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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338841/the-starch-utilization-system-assembles-around-stationary-starch-binding-proteins
#1
Hannah H Tuson, Matthew H Foley, Nicole M Koropatkin, Julie S Biteen
Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (Bt) is a prominent member of the human gut microbiota with an extensive capacity for glycan harvest. This bacterium expresses a five-protein complex in the outer membrane, called the starch utilization system (Sus), which binds, degrades, and imports starch into the cell. Sus is a model system for the many glycan-targeting polysaccharide utilization loci found in Bt and other members of the Bacteroidetes phylum. Our previous work has shown that SusG, a lipidated amylase in the outer membrane, explores the entire cell surface but diffuses more slowly as it interacts with starch...
January 12, 2018: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299625/initial-experience-with-the-e-liac%C3%A2-iliac-branch-device-for-the-endovascular-aortic-repair-of-aorto-iliac-aneurysm
#2
Susanne Anton, Marcus Wiedner, Erik Stahlberg, Fabian Jacob, Jörg Barkhausen, Jan Peter Goltz
PURPOSE: Occlusion of internal iliac arteries during endovascular treatment (EVAR) of abdominal aortic (AAA) and common iliac artery aneurysms might be associated with ischemic pelvic complications. This study evaluates technical and clinical success, safety and mid-term results of a novel iliac branch device (IBD) for revascularization of the internal iliac artery (IIA) during EVAR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospectively, we identified 21 men (mean age 73.3 ± 6...
January 3, 2018: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285367/clinical-study-on-collagen-gel-droplet-embedded-culture-drug-sensitivity-test-for-multidrug-combination-chemotherapy-and-super-selective-intra-arterial-infusion-chemoradiotherapy-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#3
Kaname Sakuma, Ryuki Tamura, Shintaro Hanyu, Haruka Takahashi, Hideaki Sato, Takahiro Oneyama, Akira Yamaguchi, Akira Tanaka
Using trace three-dimensional culture, the collagen gel droplet-embedded culture drug sensitivity test (CD-DST) can be tested even in cases with a small number of cells, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and evaluation of the antitumor effect with a drug concentration close to the in vivo level is possible. The present report aimed to evaluate the utility of the CD-DST in the assessment of the in vitro efficacy of single-agent and multidrug combination chemotherapy for OSCC in comparison with the clinical response rates and to examine the possible clinical application of CD-DST for such cases...
December 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247270/surface-nanostructures-formed-by-phase-separation-of-metal-salt-polymer-nanocomposite-film-for-anti-reflection-and-super-hydrophobic-applications
#4
Celal Con, Bo Cui
This paper describes a simple and low-cost fabrication method for multi-functional nanostructures with outstanding anti-reflective and super-hydrophobic properties. Our method employed phase separation of a metal salt-polymer nanocomposite film that leads to nanoisland formation after etching away the polymer matrix, and the metal salt island can then be utilized as a hard mask for dry etching the substrate or sublayer. Compared to many other methods for patterning metallic hard mask structures, such as the popular lift-off method, our approach involves only spin coating and thermal annealing, thus is more cost-efficient...
December 16, 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238746/determining-the-target-protein-localization-in-3d-using-the-combination-of-fib-sem-and-apex2
#5
Yang Shi, Li Wang, Jianguo Zhang, Yujia Zhai, Fei Sun
Determining the cellular localization of proteins of interest at nanometer resolution is necessary for elucidating their functions. Besides super-resolution fluorescence microscopy, conventional electron microscopy (EM) combined with immunolabeling or clonable EM tags provides a unique approach to correlate protein localization information and cellular ultrastructural information. However, there are still rare cases of such correlation in three-dimensional (3D) spaces. Here, we developed an approach by combining the focus ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) and a promising clonable EM tag APEX2 (an enhanced ascorbate peroxidase 2) to determine the target protein localization within 3D cellular ultrastructural context...
