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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922395/an-analysis-of-equine-round-pen-training-videos-posted-online-differences-between-amateur-and-professional-trainers
#1
Erin Kydd, Barbara Padalino, Cathrynne Henshall, Paul McGreevy
Natural Horsemanship is popular among many amateur and professional trainers and as such, has been the subject of recent scientific enquiry. One method commonly adopted by Natural Horsemanship (NH) trainers is that of round pen training (RPT). RPT sessions are usually split into a series of bouts; each including two phases: chasing/flight and chasing offset/flight offset. However, NH training styles are heterogeneous. This study investigated online videos of RPT to explore the characteristics of RPT sessions and test for differences in techniques and outcomes between amateurs and professionals (the latter being defined as those with accompanying online materials that promote clinics, merchandise or a service to the public)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922262/sugar-in-infants-children-and-adolescents-a-position-paper-of-the-european-society-for-paediatric-gastroenterology-hepatology-and-nutrition-committee-on-nutrition
#2
Nataša Fidler Mis, Christian Braegger, Jiri Bronsky, Cristina Campoy, Magnus Domellöf, Nicholas D Embleton, Iva Hojsak, Jessie Hulst, Flavia Indrio, Alexandre Lapillonne, Walter Mihatsch, Christian Molgaard, Rakesh Vora, Mary Fewtrell
The consumption of sugars, particularly sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs; beverages or drinks that contain added caloric sweeteners (i.e. sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, fruit-juice concentrates), in European children and adolescents exceeds current recommendations. This is of concern because there is no nutritional requirement for free sugars, and infants have an innate preference for sweet taste, which may be modified and reinforced by pre- and postnatal exposures. Sugar containing beverages/free sugars increase the risk for overweight/obesity and dental caries, can result in poor nutrient supply and reduced dietary diversity and may be associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular risk, and other health effects...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914554/when-cooperation-goes-wrong-brain-and-behavioral-correlates-of-ineffective-joint-strategies-in-dyads
#3
Michela Balconi, Laura Gatti, Maria Elide Vanutelli
Human life is connoted by sophisticated interactions that involve not only single individuals, but larger social groups composed by members interacting each other. Cooperation secures a benefit to all the people engaged as well as important behaviors like helping, sharing, and acting prosocially. But what happens when the joint actions are not effective? In the present study we asked 24 participants paired in 12 dyads to cooperate during an attentional task in a way to synchronize their responses and obtain better outcomes...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911327/negotiating-power-relations-gender-equality-and-collective-agency-are-village-health-committees-transformative-social-spaces-in-northern-india
#4
Kerry Scott, Asha S George, Steven A Harvey, Shinjini Mondal, Gupteswar Patel, Kabir Sheikh
BACKGROUND: Participatory health initiatives ideally support progressive social change and stronger collective agency for marginalized groups. However, this empowering potential is often limited by inequalities within communities and between communities and outside actors (i.e. government officials, policymakers). We examined how the participatory initiative of Village Health, Sanitation, and Nutrition Committees (VHSNCs) can enable and hinder the renegotiation of power in rural north India...
September 15, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910128/future-so-bright-delay-discounting-and-consideration-of-future-consequences-predict-academic-performance-among-college-drinkers
#5
Samuel F Acuff, Kathryn E Soltis, Ashley A Dennhardt, Brian Borsari, Matthew P Martens, James G Murphy
College student drinking is a major public health concern and can result in a range of negative consequences, from acute health risks to decreased academic performance and drop out. Harm reduction interventions have been developed to reduce problems associated with drinking but there is a need to identify specific risk/protective factors related to academic performance among college drinkers. Behavioral economics suggests that chronic alcohol misuse reflects a dysregulated behavioral process or reinforcer pathology-alcohol is overvalued and the value of prosocial rewards are sharply discounted due, in part, to their delay...
September 14, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898308/-the-treatment-of-cannabis-dependence-clinical-work-psychotherapy-and-evidence
#6
José Capece, Federico Pavlovsky
Identifying compulsive consumption of marijuana in association with another mental disorder (attentional defcit disorder, bipolar disorder, depression or psychosis) presents the challenge of clarifying validated therapeutic strategies, especially within the teen population, in which it shows the highest prevalence. The ever-increasing prevalence and the need for regional treatments, demand that we approach this health matter as a public health issue. The ideological con?icts related to the necessary decriminalization of consumption and the current debate on the medical use of marijuana often confuse the urgent need to establish effective therapeutic strategies for the population affected by this mental disorder...
