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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054947/hyperspectral-imagery-super-resolution-by-adaptive-pocs-and-blur-metric
#1
Shaoxing Hu, Shuyu Zhang, Aiwu Zhang, Shatuo Chai
The spatial resolution of a hyperspectral image is often coarse as the limitations on the imaging hardware. A novel super-resolution reconstruction algorithm for hyperspectral imagery (HSI) via adaptive projection onto convex sets and image blur metric (APOCS-BM) is proposed in this paper to solve these problems. Firstly, a no-reference image blur metric assessment method based on Gabor wavelet transform is utilized to obtain the blur metric of the low-resolution (LR) image. Then, the bound used in the APOCS is automatically calculated via LR image blur metric...
January 3, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051095/optical-high-content-nanoscopy-of-epigenetic-marks-decodes-phenotypic-divergence-in-stem-cells
#2
Joseph J Kim, Neal K Bennett, Mitchel S Devita, Sanjay Chahar, Satish Viswanath, Eunjee A Lee, Giyoung Jung, Paul P Shao, Erin P Childers, Shichong Liu, Anthony Kulesa, Benjamin A Garcia, Matthew L Becker, Nathaniel S Hwang, Anant Madabhushi, Michael P Verzi, Prabhas V Moghe
While distinct stem cell phenotypes follow global changes in chromatin marks, single-cell chromatin technologies are unable to resolve or predict stem cell fates. We propose the first such use of optical high content nanoscopy of histone epigenetic marks (epi-marks) in stem cells to classify emergent cell states. By combining nanoscopy with epi-mark textural image informatics, we developed a novel approach, termed EDICTS (Epi-mark Descriptor Imaging of Cell Transitional States), to discern chromatin organizational changes, demarcate lineage gradations across a range of stem cell types and robustly track lineage restriction kinetics...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046509/su-c-bra-06-automatic-brain-tumor-segmentation-for-stereotactic-radiosurgery-applications
#3
Y Liu, S Stojadinovic, S Jiang, R Timmerman, R Abdulrahman, L Nedzi, X Gu
PURPOSE: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), which delivers a potent dose of highly conformal radiation to the target in a single fraction, requires accurate tumor delineation for treatment planning. We present an automatic segmentation strategy, that synergizes intensity histogram thresholding, super-voxel clustering, and level-set based contour evolving methods to efficiently and accurately delineate SRS brain tumors on contrast-enhance T1-weighted (T1c) Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011993/putative-orotate-transporter-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-oat1-is-a-member-of-the-ncs1-prt-transporter-super-family-and-its-loss-causes-attenuation-of-virulence
#4
Akio Toh-E, Misako Ohkusu, Kiminori Shimizu, Azusa Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Susumu Kawamoto, Naruhiko Ishiwada, Akira Watanabe, Katsuhiko Kamei
It is well known that 5-fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA)-resistant mutants isolated from wild-type Cryptococcus neoformans are exclusively either ura3 or ura5 mutants. Unexpectedly, many of the 5-FOA-resistant mutants isolated in our selective regime were Ura(+). We identified CNM00460 as the gene responsible for these mutations. Cnm00460 belongs to the nucleobase cation symporter 1/purine-related transporter (NCS1/PRT) super family of fungal transporters, representative members of which are uracil transporter, uridine transporter and allantoin transporter of Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
December 23, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986453/cd8-t-cells-utilize-highly-dynamic-enhancer-repertoires-and-regulatory-circuitry-in-response-to-infections
#5
Bing He, Shaojun Xing, Changya Chen, Peng Gao, Li Teng, Qiang Shan, Jodi A Gullicksrud, Matthew D Martin, Shuyang Yu, John T Harty, Vladimir P Badovinac, Kai Tan, Hai-Hui Xue
Differentiation of effector and memory CD8(+) T cells is accompanied by extensive changes in the transcriptome and histone modifications at gene promoters; however, the enhancer repertoire and associated gene regulatory networks are poorly defined. Using histone mark chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with deep sequencing, we mapped the enhancer and super-enhancer landscapes in antigen-specific naive, differentiated effector, and central memory CD8(+) T cells during LCMV infection. Epigenomics-based annotation revealed a highly dynamic repertoire of enhancers, which were inherited, de novo activated, decommissioned and re-activated during CD8(+) T cell responses...
