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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161356/medial-orbitofrontal-cortex-mediates-effort-related-responding-in-rats
#1
Alexandra Münster, Wolfgang Hauber
The medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) is known to support flexible control of goal-directed behavior. However, limited evidence suggests that the mOFC also mediates the ability of organisms to work with vigor towards a selected goal, a hypothesis that received little consideration to date. Here we show that excitotoxic mOFC lesion increased responding under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement, that is, the highest ratio achieved, and increased the preference for the high effort-high reward option in an effort-related decision-making task, but left intact outcome-selective Pavlovian-instrumental transfer and outcome-specific devaluation...
November 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160559/removable-prosthesis-hygiene-in-elders-with-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Giselle Rodrigues Ribeiro, Camila Heitor Campos, Renata Cunha Matheus Rodrigues Garcia
AIM: To evaluate changes in prosthesis hygiene in elders with Parkinson's disease (PD) in response to verbal instruction and positive reinforcement. METHODS AND RESULTS: Elders with removable prostheses were divided into PD (n = 17) and control (n = 20) groups. Biofilm on prostheses was measured at baseline, and verbal instructions on prosthesis hygiene were given. After 7, 14, and 30 days, biofilm presence was re-evaluated and the results were shown to participants, with repeated cleaning instruction...
November 21, 2017: Special Care in Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160513/detection-of-schistosomiasis-in-an-area-directly-affected-by-the-s%C3%A3-o-francisco-river-large-scale-water-transposition-project-in-the-northeast-of-brazil
#3
José Damião da Silva, Marta Cristhiany Cunha Pinheiro, Mariana Silva Sousa, Vivian da Silva Gomes, Issis Maria Nogueira de Castro, Alberto Novaes Ramos, Fernando Schemelzer de Moraes Bezerra
INTRODUCTION: The development of the São Francisco River Integration Project [Projeto de Integração do Rio São Francisco (PISF)] in the State of Ceará, Brazil, has resulted in environmental and socioeconomic changes with potential risks to public health. We aimed to determine the presence of Schistosoma mansoni infections in schoolchildren (aged 7-14 years) and workers from the construction site in an area under the direct influence of the PISF in the municipality of Brejo Santo-CE, to aid in the prevention and control of schistosomiasis...
September 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160508/detection-and-genotyping-of-human-adenovirus-and-sapovirus-in-children-with-acute-gastroenteritis-in-bel%C3%A3-m-par%C3%A3-between-1990-and-1992-first-detection-of-gi-7-and-gv-2-sapoviruses-in-brazil
#4
Larissa Cristina Prado das Neves Costa, Jones Anderson Monteiro Siqueira, Thayara Morais Portal, Edivaldo Costa Sousa, Alexandre da Costa Linhares, Yvone Benchimol Gabbay, Hugo Reis Resque
INTRODUCTION: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality, especially among children from developing countries. Human adenovirus (HAdV) and sapovirus (SaV) are among the agents that cause AGE. The present study aimed to detect and genotype HAdV and SaV in 172 fecal samples from children with AGE, collected during a surveillance study carried out in a low-income community in Belém, Pará, between 1990 and 1992. METHODS: HAdV was detected by nested PCR, using primers Hex1deg/Hex2deg and NeHex3deg/NeHex4deg...
September 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159486/program-components-of-psychosocial-interventions-in-foster-and-kinship-care-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Jacqueline Kemmis-Riggs, Adam Dickes, John McAloon
Foster children frequently experience early trauma that significantly impacts their neurobiological, psychological and social development. This systematic review examines the comparative effectiveness of foster and kinship care interventions. It examines the components within each intervention, exploring their potential to benefit child and carer well-being, particularly focussing on child behaviour problems, and relational functioning. Systematic searches of electronic databases included PsycINFO, MEDLINE, Web of Science Core Collection, the Cochrane Collaborations Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and Scopus to identify randomised or quasi-randomised trials of psychosocial foster/kinship care interventions, published between 1990 and 2016...
November 20, 2017: Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158669/minor-positive-effects-of-health-promoting-senior-meetings-for-older-community-dwelling-persons-on-loneliness-social-network-and-social-support
#6
Susanne Gustafsson, Helene Berglund, Joel Faronbi, Emmelie Barenfeld, Isabelle Ottenvall Hammar
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the 1-year effect of the health-promoting intervention "senior meetings" for older community-dwelling persons regarding loneliness, social network, and social support. Methods: Secondary analysis of data was carried out from two randomized controlled studies: Elderly Persons in the Risk Zone and Promoting Aging Migrants' Capabilities. Data from 416 participants who attended the senior meetings and the control group at baseline and the 1-year follow-up in the respective studies were included...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155949/pseudoaneurysm-rupture-after-acute-type-a-dissection-repair-possible-reaction-to-bioglue
#7
Toshiro Kobayashi, Hiroshi Kurazumi, Masafumi Sato, Hidenori Gohra
A 45-year-old man with acute Type A aortic dissection underwent the ascending aorta replacement with BioGlue (CryoLife Europa, Guildford, Surrey, UK) for anastomotic reinforcement. Postoperatively, he developed descending aortic dilation, a giant mediastinal cyst, Henoch-Schonlein purpura and an anastomotic-site pseudoaneurysm rupture. A BioGlue-induced inflammatory reaction was likely, according to a positive patch test (delayed allergic reaction).
