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Operant conditioning

Jingyan Yang, Virginie Lafage, Renaud Lafage, Justin Smith, Eric O Klineberg, Christopher I Shaffrey, Gregory Mundis, Richard Hostin, Douglas Burton, Christopher P Ames, Shay Bess, Han Jo Kim, Frank Schwab
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review of prospective multicenter database. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the determinants of patient satisfaction with respect to changes in functional limitations two-year after spinal deformity surgery. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: For operatively treated adult spine deformity (ASD), patient satisfaction has become an important component of evaluating quality of care. METHODS: 430 operative ASD patients with two-year follow-up were analyzed...
June 21, 2018: Spine
Rixin Tang, Sixuan Ren, James T Enns, Robert L Whitwell
Adaptive motor control is premised on the principle of movement minimization, which in turn is premised on a form of sensorimotor memory. But what is the nature of this memory and under what conditions does it operate? Here, we test the limits of sensorimotor memory in an intermanual context by testing the effect that the action performed by the left hand has on subsequent right hand grasps. Target feature-overlap predicts that sensorimotor memory is engaged when task-relevant sensory features of the target are similar across actions; partial effector-overlap predicts that sensorimotor memory is engaged when there is similarity in the task-relevant effectors used to perform an action; and the action-goal conjunction hypotheses predicts that sensorimotor memories are engaged when the action goal and the action type overlap...
June 19, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Mohammad M Hassan, Christopher M Carr
The effluent discharged by the textile dyehouses has a seriously detrimental effect on the aquatic environment. Some dyestuffs produce toxic decomposition products and the metal complex dyes release toxic heavy metals to watercourses. Of the dyes used in the textile industry, effluents containing reactive dyes are the most difficult to treat because of their high water-solubility and poor absorption into the fibers. A range of treatments has been investigated for the decolorization of textile effluent and the adsorption seems to be one of the cheapest, effective and convenient treatments...
June 14, 2018: Chemosphere
Catrina A Calub, Sharon C Furtak, Thomas H Brown
Rats emit 22 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in association with pain, fear, or distress. Whereas the capacity to produce USVs is innate, reactivity to them appears to require experience. Specifically, 22 kHz USVs fail to elicit freezing behavior in naïve laboratory rats. However, these "alarm calls" do elicit freezing in rats that previously experienced foot shocks. These findings led to the hypothesis that acquired reactivity is based on "autoconditioning"-learning in which self-generated 22 kHz USVs serve as Pavlovian cues that become associated with foot shocks...
June 19, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Philipp Kanzow, Annette Wiegand, Nairn H F Wilson, Christopher D Lynch, Igor R Blum
OBJECTIVES: To identify potential changes in various aspects of teaching and to ascertain whether previously found inconsistencies in the teaching of criteria, indications and operative techniques for the repair of defective composite restorations at German dental schools have been resolved. METHODS: A validated questionnaire was used to gain the information sought. It was sent to all dental schools in Germany (n = 30). Whenever possible, data were compared to previous studies conducted in 2000 and 2009...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Dentistry
Aron H Blaesi, Nannaji Saka
Recently, we have introduced fibrous dosage forms prepared by 3D-micro-patterning of drug-laden viscous melts. Such dosage forms enable predictable microstructures and increased drug release rates, and they can be manufactured continuously. However, melt processing is not applicable if the melting temperature of the formulation is greater than the degradation temperature of the drug or of the excipient. In this work, therefore, a continuous wet micro-patterning process that operates at ambient temperature is presented...
June 19, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Hendrik Sielaff, Thomas M Duncan, Michael Börsch
F-type ATP synthases are extraordinary multisubunit proteins that operate as nanomotors. The Escherichia coli (E. coli) enzyme uses the proton motive force (pmf) across the bacterial plasma membrane to drive rotation of the central rotor subunits within a stator subunit complex. Through this mechanical rotation, the rotor coordinates three nucleotide binding sites that sequentially catalyze the synthesis of ATP. Moreover, the enzyme can hydrolyze ATP to turn the rotor in the opposite direction and generate pmf...