2017: Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220313/how-does-the-low-rank-matrix-decomposition-help-internal-and-external-learnings-for-super-resolution
#6
Shuang Wang, Bo Yue, Xuefeng Liang, Licheng Jiao
Wisely utilizing the internal and external learning methods is a new challenge in super-resolution problem. To address this issue, we analyze the attributes of two methodologies and find two observations of their recovered details: 1) they are complementary in both feature space and image plane and 2) they distribute sparsely in the spatial space. These inspire us to propose a low-rank solution which effectively integrates two learning methods and then achieves a superior result. To fit this solution, the internal learning method and the external learning method are tailored to produce multiple preliminary results...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216215/accelerating-cross-validation-with-total-variation-and-its-application-to-super-resolution-imaging
#7
Tomoyuki Obuchi, Shiro Ikeda, Kazunori Akiyama, Yoshiyuki Kabashima
We develop an approximation formula for the cross-validation error (CVE) of a sparse linear regression penalized by ℓ1-norm and total variation terms, which is based on a perturbative expansion utilizing the largeness of both the data dimensionality and the model. The developed formula allows us to reduce the necessary computational cost of the CVE evaluation significantly. The practicality of the formula is tested through application to simulated black-hole image reconstruction on the event-horizon scale with super resolution...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216057/multi-objective-versus-single-objective-optimization-frameworks-for-designing-photonic-crystal-filters
#8
Seyed Mohammad Mirjalili, Behnaz Merikhi, Seyedeh Zahra Mirjalili, Milad Zoghi, Seyedali Mirjalili
This paper proposes a novel framework for multi-objective optimization of photonic crystal (PhC) filters and compares it with a single-objective optimization approach. In this framework, an optimizer called the Multi-Objective Gray Wolf Optimizer has been utilized to automatically find the optimal designs. The proposed method is able to design any kind of PhC filter. As a case study, a new structure of super defect PhC filter for application in the wavelength-division multiplexer (WDM) is designed using the framework...
December 1, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215115/perovskite-photodetectors-with-both-visible-infrared-dual-mode-response-and-super-narrowband-characteristics-towards-photo-communication-encryption-application
#9
Ye Wu, Xiaoming Li, Yi Wei, Yu Gu, Haibo Zeng
Photo-communication has attracted great attention because of the rapid development of wireless information transmission technology. However, it is still a great challenge in cryptography communications, where it is greatly weakened by the openness of the light channels. Here, visible-infrared dual-mode narrowband perovskite photodetectors were fabricated and a new photo-communication encryption technique was proposed. For the first time, highly narrowband and two-photon absorption (TPA) resultant photoresponses within a single photodetector are demonstrated...
December 7, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206810/mglur5-modulation-of-behavioral-and-epileptic-phenotypes-in-a-mouse-model-of-tuberous-sclerosis-complex
#10
Elyza Kelly, Samantha M Schaeffer, Sameer C Dhamne, Jonathan O Lipton, Lothar Lindemann, Michael Honer, Georg Jaeschke, Chloe E Super, Stephen Ht Lammers, Meera E Modi, Jill L Silverman, John R Dreier, David J Kwiatkowski, Alexander Rotenberg, Mustafa Sahin
Drugs targeting metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) have therapeutic potential in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), including Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC). The question whether inhibition or potentiation of mGluR5 could be beneficial depends, among other factors, on the specific indication. To facilitate the development of mGluR5 treatment strategies, we tested the therapeutic utility of mGluR5 negative and positive allosteric modulators (an mGluR5 NAM and PAM) for TSC, using a mutant mouse model with neuronal loss of Tsc2 that demonstrates disease-related phenotypes including behavioral symptoms of ASD and epilepsy...
December 5, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188719/improved-carrier-transport-in-perovskite-solar-cells-probed-by-femtosecond-transient-absorption-spectroscopy
#11
Efthymis Serpetzoglou, Ioannis Konidakis, George Kakavelakis, Temur Maksudov, Emmanuel Kymakis, Emmanuel Stratakis
CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films have been deposited on glass/indium tin oxide (ITO)/Hole Transport Layer (HTL) substrates, utilizing two different materials as the HTLs. In the first configuration the super hydrophilic polymer poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly (styrenesulfonate), known as PEDOT:PSS, was employed as the HTL material, while on the second case the non-wetting poly (triarylamine) semiconductor polymer, known as PTAA was used. It was found that when PTAA is used as HTL material the averaged power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the perovskite solar cells remarkably increases from 12...
