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Positive reinforcement

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809398/precision-medicine-for-suicidality-from-universality-to-subtypes-and-personalization
#1
A B Niculescu, H Le-Niculescu, D F Levey, P L Phalen, H L Dainton, K Roseberry, E M Niculescu, J O Niezer, A Williams, D L Graham, T J Jones, V Venugopal, A Ballew, M Yard, T Gelbart, S M Kurian, A Shekhar, N J Schork, G E Sandusky, D R Salomon
Suicide remains a clear, present and increasing public health problem, despite being a potentially preventable tragedy. Its incidence is particularly high in people with overt or un(der)diagnosed psychiatric disorders. Objective and precise identification of individuals at risk, ways of monitoring response to treatments and novel preventive therapeutics need to be discovered, employed and widely deployed. We sought to investigate whether blood gene expression biomarkers for suicide (that is, a 'liquid biopsy' approach) can be identified that are more universal in nature, working across psychiatric diagnoses and genders, using larger cohorts than in previous studies...
August 15, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808873/elevated-hu-antigen-receptor-hur-expression-is-associated-with-tumor-aggressiveness-and-poor-prognosis-but-not-with-cox-2-expression-in-invasive-breast-carcinoma-patients
#2
Constantinos Giaginis, Anastasia Sampani, Iolly Kotta-Loizou, Ioanna Giannopoulou, Eugene Danas, Ekaterini Politi, Gerasimos Tsourouflis, Gregorios Kouraklis, Efstratios Patsouris, Antonios Keramopoulos, Lydia Nakopoulou, Stamatios Theocharis
Hu-antigen R (HuR), a RNA-binding protein, is considered to play a crucial role in tumor development and progression by stabilizing or regulating a group of cellular mRNAs of cancer-related genes, such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of HuR and COX-2 expression in invasive breast carcinoma. HuR and COX-2 protein expression was assessed immunohistochemically on paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissue sections obtained from 121 patients and was statistically analyzed with clinicopathological parameters, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), as well as with tumor cells' proliferative capacity and overall and disease-free patients' survival...
August 14, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806649/firm-performance-and-the-role-of-environmental-management
#3
Tommy Lundgren, Wenchao Zhou
This paper analyzes the interactions between three dimensions of firm performance - productivity, energy efficiency, and environmental performance - and especially sheds light on the role of environmental management. In this context, environmental management is investments to reduce environmental impact, which may also affect firm competitiveness, in terms of change in productivity, and spur more (or less) efficient use of energy. We apply data envelopment analysis (DEA) technique to calculate the Malmquist firm performance indexes, and a panel vector auto-regression (VAR) methodology is utilized to investigate the dynamic and causal relationship between the three dimensions of firm performance and environmental investment...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806614/altered-interaction-with-environmental-reinforcers-in-major-depressive-disorder-relationship-to-anhedonia
#4
Joanna E Szczepanik, Maura L Furey, Allison C Nugent, Ioline D Henter, Carlos A Zarate, Carl W Lejuez
Anhedonia-defined as loss of interest or pleasure-is one of two core symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD). Anhedonia may involve decreased enjoyment of potentially rewarding activities and decreased motivation to engage in such activities. Increased engagement with reinforcers-activities with the potential to be positive experiences-is a frequent target of cognitive-behavioral therapies. Nevertheless, how environmental reinforcers are perceived, and how decisions to approach or avoid them are made by individuals with MDD, is largely unknown...
August 3, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800597/confirmation-bias-in-human-reinforcement-learning-evidence-from-counterfactual-feedback-processing
#5
Stefano Palminteri, Germain Lefebvre, Emma J Kilford, Sarah-Jayne Blakemore
Previous studies suggest that factual learning, that is, learning from obtained outcomes, is biased, such that participants preferentially take into account positive, as compared to negative, prediction errors. However, whether or not the prediction error valence also affects counterfactual learning, that is, learning from forgone outcomes, is unknown. To address this question, we analysed the performance of two groups of participants on reinforcement learning tasks using a computational model that was adapted to test if prediction error valence influences learning...
August 11, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796202/the-complete-connectome-of-a-learning-and-memory-centre-in-an-insect-brain
#6
Katharina Eichler, Feng Li, Ashok Litwin-Kumar, Youngser Park, Ingrid Andrade, Casey M Schneider-Mizell, Timo Saumweber, Annina Huser, Claire Eschbach, Bertram Gerber, Richard D Fetter, James W Truman, Carey E Priebe, L F Abbott, Andreas S Thum, Marta Zlatic, Albert Cardona
Associating stimuli with positive or negative reinforcement is essential for survival, but a complete wiring diagram of a higher-order circuit supporting associative memory has not been previously available. Here we reconstruct one such circuit at synaptic resolution, the Drosophila larval mushroom body. We find that most Kenyon cells integrate random combinations of inputs but that a subset receives stereotyped inputs from single projection neurons. This organization maximizes performance of a model output neuron on a stimulus discrimination task...
