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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142057/morphofunctional-experience-dependent-plasticity-in-the-honeybee-brain
#1
Mara Andrione, Benjamin F Timberlake, Giorgio Vallortigara, Renzo Antolini, Albrecht Haase
Repeated or prolonged exposure to an odorant without any positive or negative reinforcement produces experience-dependent plasticity, which results in habituation and latent inhibition. In the honeybee (Apis mellifera), it has been demonstrated that, even if the absolute neural representation of an odor in the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL), is not changed by repeated presentations, its relative representation with respect to unfamiliar stimuli is modified. In particular, the representation of a stimulus composed of a 50:50 mixture of a familiar and a novel odorant becomes more similar to that of the novel stimulus after repeated stimulus preexposure...
December 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141212/a-central-amygdala-substantia-innominata-neural-circuitry-encodes-aversive-reinforcement-signals
#2
Yuting Cui, Guanghui Lv, Sen Jin, Jie Peng, Jing Yuan, Xiaobin He, Hui Gong, Fuqiang Xu, Tonghui Xu, Haohong Li
Aversive stimuli can impact motivation and support associative learning as reinforcers. However, the neural circuitry underlying the processing of aversive reinforcers has not been elucidated. Here, we report that a subpopulation of central amygdala (CeA) GABAergic neurons expressing protein kinase C-delta (PKC-δ+) displays robust responses to aversive stimuli during negative reinforcement learning. Importantly, projections from PKC-δ+ neurons of the CeA to the substantia innominata (SI) could bi-directionally modulate negative reinforcement learning...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138900/-intergenerational-mobility-and-health-inequalities-in-east-and-west-germany-a-trend-analysis-from-1992-to-2012
#3
Sebastian Günther, Irene Moor, Anja Knöchelmann, Matthias Richter
BACKGROUND: Social mobility processes, i. e. the movement of a person from one social position to another, are central mechanisms for explaining health inequalities. Social differences in health status or behaviour may also change with changes in social status. This article examines the importance of intergenerational mobility, i. e. the rise and fall of social status in relation to parental social position, for subjective health in East and West Germany and whether this relationship has changed over 20 years...
November 14, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137796/construction-of-proton-exchange-membranes-under-ultrasonic-irradiation-based-on-novel-fluorine-functionalizing-sulfonated-polybenzimidazole-cellulose-silica-bionanocomposite
#4
Sheida Esmaielzadeh, Hashem Ahmadizadegan
Novel sulfonated polybenzimidazole (s-PBI)/cellulose/silica bionanocomposite membranes were prepared from fluorine-containing s-PBI copolymer with a cellulose/silica precursor and a bonding agent. The introduction of the bonding agent results in the reinforcing interfacial interaction between s-PBI chains and the cellulose/silica nanoparticles. Commercially available silica nanoparticles were modified with biodegradable nanocellolose through ultrasonic irradiation technique. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses showed that the cellulose/silica composites were well dispersed in the s-PBI matrix on a nanometer scale...
March 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137571/genotoxic-evaluation-of-common-commercial-pesticides-in-human-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes
#5
Cynthia Paz-Trejo, Sandra Gómez-Arroyo
This study aims to evaluate the genotoxic potential of four commercial pesticides with diverse health categorizations by different world associations currently in use. We tested the fungicide mancozeb and the insecticides pirimicarb, monocrotophos and permethrin. The research was done with in vitro human peripheral blood lymphocytes using the DNA single gel electrophoresis assay and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (MN) test, where we analysed common parameters such as the tail moment and the frequency of MN formation...
January 1, 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134399/influence-of-soil-pathogens-on-early-regeneration-success-of-tropical-trees-varies-between-forest-edge-and-interior
#6
Meghna Krishnadas, Liza S Comita
Soil fungi are key mediators of negative density-dependent mortality in seeds and seedlings, and the ability to withstand pathogens in the shaded understory of closed-canopy forests could reinforce light gradient partitioning by tree species. For four species of tropical rainforest trees-two shade-tolerant and two shade-intolerant-we conducted a field experiment to examine the interactive effects of fungal pathogens, light, and seed density on germination and early seedling establishment. In a fully factorial design, seeds were sown into 1 m(2) plots containing soil collected from underneath conspecific adult trees, with plots assigned to forest edge (high light) or shaded understory, high or low density, and fungicide or no fungicide application...
