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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134447/should-i-fetch-one-or-the-other-a-study-on-dogs-on-the-object-choice-in-the-bimodal-contrasting-paradigm
#1
Anna Scandurra, Alessandra Alterisio, Massimo Aria, Rosaria Vernese, Biagio D'Aniello
The present study assessed how dogs weigh gestural versus verbal information communicated to them by humans in transitive actions. The dogs were trained by their owners to fetch an object under three conditions: a bimodal congruent condition characterized by using gestures and voices simultaneously; a unimodal gestural condition characterized by using only gestures; and a unimodal verbal condition characterized by using only voices. An additional condition, defined as a bimodal incongruent condition, was later added, in which the gesture contrasted with the verbal command, that is, the owner indicated an object while pronouncing the name of the other object visible to dogs...
November 13, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116175/sniffer-mice-discriminate-urine-odours-of-patients-with-bladder-cancer-a-proof-of-principle-study-for-non-invasive-diagnosis-of-cancer-induced-odours
#2
Takaaki Sato, Yoji Katsuoka, Kimihiko Yoneda, Mitsuo Nonomura, Shinya Uchimoto, Reiko Kobayakawa, Ko Kobayakawa, Yoichi Mizutani
Similar to fingerprints, humans have unique, genetically determined body odours. In case of urine, the odour can change due to variations in diet as well as upon infection or tumour formation. We investigated the use of mice in a manner similar to "sniffer dogs" to detect changes in urine odour in patients with bladder cancer. We measured the odour discrimination thresholds of mice in a Y-maze, using urine mixtures from patients with bladder cancer (Stage I) and healthy volunteers (dietary variations) as well as occult blood- or antibiotic drug metabolite-modulated samples...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111287/transcatheter-closure-of-a-small-atrial-septal-defect-with-an-amplatzer%C3%A2-patent-foramen-ovale-occluder-in-a-working-dog-with-cyanosis-and-exercise-intolerance-at-high-altitude
#3
A Shelden, S Wesselowski, S G Gordon, A B Saunders
A 6.5-year-old male Border Collie presented for transcatheter closure of an atrial septal defect due to exercise intolerance and cyanosis while working and training at altitude. A small, left-to-right shunting secundum atrial septal defect was confirmed with no evidence of significant right-sided volume overload. Pulmonary hypertension with subsequent right-to-left interatrial shunting occurring during exercise at high altitude was suspected and prompted the closure of the defect due to the dog's continued athletic requirements...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Cardiology: the Official Journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099318/motivation-and-prior-animal-experience-of-newly-enrolled-veterinary-nursing-students-at-two-irish-third-level-institutions
#4
Karen Dunne, Bernadette Brereton, Vivienne Duggan, Deirdre Campion
Veterinary nurses report an intrinsic desire to work with animals. However, this motivation may be eroded by poor working conditions and low pay, resulting in the exit of experienced veterinary nurses from clinical practice. This study sought to quantify the level of animal-handling experience students possessed at the start of their training and to explore the factors motivating them to enter veterinary nurse training in two Irish third-level institutions. The authors had noted a tendency for veterinary nursing students to possess limited animal-handling skills, despite their obvious motivation to work with animals...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091047/instrumental-sensing-of-trace-volatiles-a-new-promising-tool-for-detecting-the-presence-of-entrapped-or-hidden-people
#5
Paweł Mochalski, Vera Ruzsanyi, Helmut Wiesenhofer, Christopher A Mayhew
There is a growing demand for rapid analytical systems for detecting the presence of humans who are either entrapped as a result of a disaster or in particular hidden, as in the case of smuggling or trafficking. The trafficking and smuggling of people to Europe have reached epidemic proportions in recent years. This does not only put a major strain on European resources, but puts at risk the health and lives of the people being trafficked or smuggled. In this context, the early detection and interception of smuggled/trafficked people is of particular importance in terms of saving migrants from life-threatening situations...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066245/effects-of-neostigmine-or-edrophonium-on-force-of-contraction-when-administered-at-a-train-of-four-ratio-of-0-9-in-anesthetized-dogs
#6
Marta Romano, Manuel Martin-Flores, Daniel M Sakai, Chia T Tseng, Luis Campoy, Robin D Gleed
OBJECTIVE: Anticholinesterase drugs may produce paradoxical neuromuscular block when administered at shallow levels of neuromuscular block. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of neostigmine and edrophonium when administered at near-complete reversal from nondepolarizing block in anesthetized dogs. STUDY DESIGN: Incomplete crossover, randomized, blinded experimental study. ANIMALS: A total of 12 Beagle dogs. METHODS: Each dog was anesthetized twice with propofol and maintained with isoflurane and dexmedetomidine...