December 20, 2016: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978489/structural-mutational-and-biophysical-studies-reveal-a-canonical-mode-of-molecular-recognition-between-immune-receptor-tigit-and-nectin-2
#6
Dibyendu Samanta, Haisu Guo, Rotem Rubinstein, Udupi A Ramagopal, Steven C Almo
In addition to antigen-specific stimulation of T cell receptor (TCR) by a peptide-MHC complex, the functional outcome of TCR engagement is regulated by antigen-independent costimulatory signals. Costimulatory signals are provided by an array of interactions involving activating and inhibitory receptors expressed on T cells and their cognate ligands on antigen presenting cells. T cell immunoglobulin and ITIM domain (TIGIT), a recently identified immune receptor expressed on T and NK cells, upon interaction with either of its two ligands, nectin-2 or poliovirus receptor (PVR), inhibits activation of T and NK cells...
January 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966595/highly-intense-monocycle-terahertz-vortex-generation-by-utilizing-a-tsurupica-spiral-phase-plate
#7
Katsuhiko Miyamoto, Bong Joo Kang, Won Tae Kim, Yuta Sasaki, Hiromasa Niinomi, Koji Suizu, Fabian Rotermund, Takashige Omatsu
Optical vortex, possessing an annular intensity profile and an orbital angular momentum (characterized by an integer termed a topological charge) associated with a helical wavefront, has attracted great attention for diverse applications due to its unique properties. In particular for terahertz (THz) frequency range, several approaches for THz vortex generation, including molded phase plates consisting of metal slit antennas, achromatic polarization elements and binary-diffractive optical elements, have been recently proposed, however, they are typically designed for a specific frequency...
December 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960474/highly-controlled-synthesis-and-super-radiant-photoluminescence-of-plasmonic-cube-in-cube-nanoparticles
#8
Jeong-Eun Park, Sungi Kim, Jiwoong Son, Yeonhee Lee, Jwa-Min Nam
The plasmonic properties of metal nanostructures have been heavily utilized for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF), but the direct photoluminescence (PL) from plasmonic metal nanostructures, especially with plasmonic coupling, has not been widely used as much as SERS and MEF due to the lack of understanding of the PL mechanism, relatively weak signals, and the poor availability of the synthetic methods for the nanostructures with strong PL signals. The direct PL from metal nanostructures is beneficial if these issues can be addressed because it does not exhibit photoblinking or photobleaching, does not require dye-labeling, and can be employed as a highly reliable optical signal that directly depends on nanostructure morphology...
December 14, 2016: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935476/assessing-the-mechanism-and-therapeutic-potential-of-modulators-of-the-human-mediator-complex-associated-protein-kinases
#9
Paul Andrew Clarke, Maria-Jesus Ortiz-Ruiz, Robert TePoele, Olajumoke Adeniji-Popoola, Gary Box, Will Court, Stefanie Czasch, Samer El Bawab, Christina Esdar, Ken Ewan, Sharon Gowan, Alexis De Haven Brandon, Phllip Hewitt, Stephen M Hobbs, Wolfgang Kaufmann, Aurélie Mallinger, Florence Raynaud, Toby Roe, Felix Rohdich, Kai Schiemann, Stephanie Simon, Richard Schneider, Melanie Valenti, Stefan Weigt, Julian Blagg, Andree Blaukat, Trevor C Dale, Suzanne A Eccles, Stefan Hecht, Klaus Urbahns, Paul Workman, Dirk Wienke
Mediator-associated kinases CDK8/19 are context-dependent drivers or suppressors of tumorigenesis. Their inhibition is predicted to have pleiotropic effects, but it is unclear whether this will impact on the clinical utility of CDK8/19 inhibitors. We discovered two series of potent chemical probes with high selectivity for CDK8/19. Despite pharmacodynamic evidence for robust on-target activity, the compounds exhibited modest, though significant, efficacy against human tumor lines and patient-derived xenografts...
