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Immune veterinary

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427438/canine-%C3%AE-defensin-1-cbd1-gene-as-a-possible-marker-for-leishmania-infantum-infection-in-dogs
#1
Lidiane Gomes da Silva, César Raimundo Lima Costa-Júnior, Carlos Alberto Santiago Figueiredo-Júnior, Tereza Cristina Leal-Balbino, Sergio Crovella, Domenico Otranto, Valdir de Queiroz Balbino, Filipe Dantas-Torres
BACKGROUND: Canine leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum is a parasitic disease of great veterinary significance. Some dogs infected by L. infantum may mount a strong cellular immune response and clear the infection, while others may respond with exaggerated antibody production against the parasite and develop an overt disease, which may be fatal, if left untreated. The initial factors triggering the polarization of the immune response towards a predominantly T-helper 1 or T-helper 2 cytokines, as well as the markers of resistance and susceptibility to L...
April 20, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421046/horses-in-denmark-are-a-reservoir-of-diverse-clones-of-methicillin-resistant-and-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus
#2
Md Zohorul Islam, Carmen Espinosa-Gongora, Peter Damborg, Raphael N Sieber, Rikke Munk, Louise Husted, Arshnee Moodley, Robert Skov, Jesper Larsen, Luca Guardabassi
Denmark is a country with high prevalence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex (CC) 398 in pigs. Even though pig farming is regarded as the main source of human infection or colonization with MRSA CC398, 10-15% of the human cases appear not to be linked to pigs. Following the recent reports of MRSA CC398 in horses in other European countries and the lack of knowledge on S. aureus carriage in this animal species, we carried out a study to investigate whether horses constitute a reservoir of MRSA CC398 in Denmark, and to gain knowledge on the frequency and genetic diversity of S...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387349/targeting-microbial-biofilms-using-ficin-a-nonspecific-plant-protease
#3
Diana R Baidamshina, Elena Y Trizna, Marina G Holyavka, Mikhail I Bogachev, Valeriy G Artyukhov, Farida S Akhatova, Elvira V Rozhina, Rawil F Fakhrullin, Airat R Kayumov
Biofilms, the communities of surface-attached bacteria embedded into extracellular matrix, are ubiquitous microbial consortia securing the effective resistance of constituent cells to environmental impacts and host immune responses. Biofilm-embedded bacteria are generally inaccessible for antimicrobials, therefore the disruption of biofilm matrix is the potent approach to eradicate microbial biofilms. We demonstrate here the destruction of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms with Ficin, a nonspecific plant protease...
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360911/swine-leukocyte-antigen-diversity-in-canadian-specific-pathogen-free-yorkshire-and-landrace-pigs
#4
Caixia Gao, Jinqiang Quan, Xinjie Jiang, Changwen Li, Xiaoye Lu, Hongyan Chen
The highly polymorphic swine major histocompatibility complex (MHC), termed swine leukocyte antigen (SLA), is associated with different levels of immunologic responses to infectious diseases, vaccines, and transplantation. Pig breeds with known SLA haplotypes are important genetic resources for biomedical research. Canadian Yorkshire and Landrace pigs represent the current specific pathogen-free (SPF) breeding stock maintained in the isolation environment at the Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342664/a-novel-live-attenuated-anthrax-spore-vaccine-based-on-an-acapsular-bacillus-anthracis-sterne-strain-with-mutations-in-the-htra-lef-and-cya-genes
#5
Theodor Chitlaru, Ma'ayan Israeli, Shahar Rotem, Uri Elia, Erez Bar-Haim, Sharon Ehrlich, Ofer Cohen, Avigdor Shafferman
We recently reported the development of a novel, next-generation, live attenuated anthrax spore vaccine based on disruption of the htrA (High Temperature Requirement A) gene in the Bacillus anthracis Sterne veterinary vaccine strain. This vaccine exhibited a highly significant decrease in virulence in murine, guinea pig and rabbit animal models yet preserved the protective value of the parental Sterne strain. Here, we report the evaluation of additional mutations in the lef and cya genes, encoding for the toxin components lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF), to further attenuate the SterneΔhtrA strain and improve its compatibility for human use...
