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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777827/is-reward-prediction-error-encoding-reliable-during-development
#1
Hanna Keren, Gang Chen, Brenda Benson, Monique Ernst, Ellen Leibenluft, Nathan A Fox, Daniel S Pine, Argyris Stringaris
Reward Prediction Errors (RPEs), defined as the difference between the expected and received outcomes, are integral to reinforcement learning models and play an important role in development and psychopathology. In humans, RPE encoding can be estimated using fMRI recordings, however, a basic measurement property of RPE signals, their test-retest reliability across different time scales, remains an open question. In this paper, we examine the 3-month and 3-year reliability of RPE encoding in youth (mean age at baseline = 10...
May 16, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777289/tobacco-smoking-may-delay-habituation-of-reinforcer-effectiveness-in-humans
#2
Joshua L Karelitz, Kenneth A Perkins
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of nonconsummatory reinforcers habituate, as their ability to maintain reinforced responding declines over repeated presentations. Preclinical research has shown that nicotine can delay habituation of reinforcer effectiveness, but this effect has not been directly demonstrated in humans. OBJECTIVE: In preliminary translational research, we assessed effects of nicotine from tobacco smoking (vs. a no smoking control) on within-session patterns of responding for a brief visual reinforcer...
May 18, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771674/multisource-transfer-double-dqn-based-on-actor-learning
#3
Jie Pan, Xuesong Wang, Yuhu Cheng, Qiang Yu
Deep reinforcement learning (RL) comprehensively uses the psychological mechanisms of "trial and error" and "reward and punishment" in RL as well as powerful feature expression and nonlinear mapping in deep learning. Currently, it plays an essential role in the fields of artificial intelligence and machine learning. Since an RL agent needs to constantly interact with its surroundings, the deep Q network (DQN) is inevitably faced with the need to learn numerous network parameters, which results in low learning efficiency...
June 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771563/induced-sadness-increases-persistence-in-a-simulated-slot-machine-task-among-recreational-gamblers
#4
Gaëtan Devos, Luke Clark, Pierre Maurage, Joël Billieux
Gambling may constitute a strategy for coping with depressive mood, but a direct influence of depressive mood on gambling behaviors has never been tested via realistic experimental designs in gamblers. The current study tested whether experimentally induced sadness increases persistence on a simulated slot machine task using real monetary reinforcement in recreational gamblers. Sixty participants were randomly assigned to an experimental (sadness induction) or control (no emotional induction) condition, and then performed a slot machine task consisting of a mandatory phase followed by a persistence phase...
May 2018: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771561/mood-selectively-moderates-the-implicit-alcohol-association-drinking-relation-in-college-student-heavy-episodic-drinkers
#5
Kristen P Lindgren, Jason J Ramirez, Reinout W Wiers, Bethany A Teachman, Jeanette Norris, Cecilia C Olin, Melissa L Gasser, Debra Kaysen, Clayton Neighbors
Multiple studies indicate that implicit alcohol-related associations (i.e., indices of relatively fast, spontaneous processes) predict drinking. An important next step is to investigate moderators of the implicit association-drinking relationship. Mood state has been proposed as a moderator of this relationship: implicit associations have been theorized to be stronger predictors of drinking under positive mood states. From the same theoretical perspective, explicit measures (indices of relatively slow, reflective processes) have been proposed to be stronger predictors of drinking under negative mood states...
May 2018: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766236/ethnicity-specific-impact-of-hla-i-ii-genotypes-on-the-risk-of-inhibitor-development-data-from-korean-patients-with-severe-hemophilia-a
#6
Hyun-Young Kim, Jin-Hee Cho, Hee-Jung Kim, Hae-Sun Chung, Sun-Hee Kim, Ki-O Lee, Soo-Young Jung, Ki-Young Yoo, Hee-Jin Kim
Inhibitor development is the most serious complication in patients with hemophilia. We investigated association of HLA genotypes with inhibitor development in Korean patients with severe hemophilia A (HA). HLA genotyping was done in 100 patients with severe HA including 27 patients with inhibitors. The allele frequencies between inhibitor-positive and inhibitor-negative patients were compared. HLA class I alleles were not associated with the inhibitor status. In HLA class II, DRB1*15 [n = 100, odds ratio (OR) 0...
May 16, 2018: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766047/a-transient-dopamine-signal-represents-avoidance-value-and-causally-influences-the-demand-to-avoid
#7
Katherine J Pultorak, Scott A Schelp, Dominic P Isaacs, Gregory Krzystyniak, Erik B Oleson
While an extensive literature supports the notion that mesocorticolimbic dopamine plays a role in negative reinforcement, recent evidence suggests that dopamine exclusively encodes the value of positive reinforcement. In the present study, we employed a behavioral economics approach to investigate whether dopamine plays a role in the valuation of negative reinforcement. Using rats as subjects, we first applied fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) to determine that dopamine concentration decreases with the number of lever presses required to avoid electrical footshock (i...