November 30, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175337/unraveling-complex-nanoscale-lipid-dynamics-in-simple-model-biomembranes-insights-from-fluorescence-correlation-spectroscopy-in-super-resolution-stimulated-emission-depletion-mode
#12
Nirod Kumar Sarangi, Roobala C, Jaydeep Kumar Basu
Dynamic heterogeneity (DH) at nanoscale due to lipid-lipid and/or lipid-protein interactions in cell membranes plays a crucial role in determining a broad range of important cell functions. In cell membranes, the dimensions of these nanodomains have been postulated to be in the order of 10's of nm and transient in nature. While the structural features of membranes have been studied in detail, little is known about their dynamical characteristics due to paucity of techniques which can probe nanoscale phenomena with simultaneous high temporal resolution...
November 22, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174698/biofabrication-of-gold-nanoparticles-by-lyptolyngbya-jsc-1-extract-as-super-reducing-and-stabilizing-agents-synthesis-characterization-and-antibacterial-activity
#13
Shah Zada, Aftab Ahmad, Sikandar Khan, Arshad Iqbal, Shahbaz Ahmad, Hamid Ali, Pengcheng Fu
This study describes the first ever utilization of cell free aqueous extract of cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya JSC-1 as a source of strong reducing and stabilizing agents for the optimal biofabrication of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) through an eco-friendly synthetic route. Well dispersed crystalline AuNPs of spherical morphology with a particle size of 100-200 nm were prepared. FTIR spectral analysis was then performed to characterize the possible functionalities of JSC-1 extract, mainly involved in stabilizing and formation of AuNPs...
November 23, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165139/analysis-of-the-evidence-practice-gap-to-facilitate-proper-medical-care-for-the-elderly-investigation-using-databases-of-utilization-measures-for-national-database-of-health-insurance-claims-and-specific-health-checkups-of-japan-ndb
#14
Takeo Nakayama, Yuichi Imanaka, Yasushi Okuno, Genta Kato, Tomohiro Kuroda, Rei Goto, Shiro Tanaka, Hiroshi Tamura, Shunichi Fukuhara, Shingo Fukuma, Manabu Muto, Motoko Yanagita, Yosuke Yamamoto
As Japan becomes a super-aging society, presentation of the best ways to provide medical care for the elderly, and the direction of that care, are important national issues. Elderly people have multi-morbidity with numerous medical conditions and use many medical resources for complex treatment patterns. This increases the likelihood of inappropriate medical practices and an evidence-practice gap. The present study aimed to: derive findings that are applicable to policy from an elucidation of the actual state of medical care for the elderly; establish a foundation for the utilization of National Database of Health Insurance Claims and Specific Health Checkups of Japan (NDB), and present measures for the utilization of existing databases in parallel with NDB validation...
