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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446868/triggering-avoidance-dissociable-influences-of-aversive-pavlovian-conditioned-stimuli-on-human-instrumental-behavior
#1
Sara Garofalo, Trevor W Robbins
The present study investigates human aversive Pavlovian-to-Instrumental Transfer (PIT) and possible influences of outcome devaluation and instrumental overtraining on this effect. PIT measures the extent to which a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS) can increase instrumental responses independently paired with the same (outcome-specific transfer) or a different (general transfer) reinforcer. Two measures of PIT were obtained: the percentage of instrumental responses and the vigor of such responses. Thirty-eight volunteers performed a standard PIT task sequence...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443718/crosstalk-between-bone-and-fat-tissue-associations-between-vitamin-d-osteocalcin-adipokines-and-markers-of-glucose-metabolism-among-adolescents
#2
Kelly Virecoulon Giudici, Regina Mara Fisberg, Dirce Maria Lobo Marchioni, Bárbara Santarosa Emo Peters, Lígia Araújo Martini
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), osteocalcin, markers of glucose metabolism, and obesity-related parameters among adolescents. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study with 198 adolescents age 14-18 years. Weight, height, and waist and hip circumferences were measured, as well as the following biochemical parameters: serum 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), total (tOC) and undercarboxylated (ucOC) osteocalcin, adiponectin, leptin, glucose, and insulin...
April 26, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441518/learning-to-allocate-limited-time-to-decisions-with-different-expected-outcomes
#3
Arash Khodadadi, Pegah Fakhari, Jerome R Busemeyer
The goal of this article is to investigate how human participants allocate their limited time to decisions with different properties. We report the results of two behavioral experiments. In each trial of the experiments, the participant must accumulate noisy information to make a decision. The participants received positive and negative rewards for their correct and incorrect decisions, respectively. The stimulus was designed such that decisions based on more accumulated information were more accurate but took longer...
April 19, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440812/biobehavioral-effects-of-baclofen-in-anxious-alcohol-dependent-individuals-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-laboratory-study
#4
M Farokhnia, M L Schwandt, M R Lee, J W Bollinger, L A Farinelli, J P Amodio, L Sewell, T A Lionetti, D E Spero, L Leggio
Baclofen has been suggested as a potential pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder, but the clinical data are conflicting. Here we investigated the biobehavioral effects of baclofen in a sample of anxious alcohol-dependent individuals. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, human laboratory study in non-treatment seeking alcohol-dependent individuals with high trait anxiety (N=34). Participants received baclofen (30 mg per day) or placebo for at least 8 days, then performed an experimental session consisting of alcohol cue-reactivity followed by alcohol administration procedure (alcohol priming, then alcohol self-administration)...
April 25, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440719/a-case-based-medical-curriculum-for-the-21st-century-the-use-of-innovative-approaches-in-designing-and-developing-a-case-on-mental-health
#5
Athanasios Hassoulas, Elizabeth Forty, Mathew Hoskins, James Walters, Stephen Riley
The introduction of case-based learning (CBL) by the School of Medicine at Cardiff University has encouraged innovation in medical teaching and learning. During years one and two of the modernized MBBCh program, students complete 17 cases as part of the newly developed C21 curriculum that emphasizes a patient-oriented and student-centered approach to learning. The mental health case, which is presented in year 2, incorporates a number of novel teaching resources that aim to enhance the students' learning experience and to further reinforce the patient-oriented and community-based philosophy of C21...
May 2017: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439076/practice-makes-perfect-self-reported-adherence-a-positive-marker-of-inhaler-technique-maintenance
#6
Elizabeth Azzi, Pamela Srour, Carol Armour, Cynthia Rand, Sinthia Bosnic-Anticevich
Poor inhaler technique and non-adherence to treatment are major problems in the management of asthma. Patients can be taught how to achieve good inhaler technique, however maintenance remains problematic, with 50% of patients unable to demonstrate correct technique. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical, patient-related and/or device-related factors that predict inhaler technique maintenance. Data from a quality-controlled longitudinal community care dataset was utilized. 238 patients using preventer medications where included...
