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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813992/review-of-the-actuators-of-active-knee-prostheses-and-their-target-design-outputs-for-activities-of-daily-living
#1
Dominik Simon Pieringer, Martin Grimmer, Michael Friedrich Russold, Robert Riener
Active prosthetic knees have the capability to provide net positive work, which is required in daily activities like stair and ramp negotiation or sit-to-stand transfers. Adding this capability might help to increase user mobility, safety, and independence. This article summarizes the biomechanical knee requirements for different activities of daily living and critically compares them with the actuator characteristics of state-of-the-art active prosthetic knee joints. As a result of a systematic literature research 22 active prosthetic knee joints were identified...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813869/effects-of-assistance-timing-on-metabolic-cost-assistance-power-and-gait-parameters-for-a-hip-type-exoskeleton
#2
Jusuk Lee, Keehong Seo, Bokman Lim, Junwon Jang, Kyungrock Kim, Hyundo Choi
There are many important factors in developing an exoskeleton for assisting human locomotion. For example, the weight should be sufficiently light, the assist torque should be high enough to assist joint motion, and the assistance timing should be just right. Understanding how these design parameters affect overall performance of a complex human-machine system is critical for the development of these types of systems. The present study introduces an assistance timing controller that regulates assistance timing such that peak joint velocity and peak assistance power are offset by a reference value for our hip-type exoskeleton...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813865/template-model-inspired-leg-force-feedback-based-control-can-assist-human-walking
#3
Guoping Zhao, Maziar Sharbafi, Mark Vlutters, Edwin van Asseldonk, Andre Seyfarth
We present a novel control approach for assistive lower-extremity exoskeletons. In particular, we implement a virtual pivot point (VPP) template model inspired leg force feedback based controller on a lower-extremity powered exoskeleton (LOPES II) and demonstrate that it can effectively assist humans during walking. It has been shown that the VPP template model is capable of stabilizing the trunk and reproduce a human-like hip torque during the stance phase of walking. With leg force and joint angle feedback inspired by the VPP template model, our controller provides hip and knee torque assistance during the stance phase...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813483/muroid-rodent-phylogenetics-900-species-tree-reveals-increasing-diversification-rates
#4
Scott J Steppan, John J Schenk
We combined new sequence data for more than 300 muroid rodent species with our previously published sequences for up to five nuclear and one mitochondrial genes to generate the most widely and densely sampled hypothesis of evolutionary relationships across Muroidea. An exhaustive screening procedure for publically available sequences was implemented to avoid the propagation of taxonomic errors that are common to supermatrix studies. The combined data set of carefully screened sequences derived from all available sequences on GenBank with our new data resulted in a robust maximum likelihood phylogeny for 900 of the approximately 1,620 muroids...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812877/scru2b3-and-sc2rub6-borides-featuring-a-2d-infinite-boron-clustering
#5
Leonid P Salamakha, Oksana Sologub, Berthold Stöger, Peter Franz Rogl, Monika Waas, Volodymyr B Kapustianyk, Ernst Bauer
Two borides, ScRu2B3 and Sc2RuB6, were obtained by argon-arc melting of the elements followed by annealing at 800 °C. ScRu2B3 exhibits a new structure type with the space group Cmcm (a = 3.0195(2) Å, b = 15.4056(8) Å, c = 5.4492(3) Å; single crystal X-ray data; RF(2) = 0.0105). Sc2RuB6 adopts the Y2ReB6-type structure (space group Pbam; a = 8.8545(2) Å, b = 11.1620(3) Å, c = 3.4760(1) Å; single crystal X-ray data; RF(2) = 0.0185). ScRu2B3 displays an unusual intergrowth of CeCo3B2- and AlB2-related slabs; a striking feature is a boat configuration of puckered boron hexagons within infinite graphite like boron layers (6(3) nets)...
August 16, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812808/history-structure-and-agency-in-global-health-governance-comment-on-global-health-governance-challenges-2016-are-we-ready
#6
Stephen Gill, Solomon R Benatar
Ilona Kickbusch's thought provoking editorial is criticized in this commentary, partly because she fails to refer to previous critical work on the global conditions and policies that sustain inequality, poverty, poor health and damage to the biosphere and, as a result, she misreads global power and elides consideration of the fundamental historical structures of political and material power that shape agency in global health governance. We also doubt that global health can be improved through structures and processes of multilateralism that are premised on the continued reproduction of the ecologically myopic and socially unsustainable market civilization model of capitalist development that currently prevails in the world economy...
August 29, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812662/spending-limited-resources-on-de-extinction-could-lead-to-net-biodiversity-loss
#7
Joseph R Bennett, Richard F Maloney, Tammy E Steeves, James Brazill-Boast, Hugh P Possingham, Philip J Seddon
There is contentious debate surrounding the merits of de-extinction as a biodiversity conservation tool. Here, we use extant analogues to predict conservation actions for potential de-extinction candidate species from New Zealand and the Australian state of New South Wales, and use a prioritization protocol to predict the impacts of reintroducing and maintaining populations of these species on conservation of extant threatened species. Even using the optimistic assumptions that resurrection of species is externally sponsored, and that actions for resurrected species can share costs with extant analogue species, public funding for conservation of resurrected species would lead to fewer extant species that could be conserved, suggesting net biodiversity loss...