August 9, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794447/the-role-of-local-heating-in-the-2015-indian-heat-wave
#7
Debjani Ghatak, Benjamin Zaitchik, Christopher Hain, Martha Anderson
India faced a major heat wave during the summer of 2015. Temperature anomalies peaked in the dry period before the onset of the summer monsoon, suggesting that local land-atmosphere feedbacks involving desiccated soils and vegetation might have played a role in driving the heat extreme. Upon examination of in situ data, reanalysis, satellite observations, and land surface models, we find that the heat wave included two distinct peaks: one in late May, and a second in early June. During the first peak we find that clear skies led to a positive net radiation anomaly at the surface, but there is no significant sensible heat flux anomaly within the core of the heat wave affected region...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792571/-improving-population-mental-health-by-integrating-mental-health-care-into-primary-care
#8
Matthew Menear, Michel Gilbert, Marie-Josée Fleury
Objective The objectives of this review were to identify and compare major international initiatives aiming to integrate mental health services in primary care and to summarize the lessons learned for similar integration efforts in the province of Quebec, Canada.Methods We conducted a narrative review of the literature guided by a conceptual framework drawn from the literature on integrated care. We identified relevant initiatives to support primary mental health care integration through Pubmed searches and through previous systematic reviews on this topic...
2017: Santé Mentale Au Québec
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780356/then-and-now-consumption-and-dependence-in-e-cigarette-users-who-formerly-smoked-cigarettes
#9
Matthew Browne, Daniel G Todd
Electronic cigarette use, or vaping, continues to be a focus for regulators and policy makers in public health, particularly since it can compete with or be a substitute for smoking. This study investigated characteristics of nicotine dependence and consumption in a sample of vapers who formerly smoked cigarettes. We recruited 436 (80% male) vapers from several internet discussion forums; 95% of whom previously smoked, but ceased after commencing vaping. These participants completed a retrospective version of the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND-R), as well as a version modified to suit current vaping (FTND-V), along with measures of consumption...
July 28, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780245/prevalence-and-virulence-gene-profiling-of-enteroaggregative-escherichia-coli-in-malnourished-and-nourished-brazilian-children
#10
Alexandre Havt, Ila Fn Lima, Pedro Hqs Medeiros, Marco Af Clementino, Ana Ks Santos, Marília Smg Amaral, Herlice N Veras, Mara Mg Prata, Noélia L Lima, Alessandra Di Moura, Álvaro M Leite, Alberto M Soares, José Q Filho, Eric R Houpt, James P Nataro, Richard L Guerrant, Aldo Am Lima
The impact of enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) infection on childhood malnutrition and inflammation has been suggested, regardless of diarrhea. We investigated whether EAEC and its virulence-related genes (VRGs) are associated with malnutrition in a case-control study. Children aged 6-24 months from Brazil were enrolled as malnourished if weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ) ≤ -2 and nourished if WAZ > -1. Stools were cultured and examined for E. coli. DNA was extracted from fecal isolates and tested for EAEC by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
July 4, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776902/why-animal-de-liberation-survives-early-criticism-and-is-pivotal-to-public-health
#11
Jan Deckers
In 2016, the book Animal (De)liberation: Should the Consumption of Animal Products Be Banned? was published. This article aims to engage with the critique that this book has received and to clarify and reinforce its importance for human health. It is argued that the ideas developed in the book withstand critical scrutiny. As qualified moral veganism avoids the pitfalls of other moral positions on human diets, public health policies must be altered accordingly, subject to adequate political support for its associated vegan project...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776834/overt-and-relational-aggression-participant-role-behavior-measurement-and-relations-with-sociometric-status-and-depression
#12
Deborah M Casper, Noel A Card, Sheri Bauman, Russell B Toomey
This study is the first to measure participant role behavior across overt and relational forms of aggression. The Overt and Relational Aggression Participant Role Behavior Scales were designed to measure aggression, assisting, reinforcing, defending, victimization, and outsider behavior during acts of peer aggression in an ethnically diverse sample of 609 adolescents (M age = 12 years). The data fit the hypothesized 12-factor model, and measurement invariance was established across gender. Relational victimization, but not overt victimization, was positively associated with all other relational aggression roles...
September 2017: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776706/exploring-jordan-s-rule-in-pacific-three-spined-stickleback-gasterosteus-aculeatus
#13
M R J Morris, E Petrovitch, E Bowles, H A Jamniczky, S M Rogers
Coastal marine Gasterosteus aculeatus were captured from seven locations along the Pacific coast of North America, ranging across 21·8° latitude to test Jordan's rule, i.e. that vertebral number should increase with increasing latitude for related populations of fish. Vertebral number significantly increased with increasing latitude for both total and caudal vertebral number. Increasing length with latitude (sensu Bergmann's rule) was also supported, but the predictions for Jordan's rule held when controlling for standard length...
