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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905939/causes-of-death-in-vanuatu
#1
Karen Carter, Viran Tovu, Jeffrey Tila Langati, Michael Buttsworth, Lester Dingley, Andy Calo, Griffith Harrison, Chalapati Rao, Alan D Lopez, Richard Taylor
BACKGROUND: The population of the Pacific Melanesian country of Vanuatu was 234,000 at the 2009 census. Apart from subsistence activities, economic activity includes tourism and agriculture. Current completeness of vital registration is considered too low to be usable for national statistics; mortality and life expectancy (LE) are derived from indirect demographic estimates from censuses/surveys. Some cause of death (CoD) data are available to provide information on major causes of premature death...
March 15, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649319/recent-advancements-in-combination-subunit-vaccine-development
#2
Ming Tan, Xi Jiang
Viral structural proteins share a common nature of homotypic interactions for self-assembling into viral capsids. This natural process has been mimicked in vitro through recombinant technology to generate various virus-like particles (VLPs) and small subviral particles that exhibit similar structural and antigenic properties of their authentic viruses. Therefore, such self-assembled, polyvalent, and highly immunogenic VLPs and small subviral particles are excellent subunit vaccines against individual viruses, such as those against the hepatitis B virus, human papilloma virus, and hepatitis E virus, which have already been in the markets...
September 20, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553785/a-retrospective-chart-review-study-to-describe-selected-zoonotic-and-arboviral-etiologies-in-hospitalized-febrile-patients-in-the-republic-of-armenia
#3
Lusine Paronyan, Eduard Zardaryan, Vahe Bakunts, Zaruhi Gevorgyan, Vigen Asoyan, Hripsime Apresyan, Alvard Hovhannisyan, Karo Palayan, Christian T Bautista, Tinatin Kuchuloria, Robert G Rivard
BACKGROUND: Scant information is available on the infectious causes of febrile illnesses in Armenia. The goal of this study was to describe the most common causes, with a focus on zoonotic and arboviral infections and related epidemiological and clinical patterns for hospitalized patients with febrile illnesses of infectious origin admitted to Nork Infectious Diseases Clinical Hospital, the referral center for infectious diseases in the capital city, Yerevan. METHOD: A chart review study was conducted in 2014...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27546957/viral-hepatitis-indian-scenario
#4
Sandeep Satsangi, Yogesh K Chawla
Viral hepatitis is a cause for major health care burden in India and is now equated as a threat comparable to the "big three" communicable diseases - HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. Hepatitis A virus and Hepatitis E virus are predominantly enterically transmitted pathogens and are responsible to cause both sporadic infections and epidemics of acute viral hepatitis. Hepatitis B virus and Hepatitis C virus are predominantly spread via parenteral route and are notorious to cause chronic hepatitis which can lead to grave complications including cirrhosis of liver and hepatocellular carcinoma...
July 2016: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527551/a-case-report-about-the-most-common-yet-most-forgotten-hepatitis-e
#5
Madhuri Chandnani, Mandeep Kaur, Anusha Ramadhas, Taisiya Tumarinson
BACKGROUND Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most common cause of enterically acquired acute viral hepatitis worldwide with major prevalence in the developing countries. An increasing number of sporadic cases of acute HEV infection have also been found in developed countries, but there is still no role for HEV testing in cases of seronegative acute hepatitis in such nonendemic regions. CASE REPORT A 59-year-old male residing in the United States for seven months with a history of malaria treated one year ago presented with fatigue and cholestatic jaundice with very high bilirubin levels...
2016: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27502491/factors-associated-with-needle-sharing-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-yunnan-china-a-combined-network-and-regression-analysis
#6
Xin Chen, Lin Zhu, Yan-Heng Zhou, Feng-Liang Liu, Hong Li, Zhi-Hong Yao, Lin Duo, Wei Pang, Mei Ye, Yong-Tang Zheng
BACKGROUND: Network analyses have been widely utilized to evaluate large datasets, but have not yet been used to explore factors associated with risk behaviours. In combination with traditional regression analysis, network analyses may provide useful information and highlight key factors for reducing needle sharing behaviours among people who inject drugs (PWID). METHODS: Sociodemographic data, and information on injection behaviour and sexual practices were collected from a cross-sectional survey that was conducted with PWID in five prefectures of Yunnan province, China...
