Read by QxMD icon Read

Positive reinforcement

Cameron D Hassall, Patrick C Connor, Thomas P Trappenberg, John J McDonald, Olave E Krigolson
The visual environment is filled with complex, multi-dimensional objects that vary in their value to an observer's current goals. When faced with multi-dimensional stimuli, humans may rely on biases to learn to select those objects that are most valuable to the task at hand. Here, we show that decision making in a complex task is guided by the sparsity bias: the focusing of attention on a subset of available features. Participants completed a gambling task in which they selected complex stimuli that varied randomly along three dimensions: shape, color, and texture...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Lei Xiao, Gaurav Chattree, Francisco Garcia Oscos, Mou Cao, Matthew J Wanat, Todd F Roberts
Learning vocal behaviors, like speech and birdsong, is thought to rely on continued performance evaluation. Whether candidate performance evaluation circuits in the brain are sufficient to guide vocal learning is not known. Here, we test the sufficiency of VTA projections to the vocal basal ganglia in singing zebra finches, a songbird species that learns to produce a complex and stereotyped multi-syllabic courtship song during development. We optogenetically manipulate VTA axon terminals in singing birds contingent on how the pitch of an individual song syllable is naturally performed...
March 14, 2018: Neuron
Chicora F Oliver, Steven J Simmons, Sunil U Nayak, Garry R Smith, Allen B Reitz, Scott M Rawls
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Little is known about how chemokine systems influence the behavioral effects of designer cathinones and psychostimulants. The chemokine CXCL12 and its principal receptor target, CXCR4, are of particular interest because CXCR4 activation enhances mesolimbic dopamine output that facilitates psychostimulant reward, reinforcement, and locomotor activation. Repeated cocaine enhances CXCL12 gene expression in the midbrain and produces conditioned place preference (CPP) that is inhibited by a CXCR4 antagonist...
March 10, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Marie Toutfaire, Elise Dumortier, Antoine Fattaccioli, Martine Van Steenbrugge, Charlotte M Proby, Florence Debacq-Chainiaux
Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma (cSCC) is the second most common type of non-melanoma skin cancer in white-skinned populations. cSCC is associated with sun exposure and aging, which is concomitant with an accumulation of senescent cells in the skin. The involvement of senescent cells in carcinogenesis has been highlighted in several cancer types and an interaction between cSCC cells and senescent cells is proposed, but still little explored. Tumor-associated effects are mostly attributed to the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP)...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Julia Twichell, Richard Pollnac, Patrick Christie
International interest in increasing marine protected area (MPA) coverage reflects broad recognition of the MPA as a key tool for marine ecosystems and fisheries management. Nevertheless, effective management remains a significant challenge. The present study contributes to enriching an understanding of best practices for MPA management through analysis of archived community survey data collected in the Philippines by the Learning Project (LP), a collaboration with United States Coral Triangle Initiative (USCTI), United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and partners...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Management
Amelia Swanson, Jessica Geller, Kelly DeMartini, Anne Fernandez, Dwain Fehon
Without a transplant, end-stage liver disease is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Transplant candidates endure physical and psychological stress while awaiting surgery, yet little is known about the relationship between physical health and psychological resilience during the wait-list period. This study examined predictors of psychological resilience and mediators of the relationship between physical health and psychological resilience in liver transplant candidates. Wait-listed candidates (N = 120) from a single Northeast transplant center completed assessments of physical functioning, coping, perceived social support, and resilience...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
Meryem Mniouil, Hajiba Fellah, Fatima Amarir, Abderrahim Sadak, Abdeslam Et-Touys, Youssef Bakri, Aziza Moustachi, Fatima Zahraa Tassou, Mostapha Hida, Mohamed Lyagoubi, El Bachir Adlaoui, Mohamed Rhajaoui, Faiza Sebti
A rapid, sensitive and specific tool for detection of Leishmania infantum infection in Humans would be highly desirable, because it would allow control interventions in endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis. This study was carried out at the Reference National Laboratory of Leishmaniasis (RNLL) in National Institute of Hygiene (NIH) Morocco, in order to evaluate the diagnostic potential of immunochromatographic dipstick test (ICT) rk39 in Moroccan suspected VL patients. A total of 49 admitted patients with strong clinical suspicion of VL and 40 healthy controls were investigated for the performance of the ICT rk39...
