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Myeloma vaccine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428898/severe-acute-hepatitis-b-in-hbv-vaccinated-partner-of-a-patient-with-multiple-myeloma-treated-with-cyclophosphamide-bortezomib-and-dexamethasone-and-autologous-stem-cell-transplant
#1
Majed M Almaghrabi, Kyle J Fortinsky, David Wong
Hepatitis B reactivation can occur with various forms of immunosuppression. Cyclophosphamide, Bortezomib, and Dexamethasone (CYBOR-D) chemotherapy is commonly used for the treatment of multiple myeloma and has not been noted in guidelines to be causative in HBV reactivation. Indeed, current guidelines do not recommend providing antiviral prophylaxis to patients with prior HBV infection. We present a case of HBV reactivation as a result of CYBOR-D and autologous stem cell transplant which is complicated by the patient's partner who developed acute hepatitis B...
2017: Case Reports in Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343904/clinical-and-serologic-responses-after-a-two-dose-series-of-high-dose-influenza-vaccine-in-plasma-cell-disorders-a-prospective-single-arm-trial
#2
Andrew R Branagan, Eamon Duffy, Randy A Albrecht, Dennis L Cooper, Stuart Seropian, Terri L Parker, Geliang Gan, Fangyong Li, Daniel Zelterman, Chandra Sekhar Boddupalli, Lin Zhang, Rakesh Verma, Thomas M Ferencz, Madhav V Dhodapkar
BACKGROUND: Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and other plasma cell disorders are highly susceptible to influenza infections, which are major causes of morbidity in this population, despite the routine administration of a seasonal influenza vaccination. Existing data are limited by small and retrospective studies, which suggest poor seroprotection rates of < 20% after standard influenza vaccination in patients with MM. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with plasma cell dyscrasia (n = 51) were treated with a 2-dose series of high-dose inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine during the 2014 to 2015 influenza season...
March 7, 2017: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259300/immunotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-multiple-myeloma
#3
REVIEW
Sung-Hoon Jung, Hyun-Ju Lee, Manh-Cuong Vo, Hyeoung-Joon Kim, Je-Jung Lee
Immunotherapy has recently emerged as a promising treatment for multiple myeloma (MM). There are now several monoclonal antibodies that target specific surface antigens on myeloma cells or the checkpoints of immune and myeloma cells. Elotuzumab (targeting SLAMF7), daratumumab (targeting CD38), and pembrolizumab (targeting PD-1) have shown clinical activity in clinical studies with relapsed/refractory MM. Dendritic cell vaccination is a safe strategy that has shown some efficacy in a subset of myeloma patients and may become a crucial part of MM treatment when combined with immunomodulatory drugs or immune check-point blockade...
March 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228086/clinical-trials-with-oncolytic-measles-virus-current-status-and-future-prospects
#4
Pavlos Msaouel, Mateusz Opyrchal, Angela Dispenzieri, Kah Whye Peng, Mark J Federspiel, Stephen J Russell, Evanthia Galanis
Attenuated Edmonston lineage measles virus (MV-Edm) vaccine strains can preferentially infect and lyse a wide variety of cancer cells. Oncolytic MV-Edm derivatives genetically engineered to expressed the human carcinoembryonic antigen (MV-CEA virus) or the human sodium iodide symporter (MV-NIS virus) and are currently being tested in clinical trials against ovarian cancer, glioblastoma multiforme, multiple myeloma, mesothelioma, head and neck cancer, breast cancer and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors...
February 22, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201977/targeting-the-immune-niche-within-the-bone-marrow-microenvironment-the-rise-of-immunotherapy-in-multiple-myeloma
#5
Klaus Podar, D Jäger
Multiple Myeloma (MM) cells inhibit the development of an effective anti-MM immune response via defects in T cell function, ineffective antigen presentation; reduced phagocytic capacity; natural killer and dendritic cell dysfunction; decreased responsiveness to IL-2 and defects in B cell immunity; upregulation of inhibitory pathways; and production of excessive pro-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, immune cells including plasmacytoid dendritic cells and macrophages trigger tumor cell proliferation, survival, and drug resistance...
