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Takeo Nakayama, Yuichi Imanaka, Yasushi Okuno, Genta Kato, Tomohiro Kuroda, Rei Goto, Shiro Tanaka, Hiroshi Tamura, Shunichi Fukuhara, Shingo Fukuma, Manabu Muto, Motoko Yanagita, Yosuke Yamamoto
As Japan becomes a super-aging society, presentation of the best ways to provide medical care for the elderly, and the direction of that care, are important national issues. Elderly people have multi-morbidity with numerous medical conditions and use many medical resources for complex treatment patterns. This increases the likelihood of inappropriate medical practices and an evidence-practice gap. The present study aimed to: derive findings that are applicable to policy from an elucidation of the actual state of medical care for the elderly; establish a foundation for the utilization of National Database of Health Insurance Claims and Specific Health Checkups of Japan (NDB), and present measures for the utilization of existing databases in parallel with NDB validation...
June 6, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Wangxi Luo, Andrew Ruba, Daisuke Takao, Ludovit P Zweifel, Roderick Y H Lim, Kristen J Verhey, Weidong Yang
Transport of membrane and cytosolic proteins in primary cilia is thought to depend on intraflagellar transport (IFT) and diffusion. However, the relative contribution and spatial routes of each transport mechanism are largely unknown. Although challenging to decipher, the details of these routes are essential for our understanding of protein transport in primary cilia, a critically affected process in many genetic diseases. By using a high-speed virtual 3D super-resolution microscopy, we have mapped the 3D spatial locations of transport routes for various cytosolic proteins in the 250-nm-wide shaft of live primary cilia with a spatiotemporal resolution of 2 ms and <16 nm...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Peter A Larsen, R Alan Harris, Yue Liu, Shwetha C Murali, C Ryan Campbell, Adam D Brown, Beth A Sullivan, Jennifer Shelton, Susan J Brown, Muthuswamy Raveendran, Olga Dudchenko, Ido Machol, Neva C Durand, Muhammad S Shamim, Erez Lieberman Aiden, Donna M Muzny, Richard A Gibbs, Anne D Yoder, Jeffrey Rogers, Kim C Worley
BACKGROUND: The de novo assembly of repeat-rich mammalian genomes using only high-throughput short read sequencing data typically results in highly fragmented genome assemblies that limit downstream applications. Here, we present an iterative approach to hybrid de novo genome assembly that incorporates datasets stemming from multiple genomic technologies and methods. We used this approach to improve the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) genome from early draft status to a near chromosome-scale assembly...
November 16, 2017: BMC Biology
Masaya Fujioka, Chuanbao Wu, Naoki Kubo, Gaoyang Zhao, Atsushi Inoishi, Shigeto Okada, Satoshi Demura, Hideaki Sakata, Manabu Ishimaru, Hideo Kaiju, Junji Nishii
The development of an unconventional synthesis method has a large potential to drastically advance materials science. In this research, a new synthesis method based on a solid-state electrochemical reaction was demonstrated, which can be made available for intercalation and ion substitution. It was referred to as proton-driven ion introduction (PDII). The protons generated by the electrolytic dissociation of hydrogen drive other monovalent cations along a high electric field in the solid state. Utilizing this mechanism, Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Cu(+), and Ag(+) were intercalated into a layered TaS2 single crystal while maintaining high crystallinity...
November 16, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Doreen Chan, Yichuan Ding, Reinhold H Dauskardt, Eric A Appel
Polymer networks are extensively utilized across numerous applications ranging from commodity superabsorbent polymers and coatings to high-performance microelectronics and biomaterials. For many applications, desirable properties are known; however, achieving them has been challenging. Additionally, the accurate prediction of elastic modulus has been a long-standing difficulty owing to the presence of loops. By tuning the prepolymer formulation through precise doping of monomers, specific primary network defects can be programmed into an elastomeric scaffold, without alteration of their resulting chemistry...
November 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Kyosuke Yamamoto, Takashi Togami, Norio Yamaguchi
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs or drones) are a very promising branch of technology, and they have been utilized in agriculture-in cooperation with image processing technologies-for phenotyping and vigor diagnosis. One of the problems in the utilization of UAVs for agricultural purposes is the limitation in flight time. It is necessary to fly at a high altitude to capture the maximum number of plants in the limited time available, but this reduces the spatial resolution of the captured images. In this study, we applied a super-resolution method to the low-resolution images of tomato diseases to recover detailed appearances, such as lesions on plant organs...
