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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889264/recall-of-others-actions-after-incidental-encoding-reveals-episodic-like-memory-in-dogs
#1
Claudia Fugazza, Ákos Pogány, Ádám Miklósi
The existence of episodic memory in non-human animals is a debated topic that has been investigated using different methodologies that reflect diverse theoretical approaches to its definition. A fundamental feature of episodic memory is recalling after incidental encoding, which can be assessed if the recall test is unexpected [1]. We used a modified version of the "Do as I Do" method [2], relying on dogs' ability to imitate human actions, to test whether dogs can rely on episodic memory when recalling others' actions from the past...
November 23, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866176/hypoglycemia-alert-dogs-a-novel-cost-effective-approach-for-diabetes-monitoring
#2
Giuseppe Lippi, Gianfranco Cervellin, Maurizio Dondi, Giovanni Targher
The recent publication of the results of 3 small trials, and as many as 5 case reports on dogs producing clear and intelligible alerts in the presence of their owners' hypoglycemia, opens an intriguing clinical scenario for management of diabetes. The skill seems attributable to the ability of dogs to identify patterns in skin and breath odors as well as to understand and interpret visual cues from humans during hypoglycemia. Provided that further trials can confirm the findings, the use of diabetes alert dogs that are trained to detect the onset of hypoglycemia can be regarded as a fast, versatile, reliable, and cost-effective approach for safeguarding the health of individuals with diabetes...
November 2016: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861171/snakes-and-hypertension
#3
Edward D Miller
Constriction of the renal artery and controlled reduction of renal perfusion pressure is followed by a prompt increase in systemic renin activity and a concomitant rise in blood pressure in trained, unanesthetized dogs. The elevated blood pressure induced by the renal artery stenosis can be prevented by prior treatment with the nonapeptide Pyr-Trp-Pro-Arg-Pro-Gln-Ile-Pro-Pro, which blocks conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II. Further, the nonapeptide can restore systemic pressure to normal in the early phase of renovascular hypertension...
November 17, 2016: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843665/a-dog-is-a-doctor-s-best-friend-the-use-of-a-service-dog-as-a-perioperative-assistant
#4
Shannon Tew, Brad M Taicher
Service dogs are beneficial in providing assistance to people with multiple types of disabilities and medical disorders including visual impairment, physical disabilities, seizure disorders, diabetes, and mental illness. Some service animals have been trained as a screening tool for cancer. We review a case involving a 6-year-old female with a history of mast cell mediator release and immediate hypersensitivity due to the urticaria pigmentosa variant of cutaneous mastocytosis who underwent a cystourethroscopy...
2016: Case Reports in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827535/safewalk-improving-enrichment-and-adoption-rates-for-shelter-dogs-by-changing-human-behavior
#5
Terri M Bright, Louise Hadden
Shelter dogs are typically cared for by staff and volunteers. At the Boston location of the Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, prior to 2009, any member of the public who was older than 16 years of age and attended 1 orientation could walk dogs available for adoption. There was no systematic method of training volunteers or staff to walk unruly, strong, or fearful dogs, nor was there any organized system of enrichment in the form of in-kennel or out-of-kennel training for the population of 20 to 40 dogs in the shelter...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822453/student-attitudes-regarding-the-educational-value-and-welfare-implications-in-the-use-of-model-eyes-and-live-dogs-in-teaching-practical-fundus-examination-evaluation-of-responses-from-40-students
#6
D L Williams, C Wager, J Brearley
This study sought to document student opinions on the educational value and welfare implications of use of artificial model eyes and live dogs in the training of veterinary students in examination of the canine fundus. Forty students who had undertaken a practical class on canine fundoscopy involving both use of artificial model eyes and live dogs were asked to complete a short questionnaire using a Likert scale to gauge their opinion on whether the use of live dogs and artificial eyes was very valuable (scoring 2), valuable (1), a neutral response (0), not particularly valuable (-1) or not at all valuable (-2) and to write a free text response on their views of the educational value and welfare implications of using artificial model eyes or live dogs in training for ophthalmic examination of the canine ocular fundus...