March 22, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319826/oil-based-adjuvants-delivered-intradermally-induce-high-primary-igg2-immune-response-in-swine
#6
Zrinka Oreskovic, Hana Kudlackova, Josef Krejci, Katerina Nechvatalova, Martin Faldyna
The effects of intradermal application of antigen with or without different adjuvants and activation of immune response are presented in this study. Six groups of six piglets each were immunized with keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) antigen in combination with aluminium hydroxide or oil-based adjuvants (complete and incomplete Freund's adjuvants, Montanide ISA 206 and Emulsigen). IgG1 and IgG2 levels in sera were measured by KLH-specific ELISA. Interestingly, oil-based adjuvants induced high primary IgG2 response, suggesting the Th1 lymphocyte polarization...
March 11, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317239/the-use-of-low-dose-metronomic-chemotherapy-in-dogs-insight-into-a-modern-cancer-field
#7
REVIEW
T B Gaspar, J Henriques, L Marconato, F L Queiroga
The era of chemotherapy, which started in the middle of the last century, has been ruled by the routine use of dose-intense protocols, based on the "maximum-tolerated dose" concept. By promoting a balance between patient's quality of life and the goal of rapidly killing as many tumour cells as possible, these protocols still play a prominent role in veterinary oncology. However, with the opening of a new millennium, metronomic chemotherapy (MC) started to be considered a possible alternative to traditional dose-intense chemotherapy...
March 20, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317209/the-effects-of-cryopreservation-on-the-expression-of-canine-regulatory-t-cell-markers
#8
Noemi Tarpataki, Marcin Wawrzyniak, Cezmi A Akdis, Beate Rückert, Marina L Meli, Nina M Fischer, Claude Favrot, Ana Rostaher
BACKGROUND: Regulatory T (Treg) cells have been described as key regulators in various immunological processes and are of growing interest in veterinary allergy. Cryopreservation of immune cells is performed routinely in human basic science research and in clinical studies. As such, it allows batch testing of collected samples at a single time point, resulting in a significant reduction in sample variability. Data which describe the effects of cryopreservation on Treg cell frequency and functionality in the canine species are important to inform future research...
March 19, 2017: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301479/ligb-subunit-vaccine-confers-sterile-immunity-against-challenge-in-the-hamster-model-of-leptospirosis
#9
Neida L Conrad, Flávia W Cruz McBride, Jéssica D Souza, Marcelle M Silveira, Samuel Félix, Karla S Mendonça, Cleiton S Santos, Daniel A Athanazio, Marco A Medeiros, Mitermayer G Reis, Odir A Dellagostin, Alan J A McBride
Neglected tropical diseases, including zoonoses such as leptospirosis, have a major impact on rural and poor urban communities, particularly in developing countries. This has led to major investment in antipoverty vaccines that focus on diseases that influence public health and thereby productivity. While the true, global, impact of leptospirosis is unknown due to the lack of adequate laboratory diagnosis, the WHO estimates that incidence has doubled over the last 15 years to over 1 million cases that require hospitalization every year...
March 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300681/protective-immunity-of-grass-carp-induced-by-dna-vaccine-encoding-capsid-protein-gene-vp7-of-grass-carp-reovirus-using-bacterial-ghost-as-delivery-vehicles
#10
Kai Hao, Xiao-Hui Chen, Xiao-Zhou Qi, Xiao-Bo Yu, En-Qi Du, Fei Ling, Bin Zhu, Gao-Xue Wang
Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is one of the most pathogenic aquareovirus and can cause lethal hemorrhagic disease in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). However, management of GCRV infection remains a challenge. Therefore, it is necessary to find effective means for the control of its infection. The uses of bacterial ghost (BG, non-living bacteria) as carriers for DNA delivery have received considerable attentions in veterinary and human vaccines studies. Nevertheless, there is still no report about intramuscular administration of bacterial ghost-based DNA vaccines in fish...