August 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775187/a-qualitative-study-of-pregnancy-related-anxiety-among-women-in-tanzania
#14
Melanie King Rosario, Shahirose Sadrudin Premji, Elias Charles Nyanza, Shelley Raffin Bouchal, David Este
OBJECTIVES: To explore and understand the experiences and priorities of pregnant women living with fears and worries related to fetal/infant and maternal health, the birthing process and ability to parent the infant (ie, pregnancy-related anxiety (PRA)) in Mwanza, Tanzania. DESIGN: Descriptive phenomenological approach. SETTING: Two clinics in the Ilemela and Nyamagana districts of Mwanza. PARTICIPANTS: Pregnant and postpartum women who obtained high scores on a PRA scale during pregnancy in a larger quantitative study were contacted to participate in an interview (10 women, aged 18-34 years; 3 HIV positive)...
August 3, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774112/enhancing-the-hydrophilicity-and-cell-attachment-of-3d-printed-pcl-graphene-scaffolds-for-bone-tissue-engineering
#15
Weiguang Wang, Guilherme Caetano, William Stephen Ambler, Jonny James Blaker, Marco Andrey Frade, Parthasarathi Mandal, Carl Diver, Paulo Bártolo
Scaffolds are physical substrates for cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation, ultimately leading to the regeneration of tissues. They must be designed according to specific biomechanical requirements, i.e., certain standards in terms of mechanical properties, surface characteristics, porosity, degradability, and biocompatibility. The optimal design of a scaffold for a specific tissue strongly depends on both materials and manufacturing processes, as well as surface treatment. Polymeric scaffolds reinforced with electro-active particles could play a key role in tissue engineering by modulating cell proliferation and differentiation...
December 7, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773824/hybrid-effect-evaluation-of-steel-fiber-and-carbon-fiber-on-the-performance-of-the-fiber-reinforced-concrete
#16
Weimin Song, Jian Yin
Fiber reinforcement is an important method to enhance the performance of concrete. In this study, the compressive test and impact test were conducted, and then the hybrid effect between steel fiber (SF) and carbon fiber (CF) was evaluated by employing the hybrid effect index. Compressive toughness and impact toughness of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC), carbon fiber reinforced concrete (CFRC) and hybrid fiber reinforced concrete (HFRC) were explored at steel fiber volume fraction 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and carbon fiber 0...
August 18, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772983/fracture-surface-morphology-and-impact-strength-of-cellulose-pla-composites
#17
Honghong Gao, Tao Qiang
Polylactide (PLA)-based composite materials reinforced with ball-milled celluloses were manufactured by extrusion blending followed by injection molding. Their surface morphology from impact fracture were imaged with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and investigated by calculating their fractal dimensions. Then, linear regression was used to explore the relationship between fractal dimension and impact strength of the resultant cellulose/PLA composite materials. The results show that filling the ball-milled celluloses into PLA can improve the impact toughness of PLA by a minimum of 38%...
June 7, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772756/the-brittleness-and-chemical-stability-of-optimized-geopolymer-composites
#18
Michaela Steinerova, Lenka Matulova, Pavel Vermach, Jindrich Kotas
Geopolymers are known as high strength and durable construction materials but have a brittle fracture. In practice, this results in a sudden collapse at ultimate load, without any chance of preventing the breakdown of parts or of withstanding the stress for some time. Glass fiber usage as a total anisotropic shape acting as a compact structure component should hinder the fracture mechanism. The optimized compositions in this study led to a significant reinforcement, especially in the case of flexural strength, but also in terms of the compressive strength and notch toughness...
April 9, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770683/plasma-testosterone-levels-increase-with-expression-of-male-ornaments-during-mating-but-not-incubation-in-japanese-barn-swallows
#19
Masaru Hasegawa, Emi Arai, Megumi Sato, Hidetsugu Sakai
Recent experimental studies involving the manipulation of sexual traits have demonstrated that sexual trait expression feeds back to testosterone levels, perhaps via social interactions, reinforcing the linkage between sexual trait expression and testosterone levels during the mating period. However, information on this reinforcement under the natural variation of sexual traits remains limited. Using Japanese barn swallows, Hirundo rustica gutturalis, in which extra-pair paternity is quite rare (< 3%), we studied the relationship between plasma testosterone level and a male sexual trait, throat patch size, during the mating and incubation periods...
August 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767472/intrathecal-migration-of-an-epidural-catheter-while-using-a-programmed-intermittent-epidural-bolus-technique-for-labor-analgesia-maintenance-a-case-report
#20
Francesca Betti, Brendan Carvalho, Edward T Riley
We describe a case of intrathecal migration of a wire-reinforced epidural catheter in a parturient who received epidural labor analgesia. Epidural analgesia was initiated with a combined-spinal epidural technique and maintained by programmed intermittent epidural boluses. Epidural catheter aspiration after insertion was negative for cerebrospinal fluid. The patient's response to the first four doses of local anesthetic was consistent with epidural drug delivery. After the fifth dose, she developed a complete lower extremity motor block, hypotension, and high sensory blockade...
August 1, 2017: A & A Case Reports
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