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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818835/src-dependent-phosphorylation-of-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-at-tyr-336-modulates-opiate-withdrawal
#1
Lei Zhang, Cherkaouia Kibaly, Yu-Jun Wang, Chi Xu, Kyu Young Song, Patrick W McGarrah, Horace H Loh, Jing-Gen Liu, Ping-Yee Law
Opiate withdrawal/negative reinforcement has been implicated as one of the mechanisms for the progression from impulsive to compulsive drug use. Increase in the intracellular cAMP level and protein kinase A (PKA) activities within the neurocircuitry of addiction has been a leading hypothesis for opiate addiction. This increase requires the phosphorylation of μ-opioid receptor (MOR) at Tyr(336) by Src after prolonged opiate treatment in vitro Here, we report that the Src-mediated MOR phosphorylation at Tyr(336) is a prerequisite for opiate withdrawal in mice...
August 17, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816240/rodent-mismatch-negativity-mmn-theta-neuro-oscillatory-response-as-a-translational-neurophysiological-biomarker-for-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-based-new-treatment-development-in-schizophrenia
#2
Migyung Lee, Andrea Balla, Henry Sershen, Pejman Sehatpour, Peter Lakatos, Daniel C Javitt
Deficits in the generation of auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) generation are among the most widely replicated neurophysiological abnormalities in schizophrenia and linked to underlying dysfunction of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated neurotransmission. Here, we evaluate physiological properties of rodent MMN, along with sensitivity to NMDAR agonist and antagonist treatment, relative to known patterns of dysfunction in schizophrenia. Epidural neurophysiological responses to frequency- and duration-deviants, along with responses to standard stimuli, were obtained at baseline and following 2 and 4 weeks treatment from rats treated with saline, phencyclidine (PCP, 15 mg/kg/d by osmotic minipump), or PCP+glycine (16% by weight diet) interventions...
August 17, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813174/depressive-symptoms-and-drinking-outcomes-the-mediating-role-of-drinking-motives-and-protective-behavioral-strategies-among-college-students
#3
Margo C Villarosa, Mary Anne Messer, Michael B Madson, Virgil Zeigler-Hill
BACKGROUND: College students with depressive symptoms tend to engage in more hazardous drinking and experience more alcohol-related consequences to cope with their symptoms. Given the perceived tension reducing effects of alcohol among these students, it is important to explore how protective factors, such as protective behavioral strategies, account for the relationships among depressive symptoms, drinking motives, and alcohol-related outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To examine the mediating role of drinking motives and protective behavioral strategies on the associations that depressive symptoms have with typical weekly alcohol consumption, hazardous drinking, and alcohol-related negative consequences in a sample of college student drinkers...
August 16, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808873/elevated-hu-antigen-receptor-hur-expression-is-associated-with-tumor-aggressiveness-and-poor-prognosis-but-not-with-cox-2-expression-in-invasive-breast-carcinoma-patients
#4
Constantinos Giaginis, Anastasia Sampani, Iolly Kotta-Loizou, Ioanna Giannopoulou, Eugene Danas, Ekaterini Politi, Gerasimos Tsourouflis, Gregorios Kouraklis, Efstratios Patsouris, Antonios Keramopoulos, Lydia Nakopoulou, Stamatios Theocharis
Hu-antigen R (HuR), a RNA-binding protein, is considered to play a crucial role in tumor development and progression by stabilizing or regulating a group of cellular mRNAs of cancer-related genes, such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of HuR and COX-2 expression in invasive breast carcinoma. HuR and COX-2 protein expression was assessed immunohistochemically on paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissue sections obtained from 121 patients and was statistically analyzed with clinicopathological parameters, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), as well as with tumor cells' proliferative capacity and overall and disease-free patients' survival...
