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Negative reinforcement

Amelia Swanson, Jessica Geller, Kelly DeMartini, Anne Fernandez, Dwain Fehon
Without a transplant, end-stage liver disease is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Transplant candidates endure physical and psychological stress while awaiting surgery, yet little is known about the relationship between physical health and psychological resilience during the wait-list period. This study examined predictors of psychological resilience and mediators of the relationship between physical health and psychological resilience in liver transplant candidates. Wait-listed candidates (N = 120) from a single Northeast transplant center completed assessments of physical functioning, coping, perceived social support, and resilience...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
Meryem Mniouil, Hajiba Fellah, Fatima Amarir, Abderrahim Sadak, Abdeslam Et-Touys, Youssef Bakri, Aziza Moustachi, Fatima Zahraa Tassou, Mostapha Hida, Mohamed Lyagoubi, El Bachir Adlaoui, Mohamed Rhajaoui, Faiza Sebti
A rapid, sensitive and specific tool for detection of Leishmania infantum infection in Humans would be highly desirable, because it would allow control interventions in endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis. This study was carried out at the Reference National Laboratory of Leishmaniasis (RNLL) in National Institute of Hygiene (NIH) Morocco, in order to evaluate the diagnostic potential of immunochromatographic dipstick test (ICT) rk39 in Moroccan suspected VL patients. A total of 49 admitted patients with strong clinical suspicion of VL and 40 healthy controls were investigated for the performance of the ICT rk39...
March 12, 2018: Acta Tropica
Michela Balconi, Laura Gatti, Maria Elide Vanutelli
Cooperation behavior is a core question of study on social neuroscience. In the present study, inter-brain functional connectivity and cognitive performance were considered during joint which was failing. The cognitive performance and the EEG (brain oscillations from delta to beta) underlying the execution of joint-actions were recorded when dyads of participants executed synchronicity game and received reinforcing negative feedbacks A pre-feedback condition (cooperation) and a control condition (individual task, T0) were provided as well as a check for possible learning effect (time series analysis)...
March 12, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Poornima Kumar, Franziska Goer, Laura Murray, Daniel G Dillon, Miranda L Beltzer, Andrew L Cohen, Nancy H Brooks, Diego A Pizzagalli
Anhedonia (hyposensitivity to rewards) and negative bias (hypersensitivity to punishments) are core features of major depressive disorder (MDD), which could stem from abnormal reinforcement learning. Emerging evidence highlights blunted reward learning and reward prediction error (RPE) signaling in the striatum in MDD, although inconsistencies exist. Preclinical studies have clarified that ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons encode RPE and habenular neurons encode punishment prediction error (PPE), which are then transmitted to the striatum and cortex to guide goal-directed behavior...
February 26, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Marina Rovani Drummond, Bruno Grosselli Lania, Pedro Paulo Vissoto de Paiva Diniz, Rovilson Gilioli, Daniele Masselli Rodrigues Demolin, Diana Gerardi Scorpio, Edward B Breitschwerdt, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira Velho
Bartonella spp. constitute bacteria of worldwide distribution that cause asymptomatic to fatal infections in animals and humans. The most common zoonotic species is Bartonella henselae , for which cats are the major natural reservoir host. To better understand Bartonella sp. diagnostic limitations, we determined the frequency of bloodstream infection in 112 cats by comparing and combining the results of multiple conventional and nested PCRs from blood and liquid culture samples. Using liquid culture conventional PCR, Bartonella sp...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Patrizia Piotti, Liam Paul Satchell, Tom Steven Lockhart
Trait impulsivity is an increasingly relevant topic for human and non-human animal personality research. There are similarities in dog and human manifestations of trait impulsivity at the behavioural, genetic, and neurobiological level. We investigated a well-validated measure of dog impulsivity and responsivity (the Dog Impulsivity Assessment Scale, DIAS) and a neuropsychological theory of human trait approach and avoidance (the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory of personality, RST). Owners reported their dogs' dispositional behaviour on the DIAS, an RST scale modified to describe dogs' behaviour, and a list of common dog behaviour problems...
