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Myeloma vaccine

Benjamin W Teh, Simon J Harrison, Monica A Slavin, Leon J Worth
BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are a significant complication of treatment for multiple myeloma (MM). The objective of this study was to define the epidemiology of BSI with current era MM treatment regimens, including immunomodulatory drugs, proteasome inhibitors and autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT). METHODS: Clinical and microbiology records of patients with MM diagnosed between 2008 and 2012 were reviewed using a standardised tool to capture patient demographics, myeloma characteristics and BSI characteristics (type, severity, outcomes)...
September 26, 2016: European Journal of Haematology
Susan J Lee, Ivan Borrello
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematologic cancer derived from malignant plasma cells within the bone marrow. Unlike most solid tumors, which originate from epithelial cells, the myeloma tumor is a plasma cell derived from the lymphoid cell lineage originating from a post-germinal B-cell. As such, the MM plasma cell represents an integral component of the immune system in terms of both antibody production and antigen presentation, albeit not efficiently. This fundamental difference has significant implications when one considers the implications of immunotherapy...
2016: Cancer Treatment and Research
Binod Dhakal, Saulius Girnius, Parameswaran Hari
There have been major recent advancements in the understanding and management of multiple myeloma. Diagnostic criteria have been revised and former ultra-high-risk smoldering multiple myeloma is now considered multiple myeloma in need of treatment. Understanding clonal progression, evolution, and tides not only has helped elucidate the disease behavior but might help expand therapeutic choices in order to select appropriate treatment for patients. Unprecedented response rates with modern triplet induction therapies containing proteasome inhibitor and immunomodulators have made this approach standard for initial treatment...
2016: F1000Research
Silvia Sánchez-Ramón, Fatima Dhalla, Helen Chapel
Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and multiple myeloma (MM) are prone to present with antibody production deficits associated with recurrent or severe bacterial infections that might benefit from human immunoglobulin (Ig) (IVIg/SCIg) replacement therapy. However, the original IVIg trial data were done before modern therapies were available, and the current indications do not take into account the shift in the immune situation of current treatment combinations and changes in the spectrum of infections...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
James W Larrick, Mark R Alfenito, Jamie K Scott, Paul W H I Parren, Dennis R Burton, Andrew R M Bradbury, Cynthia A Lemere, Anne Messer, James S Huston, Paul J Carter, Trudi Veldman, Kerry A Chester, Janine Schuurman, Gregory P Adams, Janice M Reichert
Antibody Engineering & Therapeutics, the largest meeting devoted to antibody science and technology and the annual meeting of The Antibody Society, will be held in San Diego, CA on December 11-15, 2016. Each of 14 sessions will include six presentations by leading industry and academic experts. In this meeting preview, the session chairs discuss the relevance of their topics to current and future antibody therapeutics development. Session topics include bispecifics and designer polyclonal antibodies; antibodies for neurodegenerative diseases; the interface between passive and active immunotherapy; antibodies for non-cancer indications; novel antibody display, selection and screening technologies; novel checkpoint modulators / immuno-oncology; engineering antibodies for T-cell therapy; novel engineering strategies to enhance antibody functions; and the biological Impact of Fc receptor engagement...
August 24, 2016: MAbs
Michael Schmitt, Angela G Hückelhoven, Michael Hundemer, Anita Schmitt, Susanne Lipp, Martina Emde, Hans Salwender, Mathias Hänel, Katja Weisel, Uta Bertsch, Jan Dürig, Anthony D Ho, Igor Wolfgang Blau, Hartmut Goldschmidt, Anja Seckinger, Dirk Hose
BACKGROUND: Raising T-cell response against antigens either expressed on normal and malignant plasma cells (e.g. HM1.24) or aberrantly on myeloma cells only (e.g. cancer testis antigens, CTA) by vaccination is a potential treatment approach for multiple myeloma. RESULTS: Expression by GEP is found for HM1.24 in all, HMMR in 318/458 (69.4%), MAGE-A3 in 209/458 (45.6%), NY-ESO-1/2 in 40/458 (8.7%), and WT-1 in 4/458 (0.8%) of samples with the pattern being confirmed by RNA-sequencing...