March 1, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812653/adaptation-of-phytoplankton-to-a-decade-of-experimental-warming-linked-to-increased-photosynthesis
#8
C-Elisa Schaum, Samuel Barton, Elvire Bestion, Angus Buckling, Bernardo Garcia-Carreras, Paula Lopez, Chris Lowe, Samraat Pawar, Nicholas Smirnoff, Mark Trimmer, Gabriel Yvon-Durocher
Phytoplankton photosynthesis is a critical flux in the carbon cycle, accounting for approximately 40% of the carbon dioxide fixed globally on an annual basis and fuelling the productivity of aquatic food webs. However, rapid evolutionary responses of phytoplankton to warming remain largely unexplored, particularly outside the laboratory, where multiple selection pressures can modify adaptation to environmental change. Here, we use a decade-long experiment in outdoor mesocosms to investigate mechanisms of adaptation to warming (+4 °C above ambient temperature) in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, in naturally assembled communities...
March 20, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812604/stand-age-and-species-richness-dampen-interannual-variation-of-ecosystem-level-photosynthetic-capacity
#9
Talie Musavi, Mirco Migliavacca, Markus Reichstein, Jens Kattge, Christian Wirth, T Andrew Black, Ivan Janssens, Alexander Knohl, Denis Loustau, Olivier Roupsard, Andrej Varlagin, Serge Rambal, Alessandro Cescatti, Damiano Gianelle, Hiroaki Kondo, Rijan Tamrakar, Miguel D Mahecha
The total uptake of carbon dioxide by ecosystems via photosynthesis (gross primary productivity, GPP) is the largest flux in the global carbon cycle. A key ecosystem functional property determining GPP is the photosynthetic capacity at light saturation (GPPsat), and its interannual variability (IAV) is propagated to the net land-atmosphere exchange of CO2. Given the importance of understanding the IAV in CO2 fluxes for improving the predictability of the global carbon cycle, we have tested a range of alternative hypotheses to identify potential drivers of the magnitude of IAV in GPPsat in forest ecosystems...
January 23, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812592/widely-used-marine-seismic-survey-air-gun-operations-negatively-impact-zooplankton
#10
Robert D McCauley, Ryan D Day, Kerrie M Swadling, Quinn P Fitzgibbon, Reg A Watson, Jayson M Semmens
Zooplankton underpin the health and productivity of global marine ecosystems. Here we present evidence that suggests seismic surveys cause significant mortality to zooplankton populations. Seismic surveys are used extensively to explore for petroleum resources using intense, low-frequency, acoustic impulse signals. Experimental air gun signal exposure decreased zooplankton abundance when compared with controls, as measured by sonar (~3-4 dB drop within 15-30 min) and net tows (median 64% decrease within 1 h), and caused a two- to threefold increase in dead adult and larval zooplankton...
June 22, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812536/edgar-a-database-of-disease-gene-associations-with-annotated-relationships-among-genes
#11
Giulia Babbi, Pier Luigi Martelli, Giuseppe Profiti, Samuele Bovo, Castrense Savojardo, Rita Casadio
BACKGROUND: Genetic investigations, boosted by modern sequencing techniques, allow dissecting the genetic component of different phenotypic traits. These efforts result in the compilation of lists of genes related to diseases and show that an increasing number of diseases is associated with multiple genes. Investigating functional relations among genes associated with the same disease contributes to highlighting molecular mechanisms of the pathogenesis. RESULTS: We present eDGAR, a database collecting and organizing the data on gene/disease associations as derived from OMIM, Humsavar and ClinVar...
August 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812193/cost-analysis-of-robot-assisted-choledochotomy-and-common-bile-duct-exploration-as-an-option-for-complex-choledocholithiasis
#12
Ahmed Almamar, Nawar A Alkhamesi, Ward T Davies, Christopher M Schlachta
AIM: The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness of elective, robot-assisted choledochotomy and common bile duct exploration (RCD/CBDE) compared to open surgery for ERCP refractory choledocholithiasis. METHOD: A prospective database of all RCD/CBDE has been maintained since our first procedure in April 2007 though April 2016. With ethics approval, this database was compared with all contemporaneous elective open procedures (OCD/CBDE) performed since March 2005...
August 15, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811801/pakistan-journal-of-medical-sciences-a-bibliometric-assessment-2001-2010
#13
Zameer Hussain Baladi, Loung V Umedani
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to measure the growth of scientific research, authors' productivity, affiliation with the institute and geographic locations published in the Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences during the period of 2001 - 2010. METHODS: This numerical analysis was conducted during mid-August 2016 to mid-October, 2016. The data for the study was downloaded from websites of e-journal of Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences (PJMS) and Pak Medi-Net Com...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811732/exposure-to-and-use-of-electronic-cigarettes-does-language-matter
#14
Paul Wada, Chun Nok Lam, Elizabeth Burner, Sophie Terp, Michael Menchine, Sanjay Arora
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether patients who are English proficient become aware of e-cigarettes through different marketing tactics and have dissimilar patterns of use than patients who are non-English speaking. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study surveying adult English- and Spanish-speaking patients. ANOVA and chi-squared tests were used to examine differences between groups. SETTING: A large public, safety-net hospital in Los Angeles County, California...