June 6, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150645/axonemal-lumen-dominates-cytosolic-protein-diffusion-inside-the-primary-cilium
#15
Wangxi Luo, Andrew Ruba, Daisuke Takao, Ludovit P Zweifel, Roderick Y H Lim, Kristen J Verhey, Weidong Yang
Transport of membrane and cytosolic proteins in primary cilia is thought to depend on intraflagellar transport (IFT) and diffusion. However, the relative contribution and spatial routes of each transport mechanism are largely unknown. Although challenging to decipher, the details of these routes are essential for our understanding of protein transport in primary cilia, a critically affected process in many genetic diseases. By using a high-speed virtual 3D super-resolution microscopy, we have mapped the 3D spatial locations of transport routes for various cytosolic proteins in the 250-nm-wide shaft of live primary cilia with a spatiotemporal resolution of 2 ms and <16 nm...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145861/hybrid-de-novo-genome-assembly-and-centromere-characterization-of-the-gray-mouse-lemur-microcebus-murinus
#16
Peter A Larsen, R Alan Harris, Yue Liu, Shwetha C Murali, C Ryan Campbell, Adam D Brown, Beth A Sullivan, Jennifer Shelton, Susan J Brown, Muthuswamy Raveendran, Olga Dudchenko, Ido Machol, Neva C Durand, Muhammad S Shamim, Erez Lieberman Aiden, Donna M Muzny, Richard A Gibbs, Anne D Yoder, Jeffrey Rogers, Kim C Worley
BACKGROUND: The de novo assembly of repeat-rich mammalian genomes using only high-throughput short read sequencing data typically results in highly fragmented genome assemblies that limit downstream applications. Here, we present an iterative approach to hybrid de novo genome assembly that incorporates datasets stemming from multiple genomic technologies and methods. We used this approach to improve the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) genome from early draft status to a near chromosome-scale assembly...
November 16, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144128/proton-driven-intercalation-and-ion-substitution-utilizing-solid-state-electrochemical-reaction
#17
Masaya Fujioka, Chuanbao Wu, Naoki Kubo, Gaoyang Zhao, Atsushi Inoishi, Shigeto Okada, Satoshi Demura, Hideaki Sakata, Manabu Ishimaru, Hideo Kaiju, Junji Nishii
The development of an unconventional synthesis method has a large potential to drastically advance materials science. In this research, a new synthesis method based on a solid-state electrochemical reaction was demonstrated, which can be made available for intercalation and ion substitution. It was referred to as proton-driven ion introduction (PDII). The protons generated by the electrolytic dissociation of hydrogen drive other monovalent cations along a high electric field in the solid state. Utilizing this mechanism, Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Cu(+), and Ag(+) were intercalated into a layered TaS2 single crystal while maintaining high crystallinity...
November 16, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135222/engineering-the-mechanical-properties-of-polymer-networks-with-precise-doping-of-primary-defects
#18
Doreen Chan, Yichuan Ding, Reinhold H Dauskardt, Eric A Appel
Polymer networks are extensively utilized across numerous applications ranging from commodity superabsorbent polymers and coatings to high-performance microelectronics and biomaterials. For many applications, desirable properties are known; however, achieving them has been challenging. Additionally, the accurate prediction of elastic modulus has been a long-standing difficulty owing to the presence of loops. By tuning the prepolymer formulation through precise doping of monomers, specific primary network defects can be programmed into an elastomeric scaffold, without alteration of their resulting chemistry...
November 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113104/super-resolution-of-plant-disease-images-for-the-acceleration-of-image-based-phenotyping-and-vigor-diagnosis-in-agriculture
#19
Kyosuke Yamamoto, Takashi Togami, Norio Yamaguchi
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs or drones) are a very promising branch of technology, and they have been utilized in agriculture-in cooperation with image processing technologies-for phenotyping and vigor diagnosis. One of the problems in the utilization of UAVs for agricultural purposes is the limitation in flight time. It is necessary to fly at a high altitude to capture the maximum number of plants in the limited time available, but this reduces the spatial resolution of the captured images. In this study, we applied a super-resolution method to the low-resolution images of tomato diseases to recover detailed appearances, such as lesions on plant organs...
November 6, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111039/ultralight-electrospun-cellulose-sponge-with-super-high-capacity-on-absorption-of-organic-compounds
#20
Tao Xu, Zhao Wang, Yichun Ding, Wenhui Xu, Weidong Wu, Zhengtao Zhu, Hao Fong
Three-dimensional, cost-effective, and renewable/recyclable absorbent materials with high capacities on absorption of organic compounds are urgently in demand. Herein, a facile while innovative approach is reported to develop ultralight electrospun cellulose sponge (UECS). The prepared UECS exhibits super-high absorption capacity (up to 232 times of its own weight) towards absorption of organic compounds due to high porosity (99.57%), low density (6.45mg/cm(3)), and hydrophobic surface feature (with water contact angle of 141...
January 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
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