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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313159/improved-differentiation-of-low-grade-and-high-grade-gliomas-and-detection-of-tumor-proliferation-using-apt-contrast-fitted-from-z-spectrum
#1
Jiaxuan Zhang, Wenzhen Zhu, Rongwen Tain, Xiaohong Joe Zhou, Kejia Cai
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to demonstrate the value of quantitative amide proton transfer (APT) imaging for differentiating glioma grades and detecting tumor proliferation. PROCEDURES: This study included 32 subjects with 16 low-grade gliomas (LGG) and 16 high-grade gliomas (HGG) confirmed by histopathology. Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) magnetic resonance imaging with APT weighting was performed on a 3 T scanner. After B0 correction, Z-spectra were fitted with Lorentzian functions corresponding to the upfield semi-solid magnetization transfer and nuclear overhauser enhancement (MT&NOE) effect, the direct saturation (DS) effect, and the downfield APT effect centered at around - 1...
January 8, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305708/identification-of-specific-feed-forward-apoptosis-mechanisms-and-associated-higher-survival-rates-for-low-grade-glioma-and-lung-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#2
Dhiraj Sikaria, Yaping N Tu, Diana A Fisler, James A Mauro, George Blanck
The mechanisms of cell proliferation due to the overexpression of certain transcription factors (TFs) have been well documented in the cancer setting. However, many of these same TFs have pro-apoptotic effects, particularly when expressed or activated at high levels, a process referred to as feed-forward apoptosis (FFA). To determine whether cancers could be stratified on the basis of specific FFA signatures, RNASeq data representing samples from the cancer genome atlas were analyzed, revealing that high expression of the pro-proliferative TFs, MYC and YY1, is associated with a favorable outcome in low-grade glioma (LGG) and lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC), respectively...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297618/siop-podc-adapted-treatment-guidelines-for-low-grade-gliomas-in-low-and-middle-income-settings
#3
Laila Hessissen, Jeannette Parkes, Nisreen Amayiri, Naureen Mushtaq, Nongnuch Sirachainan, Yavuz Anacak, Dipayan Mitra, Anthony Figaji, Antoinette Schouten-van Meeteren, Michael Sullivan, Hester Burger, Alan Davidson, Eric Bouffet, Simon Bailey
Effective treatment of children with low grade glioma (LGG) requires a functioning multi-disciplinary team with adequate neurosurgical, neuroradiological, pathological, radiotherapy and chemotherapy facilities and personnel. In addition, the treating centre should have the capacity to manage a variety of LGG and treatment-associated complications. These requirements have made it difficult for many centers in low and middle-income countries (LMIC) to offer effective treatment and follow up. This article provides management recommendations for children with LGG according to the level of facilities available...
December 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286376/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-detection-of-mitophagy-in-human-cells-c-elegans-and-mice
#4
Evandro F Fang, Konstantinos Palikaras, Nuo Sun, Elayne M Fivenson, Ryan D Spangler, Jesse S Kerr, Stephanie A Cordonnier, Yujun Hou, Eszter Dombi, Henok Kassahun, Nektarios Tavernarakis, Joanna Poulton, Hilde Nilsen, Vilhelm A Bohr
Mitochondria are the powerhouses of cells and produce cellular energy in the form of ATP. Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to biological aging and a wide variety of disorders including metabolic diseases, premature aging syndromes, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Maintenance of mitochondrial health depends on mitochondrial biogenesis and the efficient clearance of dysfunctional mitochondria through mitophagy. Experimental methods to accurately detect autophagy/mitophagy, especially in animal models, have been challenging to develop...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285516/semisupervised-learning-using-denoising-autoencoders-for-brain-lesion-detection-and-segmentation
#5
Varghese Alex, Kiran Vaidhya, Subramaniam Thirunavukkarasu, Chandrasekharan Kesavadas, Ganapathy Krishnamurthi
The work explores the use of denoising autoencoders (DAEs) for brain lesion detection, segmentation, and false-positive reduction. Stacked denoising autoencoders (SDAEs) were pretrained using a large number of unlabeled patient volumes and fine-tuned with patches drawn from a limited number of patients ([Formula: see text], 40, 65). The results show negligible loss in performance even when SDAE was fine-tuned using 20 labeled patients. Low grade glioma (LGG) segmentation was achieved using a transfer learning approach in which a network pretrained with high grade glioma data was fine-tuned using LGG image patches...