May 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289416/specific-and-efficient-uptake-of-surfactant-free-poly-lactic-acid-nanovaccine-vehicles-by-mucosal-dendritic-cells-in-adult-zebrafish-after-bath-immersion
#11
Julien Rességuier, Emilie Delaune, Anne-Line Coolen, Jean-Pierre Levraud, Pierre Boudinot, Dominique Le Guellec, Bernard Verrier
Activation of mucosal immunity is a key milestone for next-generation vaccine development. Biocompatible polymer-based nanoparticles (NPs) are promising vectors and adjuvants for mucosal vaccination. However, their in vivo uptake by mucosae and their biodistribution in antigen-presenting cells (APCs) need to be better understood to optimize mucosal nanovaccine designs. Here, we assessed if APCs are efficiently targeted in a spontaneous manner by surfactant-free poly(lactic acid) nanoparticles (PLA-NPs) after mucosal administration...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285660/genetic-and-biochemical-characterization-of-hyicin-3682-the-first-bacteriocin-reported-for-staphylococcus-hyicus
#12
Patrícia Carlin Fagundes, Ilana Nascimento de Sousa Santos, Márcia Silva Francisco, Rodolpho Mattos Albano, Maria do Carmo de Freire Bastos
Hyicin 3682, the first bacteriocin reported for Staphylococcus hyicus, is a BsaCOL variant produced by S. hyicus 3682, a strain isolated from bovine milk. Hyicin 3682 is found in the culture supernatant, is bactericidal and its producing strain exhibits a much broader spectrum of antimicrobial activity than the producing strain of BsaCOL against several Gram-positive bacteria, which include foodborne pathogens, food-spoilage microorganisms and bacterial species of medical and veterinary importance. Sequencing of the genome of S...
May 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277944/the-galleria-mellonella-larvae-as-an-in-vivo-model-for-evaluation-of-shigella-virulence
#13
Shoshana Barnoy, Hanan Gancz, Yuewei Zhu, Cary L Honnold, Daniel V Zurawski, Malabi M Venkatesan
Shigella spp. causing bacterial diarrhea and dysentery are human enteroinvasive bacterial pathogens that are orally transmitted through contaminated food and water and cause bacillary dysentery. Although natural Shigella infections are restricted to humans and primates, several smaller animal models are used to analyze individual steps in pathogenesis. No animal model fully duplicates the human response and sustaining the models requires expensive animals, costly maintenance of animal facilities, veterinary services and approved animal protocols...
February 13, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241779/evaluation-of-protective-efficacy-induced-by-different-heterologous-prime-boost-strategies-encoding-triosephosphate-isomerase-against-schistosoma-japonicum-in-mice
#14
Yang Dai, Song Zhao, Jianxia Tang, Yuntian Xing, Guoli Qu, Jianrong Dai, Xiaolin Jin, Xiaoting Wang
BACKGROUND: In China, schistosomiasis japonica is a predominant zoonotic disease, and animal reservoir hosts in the environment largely sustain infections. The development of transmission-blocking veterinary vaccines is urgently needed for the prevention and efficient control of schistosomiasis. Heterologous prime-boost strategy is more effective than traditional vaccination and homologous prime-boost strategies against multiple pathogens infection. In the present study, to further improve protective efficacy, we immunized mice with three types of heterologous prime-boost combinations based on our previously constructed vaccines that encode triosphate isomerase of Schistosoma japonicum, tested the specific immune responses, and evaluated the protective efficacy through challenge infection in mice...
February 28, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197148/avian-interferons-and-their-antiviral-effectors
#15
REVIEW
Diwakar Santhakumar, Dennis Rubbenstroth, Luis Martinez-Sobrido, Muhammad Munir
Interferon (IFN) responses, mediated by a myriad of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), are the most profound innate immune responses against viruses. Cumulatively, these IFN effectors establish a multilayered antiviral state to safeguard the host against invading viral pathogens. Considerable genetic and functional characterizations of mammalian IFNs and their effectors have been made, and our understanding on the avian IFNs has started to expand. Similar to mammalian counterparts, three types of IFNs have been genetically characterized in most avian species with available annotated genomes...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194450/assessment-of-the-adjuvant-activity-of-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles-in-recombinant-mycoplasma-hyopneumoniae-antigen-vaccines
#16
Veridiana Gomes Virginio, Natalia Costantin Bandeira, Fernanda Munhoz Dos Anjos Leal, Marcelo Lancellotti, Arnaldo Zaha, Henrique Bunselmeyer Ferreira
The adjuvant potential of two mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), SBa-15 and SBa-16, was assessed in combination with a recombinant HSP70 surface polypeptide domain from Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, the etiological agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia (PEP). The recombinant antigen (HSP70212-600), previously shown as immunogenic in formulation with classic adjuvants, was used to immunize BALB/c mice in combination with SBa-15 or SBa-16 MSNs, and the effects obtained with these formulations were compared to those obtained with alum, the adjuvant traditionally used in anti-PEP bacterins...
