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Positive reinforcement

Daryl C Yang, Jennifer R Deuis, Daniel Dashevsky, James Dobson, Timothy N W Jackson, Andreas Brust, Bing Xie, Ivan Koludarov, Jordan Debono, Iwan Hendrikx, Wayne C Hodgson, Peter Josh, Amanda Nouwens, Gregory J Baillie, Timothy J C Bruxner, Paul F Alewood, Kelvin Kok Peng Lim, Nathaniel Frank, Irina Vetter, Bryan G Fry
Millions of years of evolution have fine-tuned the ability of venom peptides to rapidly incapacitate both prey and potential predators. Toxicofera reptiles are characterized by serous-secreting mandibular or maxillary glands with heightened levels of protein expression. These glands are the core anatomical components of the toxicoferan venom system, which exists in myriad points along an evolutionary continuum. Neofunctionalisation of toxins is facilitated by positive selection at functional hotspots on the ancestral protein and venom proteins have undergone dynamic diversification in helodermatid and varanid lizards as well as advanced snakes...
October 18, 2016: Toxins
Damien Seth Hunter, Susan J Hazel, Karen L Kind, Hong Liu, Danila Marini, Lynne C Giles, Miles J De Blasio, Julie A Owens, Julia B Pitcher, Kathryn L Gatford
Poor perinatal growth in humans results in asymmetrical grey matter loss in fetuses and infants and increased functional and behavioural asymmetry, but specific contributions of pre- and postnatal growth are unclear. We therefore compared strength and direction of lateralization in obstacle avoidance and maze exit preference tasks in offspring of placentally restricted (PR: 10M, 13F) and control (CON: 23M, 17F) sheep pregnancies at 18 and 40 weeks of age, and examined gross brain structure of the prefrontal cortex at 52 weeks of age (PR: 14M, 18F; CON: 23M, 25F)...
October 19, 2016: Laterality
Adrian Noriega De La Colina, Rong Wu, Laurence Desjardins-Crépeau, Pierre Larochelle, Maxime Lamarre-Cliche, Louis Bherer, Hélène Girouard
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess cognitive performance in older adults treated and controlled for blood pressure (BP) when compared to untreated normotensive subjects, and to determine whether blood pressure still correlates with poorer cognitive performances. DESIGN AND METHOD: Forty-eight older adults aged between 65 and 85 years were recruited in the community and divided into two groups: normotensive (n = 26) and controlled hypertensive (n = 22)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
David Mathar, Leonora Wilkinson, Anna K Holl, Jane Neumann, Lorenz Deserno, Arno Villringer, Marjan Jahanshahi, Annette Horstmann
Incidental learning of appropriate stimulus-response associations is crucial for optimal functioning within our complex environment. Positive and negative prediction errors (PEs) serve as neural teaching signals within distinct ('direct'/'indirect') dopaminergic pathways to update associations and optimize subsequent behavior. Using a computational reinforcement learning model, we assessed learning from positive and negative PEs on a probabilistic task (Weather Prediction Task - WPT) in three populations that allow different inferences on the role of dopamine (DA) signals: (1) Healthy volunteers that repeatedly underwent [(11)C]raclopride Positron Emission Tomography (PET), allowing for assessment of striatal DA release during learning, (2) Parkinson's disease (PD) patients tested both on and off L-DOPA medication, (3) early Huntington's disease (HD) patients, a disease that is associated with hyper-activation of the 'direct' pathway...
September 19, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Derek D Satre, Andrea Altschuler, Sujaya Parthasarathy, Michael J Silverberg, Paul Volberding, Cynthia I Campbell
OBJECTIVES: This study examined implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in relation to HIV-positive patient enrollment in an integrated health care system; as well as changes in new enrollee characteristics, benefit structure and health care utilization after key ACA provisions went into effect in 2014. METHODS: This mixed-methods study was set in Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC). Qualitative interviews with 29 KPNC leaders explored planning for ACA implementation...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Matthew J Mimiaga, Elizabeth F Closson, Shanice Battle, Jeffrey H Herbst, Damian Denson, Nicole Pitts, Jeremy Holman, Stewart Landers, Gordon Mansergh
Men who have sex with men (MSM) of color are disproportionately affected by HIV in the United States. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) using antiretroviral medications is a newer biomedical prevention modality with established efficacy for reducing the risk of acquiring HIV. We conducted formative qualitative research to explore audience reactions and receptivity to message concepts on PrEP as part of the development of prevention messages to promote PrEP awareness among black and Latino MSM in the United States...