October 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280458/radiation-therapy-for-optic-pathway-and-hypothalamic-low-grade-gliomas-in-children
#6
Derek S Tsang, Erin S Murphy, Thomas E Merchant
PURPOSE: The long-term survival of pediatric patients with optic pathway or hypothalamic low-grade glioma (LGG) who receive radiation therapy (RT) has not been previously assessed. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A retrospective study was performed of all patients with optic-hypothalamic pediatric LGG treated with RT at a single institution. Eligible patients were aged ≤21 years at the time of RT and had localized LGG diagnosed by neuroimaging or histology. The median RT dose was 54 Gy, delivered in 30 fractions...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259371/probiotics-for-gastrointestinal-disorders-proposed-recommendations-for-children-of-the-asia-pacific-region
#7
REVIEW
Donald Cameron, Quak Seng Hock, Musal Kadim, Neelam Mohan, Eell Ryoo, Bhupinder Sandhu, Yuichiro Yamashiro, Chen Jie, Hans Hoekstra, Alfredo Guarino
Recommendations for probiotics are available in several regions. This paper proposes recommendations for probiotics in pediatric gastrointestinal diseases in the Asia-Pacific region. Epidemiology and clinical patterns of intestinal diseases in Asia-Pacific countries were discussed. Evidence-based recommendations and randomized controlled trials in the region were revised. Cultural aspects, health management issues and economic factors were also considered. Final recommendations were approved by applying the Likert scale and rated using the GRADE system...
December 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238884/research-of-differential-expression-of-sil1rap-in-low-grade-gliomas-between-children-and-adults
#8
Jintao He, Xiang Li, Wanchun Zhu, Yaxiong Yu, Jian Gong
Glioma is the most common intracranial malignant tumor. Low-grade gliomas (LGG) occupy almost 80% in all of the gliomas. The prognosis of LGG in children is much better than in adult, however, the molecular mechanism is still unclear. In our investigation, it was first found that the level of soluble IL1RAP (sIL1RAP) was significantly higher in the LGG from children than that from adult. We also revealed that sIL1RAP could induce the apoptosis of U251. In cells with overexpression of sIL-1RAP, the cell proliferation promoted by IL-1 was significantly inhibited...
December 13, 2017: Brain Tumor Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230924/response-in-a-child-with-a-braf-v600e-mutated-desmoplastic-infantile-astrocytoma-upon-retreatment-with-vemurafenib
#9
Cornelis M van Tilburg, Florian Selt, Felix Sahm, Heidi Bächli, Stefan M Pfister, Olaf Witt, Till Milde
Infants with low-grade glioma (LGG) and diencephalic syndrome have a poor outcome. The patient described here had a desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma harboring a BRAF V600E mutation. After relapse following initial standard chemotherapy treatment, he was successfully treated with the BRAF V600E inhibitor vemurafenib at the age of 3 years 11 months and 5 years 0 months. A rapid response was observed on both occasions. This illustrates the possibility of continuous oncogenic addiction and the therapeutic potential of BRAF V600E inhibitor monotherapy in LGG, even in very young severely compromised children...
December 12, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228370/a-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signature-predicts-low-grade-glioma-prognosis-a-precision-medicine-approach-based-on-patient-derived-stem-cells
#10
Tamara Ius, Yari Ciani, Maria Elisabetta Ruaro, Miriam Isola, Marisa Sorrentino, Michela Bulfoni, Veronica Candotti, Cecilia Correcig, Evgenia Bourkoula, Ivana Manini, Enrico Pegolo, Damiano Mangoni, Stefania Marzinotto, Slobodanka Radovic, Barbara Toffoletto, Federica Caponnetto, Andrea Zanello, Laura Mariuzzi, Carla Di Loreto, Antonio Paolo Beltrami, Silvano Piazza, Miran Skrap, Daniela Cesselli
Background: While recent genome wide association studies have suggested novel low-grade glioma (LGG) stratification models based on a molecular classification, we explored the potential clinical utility of patient-derived cells. Specifically, we assayed glioma-associated stem cells (GASC) that are patient-derived stem cells representative of the glioma microenvironment. Methods: By next generation sequencing, we analyzed the transcriptional profile of GASC derived from patients that underwent anaplastic transformation either within 48 months (GASC-BAD) or ≥7 years (GASC-GOOD) after surgery...