August 14, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806614/altered-interaction-with-environmental-reinforcers-in-major-depressive-disorder-relationship-to-anhedonia
#5
Joanna E Szczepanik, Maura L Furey, Allison C Nugent, Ioline D Henter, Carlos A Zarate, Carl W Lejuez
Anhedonia-defined as loss of interest or pleasure-is one of two core symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD). Anhedonia may involve decreased enjoyment of potentially rewarding activities and decreased motivation to engage in such activities. Increased engagement with reinforcers-activities with the potential to be positive experiences-is a frequent target of cognitive-behavioral therapies. Nevertheless, how environmental reinforcers are perceived, and how decisions to approach or avoid them are made by individuals with MDD, is largely unknown...
August 3, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800597/confirmation-bias-in-human-reinforcement-learning-evidence-from-counterfactual-feedback-processing
#6
Stefano Palminteri, Germain Lefebvre, Emma J Kilford, Sarah-Jayne Blakemore
Previous studies suggest that factual learning, that is, learning from obtained outcomes, is biased, such that participants preferentially take into account positive, as compared to negative, prediction errors. However, whether or not the prediction error valence also affects counterfactual learning, that is, learning from forgone outcomes, is unknown. To address this question, we analysed the performance of two groups of participants on reinforcement learning tasks using a computational model that was adapted to test if prediction error valence influences learning...
August 11, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796202/the-complete-connectome-of-a-learning-and-memory-centre-in-an-insect-brain
#7
Katharina Eichler, Feng Li, Ashok Litwin-Kumar, Youngser Park, Ingrid Andrade, Casey M Schneider-Mizell, Timo Saumweber, Annina Huser, Claire Eschbach, Bertram Gerber, Richard D Fetter, James W Truman, Carey E Priebe, L F Abbott, Andreas S Thum, Marta Zlatic, Albert Cardona
Associating stimuli with positive or negative reinforcement is essential for survival, but a complete wiring diagram of a higher-order circuit supporting associative memory has not been previously available. Here we reconstruct one such circuit at synaptic resolution, the Drosophila larval mushroom body. We find that most Kenyon cells integrate random combinations of inputs but that a subset receives stereotyped inputs from single projection neurons. This organization maximizes performance of a model output neuron on a stimulus discrimination task...
August 9, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791176/ant-queens-increase-their-reproductive-efforts-after-pathogen-infection
#8
Julia Giehr, Anna V Grasse, Sylvia Cremer, Jürgen Heinze, Alexandra Schrempf
Infections with potentially lethal pathogens may negatively affect an individual's lifespan and decrease its reproductive value. The terminal investment hypothesis predicts that individuals faced with a reduced survival should invest more into reproduction instead of maintenance and growth. Several studies suggest that individuals are indeed able to estimate their body condition and to increase their reproductive effort with approaching death, while other studies gave ambiguous results. We investigate whether queens of a perennial social insect (ant) are able to boost their reproduction following infection with an obligate killing pathogen...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782806/pervasive-interactions-between-foliar-microbes-and-soil-nutrients-mediate-leaf-production-and-herbivore-damage-in-a-tropical-forest
#9
Eric A Griffin, S Joseph Wright, Peter J Morin, Walter P Carson
Producing and retaining leaves underlie the performance and survivorship of seedlings in deeply shaded tropical forests. These habitats are characterized by conditions ideal for foliar bacteria, which can be potent plant pathogens. Leaf production, retention and susceptibility to enemies may ultimately depend upon interactions among soil nutrients and foliar microbes, yet this has never been tested. We experimentally evaluated the degree that foliar bacteria and soil resource supply mediate leaf dynamics for five common tree species (five different families) in a Panamanian forest...
August 7, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780356/then-and-now-consumption-and-dependence-in-e-cigarette-users-who-formerly-smoked-cigarettes
#10
Matthew Browne, Daniel G Todd
Electronic cigarette use, or vaping, continues to be a focus for regulators and policy makers in public health, particularly since it can compete with or be a substitute for smoking. This study investigated characteristics of nicotine dependence and consumption in a sample of vapers who formerly smoked cigarettes. We recruited 436 (80% male) vapers from several internet discussion forums; 95% of whom previously smoked, but ceased after commencing vaping. These participants completed a retrospective version of the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND-R), as well as a version modified to suit current vaping (FTND-V), along with measures of consumption...