October 9, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154804/event-related-brain-potentials-and-the-study-of-reward-processing-methodological-considerations
#8
REVIEW
Olave E Krigolson
There is growing interest in using electroencephalography and specifically the event-related brain potential (ERP) methodology to study human reward processing. Since the discovery of the feedback related negativity (Miltner et al., 1997) and the development of theories associating the feedback related negativity and more recently the reward positivity with reinforcement learning, midbrain dopamine function, and the anterior cingulate cortex (i.e., Holroyd and Coles, 2002) researchers have used the ERP methodology to probe the neural basis of reward learning in humans...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154618/atheist-horns-and-religious-halos-mental-representations-of-atheists-and-theists
#9
Jazmin L Brown-Iannuzzi, Stephanie McKee, Will M Gervais
Theists often receive the benefit of being stereotyped as trustworthy and moral, whereas atheists are viewed as untrustworthy and immoral. The extreme divergence between the stereotypes of theists and atheists suggests that mental images of the two groups may also diverge. We investigated whether people have biased mental images of theists and atheists. The results suggest that mental images of theists are associated with more positive attributes than images of atheists (Study 1), and these mental images influence who is believed to behave morally and immorally (Study 2)...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154368/precision-medicine-in-alcohol-dependence-a-controlled-trial-testing-pharmacotherapy-response-among-reward-and-relief-drinking-phenotypes
#10
Karl Mann, Corey R Roos, Sabine Hoffmann, Helmut Nakovics, Tagrid Leménager, Andreas Heinz, Katie Witkiewitz
Randomized trials of medications for alcohol dependence (AD) often report no differences between active medications. Few studies in AD have tested hypotheses regarding which medication will work best for which patients (ie, precision medicine). The PREDICT Study tested acamprosate and naltrexone versus placebo in 426 randomly assigned AD patients in a 3-month treatment. PREDICT proposed individuals whose drinking was driven by positive reinforcement (ie, reward drinkers) would have a better treatment response to naltrexone, whereas individuals whose drinking was driven by negative reinforcement (ie, relief drinkers) would have a better treatment response to acamprosate...
November 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154151/social-discomfort-moderates-the-relationship-between-drinking-in-response-to-negative-affect-and-solitary-drinking-in-underage-drinkers
#11
Carillon Skrzynski, Kasey G Creswell, Rachel L Bachrach, Tammy Chung
OBJECTIVE: Research shows that solitary drinking is associated with negative reinforcement motives (i.e., relieving negative affect). An untested hypothesis proposes that this association may be especially strong for individuals who experience social discomfort. This study aimed to 1) replicate findings linking solitary drinking to social discomfort (i.e., loneliness, social anxiety, and lack of perceived social support), alcohol problems, and drinking in response to negative affect (i...
November 7, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154049/date-palm-biochar-polymer-composites-an-investigation-of-electrical-mechanical-thermal-and-rheological-characteristics
#12
Anesh Manjaly Poulose, Ahmed Yagoub Elnour, Arfat Anis, Hamid Shaikh, S M Al-Zahrani, Justin George, Mohammad I Al-Wabel, Adel R Usman, Yong Sik Ok, Daniel C W Tsang, Ajit K Sarmah
The application of biochar (BC) as a filler in polymers can be viewed as a sustainable approach that incorporates pyrolysed waste based value-added material and simultaneously mitigate bio-waste in a smart way. The overarching aim of this work was to investigate the electrical, mechanical, thermal and rheological properties of biocomposite developed by utilizing date palm waste-derived BC for the reinforcing of polypropylene (PP) matrix. Date palm waste derived BC prepared at (700 and 900°C) were blended at different proportions with polypropylene and the resultant composites (BC/PP) were characterized using an array of techniques (scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy)...
November 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152869/linking-magazine-exposure-to-social-appearance-anxiety-the-role-of-appearance-norms-in-early-adolescence
#13
Jolien Trekels, Steven Eggermont
Early adolescents (N = 1,591; Mage  = 11.698; SD = 0.892) participated in a two-wave panel study (6-month interval) to examine the longitudinal association between appearance-focused magazine exposure and social appearance anxiety. We revealed that magazine exposure positively correlated with the internalization of appearance ideals and the attribution of social rewards to attractiveness which, in turn, related to social appearance anxiety. Internalization and attribution of social rewards formed a reinforcing spiral; once internalized, early adolescents associate positive things with appearance ideals (e...