August 3, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056526/relational-concept-learning-in-domestic-dogs-performance-on-a-two-choice-size-discrimination-task-generalises-to-novel-stimuli
#7
Sarah-Elizabeth Byosiere, Lynna C Feng, Philippe A Chouinard, Tiffani J Howell, Pauleen C Bennett
One central issue in the study of animal cognition concerns conceptual behaviour, where an organism categorises objects, events, and relationships so as to transfer previously learned rules to novel contexts. In this study, we investigated whether or not dogs demonstrate conceptual behaviour in the form of simple relational class concept learning. A two-choice visual discrimination task was used to assess if dogs are capable of simple relational class concept learning by generalising the same rule (i.e. circle is larger or smaller than) to various novel shapes...
October 19, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045426/dogs-recognition-of-human-selfish-and-generous-attitudes-requires-little-but-critical-experience-with-people
#8
Fabricio Carballo, Esteban Freidin, Emma B Casanave, Mariana Bentosela
There is some dispute regarding the role of experience in the development of dogs´ socio-cognitive abilities in their interaction with people. We sought to provide new evidence to this debate by comparing dogs with contrasting levels of experience with humans, in a task involving the discrimination of human generous and selfish attitudes. To this end, we compared the performance of adult family dogs against that of adult shelter dogs and puppies living in people´s homes. In training trials, the generous experimenter (G) signaled the bowl with food and allowed the dog to eat, whereas the selfish experimenter (S) also signaled the baited bowl, but she/he ate the food before the dog could have access to it...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040443/a-dysbiosis-index-to-assess-microbial-changes-in-fecal-samples-of-dogs-with-chronic-inflammatory-enteropathy
#9
M K AlShawaqfeh, B Wajid, Y Minamoto, M Markel, J A Lidbury, J M Steiner, E Serpedin, J S Suchodolski
Recent studies have identified various bacterial groups that are altered in dogs with chronic inflammatory enteropathies (CE) compared to healthy dogs. The study aim was to use quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays to confirm these findings in a larger number of dogs, and to build a mathematical algorithm to report these microbiota changes as a dysbiosis index (DI). Fecal DNA from 95 healthy dogs and 106 dogs with histologically confirmed CE was analyzed. Samples were grouped into a training set and a validation set...
November 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992913/reliability-of-techniques-used-in-the-diagnosis-of-canine-visceral-leishmaniasis-by-the-national-control-program-in-brazil-a-survey-in-an-area-of-recent-transmission
#10
Vinícius Silva Belo, Eliana Aparecida Gregório, Rafael Gonçalves Teixeira-Neto, Ana Cristina Vianna Mariano da Rocha Lima, Agnes Antônia Sampaio Pereira, Andreza Pain Marcelino, Gustavo Fontes Paz, Eduardo Sérgio da Silva
One of the key components of the Brazilian Program for the Control of Visceral Leishmaniasis (PCLV) is the euthanasia of Leishmania-infected canine reservoirs, the detection of which depends on a screening procedure involving a Dual Path Platform(®) (DPP) immunoassay and a confirmatory enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The aims of the present study were to evaluate the reliability of these techniques in a region of recent transmission of canine VL, to follow up the seroconversion 3-4 months after the initial diagnosis of DPP reactive but ELISA indeterminate or non-reactive dogs, and to identify the species of Leishmania in circulation in the area...