March 9, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Fernando Schemelzer Moraes Bezerra, Joames Kauffimann Freitas Leal, Mariana Silva Sousa, Marta Cristhiany Cunha Pinheiro, Alberto Novaes Ramos, Vanessa Silva-Moraes, Naftale Katz
Schistosomiasis is still a public health problem in Brazil. The Kato-Katz test is the most frequently used diagnostic method for Schistosoma mansoni infection. However, it lacks sensitivity in areas of low prevalence. We have assessed the positivity rate of S. mansoni infection in Bananeiras, a village on Capistrano, Ceara, Brazil by performing a point-of-care test in urine to determine the circulating cathodic antigens (POC-CCA), and we compared the findings with those of the Kato-Katz technique for egg detection in stool and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for specific antibodies against adult worms (SWAP-ELISA) in serum before treatment (baseline)...
March 8, 2018: Acta Tropica
Michela Balconi, Maria Elide Vanutelli, Laura Gatti
Functional connectivity during cooperative actions is an important topic in social neuroscience that has yet to be answered. Here, we examined the effects of administration of (fictitious) negative social feedback in relation to cooperative capabilities. Cognitive performance and neural activation underlying the execution of joint actions was recorded with functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) on prefrontal regions during a task where pairs of participants received negative feedback after their joint action...
March 8, 2018: Brain and Cognition
A Mattina, D Rosenbaum, R Bittar, D Bonnefont-Rousselot, D Noto, M Averna, E Bruckert, P Giral
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2 ) plays a key role in atherosclerosis development. It is considered a marker of increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and plaque vulnerability. Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disorder characterized by elevated plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and a higher prevalence of early CVD. Our aim was to evaluate the differences in Lp-PLA2 activity in a population of hypercholesterolemic patients with and without definite FH...
February 2, 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Gareth Roderique-Davies, Robert M Heirene, Stephen Mellalieu, David A Shearer
Conceptual similarities have been identified between experiences of extreme sports athletes and those with drug and behavioral addictions. Evidence suggests rock climbers experience craving and other withdrawal-like states when abstinent from their sport. However, no studies have attempted to quantitatively measure the craving experienced by participants of any extreme sports. Such a measure could allow a greater understanding of the craving experienced by extreme sports athletes and a comparison of these across sports (e...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Sean P Cornillie, Benjamin J Bruno, Carol S Lim, Thomas E Cheatham
The oncogenic gene product Bcr-Abl is the principal cause of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and though several therapies exist to curb the aberrant kinase activity of Bcr-Abl through targeting of the Abl kinase domain, these therapies are rendered ineffective by frequent mutations in the corresponding gene. It has been demonstrated that a designed protein known as CCmut3 is able to produce a dominant negative inactivating effect on Bcr-Abl kinase by preferentially oligomerizing with the N-terminal coiled-coil oligomerization domain of Bcr-Abl (Bcr-CC) to effectively reduce the oncogenic potential of Bcr-Abl...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Samantha Goldwater-Adler, Lori Wozney, Patrick J McGrath
BACKGROUND: Early sensitive caregiver-infant interactions form an important foundation for infant development. Although mutual enjoyment is thought to motivate proximity and continued interactions, there is no empirical evidence that mothers enjoy interacting and behaving sensitively. Research to date has focused on the influence of stable/pathological maternal negative emotions on parenting, with parenting often assessed on one occasion only. Therefore, little is known about what accounts for the variability in sensitivity across interactions...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology
Kenneth A Perkins, Joshua L Karelitz, Margaret C Boldry
Introduction: Confirming preclinical findings, nicotine in humans (via smoking) enhances reinforcement from non-drug rewards. Recent demonstration of similar effects with nicotine via e-cigarettes suggests they may also occur when using nicotine replacement therapies (NRT). Methods: Effects of nicotine via NRT patch or nasal spray were assessed on responding reinforced by music, video, or monetary rewards, or for no reward (control). Non-treatment seeking smokers (N=31) participated in three virtually identical experimental sessions, each following overnight abstinence (CO≤10 ppm)...