November 13, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129473/dominant-negative-loss-of-function-arises-from-a-second-more-frequent-variant-within-the-sand-domain-of-autoimmune-regulator-aire
#7
Jordan K Abbott, Yu-San Huoh, Paul R Reynolds, Liping Yu, Marian Rewers, Monica Reddy, Mark S Anderson, Sun Hur, Erwin W Gelfand
A genetic variant in the SAND domain of autoimmune regulator (AIRE), R247C, was identified in a patient with type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and his mother with rheumatoid arthritis. In vitro, the variant dominantly inhibited AIRE; however, typical features of Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy Candidiasis and Ectodermal Dysplasia (APECED) were not seen in the subjects. Rather, early manifestation of autoimmunity appeared to be dependent on additional genetic factors. On a population level, diverse variants were identified in this region...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121794/what-factors-explain-bicycling-and-walking-for-commuting-by-elsa-brasil-participants
#8
Sheila Maria Alvim de Matos, Francisco José Gondim Pitanga, Maria da Conceição C Almeida, Ciro Oliveira Queiroz, Clarice Alves Dos Santos, Rogerio Tosta de Almeida, Ianne Tayrine Martins da Silva, Rosane Harter Griep, Leila Denise Alves Ferreira Amorim, Ana Luísa Patrão, Estela M L Aquino
PURPOSE: To analyze the factors associated with commuting by bicycling and walking in adult participants from ELSA-Brasil (Longitudinal Study of Adult Health). DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Six teaching/research institutions throughout Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 15 105 civil servants. MEASURES: Commuting by bicycling and walking was analyzed using the long-form International Physical Activity Questionnaire...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120398/bamboo-polylactic-acid-pla-composite-material-for-structural-applications
#9
Angel Pozo Morales, Alfredo Güemes, Antonio Fernandez-Lopez, Veronica Carcelen Valero, Sonia De La Rosa Llano
Developing an eco-friendly industry based on green materials, sustainable technologies, and optimum processes with low environmental impact is a general societal goal, but this remains a considerable challenge to achieve. Despite the large number of research on green structural composites, limited investigation into the most appropriate manufacturing methodology to develop a structural material at industrial level has taken place. Laboratory panels have been manufactured with different natural fibers but the methodologies and values obtained could not be extrapolated at industrial level...
November 9, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120215/about-bouts-a-heterogeneous-tandem-schedule-of-reinforcement-reveals-dissociable-components-of-operant-behavior-in-fischer-rats
#10
Carter W Daniels, Federico Sanabria
According to the biexponential refractory model (BERM) of variable-interval (VI) performance, operant behavior is organized in bouts, described by 3 dissociable components: between-bout interresponse times (IRTs), within-bout IRTs, and bout lengths. Research has shown that between-bout IRTs are sensitive to changes in rate of reinforcement and reinforcer efficacy, the length of some bouts is selectively sensitive to changes in response-reinforcer contingencies, and within-bout IRTs are relatively insensitive to both manipulations...
July 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111454/the-application-of-reward-learning-in-the-real-world-changes-in-the-reward-positivity-amplitude-reflect-learning-in-a-medical-education-context
#11
Chad C Williams, Kent G Hecker, Michael K Paget, Sylvain P Coderre, Kelly W Burak, Bruce Wright, Olave E Krigolson
Evidence ranging from behavioural adaptations to neurocognitive theories has made significant advances into our understanding of feedback-based learning. For instance, over the past twenty years research using electroencephalography has demonstrated that the amplitude of a component of the human event-related brain potential - the reward positivity - appears to change with learning in a manner predicted by reinforcement learning theory (Holroyd and Coles, 2002; Sutton and Barto, 1998). However, while the reward positivity (also known as the feedback related negativity) is well studied, whether the component reflects an underlying learning process or whether it is simply sensitive to feedback evaluation is still unclear...
October 27, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109672/towards-a-developmentally-integrative-model-of-personality-change-a-focus-on-three-potential-mechanisms
#12
Elizabeth N Riley, Sarah J Peterson, Gregory T Smith
While the overall stability of personality across the lifespan has been well-documented, one does see incremental changes in a number of personality traits, changes that may impact overall life trajectories in both positive and negative ways. In this chapter, we present a new, developmentally-oriented and integrative model of the factors that might lead to personality change, drawing from the theoretical and empirical work of prior models (e.g. Caspi & Roberts, 2001; Roberts et al., 2005) as well as from our own longitudinal studies of personality change and risky behavior engagement in children, adolescents, and young adults (Boyle et al...
2017: Advances in Psychology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108592/partisan-strength-political-trust-and-generalized-trust-in-the-united-states-an-analysis-of-the-general-social-survey-1972-2014
#13
Marc Hooghe, Jennifer Oser
The literature on political parties suggests that strong partisan identities are associated with citizens' effective interaction with the political system, and with higher levels of political trust. Traditionally, party identity therefore is seen as a mechanism that allows for political integration. Simultaneously, however, political parties have gained recent attention for their role in promoting societal polarization by reinforcing competing and even antagonistic group identities. This article uses General Social Survey data from 1972 - 2014 to investigate the relationship between partisan strength and both political and generalized trust...