July 28, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780245/prevalence-and-virulence-gene-profiling-of-enteroaggregative-escherichia-coli-in-malnourished-and-nourished-brazilian-children
#11
Alexandre Havt, Ila Fn Lima, Pedro Hqs Medeiros, Marco Af Clementino, Ana Ks Santos, Marília Smg Amaral, Herlice N Veras, Mara Mg Prata, Noélia L Lima, Alessandra Di Moura, Álvaro M Leite, Alberto M Soares, José Q Filho, Eric R Houpt, James P Nataro, Richard L Guerrant, Aldo Am Lima
The impact of enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) infection on childhood malnutrition and inflammation has been suggested, regardless of diarrhea. We investigated whether EAEC and its virulence-related genes (VRGs) are associated with malnutrition in a case-control study. Children aged 6-24 months from Brazil were enrolled as malnourished if weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ) ≤ -2 and nourished if WAZ > -1. Stools were cultured and examined for E. coli. DNA was extracted from fecal isolates and tested for EAEC by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
July 4, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777821/anatomy-and-behavioral-function-of-serotonin-receptors-in-drosophila-melanogaster-larvae
#12
Annina Huser, Melanie Eschment, Nazli Güllü, Katharina A N Collins, Kathrin Böpple, Lyubov Pankevych, Emilia Rolsing, Andreas S Thum
The biogenic amine serotonin (5-HT) is an important neuroactive molecule in the central nervous system of the majority of animal phyla. 5-HT binds to specific G protein-coupled and ligand-gated ion receptors to regulate particular aspects of animal behavior. In Drosophila, as in many other insects this includes the regulation of locomotion and feeding. Due to its genetic amenability and neuronal simplicity the Drosophila larva has turned into a useful model for studying the anatomical and molecular basis of chemosensory behaviors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775269/hipp-neurons-in-the-dentate-gyrus-mediate-the-cholinergic-modulation-of-background-context-memory-salience
#13
Syed Ahsan Raza, Anne Albrecht, Gürsel Çalışkan, Bettina Müller, Yunus Emre Demiray, Susann Ludewig, Susanne Meis, Nicolai Faber, Roland Hartig, Burkhart Schraven, Volkmar Lessmann, Herbert Schwegler, Oliver Stork
Cholinergic neuromodulation in the hippocampus controls the salience of background context memory acquired in the presence of elemental stimuli predicting an aversive reinforcement. With pharmacogenetic inhibition we here demonstrate that hilar perforant path-associated (HIPP) cells of the dentate gyrus mediate the devaluation of background context memory during Pavlovian fear conditioning. The salience adjustment is sensitive to reduction of hilar neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression via dominant negative CREB expression in HIPP cells and to acute blockage of NPY-Y1 receptors in the dentate gyrus during conditioning...
August 4, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772756/the-brittleness-and-chemical-stability-of-optimized-geopolymer-composites
#14
Michaela Steinerova, Lenka Matulova, Pavel Vermach, Jindrich Kotas
Geopolymers are known as high strength and durable construction materials but have a brittle fracture. In practice, this results in a sudden collapse at ultimate load, without any chance of preventing the breakdown of parts or of withstanding the stress for some time. Glass fiber usage as a total anisotropic shape acting as a compact structure component should hinder the fracture mechanism. The optimized compositions in this study led to a significant reinforcement, especially in the case of flexural strength, but also in terms of the compressive strength and notch toughness...
April 9, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772442/bioactive-glass-fiber-reinforced-pgs-matrix-composites-for-cartilage-regeneration
#15
Marina Trevelin Souza, Samira Tansaz, Edgar Dutra Zanotto, Aldo R Boccaccini
Poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) is an elastomeric polymer which is attracting increasing interest for biomedical applications, including cartilage regeneration. However, its limited mechanical properties and possible negative effects of its degradation byproducts restrict PGS for in vivo application. In this study, a novel PGS-bioactive glass fiber (F18)-reinforced composite was developed and characterized. PGS-based reinforced scaffolds were fabricated via salt leaching and characterized regarding their mechanical properties, degradation, and bioactivity in contact with simulated body fluid...