March 3, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Thaís Emanuelle Bakaus, Yançanã Luizy Gruber, Alessandra Reis, Osnara Maria Mongruel Gomes, Giovana Mongruel Gomes
The aim of this study was to compare in vitro the bond strength (BS) between fiberglass posts and flared root canals reinforced with different materials. The roots of 48 premolars were endodontically treated. After one week, the root canals were prepared to simulate an oversized root canal, except for the positive control group (PCG), which was cemented with a prefabricated fiber post (PFP) compatible with the root canal size, simulating an ideal adaptation. The other samples (n=8/group) were used to test alternative restorative techniques for filling root canals: negative control group (NCG [PFP with a smaller diameter than of the root canal]), composite resin group - CRG, bulkfill group - BFG, self-adhesive cement group - SAG, and glass ionomer group - GIG...
March 1, 2018: Brazilian Oral Research
Marie Suzan-Monti, Michel Celse, Antoine Vilotitch, Baptiste Demoulin, Rosemary Dray-Spira, Patrick Yéni, France Lert, Bruno Spire
Some of the 12 criminal trials and sentences in France for HIV transmission in 1998-2011 attracted substantial public attention, with a possible negative impact on people living with HIV (PLWH) through reinforced stigma and discrimination. This analysis aimed to characterize PLWH enrolled in the representative ANRS-VESPA2 survey, aware of and concerned about convictions for HIV transmission. Being a migrant from Sub-Saharan Africa, having difficult socio-economic conditions, having unprotected sex with one's main partner and concealing one's HIV status were all factors statistically associated with concern about the sentences...
March 6, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Karl Stefic, Sophie Novelli, Nadia Mahjoub, Remonie Seng, Jean-Michel Molina, Christine Cheneau, Francis Barin, Marie-Laure Chaix, Laurence Meyer, Constance Delaugerre
We assessed the impact of early antiretroviral treatment (ART) on HIV antibody detection by rapid tests in 44 individuals after several years of successful ART. HIV self-tests and point-of-care tests were negative in respectively 30% and 7-9% of cases. These data reinforce the message that patients should never be retested after entering HIV care.
March 2, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Stefania Sarsah Cobbinah, Jan Lewis
Racial discrimination has been increasingly reported to have a causal link with morbidity and mortality of Black Americans, yet this issue is rarely addressed in a public health perspective. Racism affects health at different levels: institutional racism is a structural and legalized system that results in differential access to health services; cultural racism refers to the negative racial stereotypes, often reinforced by media, that results in poorer psychological and physiological wellbeing of the minorities...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Karolina Tecza, Jolanta Pamula-Pilat, Joanna Lanuszewska, Dorota Butkiewicz, Ewa Grzybowska
The differences in patients' response to the same medication, toxicity included, are one of the major problems in breast cancer treatment. Chemotherapy toxicity makes a significant clinical problem due to decreased quality of life, prolongation of treatment and reinforcement of negative emotions associated with therapy. In this study we evaluated the genetic and clinical risk factors of FAC chemotherapy-related toxicities in the group of 324 breast cancer patients. Selected genes and their polymorphisms were involved in FAC drugs transport ( ABCB1, ABCC2, ABCG2,SLC22A16 ), metabolism ( ALDH3A1, CBR1, CYP1B1, CYP2C19, DPYD, GSTM1, GSTP1, GSTT1, MTHFR,TYMS ), DNA damage recognition, repair and cell cycle control ( ATM, ERCC1, ERCC2, TP53, XRCC1 )...
February 6, 2018: Oncotarget
A Hunter Threadgill, Philip A Gable
Based on Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (Gray and McNaughton 2000), human behavior is influenced by systems of approach motivation, avoidance motivation, and a third regulatory system presiding over the other two. These systems mediate action and are likely related to neurophysiological markers of motor-action preparation. Previous research has found that lower levels of beta activity over the motor cortex are associated with greater motor-action preparation. The current study sought to test whether trait approach, avoidance, and regulatory control would relate to resting beta activity over the motor cortex, a measure of motor-action preparation...
March 2, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Rubén García-Cabrerizo, Cristian Bis-Humbert, M Julia García-Fuster
A recent study from our laboratory demonstrated that binge methamphetamine induced hippocampal cell damage (i.e., impaired cell genesis) in rats when administered specifically during late adolescence (postnatal day, PND 54-57) and evaluated 24 h later (PND 58). The results also suggested a possible role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulating cell genesis and survival. This subsequent study evaluated whether these effects persisted in time as measured following prolonged withdrawal. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated (i...
February 28, 2018: Neurotoxicology
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