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Immune veterinary

Michela Malvisi, Fiorentina Palazzo, Nicola Morandi, Barbara Lazzari, John L Williams, Giulio Pagnacco, Giulietta Minozzi
Paratuberculosis in cattle is a chronic granulomatous gastroenteritis caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratubercolosis (MAP) which is endemic worldwide. In dairy herds, it is responsible for huge economic losses. However, current diagnostic methods do not detect subclinical infection making control of the disease difficult. The identification of MAP infected animals during the sub-clinical phase of infection would play a key role in preventing the dissemination of the pathogen and in reducing transmission...
2016: PloS One
Christian Spoerry, Pontus Hessle, Melanie J Lewis, Lois Paton, Jenny M Woof, Ulrich von Pawel-Rammingen
Recently we have discovered an IgG degrading enzyme of the endemic pig pathogen S. suis designated IgdE that is highly specific for porcine IgG. This protease is the founding member of a novel cysteine protease family assigned C113 in the MEROPS peptidase database. Bioinformatical analyses revealed putative members of the IgdE protease family in eight other Streptococcus species. The genes of the putative IgdE family proteases of S. agalactiae, S. porcinus, S. pseudoporcinus and S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus were cloned for production of recombinant protein into expression vectors...
2016: PloS One
Ziyang Sheng, Na Gao, Xiaoyun Cui, Dongying Fan, Hui Chen, Na Wu, Jianchun Wei, Jing An
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a pathogenic cause of Japanese Encephalitis (JE), which is a zoonotic disease transmitted by mosquitoes and amplified by pigs. Infection of JEV may lead to severe neurological sequelae, even death in humans and reproductive disorders in pigs. Vaccination is the only way to control JEV infection in humans. For pigs play important role in the JEV transmission cycle, developing a new veterinary vaccine is considered as a useful strategy for cutting off the transmission route of JEV...
October 12, 2016: Vaccine
Catherine Daniel, Marie Titecat, Sabine Poiret, Delphine Cayet, Denise Boutillier, Michel Simonet, Jean-Claude Sirard, Nadine Lemaître, Florent Sebbane
BACKGROUND: Pseudotuberculosis is an infection caused by the bacterial enteropathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and is considered to be a significant problem in veterinary medicine. We previously found that intranasal administration of a recombinant Lactococcus lactis strain that secretes the low-calcium response V (LcrV) antigen from Y. pseudotuberculosis (Ll-LcrV) confers protection against a lethal Y. pseudotuberculosis infection. Here, we aimed at characterizing the immunological basis of this LcrV-elicited protective response and at determining the duration of vaccine-induced immunity...
October 11, 2016: Vaccine
Benjamin E Bergstrom, Jean Stiles, Wendy M Townsend
OBJECTIVE: To determine the most common etiologies of panuveitis in a group of dogs, patient response to therapy, and visual outcome. DESIGN: Retrospective study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records of 55 dogs diagnosed with panuveitis at the Purdue University Veterinary Teaching Hospital between December 2000 and December 2015 were reviewed. Data collected included signalment, season of diagnosis, descriptions of ocular lesions, diagnostic testing, treatment protocols, etiologic diagnoses (when determined), and visual outcome...
October 12, 2016: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Diane G Edmondson, Sabitha Prabhakaran, Steven J Norris, Amy J Ullmann, Joe Piesman, Marc Dolan, Christian Probst, Christiane Radzimski, Winfried Stöcker, Lars Komorowski
Lyme borreliosis is caused by tick-transmitted spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group and is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States and Europe. Outer surface protein C (OspC) is a 23 kDa outer surface lipoprotein expressed during spirochete transmission from the tick to the vertebrate host. In a previous study, we found that immunization with a recombinant disulfide-bridged dimeric form of OspC (D-OspC) stimulates increased antibody responses relative to immunization with commonly employed monomeric OspC...