January 20, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771982/original-article-platelet-rich-plasma-with-microneedling-in-androgenetic-alopecia-along-with-dermoscopic-pre-and-post-treatment-evaluation
#16
Abhijeet Kumar Jha, Uday Kumar Udayan, Prasoon Kumar Roy, Amar Kant Jha Amar, R K P Chaudhary
BACKGROUND: Platelet-rich plasma has shown beneficial effects in the treatment of androgenic alopecia with its growth factor properties in accelerating the dermal papilla. Dermoscopy is a noninvasive method that allows the in vivo evaluation of microstructures not visible to the naked eye. OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the role of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) with microneedling, and to compare the pre- and post-treatment dermoscopic features in androgenetic alopecia. (AGA)...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771377/the-missing-thread-how-fiction-cheats-mental-health-nursing
#17
Henry J Bladon
Mental health nursing occupies an important place in mental health care, and nurses perform valuable work, yet fiction writers tend to rely on outdated imagery to portray the profession. This imagery reinforces negative stereotypes of mental health nursing. This article examines the problem and explores the implications for the profession, particularly in relation to stigma and public confidence. It outlines a significant gap in narrative literature, specifically in relation to the therapeutic relationship, and asks what can be done to encourage more realistic portrayals of the role...
August 3, 2017: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770683/plasma-testosterone-levels-increase-with-expression-of-male-ornaments-during-mating-but-not-incubation-in-japanese-barn-swallows
#18
Masaru Hasegawa, Emi Arai, Megumi Sato, Hidetsugu Sakai
Recent experimental studies involving the manipulation of sexual traits have demonstrated that sexual trait expression feeds back to testosterone levels, perhaps via social interactions, reinforcing the linkage between sexual trait expression and testosterone levels during the mating period. However, information on this reinforcement under the natural variation of sexual traits remains limited. Using Japanese barn swallows, Hirundo rustica gutturalis, in which extra-pair paternity is quite rare (< 3%), we studied the relationship between plasma testosterone level and a male sexual trait, throat patch size, during the mating and incubation periods...
August 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767472/intrathecal-migration-of-an-epidural-catheter-while-using-a-programmed-intermittent-epidural-bolus-technique-for-labor-analgesia-maintenance-a-case-report
#19
Francesca Betti, Brendan Carvalho, Edward T Riley
We describe a case of intrathecal migration of a wire-reinforced epidural catheter in a parturient who received epidural labor analgesia. Epidural analgesia was initiated with a combined-spinal epidural technique and maintained by programmed intermittent epidural boluses. Epidural catheter aspiration after insertion was negative for cerebrospinal fluid. The patient's response to the first four doses of local anesthetic was consistent with epidural drug delivery. After the fifth dose, she developed a complete lower extremity motor block, hypotension, and high sensory blockade...
August 1, 2017: A & A Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767331/unraveling-the-role-of-loneliness-in-depression-the-relationship-between-daily-life-experience-and-behavior
#20
Mark van Winkel, Marieke Wichers, Dina Collip, Nele Jacobs, Catherine Derom, Evert Thiery, Inez Myin-Germeys, Frenk Peeters
OBJECTIVE: Focusing on temporal associations between momentary (or state) loneliness, appraisal of social company, and being alone in daily life may help elucidate mechanisms that contribute to the development of prolonged (or trait) loneliness and major depressive disorder (MDD). We aim to examine if (a) a self-reinforcing loop between loneliness, negative appraisals of social company, and being alone in daily life may contribute to trait loneliness; (b) this possible self-reinforcing loop may also contribute to the development of MDD, by testing differences in temporal relationships between these social elements in participants who did or did not develop MDD during follow-up; and (c) any of these social elements at baseline predicted a MDD at follow-up...
2017: Psychiatry
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