November 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898137/pain-related-fear-and-its-disabling-impact-in-hypermobile-adolescents-with-chronic-musculoskeletal-pain
#7
Thijs van Meulenbroek, Ivan P J Huijnen, Carlijn M H Wiertz, Jeanine A Verbunt
Study Design Cross-sectional study. Background Chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP) has a negative impact on physical functioning. During adolescence joint hypermobility is a potential risk factor for developing CMP and pain-related fear contributes to the persistence of CMP. Whether pain-related fear and being hypermobile are related and even reinforce each other, resulting in a stronger association with perceived level of disability, is still unknown. Objectives To evaluate whether pain-related fear has a stronger association with disability in hypermobile compared to non-hypermobile adolescents with CMP...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895518/lactobacillus-curtus-sp-nov-isolated-from-beer-in-finland
#8
Yuki Asakawa, Nobuchika Takesue, Shizuka Asano, Satoshi Shimotsu, Kazumaru Iijima, Koji Suzuki, Yasuo Motoyama, Masayuki Aizawa
A Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative and short-rod-shaped organism, designated VTT E-94560, was isolated from beer in Finland and deposited in the VTT culture collection as a strain of Lactobacillus rossiae. However, the results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that VTT E-94560 was only related to Lactobacillus rossiae JCM 16176T with 97.0 % sequence similarity, lower than the 98.7 % regarded as the boundary for the species differentiation. Additional phylogenetic studies on the pheS gene, rpoA gene and 16S-23S rRNA internally transcribed spacer region further reinforced the taxonomically independent status of VTT E-94560 and its related Lactobacillus species including L...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892737/misdeed-of-the-need-towards-computational-accounts-of-transition-to-addiction
#9
REVIEW
Mehdi Keramati, Serge H Ahmed, Boris S Gutkin
Drug addiction is a complex behavioral and neurobiological disorder which, in an emergent brain-circuit view, reflects a loss of prefrontal top-down control over subcortical circuits governing drug-seeking and drug-taking. We first review previous computational accounts of addiction, focusing on cocaine addiction and on prevalent dopamine-based positive-reinforcement and negative-reinforcement computational models. Then, we discuss a recent computational proposal that the progression to addiction is unlikely to result from a complete withdrawal of the goal-oriented decision system in favor the habitual one...
September 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892027/novel-object-recognition-test-for-the-investigation-of-learning-and-memory-in-mice
#10
Lindsay M Lueptow
The object recognition test (ORT) is a commonly used behavioral assay for the investigation of various aspects of learning and memory in mice. The ORT is fairly simple and can be completed over 3 days: habituation day, training day, and testing day. During training, the mouse is allowed to explore 2 identical objects. On test day, one of the training objects is replaced with a novel object. Because mice have an innate preference for novelty, if the mouse recognizes the familiar object, it will spend most of its time at the novel object...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891499/astroglial-hydro-ionic-waves-guided-by-the-extracellular-matrix-an-exploratory-model
#11
Alfredo Pereira
Calcium waves are generated from the astrocyte endoplasmatic reticulum, in response to neuronal electrochemical stimulation. The waves feed back on neurons, modulating (reinforcing or depressing) their activity and the resulting behavior. How do these waves propagate from the astrocyte endoplasmatic reticulum to the synaptic space and reach neuron membrane channels? An exploratory model is elaborated, on the basis of complex interactions of ions, water negative exclusion zones and charged sites of proteins...
2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889750/how-does-the-addition-of-a-third-ion-affect-the-molecular-interactions-and-the-thermodynamic-properties-of-acetate-based-ionic-liquids
#12
Ines Otero, Luiz Fernando Lepre, Alain Dequidt, Pascale Husson, Margarida Costa Gomes
The effect of the addition of a third ion to the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [C4C1Im][OAc], was studied through the measurement of the enthalpy of mixing and of the excess molar volume of its mixtures with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoroacetate, [C4C1Im][CF3CO2], 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [C4C1Im][NTf2], and tetrabutylphosphonium acetate, [P4444][OAc]. Negative enthalpies of mixing (mixH < 0) and positive excess molar volumes (VE > 0) were observed in all cases...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889253/evaluating-parental-autism-disclosure-strategies
#13
Jillian E Austin, Ratka Galijot, W Hobart Davies
The relative effects of different autism disclosure methods on the perceptions of a mother-child dyad were investigated. Using three conditions, disclosure card, disclosure bracelet, and no disclosure, U.S. community parents (N = 383) were asked 18 questions about their perceptions of the dyad. An ANOVA revealed significant protection from stigma for those in either disclosure condition compared to the no disclosure condition on two factors, Critical of the Mother/Child and Need to Protect Own Child, as well as a single item, Embarrassment for the Mother...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885980/domain-topology-of-human-rasal
#14
Jorge Cuellar, José María Valpuesta, Alfred Wittinghofer, Begoña Sot
Rasal is a modular multi-domain protein of the GAP1 (GTPase-activating protein 1) family; its four known members, GAP1m, Rasal, GAP1IP4BP and Capri, have a Ras GTPase-activating domain (RasGAP). This domain supports the intrinsically slow GTPase activity of Ras by actively participating in the catalytic reaction. In the case of Rasal, GAP1IP4BP and Capri, their remaining domains are responsible for converting the RasGAP domains into dual Ras- and Rap-GAPs, via an incompletely understood mechanism. Although Rap proteins are small GTPase homologues of Ras, their catalytic residues are distinct, which reinforces the importance of determining the structure of full-length GAP1 family proteins...