December 2017: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151884/a-critical-assessment-of-estimating-census-population-size-from-genetic-population-size-or-vice-versa-in-three-fishes
#14
Matthew Carl Yates, Thais A Bernos, Dylan J Fraser
Technological and methodological advances have facilitated the use of genetic data to infer census population size (Nc) in natural populations, particularly where traditional mark-and-recapture is challenging. The effective number of breeders (Nb) describes how many adults effectively contribute to a cohort and is often correlated with Nc. Predicting Nc from Nb or vice versa in species with overlapping generations has important implications for conservation by permitting (i) estimation of the more difficult to quantify variable and (ii) inferences of Nb/Nc relationships in related species lacking data...
October 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149736/graphene-oxide-reinforced-ionic-liquid-functionalized-adsorbent-for-solid-phase-extraction-of-phenolic-acids
#15
Xiudan Hou, Xiaofeng Lu, Sheng Tang, Licheng Wang, Yong Guo
An environmental friendly sorbent of polymeric ionic liquids modified graphene oxide-grafted silica (PILs@GO@Sil) was synthesized for solid-phase extraction (SPE) of phenolic acids. The sorbent was prepared via a chemical layer-to-layer fabrication including amidation reaction, surface radical chain-transfer polymerization and in situ anion exchange. After modification with PILs, the silica surface had higher positive potential so that it would exhibit stronger electrostatic interaction for acidic compounds compared with GO@Sil...
November 12, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149198/experiences-of-older-people-with-dementia-participating-in-a-high-intensity-functional-exercise-program-in-nursing-homes-while-it-s-tough-it-s-useful
#16
Nina Lindelöf, Lillemor Lundin-Olsson, Dawn A Skelton, Berit Lundman, Erik Rosendahl
The objective of the study was to describe the views and experiences of participation in a high-intensity functional exercise (HIFE) program among older people with dementia in nursing homes. The study design was a qualitative interview study with 21 participants (15 women), aged 74-96, and with a Mini-Mental State Examination score of 10-23 at study start. The HIFE-program comprises exercises performed in functional weight-bearing positions and including movements used in everyday tasks. The exercise was individually designed, supervised in small groups in the nursing homes and performed during four months...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148345/exploring-the-role-of-executive-functioning-capacity-in-patient-activation-and-health-outcomes-among-medicaid-members-with-multiple-comorbidities
#17
Kimberly Case, Yi Guo, Sara Jo Nixon, Keith Muller, Tianyao Huo, Robert Prather, Heather Morris, Dena Stoner, Elizabeth Shenkman
Patient activation, the perceived capacity to manage one's health, is positively associated with better health outcomes and lower costs. Underlying characteristics influencing patient activation are not completely understood leading to gaps in intervention strategies designed to improve patient activation. We suggest that variability in executive functioning influences patient activation and ultimately has an impact on health outcomes. To examine this hypothesis, 440 chronically ill Medicaid enrollees completed measures of executive functioning, patient activation, and health-related quality of life...
May 1, 2017: Medical Care Research and Review: MCRR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146140/patient-experiences-of-dietary-management-in-chronic-kidney-disease-a-focus-group-study
#18
Jaimon T Kelly, Katrina L Campbell, Tammy Hoffmann, Dianne P Reidlinger
OBJECTIVE: People with chronic kidney disease (CKD) contend with complex dietary recommendations. The challenge in practice is for clinicians to provide individualized support with the frequency and consistency required to sustain dietary changes. This study aimed to describe the experiences of patients with managing dietary recommendations, including their perspectives on the potential to use telehealth to support dietary management in CKD. DESIGN: Focus group study...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145416/two-is-better-than-one-the-effects-of-strategic-cooperation-on-intra-and-inter-brain-connectivity-by-fnirs
#19
Michela Balconi, Laurent Pezard, Jean-Louis Nandrino, Maria Elide Vanutelli
Inter-brain synchronization during joint actions is a core question in social neuroscience, and the differential contribution of intra- and inter-brain functional connectivity has yet to be clarified along with the role of psychological variables such as perceived self-efficacy. The cognitive performance and the neural activation underlying the execution of joint actions were recorded by functional Near-Infrared imaging during a synchronicity game. An 8-channel array of optodes was positioned over the frontal and prefrontal regions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142057/morphofunctional-experience-dependent-plasticity-in-the-honeybee-brain
#20
Mara Andrione, Benjamin F Timberlake, Giorgio Vallortigara, Renzo Antolini, Albrecht Haase
Repeated or prolonged exposure to an odorant without any positive or negative reinforcement produces experience-dependent plasticity, which results in habituation and latent inhibition. In the honeybee (Apis mellifera), it has been demonstrated that, even if the absolute neural representation of an odor in the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL), is not changed by repeated presentations, its relative representation with respect to unfamiliar stimuli is modified. In particular, the representation of a stimulus composed of a 50:50 mixture of a familiar and a novel odorant becomes more similar to that of the novel stimulus after repeated stimulus preexposure...
December 2017: Learning & Memory
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