June 19, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Ding Wang, Kelsey L Kundert, Monica B Emelko
Forest catchments can produce high quality source water with a low turbidity. However, the combination of low turbidity, low organic carbon, and low temperature water conditions presents operating challenges in conventional water treatment processes. In this study, in-line filtration was tested using pilot-scale filter columns, and was found to be an appropriate option to treat a typical low turbidity water originating from the Rocky Mountains near Calgary, Alberta, Canada. When alum and cationic polymer were dosed simultaneously, in-line filtration produced high quality effluent with a turbidity and a particle count value of less than 0...
June 22, 2018: Environmental Technology
Ariel Tankus, Anat Mirelman, Nir Giladi, Itzhak Fried, Jeffrey M Hausdorff
OBJECTIVE The ability to modulate the pace of movement is a critical factor in the smooth operation of the motor system. The authors recently described distinct and overlapping representations of movement kinematics in the subthalamic nucleus (STN), but it is still unclear how movement pace is modulated according to the demands of the task at the neuronal level in this area. The goal of this study was to clarify how different movement paces are being controlled by neurons in the STN. METHODS The authors performed direct recording of the electrical activity of single neurons in the STN of neurosurgical patients with Parkinson's disease undergoing implantation of a deep brain stimulator under local anesthesia while the patients performed repetitive foot and hand movements intraoperatively at multiple paces...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Orgest Lajthia, Jerry W Chao, Max Mandelbaum, John S Myseros, Chima Oluigbo, Suresh N Magge, Christopher S Zarella, Albert K Oh, Gary F Rogers, Robert F Keating
OBJECTIVE Intracranial empyema is a life-threatening condition associated with a high mortality rate and residual deleterious neurological effects if not diagnosed and managed promptly. The authors present their institutional experience with immediate reimplantation of the craniotomy flap and clarify the success of this method in terms of cranial integrity, risk of recurrent infection, and need for secondary procedures. METHODS A retrospective analysis of patients admitted for management of intracranial empyema during a 19-year period (1997-2016) identified 33 patients who underwent emergency drainage and decompression with a follow-up duration longer than 6 months, 23 of whom received immediate bone replacement...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Flavio Nobili, Javier Arbizu, Femke Bouwman, Alexander Drzezga, Federica Agosta, Peter Nestor, Zuzana Walker, Marina Boccardi
BACKGROUND: Recommendations for using FDG-PET to support the diagnosis of dementing neurodegenerative disorders are sparse and poorly structured. METHODS: We defined 21 questions on diagnostic issues and on semi-automated analysis to assist visual reading. Literature was reviewed to assess study design, risk of bias, inconsistency, imprecision, indirectness and effect size. Critical outcomes were sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive/negative predictive value, area under the receiving operating characteristic curve, and positive/negative likelihood ratio of FDG-PET in detecting the target conditions...
June 22, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Khemika Khemakanok Sudnawa, Vilawan Chirdkiatgumchai, Nichara Ruangdaraganon, Chaiyos Khongkhatithum, Umaporn Udomsubpayakul, Suwicha Jirayucharoensak, Pasin Israsena
BACKGROUND: Neurofeedback (NF) is an operant conditioning procedure that trains participants for self-regulation of brain activity. Previous studies have shown that NF is a promising treatment of ADHD. However, there have been only a few RCT studies comparing effectiveness of NF with medication with various NF protocol and results. The aim of this study was to evaluate theeffectiveness of unipolar electrodeneurofeedback (NF) using theta/beta protocol compared with methylphenidate (MPH) in the treatment of ADHD...
June 22, 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Paramaguru Venugopal, Ramesh Kasimani, Suresh Chinnasamy
The transportation demand in India is increasing tremendously, which arouses the energy consumption by 4.1 to 6.1% increases each year from 2010 to 2050. In addition, the private vehicle ownership keeps on increasing almost 10% per year during the last decade and reaches 213 million tons of oil consumption in 2016. Thus, this makes India the third largest importer of crude oil in the world. Because of this problem, there is a need of promoting the alternative fuels (biodiesel) which are from different feedstocks for the transportation...
