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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809477/a-reversible-reaction-based-fluorescent-probe-for-real-time-imaging-of-glutathione-dynamics-in-mitochondria
#1
Jianwei Chen, Xiqian Jiang, Chengwei Zhang, Kevin MacKenzie, Fabio Stossi, Timothy Palzkill, Meng C Wang, Jin Wang
We report a mitochondria-specific glutathione (GSH) probe-designated as Mito-RealThiol (MitoRT)-that can monitor in vivo real-time mitochondrial glutathione dynamics, and apply this probe to follow mitochondrial GSH dynamic changes in living cells for the first time. MitoRT can be utilized in confocal microscopy, super-resolution fluorescence imaging, and flow cytometry systems. Using MitoRT, we demonstrate that cells have a high priority to maintain the GSH level in mitochondria compared to the cytosol not only under normal growing conditions but also upon oxidative stress...
August 15, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798955/super-resolution-microscopy-reveals-a-nanoscale-organization-of-acetylcholine-receptors-for-trans-synaptic-alignment-at-neuromuscular-synapses
#2
Amanda L York, James Q Zheng
The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a chemical synapse formed between motoneurons and skeletal muscle fibers. The vertebrate NMJ uses acetylcholine (ACh) as the neurotransmitter and features numerous invaginations of the postsynaptic muscle membrane termed junctional folds. ACh receptors (AChRs) are believed to be concentrated on the crest of junctional folds but their spatial organization remains to be fully understood. In this study, we utilized super-resolution microscopy to examine the nanoscale organization of AChRs at NMJ...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789556/optical-determination-of-the-electronic-coupling-and-intercalation-geometry-of-thiazole-orange-homodimer-in-dna
#3
Paul D Cunningham, William P Bricker, Sebastián A Díaz, Igor L Medintz, Mark Bathe, Joseph S Melinger
Sequence-selective bis-intercalating dyes exhibit large increases in fluorescence in the presence of specific DNA sequences. This property makes this class of fluorophore of particular importance to biosensing and super-resolution imaging. Here we report ultrafast transient anisotropy measurements of resonance energy transfer (RET) between thiazole orange (TO) molecules in a complex formed between the homodimer TOTO and double-stranded (ds) DNA. Biexponential homo-RET dynamics suggest two subpopulations within the ensemble: 80% intercalated and 20% non-intercalated...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773174/hydrothermal-sterilization-improves-initial-osteoblast-responses-on-sandpaper-polished-titanium
#4
Xingling Shi, Lingli Xu, Qingliang Wang, Lin Xu
Hydrocarbon contamination accumulated on titanium (Ti) implant surfaces during storage and sterilization is unavoidable and difficult to remove. It impairs the bioactivity of implants, restricts initial interactions between implants and the surrounding biological environment, and has become a common challenge for Ti implants. To overcome this problem, sterilization was considered as the final surface modification and a novel method, hydrothermal sterilization (HS), was proposed. Briefly, stored sandpaper-polished Ti specimens were sterilized in a glass container with pure water at 121 °C for 20 min and kept in the same water until utilization...
July 17, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770484/high-resolution-mr-lymphangiography-for-planning-lymphaticovenous-anastomosis-treatment-a-single-centre-experience
#5
Maria Antonietta Mazzei, Francesco Gentili, Francesco Giuseppe Mazzei, Paolo Gennaro, Duccio Guerrieri, Andrea Nigri, Guido Gabriele, Elisabetta Weber, Alfonso Fausto, Giuseppe Botta, Luca Volterrani
PURPOSE: This article illustrates the feasibility of MR lymphangiography (MRL) for imaging lymphatic vessels in patients with lymphedema, its accuracy in distinguishing lymphatic vessels from veins, and its utility for planning Lymphaticovenous anastomosis (LVA) treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 30 patients (24 women, range 18-70, 17 cases of lower limb lymphedema, 6 cases of primary lymphedema). All the patients underwent MRL, using a 1...
August 2, 2017: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767114/in-situ-twisting-for-stabilizing-and-toughening-conductive-graphene-yarns
#6
Xi Xiang, Zhengpeng Yang, Jiangtao Di, Wujun Zhang, Ru Li, Lixing Kang, Yongyi Zhang, Haijiao Zhang, Qingwen Li
Graphene fibres are of great interest for diverse applications such as their use in supercapacitors, batteries, stimulus-responsive actuators and smart textiles. However, previously reported graphene-based fibres commonly have very low toughness and poor stretchability, which can limit many of their possible applications. We demonstrate an efficient approach for preparing super-tough yarns of reduced graphene oxides via the in situ twisting of multiplied graphene oxide fibres during fibre extrusion and coagulation, followed by chemical reduction and drying...