December 7, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220731/quantitative-texture-analysis-in-the-prediction-of-idh-status-in-low-grade-gliomas
#11
Asgeir Store Jakola, Yi-Hua Zhang, Anne J Skjulsvik, Ole Solheim, Hans Kristian Bø, Erik Magnus Berntsen, Ingerid Reinertsen, Sasha Gulati, Petter Förander, Torkel B Brismar
OBJECTIVES: Molecular markers provide valuable information about treatment response and prognosis in patients with low-grade gliomas (LGG). In order to make this important information available prior to surgery the aim of this study was to explore if molecular status in LGG can be discriminated by preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients with histopathologically confirmed LGG with available molecular status who had undergone a preoperative standard clinical MRI protocol using a 3T Siemens Skyra scanner during 2008-2015 were retrospectively identified...
December 5, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208728/imaging-in-low-grade-glioma-a-guide-for-neurologists
#12
REVIEW
Jennifer Larsen, Nigel Hoggard, Fiona M McKevitt
The management of low-grade glioma (LGG) is shifting as evidence has emergedthat refutes the previously commonplace imaging-based 'watch and wait' approach, in favour of early aggressive surgical resection. This coupled with the recent 2016 update to the World Health Organisation Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System is changing LGG imaging and management. Recently in Practical Neurology the contemporary management of low-grade glioma and the changes to this grading system were discussed in detail...
December 5, 2017: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206593/glioma-grade-discrimination-with-mr-diffusion-kurtosis-imaging-a-meta-analysis-of-diagnostic-accuracy
#13
Anna Falk Delgado, Markus Nilsson, Danielle van Westen, Alberto Falk Delgado
Purpose To assess the diagnostic test accuracy and sources of heterogeneity for the discriminative potential of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) to differentiate low-grade glioma (LGG) (World Health Organization [WHO] grade II) from high-grade glioma (HGG) (WHO grade III or IV). Materials and Methods The Cochrane Library, Embase, Medline, and the Web of Science Core Collection were systematically searched by two librarians. Retrieved hits were screened for inclusion and were evaluated with the revised tool for quality assessment for diagnostic accuracy studies (commonly known as QUADAS-2) by two researchers...
December 4, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206062/discrimination-between-primary-low-grade-and-high-grade-glioma-with-11c-methionine-pet-a-bivariate-diagnostic-test-accuracy-meta-analysis
#14
Anna F Delgado, Alberto F Delgado
OBJECTIVE: To perform a meta-analysis evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of 11C-methionine (MET) positron emission tomography (PET) to discriminate between primary low-grade glioma (LGG) and high-grade glioma (HGG). METHODS: A systematic database search was performed by a librarian in relevant databases with the latest search in November 7th, 2016. Hits were assessed for inclusion independently by two authors. Individual patient data (IPD) on relative MET uptake was extracted on patients examined preoperatively with MET PET and subsequent neuropathological diagnosis of astrocytoma or oligodendroglioma...
