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Negative reinforcement

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716612/impulsive-personality-dimensions-are-associated-with-altered-behavioral-performance-and-neural-responses-in-the-monetary-incentive-delay-task
#1
Ruolei Gu, Yang Jiang, Seth Kiser, Chelsea L Black, Lucas S Broster, Yue-Jia Luo, Thomas H Kelly
Individual differences in dimensions of impulsivity personality including disinhibition and sensation seeking modulate approach responses to reinforcing stimuli, such as drugs and money. The current study examined the effects of monetary incentive on both behavioral performance and electrophysiological activity among individuals varying in disinhibition and sensation seeking. The monetary incentive delay (MID) task was completed under electroencephalogram (EEG) recording. Behavioral data showed that higher disinhibition and sensation-seeking were associated with lower performance accuracy...
July 14, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714806/loss-of-control-over-the-ethanol-consumption-differential-transcriptional-regulation-in-prefrontal-cortex
#2
Carolina de Paiva Lima, Daniel Almeida da Silva E Silva, Samara Damasceno, Andrea Frozino Ribeiro, Cristiane S Rocha, Alexandre H Berenguer de Matos, Diego Correia, Roseli Boerngen-Lacerda, Ana Lúcia Brunialti Godard
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a complex multifactorial disease with heritability of ∼50% and corresponds to the state in which the body triggers a reinforcement or reward compulsive behavior due to ethanol consumption, even when faced with negative consequences. Although several studies have shown the impact of high ethanol intake on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) gene expression, few have addressed the relationship between the patterns of gene expression underlying the compulsive behaviour associated with relapsing...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714726/pilot-investigation-of-a-phosphatidylethanol-based-contingency-management-intervention-targeting-alcohol-use
#3
Michael G McDonell, Jordan Skalisky, Emily Leickly, Michael F Orr, Sterling McPherson, John Roll, Nathalie Hill-Kapturczak, Martin Javors
Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) can be detected in blood from 14 to as many as 28 days after alcohol consumption, depending on the amount and frequency of alcohol consumed. PEth may have utility for verifying abstinence in a contingency management (CM) intervention for alcohol use, particularly in settings where frequent verification of abstinence is impossible or impractical. Five nontreatment-seeking heavy drinkers (40% men) participated in an 11-week, ABA-phased within-subject experiment for which they submitted blood spots for PEth measurement, urine samples for ethyl glucuronide (EtG) testing, and self-report drinking data weekly...
July 17, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712632/fracture-resistance-of-endodontically-treated-teeth-restored-with-2-different-fiber-reinforced-composite-and-2-conventional-composite-resin-core-buildup-materials-an-in%C3%A2-vitro-study
#4
Ashly Mary Eapen, L Vijay Amirtharaj, Kavitha Sanjeev, Sekar Mahalaxmi
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this in vitro study was to comparatively evaluate the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with 2 fiber-reinforced composite resins and 2 conventional composite resin core buildup materials. METHODS: Sixty noncarious unrestored human maxillary premolars were collected, endodontically treated (except group 1, negative control), and randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 10). Group 2 was the positive control. The remaining 40 prepared teeth were restored with various direct core buildup materials as follows: group 3 teeth were restored with dual-cure composite resin, group 4 with posterior composite resin, group 5 with fiber-reinforced composite resin, and group 6 with short fiber-reinforced composite resin...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712310/primary-cutaneous-peripheral-t-cell-lymphoma-in-a-sporotrichoid-pattern-a-case-report
#5
Daniel J Lewis, Harina Vin, Tiffany Hinojosa, Michael T Tetzlaff, Bouthaina S Dabaja, Madeleine Duvic
We present the extraordinary case of a 72-year-old man with a history of primary cutaneous peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (pcPTCL-NOS) previously controlled with topical agents who developed tumours in a sporotrichoid pattern. Culture of the tumours was negative, and histopathology showed findings consistent with recurrent pcPTCL. The tumours were successfully treated with localised radiation therapy. Sporotrichoid lesions are an extremely rare and atypical presentation of cutaneous lymphoma, with only 2 other cases reported in the literature...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708218/microbial-characteristics-of-posttraumatic-infective-keratitis
#6
Blanche X Lim, Victor T C Koh, Manotosh Ray
PURPOSE: To determine the demographics, risk factors, clinical and microbiological characteristics, and treatment outcome of posttraumatic infective keratitis. METHODS: Consecutive patients with posttraumatic infective keratitis presenting to the Ophthalmology Department of a tertiary referral hospital in Singapore between March 2012 and March 2016 were prospectively identified. A standardized data collection form was used to document patient demographics, microbiological diagnosis, antibiotic sensitivity, and pretreatment and posttreatment ocular characteristics...