February 13, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151713/immune-therapies-in-multiple-myeloma
#6
EDITORIAL
Shaji K Kumar, Kenneth C Anderson
Treatment paradigms have changed rapidly for multiple myeloma, and immune therapies have taken center stage. Advances in therapies for myeloma have led to a dramatic improvement in the survival of patients with this incurable malignancy. The immune system is significantly impaired in patients with myeloma as a result of the disease leading to suppression of normal plasma cells as well the negative effects on cellular immunity. Given this scenario, immune approaches have not been successful until recently. Monoclonal antibodies directed against CD38 (daratumumab) and SLAMF7 (elotuzumab) are already in the clinic, and several other antibodies directed against different plasma cell antigens are under evaluation...
November 15, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913524/cellular-and-vaccine-immunotherapy-for-multiple-myeloma
#7
Alfred L Garfall, Edward A Stadtmauer
Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation and donor lymphocyte infusion for multiple myeloma (MM) can induce graft-versus-myeloma immunity and long-term survivorship, but limited efficacy and associated toxicities have prevented its widespread use. Cellular immunotherapies and vaccines seek to induce more specific, reliable, and potent antimyeloma immune responses with less treatment-related risk than is possible with allogeneic transplantation. Advances in molecular biology, and basic and applied immunology, have led to promising approaches such as genetically engineered T cells with chimeric antigen receptors and T-cell receptors targeting myeloma-specific epitopes, vaccine primed ex vivo expanded autologous T cells, expanded marrow-infiltrating lymphocytes, and plasma cell/dendritic cell fusion vaccines...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893426/sublethal-exposure-to-alpha-radiation-223ra-dichloride-enhances-various-carcinomas-sensitivity-to-lysis-by-antigen-specific-cytotoxic-t-lymphocytes-through-calreticulin-mediated-immunogenic-modulation
#8
Anthony S Malamas, Sofia R Gameiro, Karin M Knudson, James W Hodge
Radium-223 dichloride (Xofigo®; 223Ra) is an alpha-emitting radiopharmaceutical FDA-approved for the treatment of bone metastases in patients with advanced castration-resistant prostate cancer. It is also being examined clinically in patients with breast and lung carcinoma and patients with multiple myeloma. As with other forms of radiation, the aim of 223Ra is to reduce tumor burden by directly killing tumor cells. External beam (photon) and proton radiation have been shown to augment tumor sensitivity to antigen-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs)...
December 27, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870103/role-of-immunotherapy-in-targeting-the-bone-marrow-microenvironment-in-multiple-myeloma-an-evolving-therapeutic-strategy
#9
REVIEW
Clement Chung
Multiple myeloma (referred to henceforth as myeloma) is a B-cell malignancy characterized by unregulated growth of plasma cells in the bone marrow. The treatment paradigm for myeloma underwent significant evolution in the last decade, with an improved understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease as well as the development of therapeutic agents that target not only the tumor cells but also their microenvironment. Despite these therapeutic advances, the prognosis of patients with relapsed or refractory myeloma remains poor...
January 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797968/new-strategies-in-multiple-myeloma-immunotherapy-as-a-novel-approach-to-treat-patients-with-multiple-myeloma
#10
Paola Neri, Nizar J Bahlis, Sagar Lonial
Multiple myeloma is a B-cell malignancy characterized by proliferation of monoclonal plasma cells in the bone marrow. Although new therapeutic options introduced in recent years have resulted in improved survival outcomes, multiple myeloma remains incurable for a large number of patients, and new treatment options are urgently needed. Over the last 5 years, there has been a renewed interest in the clinical potential of immunotherapy for the treatment of multiple myeloma. Clinical progression of myeloma is known to be associated with progressive immune dysregulation and loss of immune surveillance that contribute to disease progression in association with progressive genetic complexity, rendering signaling-based treatments less effective...