December 5, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196925/pre-operative-language-ability-in-patients-with-presumed-low-grade-glioma
#15
Malin Antonsson, Francesca Longoni, Asgeir Jakola, Magnus Tisell, Magnus Thordstein, Lena Hartelius
In patients with low-grade glioma (LGG), language deficits are usually only found and investigated after surgery. Deficits may be present before surgery but to date, studies have yielded varying results regarding the extent of this problem and in what language domains deficits may occur. This study therefore aims to explore the language ability of patients who have recently received a presumptive diagnosis of low-grade glioma, and also to see whether they reported any changes in their language ability before receiving treatment...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194279/cutaneous-metastases-of-the-glioma
#16
Hao Chang, Yasuo Ding, Peng Wang, Qing Wang, Yuchang Lin, Bing Li
Low grade glioma (LGG) is a very common primary brain neoplasm with a very good prognosis and the median survival of patients is approximately 8 years. With the development of current treatments such as surgery resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, the recurrence rate and the distant metastasis rate of LGGs are largely decreased. Extracranial metastases are seldom happened. However, the authors present a pathologically proven patient with scalp metastasis, which was metastasized from LGG occurring site to the surgical scar 8 months following initial craniotomy and chemotherapy...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187439/expression-of-fas-l-differs-from-primary-to-relapsed-low-grade-gliomas-and-predicts-progression-free-survival
#17
Jan-Michael Werner, Saskia Kuhl, Pantelis Stavrinou, Gabriele Röhn, Boris Krischek, Tobias Blau, Roland Goldbrunner, Marco Timmer
BACKGROUND/AIM: The tumor necrosis factor FAS is overexpressed in high-grade gliomas (HGG). Only little is known about FAS or FAS ligand (FAS-L) in low-grade gliomas (LGG). We explored FAS/FAS-L expression in LGG, focusing on differences in primary and relapsed LGG and on its prognostic value. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 133 glioma samples (73 LGG, 60 HGG) were collected. The LGG samples included 15 matched pairs of primary and relapsed tumors. RT-PCR was performed to measure FAS/FAS-L expression, using subunit A, flavoprotein variant (SDHA) as housekeeper...
December 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175722/significance-of-systemic-immune-inflammation-index-in-the-differential-diagnosis-of-high-and-low-grade-gliomas
#18
Ruofei Liang, Ni Chen, Mao Li, Xiang Wang, Qing Mao, Yanhui Liu
OBJECTIVE: Circulating biomarkers have been increasingly appreciated in the grading of gliomas. This study aimed to assess the value of the systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) as a possible marker in the grading of gliomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In our study, 153 patients with gliomas were included-53 patients had histologically verified low grade gliomas (LGG) and 100 patients had high grade gliomas (HGG). Preoperative complete blood count (CBC) and clinicopathological data were collected...
November 15, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173065/neurobehavioural-effects-of-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-gg-alone-and-in-combination-with-prebiotics-polydextrose-and-galactooligosaccharide-in-male-rats-exposed-to-early-life-stress
#19
Karen-Anne McVey Neufeld, Siobhain M O'Mahony, Alan E Hoban, Rosaline V Waworuntu, Brian M Berg, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
Early life is a period of significant brain development when the brain is at its most plastic and vulnerable. Stressful episodes during this window of development have long-lasting effects on the central nervous system. Rodent maternal separation (MS) is a reliable model of early-life stress and induces alterations in both physiology and behaviour. Intriguingly, the gut microbiota of MS offspring differ from that of non-separated offspring, suggesting a mechanistic role for the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Hence, we tested whether dietary factors known to affect the gut microbiota alter the neurobehavioural effects of MS...
November 27, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164486/adaptation-and-probiotic-potential-of-lactobacilli-isolated-from-the-oral-cavity-and-intestines-of-healthy-people
#20
Yulia Chervinets, Vyacheslav Chervinets, Boris Shenderov, Ekaterina Belyaeva, Andrey Troshin, Sergey Lebedev, Valery Danilenko
The present study shows that, from 300 Lactobacillus strains isolated from the oral cavity and large intestine of 600 healthy people, only 9 had high antagonistic activity against pathogens and opportunistic pathogens. All antagonistic strains of lactobacilli have been identified by 16S rRNA sequencing and assigned to four species: Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus casei. In addition, these lactobacilli appeared to be nonpathogenic and had some probiotic potential: the strains produced lactic acid and bacteriocins, showed high sensitivity to broad-spectrum antibiotics, and were capable of forming biofilms in vitro...
November 21, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
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