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Mahalingam Balakumar, Durai Prabhu, Chandrakumar Sathishkumar, Paramasivam Prabu, Namita Rokana, Ramesh Kumar, Srividhya Raghavan, Avinash Soundarajan, Sunita Grover, Virender Kumar Batish, Viswanathan Mohan, Muthuswamy Balasubramanyam
PURPOSE: Diabetes and obesity are characterized by glucose intolerance, fat deposition, inflammation, and dyslipidemia. Recent reports postulated that distinct gut microbiota alterations were observed in obese/diabetic subjects and modulating gut microbiota beneficially through specific probiotics could be a potential therapeutic option for type 2 diabetes/obesity. Therefore, we attempted to study the efficacy of probiotics of Indian gut origin (Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC5690 and Lactobacillus fermentum MTCC5689) along with a positive control, Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG) on glucose/lipid homeostasis in high-fat-diet-induced diabetic animal model...
October 18, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Ludmila Khailova, Christine H Baird, Aubri A Rush, Christopher Barnes, Paul E Wischmeyer
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Recent clinical trials and in vivo models demonstrate probiotic administration can reduce occurrence and improve outcome of pneumonia and sepsis, both major clinical challenges worldwide. Potential probiotic benefits include maintenance of gut epithelial barrier homeostasis and prevention of downstream organ dysfunction due to systemic inflammation. However, mechanism(s) of probiotic-mediated protection against pneumonia remain poorly understood. This study evaluated potential mechanistic targets in the maintenance of gut barrier homeostasis following Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) treatment in a mouse model of pneumonia...
October 1, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Alessia Cicenia, Floriana Santangelo, Lucrezia Gambardella, Lucia Pallotta, Valerio Iebba, Annunziata Scirocco, Massimo Marignani, Guglielmo Tellan, Marilia Carabotti, Enrico Stefano Corazziari, Serena Schippa, Carola Severi
BACKGROUND: Some beneficial effects of probiotics may be due to secreted probiotic-derived factors, identified as "postbiotic" mediators. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether supernatants harvested from Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) cultures (ATCC53103 strain) protect colonic human smooth muscle cells (HSMCs) from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced myogenic damage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: LGG was grown in de Man, Rogosa, Share medium at 37°C and samples were collected in middle and late exponential, stationary, and overnight phases...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Tyler J Uppstrom, Ranjodh Singh, Georgios F Hadjigeorgiou, Rajiv Magge, Rohan Ramakrishna
The importance of surgery and maximal extent of resection (EOR) is well established in primary low-grade glioma (LGG) management. However, the role of surgery in the management of recurrent LGG is less clear. A recent review on the management of recurrent LGG concluded there was insufficient evidence to recommend surgery. Here, we summarize the recent advances regarding the role of surgery, radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy in the management of recurrent LGG. There is increasing evidence to support maximal EOR for treating recurrent LGG, as it may improve progression free survival (PFS) after recurrence and overall survival (OS)...
September 30, 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Veronica Villani, Roberta Merola, Antonello Vidiri, Alessandra Fabi, Mariantonia Carosi, Diana Giannarelli, Laura Marucci, Marta Maschio, Carmine M Carapella, Andrea Pace
PURPOSE: To explore the efficacy and toxicity of an extended schedule of temozolomide (50 mg/mq 1 week on/1 week off) in a population of newly diagnosed low-grade gliomas (LGG). METHODS: Primary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) at 12 and 24 months and response rate evaluated with Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology Criteria. Secondary endpoints were clinical benefit (reduction of seizures frequency), reduction of steroid, and modifications of Karnofsky Performance Status...
September 22, 2016: Tumori
John Christian Givhan Spainhour, Peng Qiu
BACKGROUND: With the advent of large scale biological data collection for various diseases, data analysis pipelines and workflows need to be established to build frameworks for integrative analysis. Here the authors present a pipeline for identifying disease specific gene-drug interactions using CNV (Copy Number Variation) and clinical data from the TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) project. Two cancer types were selected for analysis, LGG (Brain lower grade glioma) and GBM (Glioblastoma multiforme), due to the possible progression from LGG to GBM in some cases...
October 6, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
Himaja N, Hemalatha R, K Narendra Babu, Shujauddin Mohd
BACKGROUND: Prebiotics from various regularly consumed cereals and novel substrates are currently being utilized as functional foods. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of synbiotic, formulated with prebiotic extracted from natural resources like green gram (Vigna radiata) along with probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) in modulating immune responses in the offspring when supplemented during gestation and lactation. RESULTS: Synbiotic supplementation was effective in improving cell mediated immunity (CMI) and humoral immunity among F0 dams...