October 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Roos Haer, Katharin Hermenau, Thomas Elbert, James K Moran, Tobias Hecker
It has been postulated that the violent behavior that characterizes armed conflict is reinforced by the possibility of receiving rewards. The present study examined the potential influence of two types of rewards in an ongoing setting of conflict: extrinsic and intrinsic rewards. Former combatants active in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (N = 198) were interviewed and questioned about the way they were recruited, the offenses they committed during combat, their level of perceived intrinsic rewards (i...
October 17, 2016: Aggressive Behavior
Mark Galizio, Brooke April, Melissa Deal, Andrew Hawkey, Danielle Panoz-Brown, Ashley Prichard, Katherine Bruce
The Odor Span Task is an incrementing non-matching-to-sample procedure that permits the study of behavior under the control of multiple stimuli. Rats are exposed to a series of odor stimuli and selection of new stimuli is reinforced. Successful performance thus requires remembering which stimuli have previously been presented during a given session. This procedure has been frequently used in neurobiological studies as a rodent model of working memory; however, only a few studies have examined the effects of drugs on performance in this task...
October 17, 2016: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Jonathan M Highsmith, Karl L Wuensch, Tuan Tran, Alexandra J Stephenson, D Erik Everhart
ERP studies commonly utilize gambling-based reinforcement tasks to elicit feedback negativity (FN) responses. This study used a pattern learning task in order to limit gambling-related fallacious reasoning and possible affective responses to gambling, while investigating relationships between the FN components between high and low reward expectation conditions. Eighteen undergraduates completed measures of reinforcement sensitivity, trait and state affect, and psychophysiological recording. The pattern learning task elicited a FN component for both high and low win expectancy conditions, which was found to be independent of reward expectation and showed little relationship with task and personality variables...
April 18, 2016: Brain Informatics
Victoria Shier, Eric Trieu, David A Ganz
BACKGROUND: The United States Preventive Services Task Force recommends exercise to prevent falls in community-dwelling adults aged ≥ 65 years at increased fall risk. However, little is known about how best to implement exercise programs in routine care when a patient's need for exercise is identified within the healthcare system. METHODS: Using a qualitative approach, we reviewed the literature to determine how exercise programs to prevent falls are implemented from the vantage point of a health care setting...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
Thomas H Hartranft, Kurt Yandle, Tim Graham, Charles Holden, Lowell W Chambers
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of a newly implemented electronic web-based review system created at our institution for evaluating resident performance relative to established milestones. DESIGN: Retrospective review of data collected from a survey of general surgery faculty and residents. SETTING: Tertiary care teaching hospital system and independent academic medical center. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 12 general surgery faculty and 17 general surgery residents participated in this study...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Surgical Education
Sandra Murcia, Ellen Lavoie, Tim Linley, Arun Devaraj, E Alex Ossa, D Arola
Fish scales exhibit a unique balance of flexibility, strength and toughness, which is essential to provide protection without encumbering locomotion. Although the mechanical behavior and structure of this natural armor are of recent interest, a comparison of these qualities from scales of different fish species has not been reported. In this investigation the armor of fish with different locomotion, size and protection needs were analyzed. Scales from the Arapaima gigas, the tarpon (Megalops atlanticus) and the carp (Cyprinus carpio) were compared in terms of the stacking sequence of individual plies and their microstructure...
September 20, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
G Iakimova, S Dimitrova, T Burté
OBJECTIVES: Computer-delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapies (C-CBT) are emerging as therapeutic techniques which contribute to overcome the barriers of health care access in adult populations with depression. The C-CBTs provide CBT techniques in a highly structured format comprising a number of educational lessons, homework, multimedia illustrations and supplementary materials via interactive computer interfaces. Programs are often administrated with a minimal or regular support provided by a clinician or a technician via email, telephone, online forums, or during face-to-face consultations...