October 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988352/is-a-local-sample-internationally-representative-reproducibility-of-four-cognitive-tests-in-family-dogs-across-testing-sites-and-breeds
#11
Dóra Szabó, Daniel S Mills, Friederike Range, Zsófia Virányi, Ádám Miklósi
A fundamental precept of the scientific method is reproducibility of methods and results, and there is growing concern over the failure to reproduce significant results. Family dogs have become a favoured species in comparative cognition research, but they may be subject to cognitive differences arising from genetic (breeding lines) or cultural differences (e.g. preferred training methods). Such variation is of concern as it affects the validity and generalisability of experimental results. Despite its importance, this problem has not been specifically addressed to date...
November 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984144/the-feasibility-of-brief-dog-assisted-therapy-on-university-students-stress-levels-the-paws-study
#12
Emily Wood, Sally Ohlsen, Jennifer Thompson, Joe Hulin, Louise Knowles
BACKGROUND: Pet therapy is becoming increasingly popular and is used in a variety of ways from encouraging communication in older adults to improving wellbeing in those with serious mental illness. Increasingly Universities have been offering pet therapy to students in an effort to reduce stress. However, little evidence currently exists to support the effectiveness of reducing measurable stress levels after a standalone drop-in unstructured session. The University of Sheffield's Counselling Service works in partnership with Guide Dogs for the Blind to give students access to calm, well-trained animals for informal group stress relief...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977566/lung-cancer-diagnosis-by-trained-dogs
#13
Ángela Guirao Montes, Laureano Molins López-Rodó, Ingrid Ramón Rodríguez, Gemma Sunyer Dequigiovanni, Núria Viñolas Segarra, Ramón María Marrades Sicart, Jorge Hernández Ferrández, Juan José Fibla Alfara, Álvaro Agustí García-Navarro
OBJECTIVES: Early lung cancer (LC) diagnosis is key to improve prognosis. We explored here the diagnostic performance of a trained dog to discriminate exhaled gas samples obtained from patients with and patients without LC and healthy controls. METHODS: After appropriate training, we exposed the dog (a 3-year-old cross-breed between a Labrador Retriever and a Pitbull) to 390 samples of exhaled gas collected from 113 individuals (85 patients with LC and 28 controls, which included 11 patients without LC and 17 healthy individuals) for a total of 785 times...
July 24, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969619/animal-assisted-therapy-at-a-university-centre-for-palliative-medicine-a-qualitative-content-analysis-of-patient-records
#14
Andrea Schmitz, Melanie Beermann, Colin R MacKenzie, Katharina Fetz, Christian Schulz-Quach
BACKGROUND: Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) is a therapeutic concept, which has only recently been explored in more detail within the palliative care setting. A programme of AAT was begun in June 2014 at the Interdisciplinary Centre for Palliative Medicine of the University Hospital Dusseldorf, Germany. The AAT sessions were performed by two trained and certified dog assistant therapy teams (DATT). To date only very limited scientific data are available with regard to feasibility, therapeutic indications and efficacy of AAT in palliative care...
October 2, 2017: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967478/partial-neuromuscular-block-impairs-arytenoid-abduction-during-hypercarbic-challenge-in-anesthetized-dogs
#15
Chia T Tseng, Daniel M Sakai, Madeline Libin, Monika Mostowy, Jonathan Cheetham, Luis Campoy, Robin D Gleed, Manuel Martin-Flores
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of two levels of partial neuromuscular block (NMB) on arytenoid abduction, tidal volume (VT) and peak inspiratory flow (PIF) in response to a hypercarbic challenge in anesthetized dogs. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective laboratory study. ANIMALS: Eleven healthy male Beagle dogs aged 3-5 years. METHODS: Dogs were anesthetized with propofol and dexmedetomidine infusions. The rima glottidis was observed via an endoscope placed through a laryngeal mask airway...