November 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107134/restoration-of-severely-damaged-endodontically-treated-premolars-the-influence-of-the-endo-core-length-on-marginal-integrity-and-fatigue-resistance-of-lithium-disilicate-cad-cam-ceramic-endocrowns
#14
G T Rocca, R Daher, C M Saratti, R Sedlacek, T Suchy, A J Feilzer, I Krejci
OBJECTIVES: to explore fatigue limits of ceramic endocrowns for premolars. METHODS: Forty-eight devitalized premolars were cut at the CEJ. They were restored with standardized CAD-CAM lithium disilicate reinforced ceramic restorations (IPS e.max CAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent) and divided into four Groups (n=12): overlays (Group A, no endo-core, negative control), endocrowns with an endo-core of 2mm (Group B), 4mm (GroupC) and crowns with post and core (Group D, positive control)...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103933/optogenetic-blockade-of-dopamine-transients-prevents-learning-induced-by-changes-in-reward-features
#15
Chun Yun Chang, Matthew Gardner, Maria Gonzalez Di Tillio, Geoffrey Schoenbaum
Prediction errors are critical for associative learning [1, 2]. Transient changes in dopamine neuron activity correlate with positive and negative reward prediction errors and can mimic their effects [3-15]. However, although causal studies show that dopamine transients of 1-2 s are sufficient to drive learning about reward, these studies do not address whether they are necessary (but see [11]). Further, the precise nature of this signal is not yet fully established. Although it has been equated with the cached-value error signal proposed to support model-free reinforcement learning, cached-value errors are typically confounded with errors in the prediction of reward features [16]...
October 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102792/physical-and-mechanical-properties-of-hybrid-montmorillonite-zinc-oxide-reinforced-carboxymethyl-cellulose-nanocomposites
#16
Younes Zahedi, Bahram Fathi-Achachlouei, Ali Reza Yousefi
In this research, a novel carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-based nanocomposite films containing sodium montmorillonite (MMT) (5% wt) and zinc oxide (ZnO) (1, 2, 3 and 4% wt) nanoparticles (NPs) were fabricated via casting method. The results revealed that addition of NPs decreased water vapor permeability of the films by about 53%, while moisture content, density and glass transition temperature increased. The nanomaterials enhanced resistance of the nanocomposites against tensile stress at the expense of elongation at break...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101446/analyzing-the-presentation-and-the-stigma-of-schizophrenia-in-french-newspapers
#17
Dimitrios Lampropoulos, Angelika Wolman, Thémis Apostolidis
PURPOSE: It has been suggested that the stigmatizing presentation of people with schizophrenia by newspapers is an example of structural stigma. In this study, we explore how French newspapers contribute to the stigma of people with schizophrenia. METHODS: All the articles of eight major newspapers (four national and four regional) that include the term schizophr* and that were published in 2015 were therefore analyzed using a coding scheme that we developed inductively...
November 3, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097257/a-randomized-13-week-study-assessing-the-efficacy-and-metabolic-effects-of-paliperidone-palmitate-injection-and-olanzapine-in-first-episode-schizophrenia-patients
#18
Manli Huang, Liang Yu, Fen Pan, Shaojia Lu, Shaohua Hu, Jianbo Hu, Jinkai Chen, Pingbo Jin, Hongli Qi, Yi Xu
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and metabolic effects of paliperidone palmitate (PP) injections against oral olanzapine in first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients. METHODS: Eligible patients were randomized to receive PP or olanzapine. Efficacy assessments and weight-related parameters were assessed at baseline, weeks 1, 5, 9, and endpoint or at early withdrawal. Lipid, glucose, insulin and prolactin were evaluated at baseline and endpoint or at early withdrawal...
October 31, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082424/depressive-statements-prime-goal-directed-alcohol-seeking-in-individuals-who-report-drinking-to-cope-with-negative-affect
#19
Lee Hogarth, Lorna Hardy
BACKGROUND: Most variants of negative reinforcement theory predict that acute depressed mood can promote alcohol-seeking behaviour, but the precise mechanisms underpinning this effect remain contested. One possibility is that mood-induced alcohol-seeking is due to the formation of a stimulus-response (S-R) association, enabling depressed mood to elicit alcohol-seeking automatically. A second possibility is that depressed mood undergoes incentive learning, enabling it to enhance the expected value of alcohol and thus promote goal-directed alcohol-seeking...
October 29, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080475/an-electrophysiological-investigation-of-reinforcement-effects-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-dissociating-cue-sensitivity-from-down-stream-effects-on-target-engagement-and-performance
#20
Georgia Chronaki, Fruzsina Soltesz, Nicholas Benikos, Edmund J S Sonuga-Barke
OBJECTIVE: Neural hypo-sensitivity to cues predicting positive reinforcement has been observed in ADHD using the Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task. Here we report the first study using an electrophysiological analogue of this task to distinguish between (i) cue related anticipation of reinforcement and downstream effects on (ii) target engagement and (iii) performance in a clinical sample of adolescents with ADHD and controls. METHODS: Thirty-one controls and 32 adolescents with ADHD aged 10-16 years performed the electrophysiological (e)-MID task - in which preparatory cues signal whether a response to an upcoming target will be reinforced or not - under three conditions; positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement (response cost) and no consequence (neutral)...
October 18, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
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