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Operant conditioning

Chencheng Sun, Bowen Xiong, Yang Pan, Hao Cui
Polyaniline (PANI) prepared by chemical oxidation was studied for adsorption removal of tannic acid (TA) from aqueous solution. Batch adsorption studies were carried out under different adsorbent dosages, pH, ionic strength, initial TA concentration and coexisting anions. Solution pH had an important impact on TA adsorption onto PANI with optimal removal in the pH range of 8-11. TA adsorption on PANI at three ionic strength levels (0.02, 0.2 and 2molL(-1) NaCl) could be well described by Langmuir model (monolayer adsorption process) and the maximum adsorption capacity was 230, 223 and 1023mgg(-1), respectively...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Matteo Bonomo, Danilo Dini, Andrea Giacomo Marrani
The adsorption of I(-) and I3(-) anions, i.e. the two species constituting the most common redox couple of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), onto the surface of screen-printed nanoporous NiO was studied by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Mesoporous NiO films were deposited on transparent metallic fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and polarized as working electrodes in a three-electrode cell with differently concentrated I(-)/I3(-) electrolytes to simulate the different conditions experienced by the NiO cathodes during the lifecycle of a p-type DSC (p-DSC) at those atomic sites not passivated by the dye...
October 21, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Jill Cox, Loretta Kaes, Miguel Martinez, Daniel Moles
Skin temperature may help prospectively determine whether an area of skin discoloration will evolve into necrosis. A prospective, observational study was conducted in 7 skilled nursing facilities to determine if skin temperature measured using infrared thermography could predict the progression of discolored intact skin (blanchable erythema, Stage 1 pressure ulcer, or sus- pected deep tissue injury [sDTI]) to necrosis and to evaluate if nurses could effectively integrate thermography into the clinical setting...
October 2016: Ostomy/wound Management
Siyao Wang, Yuewu Pu, Cheng Wei
The aim of this study was to characterize the pollutant removal efficiency and the microbial communities that arose in a newly designed waterfall biofilm reactor (WFBR) at different chemical oxygen demand/total nitrogen (COD/TN) ratios. The reactor was operated continuously for 28 days at different COD/TN ratios, and its efficiency was evaluated. Results showed that as the thickness of the biofilm increased, the structure of the biofilm encouraged anaerobic-aerobic, anoxic-anaerobic, and fully anaerobic conditions in one reactor...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Michael Grigalunas, Olaf Wiest, Paul Helquist
Trisubstituted α-pyrones are obtained by a Pd-catalyzed three-component, single-flask operation via an α-arylation, subsequent α-alkenylation, alkene isomerization, and dienolate lactonization. A variety of coupling components under mild conditions afforded isolated yields of up to 93% of the pyrones with complete control of regioselectivity. Metal dependence was noted for three of the steps of the pathway. Utility of the pyrone products was demonstrated by further transformations providing convenient access to polyaromatic compounds, exhibiting broad molecular diversity...
October 21, 2016: Organic Letters
Xiaodong Tang, Jidan Yang, Zhongzhi Zhu, Meifang Zheng, Wanqing Wu, Huanfeng Jiang
A new strategy for thiazoles via copper-catalyzed [3+1+1]-type condensation reaction from oximes, anhydrides and potassiumthiocyanate (KSCN) is developed herein. The transformation has good functional group tolerance and various thiazoles were formed smoothly in good to excellent yields under mild reaction conditions. This process involves copper-catalyzed N-O/C-S bond cleavages, activation of vinyl sp2 C-H bond and C-S/C-N bond formations which is under redox-neutral conditions well as operational simplicity...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Organic Chemistry
David E Rosow, Jamal Ahmed
Importance: Adult laryngotracheal stenosis (LTS) is typically managed surgically, but some patients fail treatment because of rapid restenosis or granulation tissue formation. The need for frequent surgery or tracheostomy reduces the quality of life in these patients and poses a significant challenge for the treating physician. New adjuvant treatments are required to reduce the surgical burden of this condition. Objective: To examine whether patients with rapidly recurrent nonvasculitic LTS who fail surgical management of their stenosis (ie, requiring dilation more frequently than every 6 months) experience longer intervals between surgical procedures when receiving adjuvant treatment with low-dose methotrexate...