June 21, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Nils Bury, Otmar Bock
Many studies have evaluated the interplay of gravicentric, egocentric, and visual cues for our perception of the vertical, but little is known about their interplay for motor control. Thirty-five participants flipped a switch "down" in experimental conditions which systematically varied body posture (upright; tilted 45° left-ear-down), visually indicated vertical (absent; aligned with the long body axis; rotated 45° counterclockwise with respect to the long body axis), and egocentric tactile information provided by a handhold (absent; present)...
June 22, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Bin-Bin Xu, Jun Lu, Zhi-Fang Zheng, Chang-Ming Huang, Chao-Hui Zheng, Jian-Wei Xie, Jia-Bin Wang, Jian-Xian Lin, Qi-Yue Chen, Long-Long Cao, Mi Lin, Ru-Hong Tu, Ze-Ning Huang, Ping Li, Ju-Li Lin
BACKGROUND: To determine whether laparoscopic surgery can be used in high-risk patients with gastric cancer. METHODS: The clinicopathological data of 3743 patients with primary gastric adenocarcinoma, collected from January 2007 to December 2014, were retrospectively analyzed. Patients who had ≥ 1 of the following conditions were defined as high-risk patients: (1) age ≥ 80 years; (2) BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 ; (3) ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) grade ≥ 3; or (4) clinical T stage 4 (cT4)...
June 21, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Ioannis Basinas, Araceli Sánchez Jiménez, Karen S Galea, Martie van Tongeren, Fintan Hurley
Background: Establishing the routes of exposure is a fundamental component of the risk assessment process for every dangerous substance. The present study systematically reviews the available literature to assess the relevance of the different routes and forms of exposure that are of concern for the protection of workers during the manufacture, handling, or end-use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Methods: A systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature published between 2000 and 2015 was completed...
June 21, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Xiaolin Wang, Da Zhao, Duc T T Phan, Jingquan Liu, Xiang Chen, Bin Yang, Christopher C W Hughes, Weijia Zhang, Abraham P Lee
Autonomous and self-powered micropumps are in critical demand for versatile cell- and tissue-based applications as well as for low-cost point-of-care testing (POCT) in microfluidics fields. The hydrostatic pressure-driven passive micropumps are simple and widely used, but they cannot maintain steady and continuous flow for long periods of time. Here, we propose a hydrostatic pressure-driven passive micropump enhanced with siphon-based autofill function, which can realize the autonomous and continuous perfusion with well-controlled steady flow over an extended time without electric power consumption...
June 22, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Danilo Alessio Di Stefano, Vittoria Perrotti, Gian Battista Greco, Claudia Cappucci, Paolo Arosio, Adriano Piattelli, Giovanna Iezzi
PURPOSE: Implant site preparation may be adjusted to achieve the maximum possible primary stability. The aim of this investigation was to study the relation among bone-to-implant contact at insertion, bone density, and implant primary stability intra-operatively measured by a torque-measuring implant motor, when implant sites were undersized or tapped. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Undersized (n=14), standard (n=13), and tapped (n=13) implant sites were prepared on 9 segments of bovine ribs...
June 2018: Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics
Yang Yang, Yong-Li Cao, Wen-Hang Wang, Yuan-Yao Zhang, Nan Zhao, Dong Wei
AIM: To compare the efficacy, improved quality of life, and prognosis in patients undergoing either subtotal colonic bypass with antiperistaltic cecoproctostomy (SCBAC) or subtotal colonic bypass plus colostomy with antiperistaltic cecoproctostomy (SCBCAC) for the treatment of slow transit constipation. METHODS: Between October 2010 and October 2014, aged patients with slow transit constipation who were hospitalized and underwent laparoscopic surgery in our institute were divided into two groups: the bypass group, 15 patients underwent SCBAC, and the bypass plus colostomy group, 14 patients underwent SCBCAC...
June 21, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Fan Yang, Yuanyuan Xie, Yelin Deng, Chris Yuan
Electric vehicles (EVs) are widely promoted as clean alternatives to conventional vehicles for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from ground transportation. However, the battery undergoes a sophisticated degradation process during EV operations and its effects on EV energy consumption and GHG emissions are unknown. Here we show on a typical 24 kWh lithium-manganese-oxide-graphite battery pack that the degradation of EV battery can be mathematically modeled to predict battery life and to study its effects on energy consumption and GHG emissions from EV operations...
June 21, 2018: Nature Communications
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