October 3, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Wen Cheng, Xiufang Ren, Chuanbao Zhang, Jinquan Cai, Sheng Han, Anhua Wu
Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)1 mutation is one of the most important genetic aberrations in glioma. Even several genetic events have refined its prognostic value, the genome-wide expression alteration has not been systematically profiled. In this work, RNA-seq expression data from 310 patients in the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas database were included as training set, while another 297 patients with microarray data were used as internal validation set. An independent cohort of GSE16011 (n = 205) constituted an external validation set...
September 30, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Andreas F Hottinger, Monika E Hegi, Brigitta G Baumert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The management of patients suffering from low-grade gliomas (LGGs) remains a challenge in absence of a definite curative therapy. The median survival is highly variable, from 2 years (high-risk disease) to over 15 years (low risk). The aim of this review is to provide a practical step-by-step evaluation of the available treatment options for patients with LGGs. RECENT FINDINGS: Next to clinical prognostic markers, both the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation status and the status of 1p/19q codeletion are key prognostic factors for the optimal management of patients with LGG...
September 26, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
María Baro Fernández, Vanesa Pérez Alonso
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric low-grade gliomas (PLGG) are the most common primary central nervous system tumor in children. Patients in whom gross total resection can be achieved have an excellent overall (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) and do not require adjuvant therapy. However, children with unresectable tumors often experience multiple progressions and require additional treatment. CONVENTIONAL CHEMOTHERAPY: Radiotherapy results in long-term tumor control, but it is associated with significant toxicity, making chemotherapy the preferred therapeutic option...
October 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Mario Giordano, Cinta Arraez, Amir Samii, Madjid Samii, Concezio Di Rocco
INTRODUCTION: The treatment of low-grade gliomas (LGGs) in pediatric age is still controversial. However, most authors report longer life expectancy in case of completely removed cerebral gliomas. Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) is increasingly utilized in the surgical management of intra-axial tumor in adults following the demonstration of its effectiveness. In this article, we analyze the management of LGG using iMRI focusing on its impact on resection rate and its limits in the pediatric population...
October 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Luca Mattei, Francesco Prada, Federico Giuseppe Legnani, Alessandro Perin, Alessandro Olivi, Francesco DiMeco
PURPOSE: Pediatric low-grade gliomas (LGGs) are the most frequent solid tumor in childhood. Based on an increasing number of literature reports, maximal safe resection is recommended as the first line of treatment whenever possible. However, distinguishing tumor tissue from the surrounding normal brain is often challenging with infiltrating neoplasms, even with the assistance of intraoperative, microscopic and conventional neuronavigation systems. Therefore, any technique that enhances the detection and visualization of LGGs intraoperatively is certainly desirable...
October 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Tai-Tong Wong, Hsin-Hung Chen, Muh-Lii Liang, Kevin Li-Chun Hsieh, Yi-Shan Yang, Donald Ming-Tak Ho, Kai-Ping Chang, Yi-Yen Lee, Shih-Chieh Lin, Ting-Rong Hsu, Yi-Wei Chen, Sang-Hue Yen, Feng-Chi Chang, Wan-You Guo, Kuo-Wei Chen, Wei-Kang Kwang, Wu-Yu Hou, Chung-Yih Wang
BACKGROUND: Tumors with epicenter in the thalamus occur in about 4 % of pediatric brain tumors. The histological diagnosis is mainly gliomas. Among them, low-grade glioma (LGG) constituted of a significant entity of the tumors (Cuccia et al., Childs Nerv Syst 13:514-521, 1997; Puget et al., J Neurosurg 106:354-362, 2007; Bernstein et al., J Neurosurg 61:649-656, 1984; Bilginer et al., Childs Nerv Syst 30:1493-1498, 2014). Since Kelly's report in 1989, >90 % resection of thalamic tumors were achieved in reported series (Ozek and Ture, Childs Nerv Syst 18:450-6, 2002; Villarejo et al...