October 20, 2016: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Jorge A Gonzalez, O Maduka Ogba, Gregory F Morehouse, Nicholas Rosson, Kendall N Houk, Andrew G Leach, Paul H-Y Cheong, Martin D Burke, Guy C Lloyd-Jones
MIDA boronates (N-methylimidodiacetic boronic acid esters) serve as an increasingly general platform for small-molecule construction based on building blocks, largely because of the dramatic and general rate differences with which they are hydrolysed under various basic conditions. Yet the mechanistic underpinnings of these rate differences have remained unclear, which has hindered efforts to address the current limitations of this chemistry. Here we show that there are two distinct mechanisms for this hydrolysis: one is base mediated and the other neutral...
November 2016: Nature Chemistry
Xiaoming Huang, Jiadong Zhu, Tamás I Korányi, Michael D Boot, Emiel J M Hensen
Adding value to lignin, the most complex and recalcitrant fraction in lignocellulosic biomass, is highly relevant to costefficient operation of biorefineries. We report the use of homogeneous metal triflates to rapidly release lignin from biomass. Combined with metal-catalyzed hydrogenolysis, the process separates woody biomass into few lignin-derived alkylmethoxyphenols and cellulose under mild conditions. Model compound studies show the unique catalytic properties of metal triflates in cleaving lignin-carbohydrate interlinkages...
October 21, 2016: ChemSusChem
Luke Semrau
Erik Malmqvist defends the prohibition on kidney sales as a justifiable measure to protect individuals from harms they have not autonomously chosen. This appeal to 'group soft paternalism' requires that three conditions be met. It must be shown that some vendors will be harmed, that some will be subject to undue pressure to vend, and that we cannot feasibly distinguish between the autonomous and the non-autonomous. I argue that Malmqvist fails to demonstrate that any of these conditions are likely to obtain...
October 21, 2016: Bioethics
C Schlenstedt, A Shalash, M Muthuraman, D Falk, K Witt, G Deuschl
The aim of this meta-analysis was to summarize the short- and long-term effects of bilateral deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) on gait and freezing of gait (FOG) in Parkinson's disease and to detect predictors of post-stimulation outcome. A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted up to October 2015 using Medline Ovid databases for studies analyzing the effect of bilateral STN-DBS on FOG and/or gait. Sixteen studies with available data for the gait item (no. 29) of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and six studies with the FOG item (no...
October 20, 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Joan Yw Liu, Cheryl Reeves, Beate Diehl, Antonietta Coppola, Aliya Al-Hajri, Chandrashekar Hoskote, Salim Al Mughairy, Mohamed Tachrount, Michael Groves, Zuzanna Michalak, Kevin Mills, Andrew W McEvoy, Anna Miserocchi, Sanjay M Sisodiya, Maria Thom
OBJECTIVE: This study reports on a novel brain pathology in young patients with Frontal Lobe Epilepsy that is distinct from Focal Cortical Dysplasia. METHODS: Surgical specimens from twenty young adults with frontal lobe epilepsy (mean age, 30 years) were investigated with histological/immunohistochemical markers for cortical laminar architecture, mammalian target of rapamycin pathway activation and inhibition, cellular autophagy, and synaptic vesicle-mediated trafficking as well as proteomics analysis...
October 20, 2016: Annals of Neurology
Joseph M Blankush, Robbie Freeman, Joy McIlvaine, Trung Tran, Stephen Nassani, I Michael Leitman
Modified Early Warning Scores (MEWS) provide real-time vital sign (VS) trending and reduce ICU admissions in post-operative patients. These early warning calculations classically incorporate oxygen saturation, heart rate, respiratory rate, systolic blood pressure, and temperature but have not previously included end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2), more recently identified as an independent predictor of critical illness. These systems may be subject to failure when physiologic data is incorrectly measured, leading to false alarms and increased workload...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
James J Lischeske, Nathan C Crawford, Erik Kuhn, Nicholas J Nagle, Daniel J Schell, Melvin P Tucker, James D McMillan, Edward J Wolfrum
BACKGROUND: Pretreatment is a critical step in the biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. Due to the complexity of the physicochemical transformations involved, predictively scaling up technology from bench- to pilot-scale is difficult. This study examines how pretreatment effectiveness under nominally similar reaction conditions is influenced by pretreatment reactor design and scale using four different pretreatment reaction systems ranging from a 3 g batch reactor to a 10 dry-ton/days continuous reactor...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Falco Hietbrink, Lonneke G Bode, Louis Riddez, Luke P H Leenen, Marijke R van Dijk
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing fasciitis is an uncommon, rapidly progressive and potential lethal condition. Over the last decade time to surgery decreased and outcome improved, most likely due to increased awareness and more timely referral. Early recognition is key to improve mortality and morbidity. However, early referral frequently makes it a challenge to recognize this heterogeneous disease in its initial stages. Signs and symptoms might be misleading or absent, while the most prominent skin marks might be in discrepancy with the position of the fascial necrosis...