November 6, 2017: Sensors
Tao Xu, Zhao Wang, Yichun Ding, Wenhui Xu, Weidong Wu, Zhengtao Zhu, Hao Fong
Three-dimensional, cost-effective, and renewable/recyclable absorbent materials with high capacities on absorption of organic compounds are urgently in demand. Herein, a facile while innovative approach is reported to develop ultralight electrospun cellulose sponge (UECS). The prepared UECS exhibits super-high absorption capacity (up to 232 times of its own weight) towards absorption of organic compounds due to high porosity (99.57%), low density (6.45mg/cm(3)), and hydrophobic surface feature (with water contact angle of 141...
January 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Jessica G Zarzour, Sam Galgano, Jonathan McConathy, John V Thomas, Soroush Rais-Bahrami
Accurate nodal staging at the time of diagnosis of prostate cancer is crucial in determining a treatment plan for the patient. Pelvic lymph node dissection is the most reliable method, but is less than perfect and has increased morbidity. Cross sectional imaging with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are non-invasive tools that rely on morphologic characteristics such as shape and size of the lymph nodes. However, lymph nodes harboring metastatic disease may be normal sized and non-metastatic lymph nodes may be enlarged due to reactive hyperplasia...
October 28, 2017: World Journal of Radiology
Yu Shrike Zhang, Grissel Trujillo-de Santiago, Mario Moisés Alvarez, Steven J Schiff, Edward S Boyden, Ali Khademhosseini
Diagnostics play a significant role in health care. In the developing world and low-resource regions the utility for point-of-care (POC) diagnostics becomes even greater. This need has long been recognized, and diagnostic technology has seen tremendous progress with the development of portable instrumentation such as miniature imagers featuring low complexity and cost. However, such inexpensive devices have not been able to achieve a resolution sufficient for POC detection of pathogens at very small scales, such as single-cell parasites, bacteria, fungi, and viruses...
March 2017: Curr Opin Biomed Eng
Dong Song, Xiwei She, Robert E Hampson, Sam A Deadwyler, Theodore W Berger
To understand how memories are encoded in the hippocampus, we build memory decoding models to classify visual memories based on hippocampal activities in human. Model inputs are spatio-temporal patterns of spikes recorded in the hippocampal CA3 and CA1 regions of epilepsy patients performing a delayed match-to-sample (DMS) task. Model outputs are binary labels indicating categories and features of sample images. To solve the super high-dimensional estimation problem with short data length, we develop a multi-trial, sparse model estimation method utilizing B-spline basis functions with a large range of temporal resolutions and a regularized logistic classifier...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Kunlun Qi, Yechuan Zhu, Hao Sun, Yiting Yu
We present a conceptual demonstration of a metallic planar lens composed of double-turn waveguides for sub-diffraction-limit focusing. The phase delay of a single double-turn waveguide dependent on its structural parameters is investigated by employing the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) numerical method. The design utilizes the surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) that propagate along the metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguides to achieve the desired spatial phase modulation in the transmitted field. The simulated focal length achieved is in positive agreement with the design and the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) is 0...
September 4, 2017: Optics Express
Ke Li, Yinghui Guo, Mingbo Pu, Xiong Li, Xiaoliang Ma, Zeyu Zhao, Xiangang Luo
Dispersion management is crucial in constructing spectrometers, superprisms, and achromatic lens systems. Unfortunately, the dispersion of natural materials is determined by the molecular energy levels with limited tunability, and thus conventional methods of dispersion controlling are complex and need to trade off other aberration. Metasurface offers an alternative method to overcome those limits via utilizing dedicatedly designed nanostructures that response to special wavelength, which results in well-engineered dispersions...
September 4, 2017: Optics Express
Ingo Gregor, Martin Spiecker, Roman Petrovsky, Jörg Großhans, Robert Ros, Jörg Enderlein
Image scanning microscopy (ISM) doubles the resolution of a conventional confocal microscope for super-resolution imaging. Here, we describe an all-optical ISM design based on rescanning microscopy for two-photon-excited fluorescence and second-harmonic generation that allows straightforward implementation into existing microscopes. The design offers improved sensitivity and high frame rates relative to those of existing systems. We demonstrate its utility using fixed and living specimens as well as collagen hydrogels...