March 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764970/reinforcement-signaling-of-punishment-versus-relief-in-fruit-flies
#8
Christian König, Afshin Khalili, Mathangi Ganesan, Amrita P Nishu, Alejandra P Garza, Thomas Niewalda, Bertram Gerber, Yoshinori Aso, Ayse Yarali
Painful events establish opponent memories: cues that precede pain are remembered negatively, whereas cues that follow pain, thus coinciding with relief are recalled positively. How do individual reinforcement-signaling neurons contribute to this "timing-dependent valence-reversal?" We addressed this question using an optogenetic approach in the fruit fly. Two types of fly dopaminergic neuron, each comprising just one paired cell, indeed established learned avoidance of odors that preceded their photostimulation during training, and learned approach to odors that followed the photostimulation...
June 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764270/drunk-decisions-alcohol-shifts-choice-from-habitual-towards-goal-directed-control-in-adolescent-intermediate-risk-drinkers
#9
Elisabeth Obst, Daniel J Schad, Quentin Jm Huys, Miriam Sebold, Stephan Nebe, Christian Sommer, Michael N Smolka, Ulrich S Zimmermann
BACKGROUND: Studies in humans and animals suggest a shift from goal-directed to habitual decision-making in addiction. We therefore tested whether acute alcohol administration reduces goal-directed and promotes habitual decision-making, and whether these effects are moderated by self-reported drinking problems. METHODS: Fifty-three socially drinking males completed the two-step task in a randomised crossover design while receiving an intravenous infusion of ethanol (blood alcohol level=80 mg%), or placebo...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763275/general-parenting-strategies-practical-suggestions-for-common-child-behavior-issues
#10
Michael G Kavan, Shailendra K Saxena, Naureen Rafiq
Parents often seek guidance from physicians on child behavior problems. Questions may range from general parenting strategies to managing specific child behaviors. Physicians and their staff can identify problematic parent-child interactions or behaviors within the office setting and assist parents by providing effective monitoring tools for behavior problems. Effective strategies for influencing a child's behavior include positive reinforcement to increase appropriate behavior, extinction (planned ignoring) for most low-level problematic behaviors, and time-out from reinforcement for more problematic behaviors...
May 15, 2018: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757816/attitudes-and-perceptions-about-cigarette-smoking-among-nonsmoking-high-school-students
#11
Mary Jane S Hanson
PURPOSE: To explore the association between cigarette smoking intention and attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control as identified by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in a cohort of nonsmoking teenagers. METHODS: A convenience sample of 76 nonsmoking students from a rural Northeastern Pennsylvania high school completed a self-administered questionnaire based on the TPB, which included cigarette smoking behavior, intention, and the direct measures of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control...
February 2018: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754013/psychogenic-nonepileptic-seizures-in-adults-with-epilepsy-and-intellectual-disability-a-neglected-area
#12
Jans S van Ool, Alexandra I Haenen, Francesca M Snoeijen-Schouwenaars, Albert P Aldenkamp, Jos G M Hendriksen, H Jurgen Schelhaas, In Y Tan, Richard H C Lazeron, Nynke M G Bodde
PURPOSE: To describe the main characteristics of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) in adults with epilepsy and intellectual disability (ID), and to analyse the differences regarding psychosocial functioning, epilepsy severity and ID between patients with PNES and a control group without PNES. METHODS: Medical records of adults with ID and epilepsy living at an epilepsy care facility (N = 240) were screened for PNES and evaluated by a neurologist. A control group consisting of patients with epilepsy and ID, without PNES, was matched according to age, sex and level of ID...
May 4, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745703/negative-urgency-moderates-reactivity-to-laboratory-stress-inductions
#13
Max M Owens, Michael T Amlung, Monika Stojek, James MacKillop
Impulsive personality traits refer to a group of self-reported dispositions about self-regulatory capacity, several of which have been linked to diverse forms of psychopathology. One of these is negative urgency (NUR), the propensity to act out when experiencing negative emotions, which has been linked to substance use disorders and eating disorders. However, few laboratory studies have investigated the extent to which self-reported NUR relates to an individual's in vivo emotional and behavioral responses. Harmonizing two archival data sets on alcohol and high-energy-dense (HED) food motivation, the current study investigated NUR as a moderator of reactivity to stressful situations elicited by two commonly used stress manipulations, the Trier Social Stress Test and a stress imagery induction...