August 2, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764379/communication-development-of-standing-evanescent-wave-fluorescence-correlation-spectroscopy-and-its-application-to-the-lateral-diffusion-of-lipids-in-a-supported-lipid-bilayer
#7
Takuhiro Otosu, Shoichi Yamaguchi
We present standing evanescent-wave fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (SEW-FCS). This technique utilizes the interference of two evanescent waves which generates a standing evanescent-wave. Fringe-pattern illumination created by a standing evanescent-wave enables us to measure the diffusion coefficients of molecules with a super-resolution corresponding to one fringe width. Because the fringe width can be reliably estimated by a simple procedure, utilization of fringes is beneficial to quantitatively analyze the slow diffusion of molecules in a supported lipid bilayer (SLB), a model biomembrane formed on a solid substrate, with the timescale relevant for reliable FCS analysis...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764343/generalized-model-for-the-diffusion-of-solvents-in-glassy-polymers-from-fickian-to-super-case-ii
#8
Jiayuan Miao, Mesfin Tsige, Philip L Taylor
The diffusion of small solvent molecules in glassy polymers may take on a variety of different forms. Fickian, anomalous, Case II and Super Case II diffusion have all been observed, and theoretical models exist that describe each specific type of behavior. Here we present a single generalized kinetic model capable of yielding all these different types of diffusion on the basis of just two parameters. The principal determinant of the type of diffusion is observed to be a dimensionless parameter, γ, that describes the influence of solvent-induced swelling in lowering the potential barriers separating available solvent sites...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757839/epidural-for-high-dose-radiation-brachytherapy-in-a-noncompliant-super-obese-patient-with-severe-pulmonary-hypertension
#9
Michael C Trawicki, Lana M Volz
High-dose radiation brachytherapy is a treatment for inoperable cervical and endometrial carcinoma. A general anesthetic is often utilized for patient comfort, facilitating patient transport to imaging resources, and allowing rapid discharge home after the procedure. Patient comorbidities, however, must be considered for every anesthetic performed. We describe a successful surgical epidural anesthetic for a patient with challenging comorbidities, including cardiac, pulmonary, and hematologic body systems.
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752156/accounting-for-the-confound-of-meninges-in-segmenting-entorhinal-and-perirhinal-cortices-in-t1-weighted-mri
#10
Long Xie, Laura E M Wisse, Sandhitsu R Das, Hongzhi Wang, David A Wolk, Jose V Manjón, Paul A Yushkevich
Quantification of medial temporal lobe (MTL) cortices, including entorhinal cortex (ERC) and perirhinal cortex (PRC), from in vivo MRI is desirable for studying the human memory system as well as in early diagnosis and monitoring of Alzheimer's disease. However, ERC and PRC are commonly over-segmented in T1-weighted (T1w) MRI because of the adjacent meninges that have similar intensity to gray matter in T1 contrast. This introduces errors in the quantification and could potentially confound imaging studies of ERC/PRC...
October 2016: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747311/an-n-terminal-pfs230-domain-produced-in-baculovirus-as-a-biological-active-transmission-blocking-vaccine-candidate
#11
Shwu-Maan Lee, Chia-Kuei Wu, Jordan L Plieskatt, Kazutoyo Miura, John M Hickey, C Richter King
Transmission-blocking vaccines have the potential to accelerate malaria parasite elimination by inducing antibodies that block parasite transmission from humans to mosquitoes. Pfs230, a gametocyte surface protein involved in gamete function, has long been a promising candidate. Due to the large size (3,135 amino acids), complex domains, and repeating six-cysteine (6-Cys) motifs with a multitude of disulfide bonds, the feasibility of expression of a full-length protein has been difficult. A priority focus, therefore, has been on the generation of single domains, including N-terminal fragments...
July 26, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741935/super-photostable-phosphole-based-dye-for-multiple-acquisition-stimulated-emission-depletion-imaging
#12
Chenguang Wang, Masayasu Taki, Yoshikatsu Sato, Aiko Fukazawa, Tetsuya Higashiyama, Shigehiro Yamaguchi
As stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy can provide structural details of cells with an optical resolution beyond the diffraction limit, it has become an indispensable tool in cell biology. However, the intense STED laser beam usually causes rapid photobleaching of the employed fluorescent dyes, which significantly limits the utility of STED microscopy from a practical perspective. Herein we report a new design of super-photostable dye, PhoxBright 430 (PB430), comprising a fully ring-fused π-conjugated skeleton with an electron-accepting phosphole P-oxide unit...
July 25, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741140/melt-extrusion-for-a-high-melting-point-compound-with-improved-solubility-and-sustained-release
#13
Jiannan Lu, Sakae Obara, Fei Liu, Wanyi Fu, Wen Zhang, Shingo Kikuchi
The objective of the current study was to develop an amorphous solid dispersion for a high melting point compound, griseofulvin (GRF), with an enhanced solubility and a controlled release pattern utilizing hot melt extrusion (HME) technology. Hypromellose acetate succinate (HPMCAS, Shin-Etsu AQOAT®, medium particle size) was explored as the polymeric carrier, while hypromellose (HPMC, Metolose® SR) was chosen as the release rate control agent. GRF presented an HPMCAS grade-dependent solubility: AS-HMP > AS-MMP > AS-LMP...