April 24, 2017: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437762/public-attitudes-toward-depression-and-help-seeking-impact-of-the-ospi-europe-depression-awareness-campaign-in-four-european-regions
#7
Elisabeth Kohls, Evelien Coppens, Juliane Hug, Eline Wittevrongel, Chantal Van Audenhove, Nicole Koburger, Ella Arensman, András Székely, Ricardo Gusmão, Ulrich Hegerl
BACKGROUND: Public attitudes toward depression and help-seeking behaviour are important factors influencing depressed people to obtain professional help and adequate treatment. OSPI-Europe is a multi-level suicide prevention programme including a public awareness campaign. It was implemented in four regions of four European countries (Germany, Hungary, Ireland and Portugal). This paper reports the results of the evaluation of the campaign, including its visibility and effects of the campaign on stigma associated with depression and help-seeking behaviour...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434537/new-cranium-of-the-endemic-caribbean-platyrrhine-antillothrix-bernensis-from-la-altagracia-province-dominican-republic
#8
Lauren B Halenar, Siobhán B Cooke, Alfred L Rosenberger, Renato Rímoli
Recent paleontological collection in submerged caves in the eastern Dominican Republic has yielded new specimens of Antillothrix bernensis. Here we describe a complete cranium of an adult individual (MHD 20) and provide phenetic comparisons to other endemic Caribbean taxa and extant mainland platyrrhines using three-dimensional geometric morphometric methods (3DGM). Qualitative and quantitative comparisons support conclusions based on other recently described fossil material: Antillothrix has a dentition lacking clear dietary specialization, an elongated brain case with strong temporal lines, and a vertically oriented nuchal plane...
May 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434536/scaling-of-rotational-inertia-of-primate-mandibles
#9
Callum F Ross, Jose Iriarte-Diaz, Ellen Platts, Treva Walsh, Liam Heins, Geoffrey E Gerstner, Andrea B Taylor
The relative importance of pendulum mechanics and muscle mechanics in chewing dynamics has implications for understanding the optimality criteria driving the evolution of primate feeding systems. The Spring Model (Ross et al., 2009b), which modeled the primate chewing system as a forced mass-spring system, predicted that chew cycle time would increase faster than was actually observed. We hypothesized that if mandibular momentum plays an important role in chewing dynamics, more accurate estimates of the rotational inertia of the mandible would improve the accuracy with which the Spring Model predicts the scaling of primate chew cycle period...
May 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434115/interaction-of-selected-phenylpropenes-with-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine-membrane-and-their-relevance-to-antibacterial-activity
#10
Riham Gharib, Amal Najjar, Lizette Auezova, Catherine Charcosset, Hélène Greige-Gerges
The effect of structurally closely related phenylpropenes (PPs), estragole, anethole, eugenol, and isoeugenol, on the fluidity of dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline (DPPC) liposome membrane was investigated by DSC, Raman, and fluorescence anisotropy of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH). Liposomes were prepared by thin-film hydration method at various DPPC:PP molar ratios. The DPH anisotropy measurements of blank and PP-loaded liposomes were performed at 28, 41, and 50 °C, which correspond, respectively, to gel phase, main transition temperature of DPPC, and liquid phase...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431963/expansion-of-circulating-follicular-t-helper-cells-associates-with-disease-severity-in-childhood-atopic-dermatitis
#11
Krisztina Szabó, Krisztián Gáspár, Zsolt Dajnoki, Gábor Papp, Beáta Fábos, Andrea Szegedi, Margit Zeher
Follicular helper T (TFH) cells play crucial role in B-cell differentiation and antibody production. Although, atopic dermatitis (AD) is often associated with increased serum IgE levels, B-cell mediated responses have not been studied thoroughly. The aim of our study was to investigate the proportion of TFH-like cells in the disease. Twelve children and 17 adults with AD as well as 14 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. The frequency of CD4(+)CXCR5(+)ICOS(+)PD-1(+) TFH-like cells and their IL-21 cytokine production were determined by flow cytometry...
April 18, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431689/-behavioral-activation-programs-a-tool-for-treating-depression-efficiently
#12
C Dondé, R Moirand, A Carre
INTRODUCTION: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating disorder, and its treatment often requires complex and costly psychological therapies. Behavioral activation (BA) is a simple, effective and affordable psychotherapy recommended in the treatment of MDD. OBJECTIVES: (i) Explain the theoretical basis of BA and its application in clinical practice. (ii) Review the randomized controlled trials examining BA as a treatment for MDD through a systematic search of the existing literature...
April 18, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430935/sensation-seeking-and-adolescent-alcohol-use-exploring-the-mediating-role-of-unstructured-socializing-with-peers
#13
Sharon Sznitman, Batya Engel-Yeger
Background: Researchers have theorized that adolescents high in sensation seeking are particularly sensitive to positive reinforcement and the rewarding outcomes of alcohol use, and thus that the personality vulnerability is a direct causal risk factor for alcohol use. In contrast, the routine activity perspective theorizes that part of the effect of sensation seeking on alcohol use goes through the propensity that sensation seekers have towards unstructured socializing with peers. The study tests a model with indirect and direct paths from sensation seeking and participation in unstructured peer socialization to adolescent alcohol use...