December 15, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782084/measles-to-the-rescue-a-review-of-oncolytic-measles-virus
#11
REVIEW
Sarah Aref, Katharine Bailey, Adele Fielding
Oncolytic virotherapeutic agents are likely to become serious contenders in cancer treatment. The vaccine strain of measles virus is an agent with an impressive range of oncolytic activity in pre-clinical trials with increasing evidence of safety and efficacy in early clinical trials. This paramyxovirus vaccine has a proven safety record and is amenable to careful genetic modification in the laboratory. Overexpression of the measles virus (MV) receptor CD46 in many tumour cells may direct the virus to preferentially enter transformed cells and there is increasing awareness of the importance of nectin-4 and signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) in oncolysis...
October 22, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717026/epidemiology-of-bloodstream-infections-in-patients-with-myeloma-receiving-current-era-therapy
#12
Benjamin W Teh, Simon J Harrison, Monica A Slavin, Leon J Worth
BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are a significant complication of treatment for multiple myeloma (MM). The objective of this study was to define the epidemiology of BSI with current era MM treatment regimens, including immunomodulatory drugs, proteasome inhibitors and autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT). METHODS: Clinical and microbiology records of patients with MM diagnosed between 2008 and 2012 were reviewed using a standardised tool to capture patient demographics, myeloma characteristics and BSI characteristics (type, severity, outcomes)...
February 2017: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696265/role-of-the-immune-response-in-disease-progression-and-therapy-in-multiple-myeloma
#13
Susan J Lee, Ivan Borrello
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematologic cancer derived from malignant plasma cells within the bone marrow. Unlike most solid tumors, which originate from epithelial cells, the myeloma tumor is a plasma cell derived from the lymphoid cell lineage originating from a post-germinal B-cell. As such, the MM plasma cell represents an integral component of the immune system in terms of both antibody production and antigen presentation, albeit not efficiently. This fundamental difference has significant implications when one considers the implications of immunotherapy...
2016: Cancer Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610224/recent-advances-in-understanding-multiple-myeloma
#14
REVIEW
Binod Dhakal, Saulius Girnius, Parameswaran Hari
There have been major recent advancements in the understanding and management of multiple myeloma. Diagnostic criteria have been revised and former ultra-high-risk smoldering multiple myeloma is now considered multiple myeloma in need of treatment. Understanding clonal progression, evolution, and tides not only has helped elucidate the disease behavior but might help expand therapeutic choices in order to select appropriate treatment for patients. Unprecedented response rates with modern triplet induction therapies containing proteasome inhibitor and immunomodulators have made this approach standard for initial treatment...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597852/challenges-in-the-role-of-gammaglobulin-replacement-therapy-and-vaccination-strategies-for-hematological-malignancy
#15
REVIEW
Silvia Sánchez-Ramón, Fatima Dhalla, Helen Chapel
Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and multiple myeloma (MM) are prone to present with antibody production deficits associated with recurrent or severe bacterial infections that might benefit from human immunoglobulin (Ig) (IVIg/SCIg) replacement therapy. However, the original IVIg trial data were done before modern therapies were available, and the current indications do not take into account the shift in the immune situation of current treatment combinations and changes in the spectrum of infections...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557809/antibody-engineering-therapeutics-2016-the-antibody-society-s-annual-meeting-december-11-15-2016-san-diego-ca
#16
James W Larrick, Mark R Alfenito, Jamie K Scott, Paul W H I Parren, Dennis R Burton, Andrew R M Bradbury, Cynthia A Lemere, Anne Messer, James S Huston, Paul J Carter, Trudi Veldman, Kerry A Chester, Janine Schuurman, Gregory P Adams, Janice M Reichert
Antibody Engineering & Therapeutics, the largest meeting devoted to antibody science and technology and the annual meeting of The Antibody Society, will be held in San Diego, CA on December 11-15, 2016. Each of 14 sessions will include six presentations by leading industry and academic experts. In this meeting preview, the session chairs discuss the relevance of their topics to current and future antibody therapeutics development. Session topics include bispecifics and designer polyclonal antibodies; antibodies for neurodegenerative diseases; the interface between passive and active immunotherapy; antibodies for non-cancer indications; novel antibody display, selection and screening technologies; novel checkpoint modulators / immuno-oncology; engineering antibodies for T-cell therapy; novel engineering strategies to enhance antibody functions; and the biological Impact of Fc receptor engagement...