October 12, 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Satoru Konnai, Shiro Murata, Kazuhiko Ohashi
Recently, dysfunction of antigen-specific T cells is well documented as T-cell exhaustion and has been defined by the loss of effector functions during chronic infections and cancer in human. The exhausted T cells are characterized phenotypically by the surface expression of immunoinhibitory receptors, such as programmed death 1 (PD-1), lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG-3), T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein 3 (Tim-3) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4). However, there is still a fundamental lack of knowledge about the immunoinhibitory receptors in the fields of veterinary medicine...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
L R Mehrkens, F C Mohr, J E Sykes
BACKGROUND: We observed evidence of protein-losing nephropathy in some dogs with coccidioidomycosis, suggestive of immune complex glomerulonephritis (ICGN). The goal of this study was to understand the prevalence of renal histopathologic lesions and proteinuria in dogs with coccidioidomycosis. HYPOTHESIS: Biochemical and histopathological evidence of glomerular lesions is present in dogs with coccidioidomycosis. ANIMALS: Hundred and fifty-six dogs with naturally occurring coccidioidomycosis...
September 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Rolf Nijsse, Lapo Mughini-Gras, Jaap A Wagenaar, Harm W Ploeger
BACKGROUND: To reduce environmental contamination with Toxocara canis eggs, the current general advice is to deworm all dogs older than six months on average four times a year. However, only a small proportion of non-juvenile household dogs actually shed T. canis eggs, and some dogs shed eggs more frequently than others. The identification of these frequent shedders and the associated risk factors is an important cornerstone for constructing evidence-based deworming regimens. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors associated with recurrence of periods of shedding Toxocara eggs in a cohort of household dogs older than six months...
October 4, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Paula Tucci, Verónica Estevez, Lorena Becco, Florencia Cabrera-Cabrera, Germán Grotiuz, Eduardo Reolon, Mónica Marín
Bovine Respiratory Disease is the most costly disease that affects beef and dairy cattle industry. Its etiology is multifactorial, arising from predisposing environmental stress conditions as well as the action of several different respiratory pathogens. This situation has hindered the development of effective control strategies. Although different type of vaccines are available, many currently marketed vaccines are based on inactivated cultures of the main viral and bacterial agents involved in this pathology...
September 2016: Heliyon
Moataz Alhaj
Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is an infectious illness with serious clinical manifestations and health consequences in humans as well as a wide range of domestic ruminants. This review provides significant information about the prevention options of RVF along with the safety-efficacy profile of commercial vaccines and some of RVF vaccination strategies. Information presented in this paper was obtained through a systematic investigation of published data about RVF vaccines. Like other viral diseases, the prevention of RVF relies heavily on immunization of susceptible herds with safe and cost-effective vaccine that is able to confer long-term protective immunity...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
Geraldine Bossard, Pascal Grébaut, Sophie Thévenon, Martial Séveno, David Berthier, Philippe Holzmuller
Trypanosomes are bloodstream protozoan parasites, which are pathogens of veterinary and medical importance. Several mammalian species, including humans, can be infected by different species of the genus Trypanosoma (T. congolense, T. evansi, T. brucei, T. vivax) exhibiting more or less virulent and pathogenic phenotypes. A previous screening of the excreted-secreted proteins of T. congolense demonstrated an overexpression of several proteins correlated with the virulence and pathogenicity of the strain. Of these proteins, calreticulin (CRT) has shown differential expression between two T...
September 26, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Robert G Schaut, Tara L Grinnage-Pulley, Kevin J Esch, Angela J Toepp, Malcolm S Duthie, Randall F Howard, Steven G Reed, Christine A Petersen
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused by infection with the obligate intracellular protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum, is a fatal disease of dogs and humans. Protection against VL requires a T helper 1 (Th1) skewed CD4(+) T response, but despite this knowledge, there are currently no approved-to-market vaccines for humans and only three veterinary-use vaccines globally. As VL progresses from asymptomatic to symptomatic, L. infantum-specific interferon gamma (IFNγ) driven-Th1 responses become dampened and a state of immune exhaustion established...