2016: Open veterinary journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811292/an-exploratory-clustering-approach-for-extracting-stride-parameters-from-tracking-collars-on-free-ranging-wild-animals
#7
Oliver P Dewhirst, Kyle Roskilly, Tatjana Y Hubel, Neil R Jordan, Krystyna A Golabek, J Weldon McNutt, Alan M Wilson
Changes in stride frequency and length with speed are key parameters in animal locomotion research. They are commonly measured in a laboratory on a treadmill or by filming trained captive animals. Here we show that a clustering approach can be used to extract these variables from data collected by a tracking collar containing a GPS module and tri-axis accelerometers and gyroscopes. The method enables stride parameters to be measured during free ranging locomotion in natural habitats. As it does not require labelled data it is particularly suitable for use with difficult to observe animals...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794384/worldwide-risk-factors-in-leishmaniasis
#8
REVIEW
A Oryan, M Akbari
Recently, vector-borne parasitic diseases such as leishmaniasis have been emerged or re-emerged in many geographical areas and resulted in global health and economic concerns that involve humans, domestic animals and wild life. The ecology and epidemiology of leishmaniasis are affected by the between host, reservoir and vector (human, animal and sandfly) and the environment. Important drivers for the emergence and spread of leishmaniasis include environmental factors such as alterations in temperature and water storage, irrigation habits, deforestation, climate changes, immunosuppression by HIV or organ transplant, development of drug resistance, increase traveling to endemic regions and dog importation...
October 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790682/detection-of-skin-cancer-odours-using-dogs-a-step-forward-in-melanoma-detection-training-and-research-methodologies
#9
EDITORIAL
K R Elliker, H C Williams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786530/children-use-object-level-category-knowledge-to-detect-changes-in-complex-auditory-scenes
#10
Christina M Vanden Bosch der Nederlanden, Joel S Snyder, Erin E Hannon
Children interact with and learn about all types of sound sources, including dogs, bells, trains, and human beings. Although it is clear that knowledge of semantic categories for everyday sights and sounds develops during childhood, there are very few studies examining how children use this knowledge to make sense of auditory scenes. We used a change deafness paradigm and an object-encoding task to investigate how children (6, 8, and 10 years of age) and adults process auditory scenes composed of everyday sounds (e...
November 2016: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777045/playful-activity-post-learning-improves-training-performance-in-labrador-retriever-dogs-canis-lupus-familiaris
#11
Nadja Affenzeller, Rupert Palme, Helen Zulch
Situations that are emotional and arousing have an effect on cognitive performance. It is thought that beta adrenergic activation and the release of stress hormones enhance memory consolidation and lead to an increase in memorability of emotional events. This beneficial effect has been shown in humans, non-human primates and rodents. Techniques which could enhance memory for learning specific tasks would be highly valuable, especially in dogs, which are extensively trained to aid humans. A pseudo-randomized, counterbalanced, between subject study designs was utilised and 16 Labrador Retrievers ranging from 1 to 9years of age were trained in a 2-choice discrimination paradigm...
January 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729589/clinical-features-and-disease-progression-of-l-2-hydroxyglutaric-aciduria-in-27-staffordshire-bull-terriers
#12
A Shea, L De Risio, H Carruthers, A Ekiri, E Beltran
To describe the development of clinical signs (CS) and outcome of L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L-2-HGA), owners of 119 Staffordshire bull terriers positive for the known L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase autosomal-recessive mutations were requested to complete a questionnaire regarding their pet's CS. Questionnaires were returned for 27 dogs, all with neurological abnormalities-not all questions were answered in all cases. The mean age of CS onset was 12 months (range 2.5-60). Gait dysfunction was reported in 26/26 dogs, with stiffness of all four limbs the most common (24/26) and earliest recognised abnormality...
October 11, 2016: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721442/cost-effective-scat-detection-dogs-unleashing-a-powerful-new-tool-for-international-mammalian-conservation-biology
#13
Joseph D Orkin, Yuming Yang, Chunyan Yang, Douglas W Yu, Xuelong Jiang
Recently, detection dogs have been utilized to collect fecal samples from cryptic and rare mammals. Despite the great promise of this technique for conservation biology, its broader application has been limited by the high cost (tens to hundreds of thousands of dollars) and logistical challenges of employing a scat-detection dog team while conducting international, collaborative research. Through an international collaboration of primatologists and the Chinese Ministry of Public Security, we trained and used a detection dog to find scat from three species of unhabituated, free-ranging primates, for less than $3,000...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720404/video-coaching-as-an-efficient-teaching-method-for-surgical-residents-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Mikael L Soucisse, Kerianne Boulva, Lucas Sideris, Pierre Drolet, Michel Morin, Pierre Dubé