July 24, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740796/goldilocks-mastectomy-a-safe-bridge-to-implant-based-breast-reconstruction-in-the-morbidly-obese
#14
Jean-Claude Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Reconstructive surgeons are encountering an increasing number of obese women requiring postmastectomy reconstruction. These patients are poor candidates for autologous and prosthetic-based reconstructions as they have a high rate of reconstructive failure, surgical complications, and poor aesthetic outcomes. We demonstrate here the utility of the previously described Goldilocks mastectomy with free nipple grafts as a safe bridge to second stage implant-based breast reconstruction...
June 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716441/unraveling-the-meaning-of-chemical-shifts-in-protein-nmr
#15
REVIEW
Mark V Berjanskii, David S Wishart
Chemical shifts are among the most informative parameters in protein NMR. They provide wealth of information about protein secondary and tertiary structure, protein flexibility, and protein-ligand binding. In this report, we review the progress in interpreting and utilizing protein chemical shifts that has occurred over the past 25years, with a particular focus on the large body of work arising from our group and other Canadian NMR laboratories. More specifically, this review focuses on describing, assessing, and providing some historical context for various chemical shift-based methods to: (1) determine protein secondary and super-secondary structure; (2) derive protein torsion angles; (3) assess protein flexibility; (4) predict residue accessible surface area; (5) refine 3D protein structures; (6) determine 3D protein structures and (7) characterize intrinsically disordered proteins...
July 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710413/quantifying-retail-agglomeration-using-diverse-spatial-data
#16
Duccio Piovani, Vassilis Zachariadis, Michael Batty
Newly available data on the spatial distribution of retail activities in cities makes it possible to build models formalized at the level of the single retailer. Current models tackle consumer location choices at an aggregate level and the opportunity new data offers for modeling at the retail unit level lacks an appropriate theoretical framework. The model we present here helps to address these issues. Based on random utility theory, we have built it around the idea of quantifying the role of floor-space and agglomeration in retail location choice...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698960/genome-wide-qtl-analysis-identified-significant-associations-between-hypoxia-tolerance-and-mutations-in-the-gpr132-and-abcg4-genes-in-nile-tilapia
#17
Hong Lian Li, Xiao Hui Gu, Bi Jun Li, Chao Hao Chen, Hao Ran Lin, Jun Hong Xia
Exposure to hypoxia induces both acute and chronic stress responses, which plays an important role in health of cultured organisms including growth, reproduction, immunity, and other energy demanding activities. Application of advanced genomic technologies allows rapid identification of hypoxia trait-associated genes and precise selection of superior brood stocks with high tolerance in tilapia. By applying QTL-seq and double-digest restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD-seq) techniques, we identified four genome-wide significant quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for hypoxia tolerance and many suggestive QTLs in Nile tilapia...
July 11, 2017: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691799/solid-contact-ph-sensor-without-co2-interference-with-a-superhydrophobic-pedot-c14-as-solid-contact-the-ultimate-water-layer-test
#18
Marcin Guzinski, Jennifer M Jarvis, Paul D'Orazio, Anahita Izadyar, Bradford D Pendley, Ernő Lindner
The aim of this study was to find a conducting polymer-based solid contact (SC) for ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) that could become the ultimate, generally applicable SC, which in combination with all kinds of ion-selective membranes (ISMs) would match the performance characteristics of conventional ISEs. We present data collected with electrodes utilizing PEDOT-C14, a highly hydrophobic derivative of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT, as SC and compare its performance characteristics with PEDOT-based SC ISEs...
July 24, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671662/long-time-lapse-nanoscopy-with-spontaneously-blinking-membrane-probes
#19
Hideo Takakura, Yongdeng Zhang, Roman S Erdmann, Alexander D Thompson, Yu Lin, Brian McNellis, Felix Rivera-Molina, Shin-Nosuke Uno, Mako Kamiya, Yasuteru Urano, James E Rothman, Joerg Bewersdorf, Alanna Schepartz, Derek Toomre
Imaging cellular structures and organelles in living cells by long time-lapse super-resolution microscopy is challenging, as it requires dense labeling, bright and highly photostable dyes, and non-toxic conditions. We introduce a set of high-density, environment-sensitive (HIDE) membrane probes, based on the membrane-permeable silicon-rhodamine dye HMSiR, that assemble in situ and enable long time-lapse, live-cell nanoscopy of discrete cellular structures and organelles with high spatiotemporal resolution. HIDE-enabled nanoscopy movies span tens of minutes, whereas movies obtained with labeled proteins span tens of seconds...
August 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669852/dynamin-regulates-the-fusion-pore-of-endo-and-exocytotic-vesicles-as-revealed-by-membrane-capacitance-measurements
#20
Eva Lasič, Matjaž Stenovec, Marko Kreft, Phillip J Robinson, Robert Zorec
BACKGROUND: Dynamin is a multidomain GTPase exhibiting mechanochemical and catalytic properties involved in vesicle scission from the plasmalemma during endocytosis. New evidence indicates that dynamin is also involved in exocytotic release of catecholamines, suggesting the existence of a dynamin-regulated structure that couples endo- to exocytosis. METHODS: Thus we here employed high-resolution cell-attached capacitance measurements and super-resolution structured illumination microscopy to directly examine single vesicle interactions with the plasmalemma in cultured rat astrocytes treated with distinct pharmacological modulators of dynamin activity...
September 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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