December 9, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923061/comparative-transcriptomic-and-epigenomic-analyses-reveal-new-regulators-of-murine-brown-adipogenesis
#10
Reinhard Brunmeir, Jingyi Wu, Xu Peng, Sun-Yee Kim, Sofi G Julien, Qiongyi Zhang, Wei Xie, Feng Xu
Increasing energy expenditure through brown adipocyte recruitment is a promising approach to combat obesity. We report here the comprehensive profiling of the epigenome and transcriptome throughout the lineage commitment and differentiation of C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cell line into brown adipocytes. Through direct comparison to datasets from differentiating white adipocytes, we systematically identify stage- and lineage-specific coding genes, lncRNAs and microRNAs. Utilizing chromatin state maps, we also define stage- and lineage-specific enhancers, including super-enhancers, and their associated transcription factor binding motifs and genes...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909248/regulation-of-chemokine-receptor-ccr2-recycling-by-filamin-a-phosphorylation
#11
Mònica Pons, Ismael Izquierdo, Mireia Andreu-Carbó, Georgina Garrido, Jesús Planagumà, Olivia Muriel, M Isabel Geli, Anna M Aragay
Proper endosomal trafficking of ligand-activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is essential to spatiotemporally tune their physiological responses. For the monocyte chemoattractant receptor 2 (CCR2B), endocytic recycling is important to sustain monocyte migration; while filamin A (FLNa) is essential for CCL2-induced monocyte migration. Here, we analyze the role of FLNa in the trafficking of CCR2B along the endocytic pathway. In FLNa knockdown cells, activated CCR2B accumulated in enlarged EEA-1-positive endosomes, which exhibited slow movement and fast fluorescence recovery, suggesting an imbalance between receptor entry and exit rates...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897135/improved-dielectric-constant-and-breakdown-strength-of-%C3%AE-phase-dominant-super-toughened-polyvinylidene-fluoride-tio2-nanocomposite-film-an-excellent-material-for-energy-storage-applications-and-piezoelectric-throughput
#12
Md Mehebub Alam, Sujoy Kumar Ghosh, Debabrata Sarkar, Shrabanee Sen, Dipankar Mandal
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) embedded γ-phase containing polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanocomposite (PNC) film turns to an excellent material for energy storage application due to an increased dielectric constant (32 at 1 kHz), enhanced electric breakdown strength (400 MV m(-1)). It also exhibits a high energy density of 4 J cm(-3) which is 25 times higher than that of virgin PVDF. 98% of the electroactive γ-phase has been acheived by the incorporation of TiO2 NPs and the resulting PNC behaves like a super-toughened material due to a dramatic improvement (more than 80%) in the tensile strength...
January 6, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893388/sparse-representation-based-multiple-frame-video-super-resolution
#13
Qiqin Dai, Seunghwan Yoo, Armin Kappeler, Aggelos K Katsaggelos
In this paper, we propose two multiple-frame superresolution (SR) algorithms based on dictionary learning and motion estimation. First, we adopt the use of video bilevel dictionary learning which has been used for single-frame SR. It is extended to multiple frames by using motion estimation with subpixel accuracy. We propose a batch and a temporally recursive multi-frame SR algorithm, which improve over single frame SR. Finally, we propose a novel dictionary learning algorithm utilizing consecutive video frames, rather than still images or individual video frames, which further improves the performance of the video SR algorithms...