July 8, 2017: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706239/increased-adipose-tissue-heme-levels-and-exportation-are-associated-with-altered-systemic-glucose-metabolism
#7
José María Moreno-Navarrete, Amaia Rodríguez, Francisco Ortega, Sara Becerril, Mònica Sabater-Masdeu, Jessica Latorre, Wifredo Ricart, Gema Frühbeck, José Manuel Fernández-Real
Iron status is known to be associated with the physiology of adipose tissue (AT). We aimed to investigate AT heme and expression of heme exporter (FLVCR1) in association with obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Substantial amounts of FLVCR1 mRNA and protein levels were detected in AT, being significantly increased in subjects with T2D, and positively correlated with fasting glucose, fasting triglycerides and with circulating markers of iron stores (serum ferritin, blood hemoglobin and hematocrit). In both visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous AT (SAT), increased heme levels were found in subjects with T2D...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705259/-just-not-all-ice-users-do-that-investigating-perceptions-and-potential-harms-of-australia-s-ice-destroys-lives-campaign-in-two-studies
#8
Caitlin H Douglass, Elizabeth C Early, Cassandra J C Wright, Anna Palmer, Peter Higgs, Brendan Quinn, Paul M Dietze, Megan S C Lim
BACKGROUND: In 2015, the Australian government launched the media campaign Ice Destroys Lives targeting crystal methamphetamine use. Previous research indicates mass media campaigns may have harmful effects for people engaged in drug use. This study investigated perceptions and harms of Ice Destroys Lives among adults with a history of injecting drugs and young people. METHODS: This analysis includes data from two studies: an online questionnaire with young people and in-depth interviews with adults who use crystal methamphetamine...
July 14, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704139/influencing-safety-in-australian-agriculture-and-fisheries
#9
Kristin E McBain-Rigg, Richard C Franklin, Jemma C King, Tony Lower
BACKGROUND: Improving the health and safety of those working in Australian agriculture and fishery industries is a recognized priority area for preventative activities. With Australian agricultural industries being among the nation's most dangerous workplaces, there is a need for action. While there are currently known solutions, their implementation is limited. Influential agents, that is, people who can influence others, are important for helping to engender action to enact solutions into practice...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Agromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702660/poynting-and-reverse-poynting-effects-in-soft-materials
#10
C O Horgan, J G Murphy
In 1909, J. H. Poynting conducted a series of experiments on metal wires and found that loaded wires lengthen when twisted. Thus to maintain a constant length in such experiments, a compressive axial force would need to be applied at the ends of the specimen. This is the classical (positive) Poynting effect. Another example of such an effect arises when a soft material specimen is being axially sheared or rotated between two platens. The necessity to apply a normal force in order to maintain the relative distance between the platens is also often referred to as a Poynting-type effect...
July 12, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701570/adipose-derived-fatty-acid-binding-proteins-plasma-concentrations-are-increased-in-breast-cancer-patients
#11
Sandra Guaita-Esteruelas, Paula Saavedra-García, Alba Bosquet, Joan Borràs, Josefa Girona, Kepa Amiliano, Marta Rodríguez-Balada, Mercedes Heras, Luís Masana, Josep Gumà
BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that could play a role in tumor progression via its secreted adipokines. The role of adipose-derived fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) 4 and FABP5 in breast cancer is presently under study, but their circulating levels in this pathology are poorly known. We analyzed the blood concentrations of FABP4 and FABP5 in breast cancer patients to determine whether there is an association between them and breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 294 women in the oncology department with a family history of breast cancer; 198 of the women had breast cancer, and 96 were healthy controls...
July 12, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701038/micellear-gold-nanoparticle-as-delivery-vehicle-for-dual-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-zd6474-for-metastatic-breast-cancer-treatment
#12
Siddik Sarkar, Suraj Konar, Nagaprasad Puvvada, Shashi Rajput, Bn Prashanth Kumar, Raj R Rao, Amita Pathak, Paul B Fisher, Mahitosh Mandal
Therapeutic index of poorly water soluble drugs are often hampered due to poor pharmokinetics, reduced blood retention and lack of effective drug concentrations in the tumor region. In order to overcome these issues, drugs are often delivered using delivery vehicles to provide an enhanced therapeutic index. Gold nanoparticles synthesized in micellar networks of amphiphilic block copolymer (AuNM) provide an efficient nanocarrier for tissue- and site-specific drug delivery owing to their low cytotoxicity and immunogenicity...
July 12, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700627/network-analysis-of-exploratory-behaviors-of-mice-in-a-spatial-learning-and-memory-task
#13
Yusuke Suzuki, Itaru Imayoshi
The Barnes maze is one of the main behavioral tasks used to study spatial learning and memory. The Barnes maze is a task conducted on "dry land" in which animals try to escape from a brightly lit exposed circular open arena to a small dark escape box located under one of several holes at the periphery of the arena. In comparison with another classical spatial learning and memory task, the Morris water maze, the negative reinforcements that motivate animals in the Barnes maze are less severe and less stressful...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699563/the-women-made-it-work-fuzzy-transitive-closure-of-the-results-chain-in-a-dengue-prevention-trial-in-mexico
#14
Neil Andersson, Mario Beauchamp, Elizabeth Nava-Aguilera, Sergio Paredes-Solís, Mateja Šajna
BACKGROUND: A modified theory of planned behaviour (acronym CASCADA) proposes that Conscious knowledge precedes a change in Attitude, which in turn precedes positive deviations from negative Subjective norms, intention to Change, perception of Agency to change, Discussion of possible action, and Action itself. We used this as a results chain to investigate gender-specific behaviour dynamics in chemical-free dengue prevention. METHODS: Secondary analysis of the Mexican arm of a cluster randomised controlled trial used household survey data on intermediate outcomes of dengue prevention behaviour...