June 7, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960127/use-of-short-animal-themed-videos-to-enhance-veterinary-students-mood-attention-and-understanding-of-pharmacology-lectures
#16
Lori R Kogan, Pete Hellyer, Tod R Clapp, Erica Suchman, Jennifer McLean, Regina Schoenfeld-Tacher
Professional DVM training is inherently stressful and challenging for students. This study evaluated a simple intervention-short breaks during a veterinary pharmacology lecture course in the form of funny/cute animal videos (Mood Induction Procedures, or MIP)-to assess for potential impact on students' mood, interest in material, and perceived understanding of material. Ten YouTube video clips showing cats or dogs were selected to influence students' affective states. The videos were shown in a required pharmacology class offered during the fall semester of the second year of the DVM program at a large, land-grant institution in the Western US...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945125/texture-analysis-of-magnetic-resonance-images-to-predict-histologic-grade-of-meningiomas-in-dogs
#17
Tommaso Banzato, Marco Bernardini, Giunio B Cherubini, Alessandro Zotti
OBJECTIVE To predict histologic grade of meningiomas in dogs via texture analysis (TA) of MRI scans of the brain and spinal cord. SAMPLE 58 sets of MRI scans of the brain and spinal cord of dogs with histologically diagnosed meningioma. PROCEDURES MRI sequences were divided into a training set and a test set, and results of histologic assessment were obtained. Tumors were histologically grouped as benign (stage I) or atypical-anaplastic (stage II or III). Texture analysis was performed by use of specialized software on T2-weighted (T2W) and pre- and postcontrast T1-weighted (T1W) images...
October 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931543/the-effects-of-intravenous-low-dose-dopamine-infusion-on-glucose-regulation-during-prolonged-aerobic-exercise
#18
Blair D Johnson, Ana B Peinado, Sushant M Ranadive, Timothy B Curry, Michael J Joyner
The carotid body chemoreceptors are activated during hypoglycemia and contribute to glucoregulation during prolonged exercise in dogs. Low dose intravenous infusions of dopamine have been shown to blunt the activation of the carotid body chemoreceptors during hypoxia. Therefore, we tested the hypotheses that dopamine would blunt glucoregulatory responses and attenuate plasma glucose during prolonged aerobic exercise in healthy participants. Twelve healthy participants completed two randomized exercise sessions at 65% peak oxygen consumption for up to 120 minutes...
September 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910326/sex-differences-in-the-herding-styles-of-working-sheepdogs-and-their-handlers
#19
Erin Kydd, Paul McGreevy
Working sheepdog trials test the attributes of dogs as well as the dogmanship and stockmanship skills of handlers. They generally include standard elements such as outrun, lift, fetch, drive, shed, pen and single to test all facets of the work that dogs perform on a farm. While both male and female handlers participate, these trials are traditionally dominated by male handlers. Both male and female dogs compete on equal terms within the same events. Drawing data from files (n = 60) downloaded from YouTube, the current study explores whether behaviours of dogs and their handlers during sheepdog trials differ between handler gender and dog sex at different levels of competition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888988/canine-human-scent-matching-the-limitations-of-systematic-pseudo-matching-to-sample-procedures
#20
Ellen Hale
Here transfer performance is contrasted with baseline training performance to determine whether a relational solution strategy is learned from the systematic pseudo matching-to-sample procedures commonly used to train human-scent-matching dogs. Evidence indicates that due to the lack of constraints to control against simple discrimination solutions, dogs trained with systematic pseudo matching-to-sample arrangements do not learn to use the scent sample as a signaling cue and do not learn about the matching relationship between the scent sample and matching comparison...
October 2017: Forensic Science International
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