November 22, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883055/gapmer-cellular-internalization-by-macropinocytosis-induces-sequence-specific-gene-silencing-in-human-primary-t-cells
#14
Mobashar Hussain Urf Turabe Fazil, Seow Theng Ong, Madhavi Latha Somaraju Chalasani, Jian Hui Low, Atish Kizhakeyil, Akshay Mamidi, Carey Fang Hui Lim, Graham D Wright, Rajamani Lakshminarayanan, Dermot Kelleher, Navin Kumar Verma
Post-transcriptional gene silencing holds great promise in discovery research for addressing intricate biological questions and as therapeutics. While various gene silencing approaches, such as siRNA and CRISPR-Cas9 techniques, are available, these cannot be effectively applied to "hard-to-transfect" primary T-lymphocytes. The locked nucleic acid-conjugated chimeric antisense oligonucleotide, called "GapmeR", is an emerging new class of gene silencing molecule. Here, we show that GapmeR internalizes into human primary T-cells through macropinocytosis...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875882/on-the-feasibility-of-designing-hyperalkali-cations-using-superalkali-clusters-as-ligands
#15
Wei-Ming Sun, Xiang-Hui Li, Ying Li, Jia-Yuan Liu, Di Wu, Chun-Yan Li, Bi-Lian Ni, Zhi-Ru Li
The possibility of using superalkali clusters instead of alkali atoms as ligands to design a class of cationic compounds, referred to as hyperalkali cations, has been examined by using gradient-corrected density functional theory. By taking typical superalkalis (FLi2, OLi3, and NLi4) as examples, a series of hyperalkali cations ML2(+) [M = (super)halogen; L = superalkali] have been constructed and investigated. Calculational results show that all the superalkali moieties preserve their geometric and electronic integrity in these proposed cations...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827427/establishing-super-resolution-imaging-for-proteins-in-diatom-biosilica
#16
Philip Gröger, Nicole Poulsen, Jennifer Klemm, Nils Kröger, Michael Schlierf
The intricate, genetically controlled biosilica nano- and micropatterns produced by diatoms are a testimony for biology's ability to control mineral formation (biomineralization) at the nanoscale and regarded as paradigm for nanotechnology. Previously, several protein families involved in diatom biosilica formation have been identified, and many of them remain tightly associated with the final biosilica structure. Determining the locations of biosilica-associated proteins with high precision is, therefore expected to provide clues to their roles in biosilica morphogenesis...
November 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814619/novel-strategies-to-target-cancer-stem-cells-by-nk-cells-studies-in-humanized-mice
#17
Anna K Kozlowska, Kawaljit Kaur, Paytsar Topchyan, Anahid Jewett
We have previously shown that following selection, Natural Killer (NK) cells, differentiate Cancer stem cells (CSCs)/undifferentiated or poorly differentiated tumors via secreted and membrane bound IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha, leading to prevention of tumor growth and remodeling of the tumor microenvironment. Since conventional therapeutic strategies including chemotherapy and radiotherapy remain unsuccessful in treating stem-like tumors, there has been an increasing interest in NK cell based immunotherapy for the treatment of resistant tumors...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810805/characterisation-of-contrast-agent-microbubbles-for-ultrasound-imaging-and-therapy-research
#18
Helen Mulvana, Richard J Browning, Ying Luan, Nico de Jong, Meng-Xing Tang, Robert J Eckersley, Eleanor Stride
The high efficiency with which gas microbubbles can scatter ultrasound compared to the surrounding blood pool or tissues has led to their widespread employment as contrast agents in ultrasound imaging. In recent years their applications have been extended to include super-resolution imaging and the stimulation of localized bio-effects for therapy. The growing exploitation of contrast agents in ultrasound, and in particular these recent developments, have amplified the need to characterize and fully understand microbubble behavior...
October 26, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805608/single-molecule-super-resolution-imaging-of-phosphatidylinositol-4-5-bisphosphate-in-the-plasma-membrane-with-novel-fluorescent-probes
#19
Chen Ji, Xuelin Lou
Phosphoinositides in the cell membrane are signaling lipids with multiple cellular functions. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) is a determinant phosphoinositide of the plasma membrane (PM), and it is required to modulate ion channels, actin dynamics, exocytosis, endocytosis, intracellular signaling, and many other cellular processes. However, the spatial organization of PI(4,5)P2 in the PM is controversial, and its nanoscale distribution is poorly understood due to the technical limitations of research approaches...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798969/the-influence-of-body-mass-index-on-outcomes-in-ureteroscopy-results-from-the-clinical-research-office-of-endourological-society-urs-global-study
#20
Amy Krambeck, Nienke Wijnstok, Peter Olbert, George Mitroi, Simon Bariol, Hemendra N Shah, Ahmed S El-Abd, Bulent Onal, Jean de la Rosette
INTRODUCTION: Although ureteroscopy (URS) has been established as a viable treatment for stones in obese patients, its safety and success has not been fully elucidated. The current study describes the worldwide prevalence of obesity in patients with urolithiasis and examines trends in URS outcomes, safety, and efficacy. METHODS: This study utilized the Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society (CROES) URS Global Study, which was a prospective, multicenter study including 11,885 patients treated with URS for urinary stones at 1 of 114 urology departments across 32 countries...
January 2017: Journal of Endourology
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