October 17, 2016: Vaccine
Stefano Caccavale, Diana Di Mattia, Eleonora Ruocco
Lately, the innovative concept of an immunocompromised cutaneous district (ICD) has been introduced to explain why a previously injured cutaneous site may become in time a privileged location for the onset of opportunistic infections, tumors, and immune reactions. The injuring events capable of rendering a skin region a potential ICD are various, numerous, and most of the time identifiable by means of a careful clinical history. The reason that only a small minority of injured skin areas actually becomes ICDs, with subsequent opportunistic localization of a second and unrelated skin disorder, is presently unknown...
September 2016: Clinics in Dermatology
Miriam Reverter, Denis Saulnier, Rarahu David, Agnès Bardon-Albaret, Corinne Belliard, Nathalie Tapissier-Bontemps, David Lecchini, Pierre Sasal
The emerging orbicular batfish (Platax orbicularis) aquaculture is the most important fish aquaculture industry in French Polynesia. However, bacterial infections are causing severe mortality episodes. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find an effective management solution. Besides the supplying difficulty and high costs of veterinary drugs in French Polynesia, batfish aquaculture takes place close to the coral reef, where use of synthetic persistent drugs should be restricted. Medicinal plants and bioactive algae are emerging as a cheaper and more sustainable alternative to chemical drugs...
September 12, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Jeanine S Morey, Marion G Neely, Denise Lunardi, Paul E Anderson, Lori H Schwacke, Michelle Campbell, Frances M Van Dolah
BACKGROUND: The blood transcriptome can reflect both systemic exposures and pathological changes in other organs of the body because immune cells recirculate through the blood, lymphoid tissues, and affected sites. In human and veterinary medicine, blood transcriptome analysis has been used successfully to identify markers of disease or pathological conditions, but can be confounded by large seasonal changes in expression. In comparison, the use of transcriptomic based analyses in wildlife has been limited...
2016: BMC Genomics
Daniel O Oluwayelu, Adebowale I Adebiyi
BACKGROUND: Antibodies are essential part of vertebrates' adaptive immune system; they can now be produced by transforming plants with antibody-coding genes from mammals/humans. Although plants do not naturally make antibodies, the plant-derived antibodies (plantibodies) have been shown to function in the same way as mammalian antibodies. METHODS: PubMed and Google search engines were used to download relevant publications on plantibodies in medical and veterinary fields; the papers were reviewed and findings qualitatively described...
June 2016: African Health Sciences
Verónica Álvarez, Francisco-Miguel Sánchez-Margallo, Rebeca Blázquez, Raquel Tarazona, Javier G Casado
The mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are one of the most promising cell types for human and veterinary use and their therapeutic effect is associated with their immunomodulatory properties. Farm animal models, such as pigs, have become a valuable tool to evaluate the safety and efficacy of adoptively transferred MSCs in the setting of veterinary medicine. In order to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of stem cell-based therapies in porcine breeds, a deep analysis and comparison of MSCs and leukocyte subsets are absolutely necessary...
October 15, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Ming Chen, Chao Shi, Jing Zhao, Ziqing Gao, Chunzhi Zhang
D-Valine is an important organic chiral source and has extensive industrial application, which is used as intermediate for the synthesis of agricultural pesticides, semi-synthetic veterinary antibiotics and pharmaceutical drugs. Its derivatives have shown great activity in clinical use, such as penicillamine for the treatment of immune-deficiency diseases, and actinomycin D for antitumor therapy. Fluvalinate, a pyrethroid pesticide made from D-valine, is a broad-spectrum insecticide with low mammalian toxicity...
October 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Jörg Mayer, Robert J Williams, Victor A Oppenheimer, Biao He, Cary Tuckfield, Eric Koslowski, Robert M Gogal
Homeopathic remedies have been selectively employed in human medicine since Hahneman introduced the concept in 1828. While the use of homeopathy is regionally popular in both human and veterinary medicine, there is still a significant lack of scientific evidence supporting its efficacy. This is likely due to an absence of studies evaluating the mechanism of action of these compounds. Engystol® an FDA-approved antiviral agent, is a popular homeopathic commercial product. In select in vivo and in vitro observational studies, the drug showed a measureable innate immune therapeutic efficacy...
October 2016: International Immunopharmacology
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