August 11, 2016: Oncotarget
Valentina Hoyos, Ivan Borrello
The treatment of multiple myeloma has evolved significantly over the last decades from primarily alkylator-based chemotherapeutic agents with minimal efficacy to the introduction of more effective agents including immune modulators and proteasome inhibitors, which have changed the landscape of therapy for this disease. We are now entering a new era that will increasingly integrate immunotherapy into standard treatment. This review discusses the current immune-based strategies currently approved, as well as various immune approaches being actively investigated including monoclonal antibodies, checkpoint inhibitors, vaccines, and adoptive T-cell therapies...
September 29, 2016: Blood
Erik Backhaus, Stefan Berg, Rune Andersson, Gunilla Ockborn, Petter Malmström, Mats Dahl, Salmir Nasic, Birger Trollfors
BACKGROUND: Incidence, manifestations and case-fatality rate (CFR) of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) vary with age and comorbidities. New vaccines, changing age distribution, prolonged survival among immunocompromised patients and improved sepsis management have created a need for an update of basic facts to inform vaccine recommendations. METHODS: Age, gender and comorbidities were related to manifestations and death for 2977 consecutive patients with IPD in a Swedish region with 1...
August 3, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Gabriela Alvarado, James E Crowe
Human monoclonal antibodies against RSV have high potential for use as prophylaxis or therapeutic molecules, and they also can be used to define the structure of protective epitopes for rational vaccine design. In the past, however, isolation of human monoclonal antibodies was difficult and inefficient. Here, we describe contemporary methods for activation and proliferation of primary human memory B cells followed by cytofusion to non-secreting myeloma cells by dielectrophoresis to generate human hybridomas secreting RSV-specific monoclonal antibodies...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Vanda Friman, Ola Winqvist, Cecilie Blimark, Petra Langerbeins, Helen Chapel, Fatima Dhalla
Secondary immunodeficiencies occur as a consequence of various diseases, including hematological malignancies, and the use of pharmacological therapies, such as immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory, and biological drugs. Infections are the main cause of morbidity and mortality in multiple myeloma (MM) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients. Recent advances in treatment have prolonged the duration of remission and the time between relapse phases in MM and CLL patients. However, managing multiple relapses and the use of salvage therapies can lead to cumulative immunosuppression and a higher risk of infections...
September 2016: Hematological Oncology
Andinet Alemu, John O Richards, Martin K Oaks, Michael A Thompson
Multiple myeloma is a cancer of the immune system. Infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with multiple myeloma. Some of these infections are preventable by vaccines available to the general population. However, little is known about the clinical effectiveness of these vaccines in patients with multiple myeloma, and the cellular and humoral immune response to vaccination has not been well characterized, especially in conjunction with modern myeloma therapies. The present report reviews the basics of multiple myeloma and the immune system, the available evidence on the immunologic response of patients with multiple myeloma after vaccination, and current practice recommendations regarding specific vaccines...
June 8, 2016: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
Amrita Krishnan, Ravi Vij, Jesse Keller, Binod Dhakal, Parameswaran Hari
For multiple myeloma, introduction of novel agents as part of the front-line treatment followed by high-dose chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) induces deep responses in a majority of patients with this disease. However, disease relapse is inevitable, and, with each relapse, the remission duration becomes shorter, ultimately leading to a refractory disease. Consolidation and maintenance strategy after ASCT is one route to provide sustained disease control and prevent repeated relapses...
2016: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
Katarina Luptakova, David Avigan
Although the advent of biologic therapies has resulted in improved outcomes for patients with multiple myeloma (MM), patients ultimately develop progressively resistant disease. As such, novel approaches are needed. There has been a renewed focus on the development of therapies that would allow redirection of patients' own immune systems to target malignant myeloma cells. Compared with healthy individuals, patients with MM exhibit immune dysregulation and an impaired capacity to develop antitumor immunity. Tumor cells induce tolerance by exploiting native immune pathways responsible for preventing autoimmunity and maintaining immunologic equilibrium...