2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811656/phageterm-a-tool-for-fast-and-accurate-determination-of-phage-termini-and-packaging-mechanism-using-next-generation-sequencing-data
#15
Julian R Garneau, Florence Depardieu, Louis-Charles Fortier, David Bikard, Marc Monot
The worrying rise of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria is leading to a renewed interest in bacteriophages as a treatment option. Novel sequencing technologies enable description of an increasing number of phage genomes, a critical piece of information to understand their life cycle, phage-host interactions, and evolution. In this work, we demonstrate how it is possible to recover more information from sequencing data than just the phage genome. We developed a theoretical and statistical framework to determine DNA termini and phage packaging mechanisms using NGS data...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811632/atomic-scale-study-of-the-amorphous-to-crystalline-phase-transition-mechanism-in-gete-thin-films
#16
R Mantovan, R Fallica, A Mokhles Gerami, T E Mølholt, C Wiemer, M Longo, H P Gunnlaugsson, K Johnston, H Masenda, D Naidoo, M Ncube, K Bharuth-Ram, M Fanciulli, H P Gislason, G Langouche, S Ólafsson, G Weyer
The underlying mechanism driving the structural amorphous-to-crystalline transition in Group VI chalcogenides is still a matter of debate even in the simplest GeTe system. We exploit the extreme sensitivity of (57)Fe emission Mössbauer spectroscopy, following dilute implantation of (57)Mn (T½ = 1.5 min) at ISOLDE/CERN, to study the electronic charge distribution in the immediate vicinity of the (57)Fe probe substituting Ge (FeGe), and to interrogate the local environment of FeGe over the amorphous-crystalline phase transition in GeTe thin films...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811483/the-impact-of-human-population-pressure-on-flying-fox-niches-and-the-potential-consequences-for-hendra-virus-spillover
#17
Michael G Walsh, Anke Wiethoelter, M A Haseeb
Hendra virus (HeV) is an emerging pathogen of concern in Australia given its ability to spillover from its reservoir host, pteropid bats, to horses and further on to humans, and the severe clinical presentation typical in these latter incidental hosts. Specific human pressures over recent decades, such as expanding human populations, urbanization, and forest fragmentation, may have altered the ecological niche of Pteropus species acting as natural HeV reservoirs and may modulate spillover risk. This study explored the influence of inter-decadal net human local migration between 1970 and 2000 on changes in the habitat suitability to P...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811300/epigenetic-regulation-by-the-menin-pathway
#18
Zijie Feng, Jian Ma, Xianxin Hua
There is a trend of increasing prevalence of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), and the inherited multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome serves as a genetic model to investigate how NETs develop and the underlying mechanisms. Menin, encoded by the MEN1 gene, at least partly acts as a scaffold protein by interacting with multiple partners to regulate cellular homeostasis of various endocrine organs. Menin has multiple functions including regulating several important signaling pathways by controlling gene transcription...
August 15, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811298/the-future-surgical-advances-in-men1-therapeutic-approaches-and-management-strategies
#19
Samira Mercedes Sadowski, Guillaume Cadiot, Eric Dansin, Pierre Goudet, Frédéric Triponez
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is a hereditary autosomal dominant disorder associated with numerous neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Recent advances in the management of MEN1 have led to a decrease in mortality due to excess hormones; however, they have also led to an increase in mortality from malignancy, particularly NETs. The main challenges are to localize these tumors, to select those that need therapy because of the risk of aggressive behavior, and to select the appropriate therapy associated with minimal morbidity...
August 15, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811281/multimorbidity-dementia-and-health-care-in-older-people-a-population-based-cohort-study
#20
Marcello Tonelli, Natasha Wiebe, Sharon Straus, Martin Fortin, Bruce Guthrie, Matthew T James, Scott W Klarenbach, Helen Tam-Tham, Richard Lewanczuk, Braden J Manns, Hude Quan, Paul E Ronksley, Peter Sargious, Brenda Hemmelgarn
BACKGROUND: Little is known about how multimorbidity, dementia and increasing age combine to influence health outcomes or utilization. Our objective was to examine the joint associations between age, dementia and burden of morbidity with mortality and other clinical outcomes. METHODS: We did a retrospective population-based cohort study of all adults aged 65 years and older residing in Alberta, Canada, between 2002 and 2013. We used validated algorithms applied to administrative and laboratory data from the provincial health ministry to assess the presence/absence of dementia and 29 other morbidities, and their associations with mortality (our primary outcome), other clinical outcomes (emergency department visits, all-cause hospital admissions) and a proxy for loss of independent living (discharge to long-term care)...
August 14, 2017: CMAJ Open
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