October 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Huan Zhou, Yongping Liu, Lu Liu, Min Zhang, Xingzhi Chen, Yulong Qi
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship of the pre-pregnancy modifiable risks with miscarriage. STUDY DESIGN: We randomly selected 51 communities or villages from January 2013 to December 2014 in Anhui, China. We calculated incidence rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each risk factor for miscarriage. RESULTS: The incidence rate of miscarriage was 7.45%, and pre-embryonic loss account for 12.66%, embryonic loss account for 38%, and fetal losses account for 49...
August 12, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Athena Grounta, Paschalis Harizanis, Eleftherios Mylonakis, George-John E Nychas, Efstathios Z Panagou
The use of Galleria mellonella as a model host to elucidate microbial pathogenesis and search for novel drugs and therapies has been well appreciated over the past years. However, the effect of microorganisms with functional appeal in the specific host remains scarce. The present study investigates the effect of treatment with selected lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with probiotic potential, as potential protective agents by using live or heat-killed cells at 6 and 24 h prior to infection with Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus or as potential therapeutic agents by using cell-free supernatants (CFS) after infection with the same pathogens...
2016: PloS One
Zhiqiong Wang, Junchang Xin, Zhongyang Wang, Shuo Tian, Xuejun Qiu
INTRODUCTION: The performance limitation of MRI equipment and higher resolution demand of NMR images from radiologists have formed a strong contrast. Therefore, it is important to study the super resolution algorithm suitable for NMR images, using low costs software to replace the expensive equipment-updating. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Firstly, a series of NMR images are obtained from original NMR images with original noise to the lowest resolution images with the highest noise...
September 8, 2016: Physica Medica: PM
Simone Treiger Sredni, Chiang-Ching Huang, Mario Suzuki, Tatiana Pundy, Pauline Chou, Tadanori Tomita
BACKGROUND: Pediatric low-grade gliomas (P-LGG) consist of a mixed group of brain tumors that correspond to the majority of CNS tumors in children. Notably, they may exhibit spontaneous involution after subtotal surgical removal (STR). In this study, we investigated molecular indicators of spontaneous involution in P-LGG. METHODS: We performed an integrated molecular analysis including high throughput gene expression (GE), microRNA (miRNA) expression data of primary, untreated tumors from patients with P-LGG who underwent STR at our institution, with at least 10 years follow-up...
September 9, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Zheng Wang, Guangyan Miao, Xue Xue, Xiangyang Guo, Chongzhen Yuan, Zhaoyu Wang, Gangming Zhang, Yingyu Chen, Du Feng, Junjie Hu, Hong Zhang
Mutations in the human autophagy gene EPG5 cause the multisystem disorder Vici syndrome. Here we demonstrated that EPG5 is a Rab7 effector that determines the fusion specificity of autophagosomes with late endosomes/lysosomes. EPG5 is recruited to late endosomes/lysosomes by direct interaction with Rab7 and the late endosomal/lysosomal R-SNARE VAMP7/8. EPG5 also binds to LC3/LGG-1 (mammalian and C. elegans Atg8 homolog, respectively) and to assembled STX17-SNAP29 Qabc SNARE complexes on autophagosomes. EPG5 stabilizes and facilitates the assembly of STX17-SNAP29-VAMP7/8 trans-SNARE complexes, and promotes STX17-SNAP29-VAMP7-mediated fusion of reconstituted proteoliposomes...
September 1, 2016: Molecular Cell
Lufang Chen, Keying Xu, Qifeng Gui, Yue Chen, Deying Chen, Yunmei Yang
A number of clinical trials have demonstrated that the use of probiotics has the potential to prevent nosocomial infections. However, the mechanism underlying probiotic-induced anti-infection and sepsis remains to be investigated. In the present study, 200 µl/day of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) or normal saline (control) was orally administrated to 4-week-old C57BL6 mice 4 weeks prior to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). A number of mice were sacrificed 24 h after CLP, and the remaining mice were used for survival studies...
September 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Xing Fan, Yongheng Wang, Chuanbao Zhang, Li Liu, Sen Yang, Yinyan Wang, Xing Liu, Zenghui Qian, Shengyu Fang, Hui Qiao, Tao Jiang
The A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 9 (ADAM9) protein has been suggested to promote carcinoma invasion and appears to be overexpressed in various human cancers. However, its role has rarely been investigated in gliomas and, thus, in the current study we have evaluated ADAM9 expression in gliomas and examined the relevance of its expression in the prognosis of glioma patients. Clinical characteristics, RNA sequence data, and the case follow-ups were reviewed for 303 patients who had histological, confirmed gliomas...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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