March 12, 2018: Acta Tropica
Tarek Nehad, Tamer Salem, Mohamed Nagy Elmohamady
Background: Convergence Insufficiency (CI) is a common binocular vision disorder characterized by exophoria more at near than at far, a receded Near Point of Convergence (NPC), and decreased Positive Fusional Vergence (PFV) at near. This disorder is often associated with several symptoms that may disturb the person's quality of life. Therefore, diagnosis and treatment of CI is a vital issue. Objectives: To compare therapeutic yield of Office Based Vision Therapy (OBVT) and combined OBVT with Home Therapy System (HTS) in patients with CI...
2018: Open Ophthalmology Journal
Poornima Kumar, Franziska Goer, Laura Murray, Daniel G Dillon, Miranda L Beltzer, Andrew L Cohen, Nancy H Brooks, Diego A Pizzagalli
Anhedonia (hyposensitivity to rewards) and negative bias (hypersensitivity to punishments) are core features of major depressive disorder (MDD), which could stem from abnormal reinforcement learning. Emerging evidence highlights blunted reward learning and reward prediction error (RPE) signaling in the striatum in MDD, although inconsistencies exist. Preclinical studies have clarified that ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons encode RPE and habenular neurons encode punishment prediction error (PPE), which are then transmitted to the striatum and cortex to guide goal-directed behavior...
February 26, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Filomena E C de Alencar, Rosely Dos Santos Malafronte, Crispim Cerutti Junior, Lícia Natal Fernandes, Julyana Cerqueira Buery, Blima Fux, Helder Ricas Rezende, Ana Maria Ribeiro de Castro Duarte, Antonio Ralph Medeiros-Sousa, Angelica Espinosa Miranda
BACKGROUND: The hypotheses put forward to explain the malaria transmission cycle in extra-Amazonian Brazil, an area of very low malaria incidence, are based on either a zoonotic scenario involving simian malaria, or a scenario in which asymptomatic carriers play an important role. OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of asymptomatic infection by detecting Plasmodium spp. DNA and its role in residual malaria transmission in a non-Amazonian region of Brazil. METHODS: Upon the report of the first malaria case in 2010 in the Atlantic Forest region of the state of Espírito Santo, inhabitants within a 2 km radius were invited to participate in a follow-up study...
March 14, 2018: Malaria Journal
Guilherme Almeida Rosa da Silva, Heloisa Loureiro de Sá Neves Motta, Erik Friedrich Alex de Souza, Pedro Afonso Nogueira Moises Cardoso, José Henrique Pilotto, Walter Araujo Eyer-Silva, Luiz Cláudio Pereira Ribeiro, Mônica Soares Dos Santos, Marcelo Costa Velho Mendes de Azevedo, Jorge Francisco da Cunha Pinto, Rogerio Neves Motta, Fernando Raphael de Almeida Ferry
OBJECTIVES: The increase in HIV transmissibility in non-ulcerative sexually transmitted infection is already well-established. It is estimated that symptomatic carriers of N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis have a relative risk of 4.8-fold and 3.6-fold, respectively, for the sexual acquisition of HIV. This type of evaluation for asymptomatic urethritis is necessary to reinforce strategies to combat HIV transmission. This study aims to assess the prevalence of patients with asymptomatic urethritis among men diagnosed with HIV-1 and determine the risk factors associated with this infection...
March 8, 2018: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
Katia Nemr, Ariane Cota, Domingos Tsuji, Marcia Simões-Zenari
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the voice quality of individuals with dysphonia and to investigate possible correlations between the degree of voice deviation (D) and scores on the Dysphonia Risk Screening Protocol-General (DRSP), the Voice-Related Quality of Life (V-RQOL) measure and the Voice Handicap Index, short version (VHI-10). METHODS: The sample included 200 individuals with dysphonia. Following laryngoscopy, the participants completed the DRSP, the V-RQOL measure, and the VHI-10; subsequently, voice samples were recorded for auditory-perceptual and acoustic analyses...
March 12, 2018: Clinics
Tzu-Hsiang Lin, Amber Denomme, Rajiv Ranganathan
One of the characteristic features of the human motor system is redundancy-i.e., the ability to achieve a given task outcome using multiple coordination patterns. However, once participants settle on using a specific coordination pattern, the process of learning to use a new alternative coordination pattern to perform the same task is still poorly understood. Here, using two experiments, we examined this process of how participants shift from one coordination pattern to another using different reinforcement schedules...