2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412600/identification-of-a-new-benzimidazole-derivative-as-an-antiviral-against-hepatitis-c-virus
#7
Thibaut Vausselin, Karin Séron, Muriel Lavie, Ahmed Atef Mesalam, Matthieu Lemasson, Sandrine Belouzard, Lucie Fénéant, Adeline Danneels, Yves Rouillé, Laurence Cocquerel, Lander Foquet, Arielle R Rosenberg, Czeslaw Wychowski, Philip Meuleman, Patricia Melnyk, Jean Dubuisson
UNLABELLED: Aminoquinolines and piperazines, linked or not, have been used successfully to treat malaria, and some molecules of this family also exhibit antiviral properties. Here we tested several derivatives of 4-aminoquinolines and piperazines for their activity against hepatitis C virus (HCV). We screened 11 molecules from three different families of compounds, and we identified anti-HCV activity in cell culture for six of them. Of these, we selected a compound (B5) that is currently ending clinical phase I evaluation for neurodegenerative diseases...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27262330/historical-spice-as-a-future-drug-therapeutic-potential-of-piperlongumine
#8
REVIEW
Sahdeo Prasad, Amit K Tyagi
BACKGROUND: Spice and spice-derived compounds have been identified and explored for their health benefits since centuries. One of the spice long pepper has been traditionally used to treat chronic bronchitis, asthma, constipation, gonorrhea, paralysis of the tongue, diarrhea, cholera, malaria, viral hepatitis, respiratory infections, stomach ache, diseases of the spleen, cough, and tumors. METHODS: In this review, the evidences for the chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic potential of piperlongumine have been described...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27215300/elevated-values-of-clinically-relevant-transferases-induced-by-imported-infectious-diseases-a-controlled-cross-sectional-study-of-14-559-diseased-german-travelers-returning-from-the-tropics-and-subtropics
#9
Karl-Heinz Herbinger, Ingrid Hanus, Thomas W Felbinger, Christine Weber, Marcus Beissner, Frank von Sonnenburg, Thomas Löscher, Gisela Bretzel, Hans Dieter Nothdurft, Michael Hoelscher, Martin Alberer
The aim of this controlled cross-sectional study was to assess the clinical validity of elevated values of three clinically relevant transferase enzymes (aspartate transaminase [AST], alanine transaminase [ALT], and gamma-glutamyl transferase [GGT]) induced by imported infectious diseases (IDs) seen among patients consulting the Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Medical Center of the University of Munich (from 1999 to 2014) after being in the sub-/tropics. Data sets of 14,559 diseased German travelers returning from Latin America (2,715), Africa (4,574), or Asia (7,270) and of 1,536 healthy controls of German origin without recent travels were analyzed...
August 3, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27139444/malaria-transmission-under-an-unusual-circumstance-causing-death-in-two-siblings
#10
Kiran K Dayanand, Kishore Punnath, Valleesha N Chandrashekar, Srinivas B Kakkilaya, Susanta K Ghosh, Sathyanarayan N Tiwari, Rajeshwara N Achur, Sudarshan S Kadambi, D Channe Gowda
Two school-going siblings from a family residing in a presumed malaria non-endemic locality ∼90 km from Mangalore city in southwestern India contracted Plasmodium falciparum infection. In both cases, misunderstanding of initial clinical symptoms as due to viral hepatitis resulted in progression to severe malaria before malaria treatment was initiated. Despite treatment at a tertiary hospital, the children died of cerebral malaria and multi-organ dysfunction. Active case detection in the affected locality suggested that the infection was transmitted from infected individuals who worked in nearby malaria-endemic areas and periodically visited their families...
July 6, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27089008/spectrum-of-viral-pathogens-in-blood-of-malaria-free-ill-travelers-returning-to-canada
#11
Ruwandi Kariyawasam, Rachel Lau, Alireza Eshaghi, Samir N Patel, Doug Sider, Jonathan B Gubbay, Andrea K Boggild
Malaria is the most common specific cause of fever in returning travelers, but many other vectorborne infections and viral infections are emerging and increasingly encountered by travelers. We documented common and emerging viral pathogens in malaria-negative specimens from ill travelers returning to Canada. Anonymized, malaria-negative specimens were examined for various viral pathogens by real-time PCR. Samples were positive for herpes simplex viruses 1 or 2 (n = 21, 1.6%), cytomegalovirus (n = 4, 0.3%), Epstein-Barr virus (n = 194, 14...
May 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26998724/new-use-of-an-old-drug-chloroquine-reduces-viral-and-alt-levels-in-hcv-non-responders-a-randomized-triple-blind-placebo-controlled-pilot-trial
#12
Payam Peymani, Behzad Yeganeh, Siamak Sabour, Bita Geramizadeh, Mohammad Reza Fattahi, Hossein Keyvani, Negar Azarpira, Kevin M Coombs, Saied Ghavami, Kamran B Lankarani
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection induces autophagy, but the virus assimilates the autophagic response into its own life cycle. Chloroquine (CQ) is an autophagy inhibitor that is clinically used to treat malaria. The aims of this pilot clinical trial were to evaluate the therapeutic potential and short-term safety of CQ in patients with chronic HCV genotype 1, who were unresponsive to a combination of pegylated interferon alpha and ribavirin. Ten non-responders to previous antiviral treatment(s) were randomized to receive either CQ (150 mg daily for 8 weeks) or placebo, and were followed for 4 weeks after CQ therapy...