October 10, 2016: L'Encéphale
Sonika Ahlawat, Sachinandan De, Priyanka Sharma, Rekha Sharma, Reena Arora, R S Kataria, T K Datta, R K Singh
Hybrid sterility or reproductive isolation in mammals has been attributed to allelic incompatibilities in a DNA-binding protein PRDM9. Not only is PRDM9 exceptional in being the only known 'speciation gene' in vertebrates, but it is also considered to be the fastest evolving gene in the genome. The terminal zinc finger (ZF) domain of PRDM9 specifies genome-wide meiotic recombination hotspot locations in mammals. Intriguingly, PRDM9 ZF domain is highly variable between as well as within species, possibly activating different recombination hotspots...
October 15, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Filippo Benedetto, Domenico Spinelli, Narayana Pipitò, Giambattista Gagliardo, Alberto Noto, Simona Villari, Antonio David, Francesco Spinelli
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the outcomes of a vascular hybrid polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft, provided with a nitinol-reinforced section (NRS) on one end, in hemodialysis vascular access placement. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted including all the consecutive patients who underwent Gore Hybrid Vascular Graft (GHVG; W. L. Gore & Associates, Flagstaff, Ariz) implantation for hemodialysis access placement between October 2013 and November 2015...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Pierluca Vitale, Noemi Arena, Fabrizio Di Gregorio, Umberto Arena
The study investigates the potential environmental impacts related to the end-of-life phase of a residential building, identified in a multifamily dwelling of three levels, constructed in the South of Italy by utilizing conventional materials and up-to-date procedures. An attributional life cycle assessment has been utilised to quantify the contributions of each stage of the end-of-life phase, with a particular attention to the management of the demolition waste. The investigation takes into account the selective demolition, preliminary sorting and collection of main components of the building, together with the processes of sorting, recycling and/or disposal of main fractions of the demolition waste...
October 11, 2016: Waste Management
Rongshuai Wang, Luo Zhuo, Yunyun Wang, Liang Ren, Qian Liu, Liang Liu
BACKGROUND: Tetramine (tetramethylene disulphotetramine, TETS) and fluoroacetamide (FAA) are known as illegal rodenticides with high toxicity to animal species and human beings, which could lead to severe clinical features, including reduction of consciousness, convulsions, coma, and even death. METHODS AND RESULTS: We presented 2 cases that involved rodenticides poisoning. Even though the patients showed severe manifestations, they were initially misdiagnosed, resulting in 2 persons finally died from TETS and FAA poisoning in homicide cases...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Marita Campos-Melady, Jane Ellen Smith, Robert J Meyers, Susan H Godley, Mark D Godley
Central to the debate over the implementation of empirically supported treatments is whether therapist skill has a measurable, positive relationship with client outcome. The fidelity and skill with which therapists deliver treatments have been studied under the constructs of adherence and competence. Evidence for a relationship between adherence and competence and client outcomes has been mixed, possibly due to small sample sizes, potentially inadequate measures for rating therapists' skill, and limited statistical methods...
October 13, 2016: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
E Patitucci, A J D Nelson, Dominic M Dwyer, R C Honey
Laboratory rats can exhibit marked, qualitative individual differences in the form of acquired behaviors. For example, when exposed to a signal-reinforcer relationship some rats show marked and consistent changes in sign-tracking (interacting with the signal; e.g., a lever) and others show marked and consistent changes in goal-tracking (interacting with the location of the predicted reinforcer; e.g., the food well). Here, stable individual differences in rats' sign-tracking and goal-tracking emerged over the course of training, but these differences did not generalize across different signal-reinforcer relationships (Experiment 1)...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
Gabriela Gan, Rebecca N Preston-Campbell, Scott J Moeller, Joel L Steinberg, Scott D Lane, Thomas Maloney, Muhammad A Parvaz, Rita Z Goldstein, Nelly Alia-Klein
The propensity for reactive aggression (RA) which occurs in response to provocation has been linked to hyperresponsivity of the mesocorticolimbic reward network in healthy adults. Here, we aim to elucidate the role of the mesocorticolimbic network in clinically significant RA for two competing motivated behaviors, reward-seeking vs. retaliation. 18 male participants performed a variant of the Point-Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We examined whether RA participants compared with non-aggressive controls would choose to obtain a monetary reward over the opportunity to retaliate against a fictitious opponent, who provoked the participant by randomly stealing money from his earnings...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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