May 30, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698571/injectable-hybrid-system-for-strontium-local-delivery-promotes-bone-regeneration-in-a-rat-critical-sized-defect-model
#15
Ana Henriques Lourenço, Nuno Neves, Cláudia Ribeiro-Machado, Susana R Sousa, Meriem Lamghari, Cristina C Barrias, Abel Trigo Cabral, Mário A Barbosa, Cristina C Ribeiro
Strontium (Sr) has been described as having beneficial influence in bone strength and architecture. However, negative systemic effects have been reported on oral administration of Sr ranelate, leading to strict restrictions in clinical application. We hypothesized that local delivery of Sr improves osteogenesis without eliciting detrimental side effects. Therefore, the in vivo response to an injectable Sr-hybrid system composed of RGD-alginate hydrogel cross-linked in situ with Sr and reinforced with Sr-doped hydroxyapatite microspheres, was investigated...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697690/try-and-try-again-post-error-boost-of-an-implicit-measure-of-agency
#16
S Di Costa, H Théro, V Chambon, P Haggard
The sense of agency refers to the feeling that we control our actions and, through them, effects in the outside world. Reinforcement learning provides an important theoretical framework for understanding why people choose to make particular actions. Few previous studies have considered how reinforcement and learning might influence the subjective experience of agency over actions and outcomes. In two experiments, participants chose between two action alternatives, which differed in reward probability. Occasional reversals of action-reward mapping required participants to monitor outcomes and adjust action selection processing accordingly...
July 12, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694232/reinforcement-of-an-antimicrobial-stewardship-task-force-aims-at-a-better-use-of-antibiotics-of-last-resort-the-colitifos-study
#17
Benjamin Davido, Frédérique Bouchand, Aurélien Dinh, Christian Perronne, Maryvonne Villart, Olivia Senard, Jérome Salomon
BACKGROUND: Physicians are facing a worldwide increase in multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms. Eradication of such bacteria, including so called superbugs (XDR), may cause physicians to prescribe last-resort antibiotics. However, experience with these drugs is limited and few data are available. METHODS: A before and after retrospective study was conducted from January 2008 to June 2016. Prescriptions of parenteral antimicrobials considered as last-resort antibiotics (colistin, fosfomycin, tigecycline and temocillin) were reviewed by 4 infectious disease specialists (according to microbiology results, susceptibility testing, clinical situation and alternative agents), while doses were analyzed by a pharmacist...
July 7, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693961/agency-and-the-calibration-of-motivated-behavior
#18
REVIEW
Justin M Moscarello, Catherine A Hartley
The controllability of positive or negative environmental events has long been recognized as a critical factor determining their impact on an organism. In studies across species, controllable and uncontrollable reinforcement have been found to yield divergent effects on subsequent behavior. Here we present a model of the organizing influence of control, or a lack thereof, on the behavioral repertoire. We propose that individuals derive a generalizable estimate of agency from controllable and uncontrollable outcomes, which serves to calibrate their behavioral strategies in a manner that is most likely to be adaptive given their prior experience...
July 7, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693859/the-%C3%AE-3%C3%AE-4-nachr-partial-agonist-at-1001-attenuates-stress-induced-reinstatement-of-nicotine-seeking-in-a-rat-model-of-relapse-and-induces-minimal-withdrawal-in-dependent-rats
#19
Menglu Yuan, Ariana M Malagon, Dennis Yasuda, James D Belluzzi, Frances M Leslie, Nurulain T Zaveri
The strong reinforcing effects of nicotine and the negative symptoms such as anxiety experienced during a quit attempt often lead to relapse and low success rates for smoking cessation. Treatments that not only block the reinforcing effects of nicotine but also attenuate the motivation to relapse are needed to improve cessation rates. Recent genetic and preclinical studies have highlighted the involvement of the α3, β4, and α5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits and the α3β4 nAChR subtype in nicotine dependence and withdrawal...
July 7, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693459/screening-for-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-deficiency-in-neonates-a-comparison-between-cord-and-peripheral-blood-samples
#20
Saif AlSaif, Ma Bella Ponferrada, Khalid AlKhairy, Khalil AlTawil, Adel Sallam, Ibrahim Ahmed, Mohammed Khawaji, Khalid AlHathlol, Beverly Baylon, Ahmed AlSuhaibani, Mohammed AlBalwi
BACKGROUND: The use of cord blood in the neonatal screening for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is being done with increasing frequency but has yet to be adequately evaluated against the use of peripheral blood sample which is usually employed for confirmation. We sought to determine the incidence and gender distribution of G6PD deficiency, and compare the results of cord against peripheral blood in identifying G6PD DEFICIENCY neonates using quantitative enzyme activity assay...
July 11, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
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