September 26, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885594/exploring-the-relationship-between-housing-and-health-for-refugees-and-asylum-seekers-in-south-australia-a-qualitative-study
#15
Anna Ziersch, Moira Walsh, Clemence Due, Emily Duivesteyn
Housing is an important social determinant of health; however, little is known about the impact of housing experiences on health and wellbeing for people from refugee and asylum-seeking backgrounds. In this paper, we outline a qualitative component of a study in South Australia examining these links. Specifically, interviews were conducted with 50 refugees and asylum seekers who were purposively sampled according to gender, continent and visa status, from a broader survey. Interviews were analysed thematically...
September 8, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883019/suppression-of-striatal-prediction-errors-by-the-prefrontal-cortex-in-placebo-hypoalgesia
#16
Lieven A Schenk, Christian Sprenger, Selim Onat, Luana Colloca, Christian Büchel
Classical learning theories predict extinction after discontinuation of reinforcement through prediction errors. However, placebo hypoalgesia, although mediated by associative learning, has been shown to be resistant to extinction. We tested the hypothesis that this is mediated by suppression of prediction error processing through the prefrontal cortex (PFC). We compared pain modulation through treatment cues (placebo hypoalgesia, treatment context) with pain modulation through stimulus intensity cues (stimulus context) during functional magnetic resonance imaging in 48 male and female healthy volunteers...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878069/filling-gaps-about-mimivirus-entry-uncoating-and-morphogenesis
#17
Ana Cláudia Dos Santos Pereira Andrade, Rodrigo Araújo Lima Rodrigues, Graziele Pereira Oliveira, Kétyllen Reis Andrade, Cláudio Antônio Bonjardim, Bernard La Scola, Erna Geessien Kroon, Jônatas Santos Abrahão
Since the discovery of mimivirus, its unusual structural and genomic features have raised great interest in the study of its biology; however, many aspects concerning its replication cycle remain uncertain. In this study, extensive analyses of electron microscope images, as well as biological assays, shed light on unclear points concerning the mimivirus replication cycle. Here, we demonstrate that cytochalasin treatment, a phagocytosis inhibitor, impacts negatively on the incorporation of mimivirus particles by Acanthamoeba castellanii, causing a negative effect on viral growth in amoebae monolayers...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876994/encouraging-critical-clinical-thinking-cct-skills-in-first-year-veterinary-students
#18
Duncan C Ferguson, Leslie Klis McNeil, David J Schaeffe, Eric M Mills
First-year didactic course instructors at the University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine leverage earlier clinical rotation experiences with weekly "Clinical Correlations" exercises to provide early exposure to critical clinical thinking (CCT). This study evaluated the efficacy of individual and paired group exercises on CCT development. Before and after instruction, the Cornell Critical Thinking Test (Level Z) (CCTTZ) was administered. Based on the hypothesis that students with higher scores would coach lower-scoring colleagues during group exercises, heterogeneous groups with similar mean scores were established for the year...
2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864336/analysis-of-transfusion-related-acute-lung-injury-and-possible-transfusion-related-acute-lung-injury-reported-to-the-french-hemovigilance-network-from-2007-to-2013
#19
REVIEW
Georges Andreu, Karim Boudjedir, Jean-Yves Muller, Elodie Pouchol, Yves Ozier, Guillaume Fevre, Chantal Gautreau, Jean-François Quaranta, Christian Drouet, Claire Rieux, Paul-Michel Mertes, Benoit Clavier, Monique Carlier, Imad Sandid
Using the French Hemovigilance Network database from 2007 to 2013, we provide information on demographics, incidence, and risk factors of reported transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) and possible TRALI, analyze TRALI mitigation efforts for fresh frozen plasma and platelet concentrates, and consider the impact of platelet additive solutions on TRALI incidence. We applied the Toronto consensus conference definitions for TRALI and possible TRALI. Two TRALI subgroups were considered: "antibody positive" when a donor has human leukocyte antigen (class I or II) and/or human neutrophil antigen antibodies and the recipient has cognate antigen, and "antibody negative" when immunological investigation is negative or not done...
July 15, 2017: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856091/disrupted-avoidance-learning-in-functional-neurological-disorder-implications-for-harm-avoidance-theories
#20
Laurel S Morris, Benjaman To, Kwangyeol Baek, Yee-Chien Chang-Webb, Simon Mitchell, Daniela Strelchuk, Yevheniia Mikheenko, Wendy Phillips, Michael Zandi, Allison Jenaway, Cathy Walsh, Valerie Voon
BACKGROUND: Functional neurological disorder (FND) is an elusive disorder characterized by unexplained neurological symptoms alongside aberrant cognitive processing and negative affect, often associated with amygdala reactivity. METHODS: We examined the effect of negative conditioning on cognitive function and amygdala reactivity in 25 FND patients and 20 healthy volunteers (HV). Participants were first conditioned to stimuli paired with negative affective or neutral (CS +/CS -) information...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
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