March 13, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Marisa E Hilliard, Sahar S Eshtehardi, Charles G Minard, Rana Saber, Debbe Thompson, Lefkothea P Karaviti, Yuliana Rojas, Barbara J Anderson
BACKGROUND: Supportive parent involvement for adolescents' type 1 diabetes (T1D) self-management promotes optimal diabetes outcomes. However, family conflict is common and can interfere with collaborative family teamwork. Few interventions have used explicitly strengths-based approaches to help reinforce desired management behaviors and promote positive family interactions around diabetes care. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this protocol was to describe the development of a new, strengths-based behavioral intervention for parents of adolescents with T1D delivered via a mobile-friendly Web app called Type 1 Doing Well...
March 13, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Ellen S Deutsch
Physician psychological wellness is an emergent outcome resulting from dynamic interactions among complex conditions. We may enhance opportunities for physician wellness by applying principles developed to improve another emergent outcome: patient safety. The Safety I approach to patient safety focuses on "what went wrong" and considers humans a liability. Safety II is a powerful complementary approach that focuses on "what went right" and values human creativity. These contrasting perspectives are described in the context of patient safety, but the underlying principles have relevance for physician psychological wellness...
March 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Nichole L Hodges, Sarah E Anderson, Lara B McKenzie, Mira L Katz
INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of certified nurse-midwives related to sudden infant death syndrome and infant safe sleep. However, this population is an important and trusted source of information for pregnant women and may provide guidance on infant care. We explored these topics with certified nurse-midwives to identify potential barriers as well as enabling and reinforcing factors associated with providing infant safe sleep education in the prenatal health care environment...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
Christopher M Shea, Kea Turner, Jordan Albritton, Kristin L Reiter
BACKGROUND: Recent emphasis on value-based health care has highlighted the importance of quality improvement (QI) in primary care settings. QI efforts, which require providers and staff to work in cross-functional teams, may be implemented with varying levels of success, with implementation being affected by factors at the organizational, teamwork, and individual levels. PURPOSE: The purpose of our study was to (a) identify contextual factors (organizational, teamwork, and individual) that affect implementation effectiveness of QI interventions in primary care settings and (b) compare perspectives about these factors across roles (health care administrators, physician and nonphysician clinicians, and administrative staff)...
March 12, 2018: Health Care Management Review
Patrizia Piotti, Liam Paul Satchell, Tom Steven Lockhart
Trait impulsivity is an increasingly relevant topic for human and non-human animal personality research. There are similarities in dog and human manifestations of trait impulsivity at the behavioural, genetic, and neurobiological level. We investigated a well-validated measure of dog impulsivity and responsivity (the Dog Impulsivity Assessment Scale, DIAS) and a neuropsychological theory of human trait approach and avoidance (the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory of personality, RST). Owners reported their dogs' dispositional behaviour on the DIAS, an RST scale modified to describe dogs' behaviour, and a list of common dog behaviour problems...
March 9, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Zahra Lotfi, Foroozan Atashzadeh-Shoorideh, Jamileh Mohtashami, Maliheh Nasiri
AIM: To determine the relationship between ethical leadership, organisational commitment of nurses and their perception of patient safety culture. BACKGROUND: Patient safety, organisational commitment and ethical leadership styles are very important for improving the quality of nursing care. METHODS: In this descriptive-correlational study, 340 nurses were selected using random sampling from the hospitals in Tehran in 2016. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics in SPSS v...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Nursing Management
Fernando Schemelzer Moraes Bezerra, Joames Kauffimann Freitas Leal, Mariana Silva Sousa, Marta Cristhiany Cunha Pinheiro, Alberto Novaes Ramos, Vanessa Silva-Moraes, Naftale Katz
Schistosomiasis is still a public health problem in Brazil. The Kato-Katz test is the most frequently used diagnostic method for Schistosoma mansoni infection. However, it lacks sensitivity in areas of low prevalence. We have assessed the positivity rate of S. mansoni infection in Bananeiras, a village on Capistrano, Ceara, Brazil by performing a point-of-care test in urine to determine the circulating cathodic antigens (POC-CCA), and we compared the findings with those of the Kato-Katz technique for egg detection in stool and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for specific antibodies against adult worms (SWAP-ELISA) in serum before treatment (baseline)...
March 8, 2018: Acta Tropica
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"