June 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26981050/causes-of-death-in-vanuatu
#13
Karen Carter, Viran Tovu, Jeffrey Tila Langati, Michael Buttsworth, Lester Dingley, Andy Calo, Griffith Harrison, Chalapati Rao, Alan D Lopez, Richard Taylor
BACKGROUND: The population of the Pacific Melanesian country of Vanuatu was 234,000 at the 2009 census. Apart from subsistence activities, economic activity includes tourism and agriculture. Current completeness of vital registration is considered too low to be usable for national statistics; mortality and life expectancy (LE) are derived from indirect demographic estimates from censuses/surveys. Some cause of death (CoD) data are available to provide information on major causes of premature death...
2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26407920/advax%C3%A2-a-novel-microcrystalline-polysaccharide-particle-engineered-from-delta-inulin-provides-robust-adjuvant-potency-together-with-tolerability-and-safety
#14
REVIEW
Nikolai Petrovsky, Peter D Cooper
There is an ongoing need for new adjuvants to facilitate development of vaccines against HIV, tuberculosis, malaria and cancer, amongst many others. Unfortunately, the most potent adjuvants are often associated with toxicity and safety issues. Inulin, a plant-derived polysaccharide, has no immunological activity in its native soluble form but when crystallized into a stable microcrystalline particulate from (delta inulin) acquires potent adjuvant activity. Delta inulin has been shown to enhance humoral and cellular immune responses against a broad range of co-administered viral, bacterial, parasitic and toxin antigens...
November 4, 2015: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26123020/t-cell-exhaustion-co-stimulation-and-clinical-outcome-in-autoimmunity-and-infection
#15
Eoin F McKinney, James C Lee, David R W Jayne, Paul A Lyons, Kenneth G C Smith
The clinical course of autoimmune and infectious disease varies greatly, even between individuals with the same condition. An understanding of the molecular basis for this heterogeneity could lead to significant improvements in both monitoring and treatment. During chronic infection the process of T-cell exhaustion inhibits the immune response, facilitating viral persistence. Here we show that a transcriptional signature reflecting CD8 T-cell exhaustion is associated with poor clearance of chronic viral infection, but conversely predicts better prognosis in multiple autoimmune diseases...
July 30, 2015: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26119676/fever-of-unknown-origin-in-returning-travellers
#16
REVIEW
Krzysztof Korzeniewski, Bartłomiej Gaweł, Dagny Krankowska, Katarzyna Wasilczuk
The aim of the article is to discuss issues associated with the occurrence of febrile illnesses in leisure and business travellers, with a particular emphasis on fevers of unknown origin (FUO). FUO, apart from diarrhoeas, respiratory tract infections and skin lesions, are one of the most common health problems in travellers to tropical and subtropical countries. FUO are manifestations of various diseases, typically of infectious or invasive aetiology. In one out of 3 cases, the cause of a fever in travellers returning from the hot climate zone is malaria, and therefore diagnostic tests should first aim at ruling out this specific disease entity...
2015: International Maritime Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26105698/stem-cell-derived-liver-cells-for-drug-testing-and-disease-modeling
#17
REVIEW
Matthew D Davidson, Brenton R Ware, Salman R Khetani
Differences between animals and humans in liver pathways now necessitate the use of in vitro models of the human liver for several applications such as drug screening. However, isolated primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) are a limited resource for building such models given shortages of donor organs. In contrast, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be propagated nearly indefinitely and differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro using soluble factors inspired from liver development...
May 2015: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26104192/vector-mediated-in-vivo-antibody-expression
#18
REVIEW
Bruce C Schnepp, Philip R Johnson
This article focuses on a novel vaccine strategy known as vector-mediated antibody gene transfer, with a particular focus on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This strategy provides a solution to the problem of current vaccines that fail to generate neutralizing antibodies to prevent HIV-1 infection and AIDS. Antibody gene transfer allows for predetermination of antibody affinity and specificity prior to "immunization" and avoids the need for an active humoral immune response against the HIV envelope protein...
August 2014: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26053588/health-disparities-in-liver-disease-in-sub-saharan-africa
#19
REVIEW
C Wendy Spearman, Mark W Sonderup
Disparities in health reflect the differences in the incidence, prevalence, burden of disease and access to care determined by socio-economic and environmental factors. With liver disease, these disparities are exacerbated by a combination of limited awareness and preventable causes of morbidity and mortality in addition to the diagnostic and management costs. Sub-Saharan Africa, comprising 11% of the world's population, disproportionately has 24% of the global disease burden, yet allocates <1% of global spend on health...
September 2015: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26041951/approach-to-clinical-syndrome-of-jaundice-and-encephalopathy-in-tropics
#20
REVIEW
Anil C Anand, Hitendra K Garg
A large number of patients present with jaundice and encephalopathy in tropical country like India and acute liver failure is the usual cause. Clinical presentation like ALF is also a complication of many tropical infections, and these conditions may mimic ALF but may have subtle differences from ALF. Moreover, what hepatologists see as acute liver failure in tropics is different from what is commonly described in Western Textbooks. Paracetamol overdose, which is possibly the commonest cause of ALF in UK and USA, is hardly ever seen in India...
March 2015: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
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