May 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740277/hedonic-eating-and-the-delicious-circle-from-lipid-derived-mediators-to-brain-dopamine-and-back
#14
REVIEW
Roberto Coccurello, Mauro Maccarrone
Palatable food can be seductive and hedonic eating can become irresistible beyond hunger and negative consequences. This is witnessed by the subtle equilibrium between eating to provide energy intake for homeostatic functions, and reward-induced overeating. In recent years, considerable efforts have been devoted to study neural circuits, and to identify potential factors responsible for the derangement of homeostatic eating toward hedonic eating and addiction-like feeding behavior. Here, we examined recent literature on "old" and "new" players accountable for reward-induced overeating and possible liability to eating addiction...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734283/how-does-electronic-health-information-exchange-affect-hospital-performance-efficiency-the-effects-of-breadth-and-depth-of-information-sharing
#15
Na-Eun Cho, Weiling Ke, Bebonchu Atems, Jongwha Chang
This research was motivated by the large investment in health information technology (IT) by hospitals and the inconsistent findings related to the effects of health IT adoption on hospital performance. Building on resource orchestration theory and the information systems literature, the authors developed a research model to investigate how the configuration strategies for sharing information under health IT systems affect hospital efficiency. The hypotheses were tested using data from the 2010 annual and IT surveys of the American Hospital Association, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services case mix index, and U...
May 2018: Journal of Healthcare Management / American College of Healthcare Executives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730788/losses-disguised-as-wins-affect-game-selection-on-multiline-slots
#16
Candice Graydon, Madison Stange, Mike J Dixon
Multiline slots are exciting games that contain features which make them alluring. One such feature is a loss disguised as a win (LDW); wherein, players win less than they wager (e.g., bet 2 dollars, win back 50 cents), but this net loss is disguised by flashing graphics and winning sounds. Research to date concludes that LDWs are both rewarding and reinforcing. Here, we investigated whether LDWs affect players' game selection. Thirty-two undergraduate students with experience playing slot machines played 100 spins on four games-two had positive payback percentages (115%) and two had negative payback percentages (85%) after 100 spins...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729537/effects-of-reward-and-punishment-on-learning-from-errors-in-smokers
#17
Leonie Duehlmeyer, Bianca Levis, Robert Hester
BACKGROUND: Punishing errors facilitates adaptation in healthy individuals, while aberrant reward and punishment sensitivity in drug-dependent individuals may change this impact. Many societies have institutions that use the concept of punishing drug use behavior, making it important to understand how drug dependency mediates the effects of negative feedback for influencing adaptive behavior. METHODS: Using an associative learning task, we investigated differences in error correction rates of dependent smokers, compared with controls...
April 30, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729005/can-the-positive-association-of-osteocalcin-with-testosterone-be-unmasked-when-the-preeminent-hypothalamic-pituitary-regulation-of-testosterone-production-is-impaired-the-model-of-spinal-cord-injury
#18
A Barbonetti, S D'Andrea, J Samavat, A Martorella, G Felzani, S Francavilla, M Luconi, F Francavilla
PURPOSE: Osteocalcin (OCN), released from the bone matrix during the resorption phase, in its undercarboxylated form, stimulates testosterone (T) biosynthesis in mouse and a loss-of-function mutation of its receptor was associated with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism in humans. Nevertheless, when population-based studies have explored the OCN-T association, conflicting results have been reported. Hypothesizing that the evidence of a positive association between OCN and T could have been hindered by the preeminent role of a well-functioning hypothalamus-pituitary axis in promoting T biosynthesis, we explored this association in men with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI), exhibiting high prevalence of non-hypergonadotropic androgen deficiency...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728649/small-molecule-modulators-of-%C3%AF-2r-tmem97-reduce-alcohol-withdrawal-induced-behaviors
#19
Luisa L Scott, James J Sahn, Antonio Ferragud, Rachel C Yen, Praveen N Satarasinghe, Michael D Wood, Timothy R Hodges, Ted Shi, Brooke A Prakash, Kaitlyn M Friese, Angela Shen, Valentina Sabino, Jonathan T Pierce, Stephen F Martin
Repeated cycles of intoxication and withdrawal enhance the negative reinforcing properties of alcohol and lead to neuroadaptations that underlie withdrawal symptoms driving alcohol dependence. Pharmacotherapies that target these neuroadaptations may help break the cycle of dependence. The sigma-1 receptor (σ1R) subtype has attracted interest as a possible modulator of the rewarding and reinforcing effects of alcohol. However, whether the sigma-2 receptor, recently cloned and identified as transmembrane protein 97 (σ2R/TMEM97), plays a role in alcohol-related behaviors is currently unknown...
April 20, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727807/voxel-based-morphometry-analysis-of-structural-brain-scans-in-skin-picking-disorder
#20
Anne Schienle, Jonas Potthoff, Albert Wabnegger
BACKGROUND: Skin-picking disorder (SPD) is characterized by the excessive and repetitive manipulation of one's own skin resulting in tissue damage and impaired social functioning. There are only a few studies with small sample sizes that examined possible brain abnormalities in SPD, which is classified as a syndrome related to obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD). METHOD: The current voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study compared data from 35 SPD patients and 35 control participants including both genders (mean age = 35 years, SD = 15)...
April 26, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
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