2016: World Journal of Emergency Surgery: WJES
Jiayu Ma, Yanfang Zhang, Yuanhang Qin, Zaikun Wu, Tielin Wang, Cunwen Wang
The leaching kinetics of K-feldspar in H2SO4-CaF2 system with the assistant of ultrasound was investigated. The effects of various factors, such as sulfuric acid concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, CaF2 dosage and leaching temperature were comprehensively studied. The dissolution fraction of potassium can reach more than 83% under the optimum operation conditions with ultrasound. Because of the cavitation effect, the intensified effect with ultrasound has more obvious at lower temperature than higher temperature...
October 12, 2016: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Fengli Chen, Qiang Zhang, Huiyan Gu, Lei Yang
In this study, a novel approach involving homogenate-circulating ultrasound in combination with aqueous enzymatic extraction (H-CUAEE) was developed for extraction of kernel oil from Pinus pumila. Following comparison of enzyme types and concentrations, an enzyme mixture consisting of cellulase, pectinase and hemicellulase (1:1:1, w/w/w) at a concentration of 2.5% was selected and applied for effective oil extraction and release. Several variables potentially influencing extraction yields, namely, homogenization time, incubation temperature, incubation time, mark-space ratio of ultrasound irradiation, ultrasound irradiation power, liquid-solid ratio, pH and stirring rate, were optimized by Plackett-Burman design...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
W B Lei, Q H Liu, L P Chai, X L Zhu, Z F Wang, Q M Li, H C Tang, A Y Jiang, Y H Wen, W P Wen
Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of the integrallty submucosal resection of adult-onset laryngeal papilloma by CO2 laser. Methods: A group of 64 cases (36 males and 28 females, multipe lesions 54 cases and single lesion 10 cases, aged 18-75 years, mean age 43.13 years) with adult-onset laryngeal papilloma encountered in the first affliated hospital of Sun Yatsen university from 2009 to 2015 was retrospectively analyzed. All cases were treated with integrallty submucosal dissection of the tumor by CO2 laser, and observed the changes of tumor integral scope, inter-operative, operative processes, postoperative voice quality, postoperative scarring, and the tracheotomy conditions, which were analysed and evaluated...
October 7, 2016: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
Lin Huang, Lluis Capdevila
OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed the efficacy of aromatherapy in improving work performance and reducing workplace stress. SUBJECTS: The initial sample comprised 42 administrative university workers (Mage = 42.21 years, standard deviation = 7.12; 10 male). INTERVENTION: All sessions were performed in a university computer classroom. The participants were randomly assigned into an aromatherapy group (AG) and a control group (CG), and they were invited to participate in a specific session only once...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
Sorina Motoc, Florica Manea, Adriana Iacob, Alberto Martinez-Joaristi, Jorge Gascon, Aniela Pop, Joop Schoonman
In this study, the detection protocols for the individual, selective, and simultaneous determination of ibuprofen (IBP) and diclofenac (DCF) in aqueous solutions have been developed using HKUST-1 metal-organic framework-carbon nanofiber composite (HKUST-CNF) electrode. The morphological and electrical characterization of modified composite electrode prepared by film casting was studied by scanning electronic microscopy and four-point-probe methods. The electrochemical characterization of the electrode by cyclic voltammetry (CV) was considered the reference basis for the optimization of the operating conditions for chronoamperometry (CA) and multiple-pulsed amperometry (MPA)...
October 17, 2016: Sensors
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