with the signal; e.g., a lever) and others show marked and consistent changes in goal-tracking (interacting with the location of the predicted reinforcer; e.g., the food well). Here, stable individual differences in rats' sign-tracking and goal-tracking emerged over the course of training, but these differences did not generalize across different signal-reinforcer relationships (Experiment 1)...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
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