November 2015: Clinical Advances in Hematology & Oncology: H&O
Mohammad Taghikhani, Rasul Moukhah
BACKGROUND: Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine is the only vaccine that is used against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but its efficacy is limited in mycobacterium-endemic regions. One of the major antigens present on the cell envelope of the vaccine that suppresses the immune system is mannosylated lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we immunized 4-week-old mice with sonicated BCG vaccine injected intraperitoneally two times at an interval of 2 weeks and with ManLAM antigen injected intravenously and then extracted the spleen cells of the immunized mice...
2016: Advanced Biomedical Research
Johanna Karlsson, Lucy Roalfe, Harriet Hogevik, Marta Zancolli, Björn Andréasson, David Goldblatt, Christine Wennerås
Patients with multiple myeloma and other B cell disorders respond poorly to pneumococcal vaccination. Vaccine responsiveness is commonly determined by measuring pneumococcal serotype-specific antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), by a functional opsonophagocytosis assay (OPA), or by both assays. We compared the two methods in vaccinated elderly patients with multiple myeloma, Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). Postvaccination sera from 45 patients (n= 15 from each patient group) and 15 control subjects were analyzed by multiplexed OPA for pneumococcal serotypes 4, 6B, 14, and 23F, and the results were compared to IgG and IgM antibody titers measured by ELISA...
April 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Hye-Mi Park, Hyun-Il Cho, Chang-Ae Shin, Hyun-Jung Shon, Tai-Gyu Kim
Zoledronic acid (ZA) is used for treating osteoporosis and for preventing skeletal fractures in cancer patients suffering from myeloma and prostate cancer. It is also reported to directly induce cancer cell apoptosis and indirectly modulate T-cell immune response as an antitumor agent. In this study, the effect of ZA following peptide/polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly-IC) vaccination was investigated in a murine tumor model. The combination of ZA with peptide/poly-IC vaccine showed a synergistic effect on the induction of antigen-specific CD8 T-cell response...
March 4, 2016: Vaccine
Petra Kucerova, Monika Cervinkova
This review deals with the role of microorganisms in spontaneous regression of a tumour. Spontaneous cancer regression is a phenomenon that has been described for many centuries. One of the most well known methods of inducing spontaneous regression of cancer is the application of Coley's toxin (heat-killed Streptococcus pyogenes and Serratia marcescens), which has been used for the successful treatment of sarcomas, carcinomas, lymphomas, myelomas and melanomas. In clinical practice, the use of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine for the treatment of superficial urinary bladder cancer is the most common instance of the application of microorganisms for the treatment of cancer...
April 2016: Anti-cancer Drugs
Chris Fellner
Elotuzumab (Empliciti) and ixazomib (Ninlaro) for some multiple myeloma patients; Fluad (influenza vaccine, adjuvanted) for immunization of persons 65 years of age and older; and osimertinib (Tagrisso) for certain non-small-cell lung cancers.
January 2016: P & T: a Peer-reviewed Journal for Formulary Management
Vesa Lindström, Janne Aittoniemi, Outi Lyytikäinen, Peter Klemets, Jukka Ollgren, Raija Silvennoinen, J Pekka Nuorti, Marjatta Sinisalo
The baseline national invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) incidence rate, serotype distribution and serotype coverage of pneumococcal vaccines were evaluated in patients with Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, myeloma and leukaemia within 1 year after haematological diagnosis during 1995-2002, before introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Pneumococcal serotype distribution among these patients was different from serotypes causing IPD in the general population. The serotype coverages of PCV13 and PPSV23 were 57% and 64%, respectively, lower than in the general population...
May 2016: Infectious Diseases
Duo Zhou, Zheng-yan Zhao
Oncolytic virotherapy is a novel cancer therapy. Vaccine-attenuated strains of measles virus(MV)is an ideal candidate for oncolytic virotherapy which has an excellent safety record. Vaccine-attenuated MV uses CD46 and Nectin-4 molecule as major entry receptors into cells. Vaccine-attenuated MV can selectively infect and kill a wide variety of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. With the development of molecular cloning, scientists have successfully rescued cDNA of vaccine-attenuated MV and increased its oncolytic efficiency with molecular engineering techniques...
July 2015: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
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