January 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194371/non-tuberculous-mycobacteria-in-south-african-wildlife-neglected-pathogens-and-potential-impediments-for-bovine-tuberculosis-diagnosis
#17
Nomakorinte Gcebe, Tiny M Hlokwe
Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are not only emerging and opportunistic pathogens of both humans and animals, but from a veterinary point of view some species induce cross-reactive immune responses that hamper the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in both livestock and wildlife. Little information is available about NTM species circulating in wildlife species of South Africa. In this study, we determined the diversity of NTM isolated from wildlife species from South Africa as well as Botswana. Thirty known NTM species and subspecies, as well as unidentified NTM, and NTM closely related to Mycobacterium goodii/Mycobacterium smegmatis were identified from 102 isolates cultured between the years 1998 and 2010, using a combination of molecular assays viz PCR and sequencing of different Mycobacterial house-keeping genes as well as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166482/post-exposure-rabies-prophylaxis-in-humans-exposed-to-animals-in-lublin-province-eastern-poland-in-2012-2015-a-retrospective-study
#18
Joanna Krzowska-Firych, Krzysztof Tomasiewicz, Agata Kozøowska
Rabies continues to be one of the most important viral diseases and remains a significant threat to public health across the globe. The post-exposure prophylaxis in humans can effectively prevent death after exposure to a potentially infected animal. In Poland, recommendations for rabies PEP followed the national guidelines which recommend that people should receive PEP when bitten by an animal suspected to be infected by rabies. PEP in humans includes cleansing and disinfecting the wound or point of contact, and administering anti-rabies immunization...
February 6, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161462/immune-response-and-protective-profile-elicited-by-a-multi-epitope-chimeric-protein-derived-from-leptospira-interrogans
#19
Luis G V Fernandes, Aline F Teixeira, Antonio F S Filho, Gisele O Souza, Silvio A Vasconcellos, Marcos B Heinemann, Eliete C Romero, Ana L T O Nascimento
INTRODUCTION: Pathogenic Leptospira is the causative agent of leptospirosis, a widely disseminated disease of human and veterinary concern. The development of vaccines that elicit cross-protective immunity through multiple leptospiral serovars has long been pursued. The aim of this study was to develop a novel chimeric multi-epitope fusion antigen, containing sequences of previously studied outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of Leptospira. METHODS: The chimeric protein was designed based on the amino acid sequences of the LigA, Mce, Lsa45, OmpL1, and LipL41 proteins, cloned into pAE vector, the protein expressed in Escherichia coli, and its immune response evaluated in the hamster infection model...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158275/early-endonuclease-mediated-evasion-of-rna-sensing-ensures-efficient-coronavirus-replication
#20
Eveline Kindler, Cristina Gil-Cruz, Julia Spanier, Yize Li, Jochen Wilhelm, Huib H Rabouw, Roland Züst, Mihyun Hwang, Philip V'kovski, Hanspeter Stalder, Sabrina Marti, Matthias Habjan, Luisa Cervantes-Barragan, Ruth Elliot, Nadja Karl, Christina Gaughan, Frank J M van Kuppeveld, Robert H Silverman, Markus Keller, Burkhard Ludewig, Cornelia C Bergmann, John Ziebuhr, Susan R Weiss, Ulrich Kalinke, Volker Thiel
Coronaviruses are of veterinary and medical importance and include highly pathogenic zoonotic viruses, such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. They are known to efficiently evade early innate immune responses, manifesting in almost negligible expression of type-I interferons (IFN-I). This evasion strategy suggests an evolutionary conserved viral function that has evolved to prevent RNA-based sensing of infection in vertebrate hosts. Here we show that the coronavirus endonuclease (EndoU) activity is key to prevent early induction of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) host cell responses...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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