November 2017: Nature Methods
Zichao Lian, Donglai Pan, Wenchao Wang, Dieqing Zhang, Guisheng Li, Hexing Li
A solar-light double illumination photoelectrocatalytic cell (SLDIPEC) was fabricated for autonomous CO2 reduction and O2 evolution with the aid of photosystem II (PS-II, an efficient light-driven water-oxidized enzyme from nature) and utilized in a photoanode solution. The proposed SLPEC system was composed of Cu foam as the photoanode and p-Si nanowires (Si-NW) as the photocathode. Under solar irradiation, it exhibited a super-photoelectrocatalytic performance for CO2 conversion to methanol, with a high evolution rate (41...
October 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Tsutomu Tamai, Oki Taniyama, Kohei Oda, Ai Kasai, Syo Ijyuin, Haruka Sakae, Hiroka Onishi, Kazuaki Tabu, Kotaro Kumagai, Seiichi Mawatari, Akihiro Moriuchi, Hirofumi Uto, Akio Ido
BACKGROUND AND AIM: We confirmed the clinical utility of a three-dimensional navigation system during transarterial chemoembolization. METHODS: We evaluated 128 tumors in 91 patients enrolled between May 2015 and August 2016. We evaluated the accuracy of the three-dimensional navigation imaging system for all tumors. We compared the patients who were able to undergo route detection using three-dimensional navigation with previously treated patients who underwent transarterial chemoembolization without using three-dimensional navigation (n=21)...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Richard Wyss, Sebastian Schneeweiss, Mark van der Laan, Sam D Lendle, Cheng Ju, Jessica M Franklin
The high-dimensional propensity score is a semi-automated variable selection algorithm that can supplement expert knowledge to improve confounding control in non-experimental medical studies utilizing electronic healthcare databases. While the algorithm can be used to generate hundreds of patient-level variables and rank them by their potential confounding impact, it remains unclear how to select the optimal number of variables for adjustment. Super Learner and collaborative targeted maximum likelihood estimation (collaborative targeted MLE) are tools for prediction modeling and causal inference that can be combined with the high-dimensional propensity score to improve propensity score estimation and confounding control in large healthcare databases...
October 4, 2017: Epidemiology
Petr Ponomarenko, Alex Ryutov, Dennis T Maglinte, Ancha Baranova, Tatiana V Tatarinova, Xiaowu Gai
BACKGROUND: With 15,949 markers, the low-density Infinium QC Array-24 BeadChip enables linkage analysis, HLA haplotyping, fingerprinting, ethnicity determination, mitochondrial genome variations, blood groups and pharmacogenomics. It represents an attractive independent QC option for NGS-based diagnostic laboratories, and provides cost-efficient means for determining gender, ethnic ancestry, and sample kinships, that are important for data interpretation of NGS-based genetic tests. METHODS: We evaluated accuracy and reproducibility of Infinium QC genotyping calls by comparing them with genotyping data of the same samples from other genotyping platforms, whole genome/exome sequencing...
October 6, 2017: BMC Medical Genomics
Hojun Kim, Ziyuan Song, Cecilia Leal
Lipids self-assemble into diverse supramolecular structures that exhibit thermotropic and/or lyotropic behavior. Lyotropic mesophases, where membranes conform to periodic minimal surfaces dividing two nonpenetrating aqueous subspaces, are arguably one of the most intriguing phases of lipid materials. Traditional 3D bicontinuous cubic lipid materials appear as a polycrystal of varying degrees of order. When exposed to water, the properties of the molecular building blocks of the membrane determine specific swelling limits setting the lattice dimensions at about 15 nm...
October 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
C Vittorazzi, A T Amaral Junior, A G Guimarães, A P Viana, F H L Silva, G F Pena, R F Daher, I F S Gerhardt, G H F Oliveira, M G Pereira
Selection indices commonly utilize economic weights, which become arbitrary genetic gains. In popcorn, this is even more evident due to the negative correlation between the main characteristics of economic importance - grain yield and popping expansion. As an option in the use of classical biometrics as a selection index, the optimal procedure restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased predictor (REML/BLUP) allows the simultaneous estimation of genetic parameters and the prediction of genotypic values...
September 27, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
C Annette DuBard, Carlos T Jackson
Care management of high-cost/high-needs patients is an increasingly common strategy to reduce health care costs. A variety of targeting methodologies have emerged to identify patients with high historical or predicted health care utilization, but the more pertinent question for program planners is how to identify those who are most likely to benefit from care management intervention. This paper describes the evolution of complex care management targeting strategies in Community Care of North Carolina's (CCNC) work with the statewide non-dual Medicaid population, culminating in the development of an "Impactability Score" that uses administrative data to predict achievable savings...
October 2, 2017: Population Health Management
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