May 1, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426532/impact-of-co-morbidity-and-aging-on-health-related-quality-of-life-in-hiv-positive-and-hiv-negative-individuals
#14
N Langebeek, K W Kooij, F W Wit, I G Stolte, M A G Sprangers, P Reiss, P T Nieuwkerk
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected individuals may be at risk for the premature onset of age-associated non-communicable co-morbidities. Being HIV-positive, having comorbidities and being of higher age may adversely impact health-related quality of life (HRQL). We investigated the possible contribution of HIV infection, co-morbidities, and age on HRQL and depression. METHODS: HIV-infected individuals and uninfected controls from the AGEhIV Cohort Study were screened for the presence of co-morbidities...
April 19, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426389/melatonin-and-circadian-rhythms-in-autism-case-report
#15
Gabriela Melloni Zuculo, Bruno S B Gonçalves, Clay Brittes, Luiz Menna-Barreto, Luciana Pinato
Among the most co-occurring conditions in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), there are sleep disorders which may exacerbate associated behavioral disorders and lead to intensification of existing autistic symptoms. Several studies investigating the use of melatonin in the treatment of sleep disorders in ASD have shown comparative efficiency in sleep with little or no side effects. Here we report a case of ASD with non-24-hour rhythm and the effect of melatonin in circadian parameters by actigraphy. Visual analysis of the first 10 days recorded and the periodogram suggest that this patient showed a non-24-hour rhythm...
2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424382/-near-miss-outcomes-in-gambling-games
#16
Zsuzsa Pecsenye, Gyozo Kurucz
BACKGROUND: Games of chance operate with an intermittent reinforcement schedule in which the number of games takes the player to win differ in each turn thus they can not predict when the next positive reinforcement arrives. The near miss outcome (close to winning but actually a losing outcome) can be interpreted as a secondary (built in) reinforcement within variable ratio reinforcement schedule that presumably contribute to the development and maintanance of gambling addiction. METHODS: The aim of this publication would be to introduce near miss outcomes and to summarize and critically analyze literature connected to this issue...
2017: Psychiatria Hungarica: A Magyar Pszichiátriai Társaság Tudományos Folyóirata
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423975/turning-points-in-the-lives-of-youth-of-with-without-adhd-are-they-linked-to-changes-in-substance-use
#17
Peter S Jensen, Kumi Yuki, Desiree Murray, John T Mitchell, Thomas Weisner, Steven Hinshaw, Brooke Molina, James Swanson, L Eugene Arnold, Lily Hechtman, Karen Wells
OBJECTIVE: This study examines the behavior beliefs, social supports, and turning points in individuals with/without ADHD related to their substance use/abuse (SU/A) decisions. METHOD: The coded interviews from 60 participants with/without ADHD were compared for their SU/A decisions and precipitants with these decisions among abstainers, persisters, and desisters. RESULTS: ADHD participants reported fewer social advantages to avoid SU/A than non-ADHD participants...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423928/engaging-parents-to-promote-children-s-nutrition-and-health
#18
Dipti A Dev, Courtney Byrd-Williams, Samantha Ramsay, Brent McBride, Deepa Srivastava, Ashleigh Murriel, Chrisa Arcan, Anna M Adachi-Mejia
PURPOSE: Using the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics benchmarks as a framework, this study examined childcare providers' (Head Start [HS], Child and Adult Care Food Program [CACFP] funded, and non-CACFP) perspectives regarding communicating with parents about nutrition to promote children's health. DESIGN: Qualitative. SETTING: State-licensed center-based childcare programs. PARTICIPANTS: Full-time childcare providers (n = 18) caring for children 2 to 5 years old from varying childcare contexts (HS, CACFP funded, and non-CACFP), race, education, and years of experience...
March 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423130/bovine-pericardial-patch-augmentation-of-one-insufficient-aortic-valve-cusp-with-twenty-three-year-positive-clinical-follow-up-independent-of-the-patch-degeneration
#19
Paulo Roberto Barbosa Evora, Lívia Arcêncio, Patrícia Martinez Evora, Antônio Carlos Menardi, Fernando Chahud
Scientific progress shall ultimately boost the current acceptance level for conservative aortic valve surgery. The present text aimed to report the 23-year long-term follow-up of one patient operated with bovine pericardium cusp extension. Growing confidence in the efficacy of the operation will allow a more expeditious indication for surgical treatment, as is already the case in mitral valve repair. This change of attitude will certainly make it possible for patients to be sent for operation in mild aortic valve regurgitation...
January 2017: Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421695/evaluation-of-an-interview-skills-training-package-for-adolescents-with-speech-language-and-communication-needs
#20
Rachel Mathrick, Tina Meagher, Courtenay Frazier Norbury
BACKGROUND & AIMS: We evaluated a structured intervention programme aimed at preparing adolescents with developmental language disorders for job interviews. Our primary outcome measures included change in ratings of verbal and non-verbal social communication behaviours evident during mock interviews. METHODS & PROCEDURES: In study 1, 12 participants, aged 17-19 years, from a specialist sixth-form college completed the intervention and two mock interviews, one pre- and one post-intervention...
April 18, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
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