August 24, 2016: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27533084/frequency-of-expression-and-generation-of-t-cell-responses-against-antigens-on-multiple-myeloma-cells-in-patients-included-in-the-gmmg-mm5-trial
#17
Michael Schmitt, Angela G Hückelhoven, Michael Hundemer, Anita Schmitt, Susanne Lipp, Martina Emde, Hans Salwender, Mathias Hänel, Katja Weisel, Uta Bertsch, Jan Dürig, Anthony D Ho, Igor Wolfgang Blau, Hartmut Goldschmidt, Anja Seckinger, Dirk Hose
BACKGROUND: Raising T-cell response against antigens either expressed on normal and malignant plasma cells (e.g. HM1.24) or aberrantly on myeloma cells only (e.g. cancer testis antigens, CTA) by vaccination is a potential treatment approach for multiple myeloma. RESULTS: Expression by GEP is found for HM1.24 in all, HMMR in 318/458 (69.4%), MAGE-A3 in 209/458 (45.6%), NY-ESO-1/2 in 40/458 (8.7%), and WT-1 in 4/458 (0.8%) of samples with the pattern being confirmed by RNA-sequencing...
August 11, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27506540/the-immunotherapy-era-of-myeloma-monoclonal-antibodies-vaccines-and-adoptive-t-cell-therapies
#18
REVIEW
Valentina Hoyos, Ivan Borrello
The treatment of multiple myeloma has evolved significantly over the last decades from primarily alkylator-based chemotherapeutic agents with minimal efficacy to the introduction of more effective agents including immune modulators and proteasome inhibitors, which have changed the landscape of therapy for this disease. We are now entering a new era that will increasingly integrate immunotherapy into standard treatment. This review discusses the current immune-based strategies currently approved, as well as various immune approaches being actively investigated including monoclonal antibodies, checkpoint inhibitors, vaccines, and adoptive T-cell therapies...
September 29, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27487784/epidemiology-of-invasive-pneumococcal-infections-manifestations-incidence-and-case-fatality-rate-correlated-to-age-gender-and-risk-factors
#19
Erik Backhaus, Stefan Berg, Rune Andersson, Gunilla Ockborn, Petter Malmström, Mats Dahl, Salmir Nasic, Birger Trollfors
BACKGROUND: Incidence, manifestations and case-fatality rate (CFR) of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) vary with age and comorbidities. New vaccines, changing age distribution, prolonged survival among immunocompromised patients and improved sepsis management have created a need for an update of basic facts to inform vaccine recommendations. METHODS: Age, gender and comorbidities were related to manifestations and death for 2977 consecutive patients with IPD in a Swedish region with 1...
August 3, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27464688/development-of-human-monoclonal-antibodies-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus-using-a-high-efficiency-human-hybridoma-technique
#20
Gabriela Alvarado, James E Crowe
Human monoclonal antibodies against RSV have high potential for use as prophylaxis or therapeutic molecules, and they also can be used to define the structure of protective epitopes for rational vaccine design. In the past, however, isolation of human monoclonal antibodies was difficult and inefficient. Here, we describe contemporary methods for activation and proliferation of primary human memory B cells followed by cytofusion to non-secreting myeloma cells by dielectrophoresis to generate human hybridomas secreting RSV-specific monoclonal antibodies...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
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