BACKGROUND: As surgical training is evolving and operative exposure is decreasing, new, effective, and experiential learning methods are needed to ensure surgical competency and patient safety. Video coaching is an emerging concept in surgery that needs further investigation. DESIGN: In this randomized controlled trial conducted at a single teaching hospital, participating residents were filmed performing a side-to-side intestinal anastomosis on cadaveric dog bowel for baseline assessment...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713735/modulation-of-the-bifidobacterial-communities-of-the-dog-microbiota-by-zeolite
#15
Alberto Sabbioni, Chiara Ferrario, Christian Milani, Leonardo Mancabelli, Enzo Riccardi, Francesco Di Ianni, Valentino Beretti, Paola Superchi, Maria C Ossiprandi
During last decades canine health and well being is becoming an important issue for human owners. In dogs, several factors including diet, pathogenic bacterial and stress conditions can affect the composition of the gut microbiota. In this study, we evaluated the effect of dietary chabazitic zeolitite (CZ) supplementation on the contribution of bifidobacteria to the fecal microbiota in training hunting dogs. Fecal microbiota cataloging based on 16S rRNA microbial profiling analyses highlighted an increase of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium in animals treated with CZ, with a simultaneous decrease of pathogens associated with dog gastrointestinal infections, such as Klebsiella and Enterobacter...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694806/dog-and-human-inflammatory-bowel-disease-rely-on-overlapping-yet-distinct-dysbiosis-networks
#16
Yoshiki Vázquez-Baeza, Embriette R Hyde, Jan S Suchodolski, Rob Knight
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an autoimmune condition that is difficult to diagnose, and animal models of this disease have questionable human relevance(1). Here, we show that the dysbiosis network underlying IBD in dogs differs from that in humans, with some bacteria such as Fusobacterium switching roles between the two species (as Bacteroides fragilis switches roles between humans and mice)(2). For example, a dysbiosis index trained on humans fails when applied to dogs, but a dog-specific dysbiosis index achieves high correlations with the overall dog microbial community diversity patterns...
October 3, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688868/epidemiological-study-of-animal-bites-and-rabies-in-lorestan-province-in-west-of-iran-during-2004-2014-for-preventive-purposes
#17
Ali Chegeni Sharafi, Mohammad Javad Tarrahi, Mohammad Saki, Mohammad Mirza Sharafi, Elham Nasiri, Hamid Mokhayeri
BACKGROUND: Despite the progress made, animal bites and rabies are one of the important health problems in the country. The purpose of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of animal bites and rabies during 2004-2014 in Lorestan Province to prevent them in population of the province for the future prospective aspects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a descriptive cross-sectional study, all those cases bitten in the province, during 2004 and 2014, were studied...
2016: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677188/canine-scent-detection-for-the-diagnosis-of-lung-cancer-in-a-screening-like-situation
#18
Klaus Hackner, Peter Errhalt, Michael Rolf Mueller, Manulea Speiser, Beatrice A Marzluf, Andrea Schulheim, Peter Schenk, Johannes Bilek, Theodor Doll
The prognosis in lung cancer depends largely on early stage detection, and thus new screening methods are attracting increasing attention. Canine scent detection has shown promising results in lung cancer detection, but there has only been one previous study that reproduces a screening-like situation. Here breath samples were collected from 122 patients at risk for lung cancer (smokers and ex-smokers); 29 of the subjects had confirmed diagnosis of lung cancer but had not yet been treated and 93 subjects had no signs or symptoms of lung cancer at the time of inclusion...
2016: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664793/the-celebration-of-40-years-of-structural-biology-at-aarhus-university-as-seen-through-the-eyes-of-a-translationalist
#19
William C Merrick
Over the past 50 years, both Brian Clark and I have worked on tRNA, Brian more successfully than I. Our common interests have established collaborations and the training of Aarhus University students in my laboratory. As part of my rejuvenation plan, I have returned to Aarhus and participated in teaching a course in protein synthesis about every five years, beginning in 1990. It has been through this close contact with both Brian and the numerous faculty of the structural biology group that I have been able to witness and appreciate the great strides they have made, both in building a world class department and in the ground breaking discoveries that went with them...
September 21, 2016: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647764/pilot-study-to-assess-meal-progression-through-the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-habituated-dogs-determined-by-fluoroscopic-imaging-without-sedation-or-physical-restraint
#20
David J Wrigglesworth, Michael Q Bailey, Alison Colyer, Kevin R Hughes
A limiting factor of radiographic contrast studies is the requirement for restraint of the animal in order to reduce movement artifacts. To demonstrate that gastrointestinal transit can be analyzed by a barium meal in nonsedated and unrestrained dogs, a pilot study of six adult Labrador retriever dogs was undertaken. Study subjects were selected by convenience sampling from an available population of Labrador dogs and were trained to stand motionless during radiographic fluoroscopy. Following a meal containing 7% w/w powdered barium sulfate, radiographic images were generated using a digital fluoroscope C-arm, at intervals of 5, 15, and 30 min, and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 h...
September 19, 2016: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
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