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Immune veterinary

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155877/immune-response-profiles-of-calves-following-vaccination-with-live-bcg-and-inactivated-mycobacterium-bovis-vaccine-candidates
#1
E M D L van der Heijden, J Chileshe, J C M Vernooij, C Gortazar, R A Juste, I Sevilla, J E Crafford, V P M G Rutten, A L Michel
Conventional control and eradication strategies for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) face tremendous difficulties in developing countries; countries with wildlife reservoirs, a complex wildlife-livestock-human interface or a lack of veterinary and veterinary public health surveillance. Vaccination of cattle and other species might in some cases provide the only suitable control strategy for BTB, while in others it may supplement existing test-and-slaughter schemes. However, the use of live BCG has several limitations and the global rise of HIV/AIDS infections has furthermore warranted the exploration of inactivated vaccine preparations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140260/vaccinia-virus-natural-infections-in-brazil-the-good-the-bad-and-the-ugly
#2
REVIEW
Jaqueline Silva de Oliveira, Poliana de Oliveira Figueiredo, Galileu Barbosa Costa, Felipe Lopes de Assis, Betânia Paiva Drumond, Flávio Guimarães da Fonseca, Maurício Lacerda Nogueira, Erna Geessien Kroon, Giliane de Souza Trindade
The orthopoxviruses (OPV) comprise several emerging viruses with great importance to human and veterinary medicine, including vaccinia virus (VACV), which causes outbreaks of bovine vaccinia (BV) in South America. Historically, VACV is the most comprehensively studied virus, however, its origin and natural hosts remain unknown. VACV was the primary component of the smallpox vaccine, largely used during the smallpox eradication campaign. After smallpox was declared eradicated, the vaccination that conferred immunity to OPV was discontinued, favoring a new contingent of susceptible individuals to OPV...
November 15, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131390/immune-function-in-critically-ill-dogs
#3
D Hoffman, J Amorim, A DeClue
BACKGROUND: People with critical illness (CI) commonly develop various forms of immune dysfunction, however, there is limited information concerning immune dysfunction in dogs with CI. HYPOTHESIS: The immune response in CI dogs differs from that of healthy dogs. ANIMALS: Immunologic variables were compared between 14 dogs with CI, defined as APPLEfast score of >20 points, admitted to the University of Missouri Veterinary Health Center Small Animal Clinic Intensive Care Unit and healthy controls (n = 15)...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126143/understanding-how-dogs-age-longitudinal-analysis-of-markers-of-inflammation-immune-function-and-oxidative-stress
#4
Janet E Alexander, Alison Colyer, Richard M Haydock, Michael G Hayek, JeanSoon Park, Rafael de Cabo
As in human populations, advances in nutrition and veterinary care have led to an increase in the lifespan of companion animals. Detrimental physiological changes occurring later in life must be understood before interventions can be made to slow or reduce them. One important aspect of human aging is upregulation of the inflammatory response and increase in oxidative damage resulting in pathologies linked to chronic inflammation. To determine whether similar processes occur in the aging dog, changes in markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were investigated in 80 Labrador retrievers from adulthood to the end of life...
November 6, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121394/larval-echinococcus-multilocularis-infection-reduces-dextran-sulfate-sodium-dss-induced-colitis-in-mice-by-attenuating-th1-th17-mediated-immune-reactions
#5
Junhua Wang, Christine Goepfert, Norbert Mueller, Alessandra Piersigilli, Renyong Lin, Hao Wen, Dominique A Vuitton, Lucine Vuitton, Christoph Mueller, Bruno Gottstein
The tumor-like growth of larval Echinococcus multilocularis tissue (causing alveolar echinococcosis, AE) is directly linked to the nature/orientation of the periparasitic host immune-mediated processes. Parasite-mediated immune suppression is a hallmark triggering infection outcome in both chronic human and murine AE. So far, little is known about secondary systemic immune effects of this pathogen on other concomitant diseases, e.g. endogenous gut inflammation. We examined the influence of E. multilocularis infection on murine Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis...
November 9, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116502/construction-of-bovine-immunoglobulin-libraries-in-the-single-chain-fragment-variable-scfv-format
#6
Ulrike S Diesterbeck
Recombinant immunoglobulins are an excellent tool for diagnosis, treatment, and passive immunization. Phage display offers a robust technique for the selection of recombinant antibodies from immunoglobulin libraries. The construction of immunoglobulin libraries for veterinary purposes was restricted by the lack of knowledge about species-specific diversities.The now available data enable the construction of highly diverse libraries in livestock like cattle. Using diverse primer sets, the immunoglobulin repertoire is amplified and ligated into a phagemid...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104934/imaging-the-antistaphylococcal-activity-of-cath-2-mechanism-of-attack-and-regulation-of-inflammatory-response
#7
Viktoria A F Schneider, Maarten Coorens, Johanna L M Tjeerdsma-van Bokhoven, George Posthuma, Albert van Dijk, Edwin J A Veldhuizen, Henk P Haagsman
Chicken cathelicidin-2 (CATH-2) is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial host defense peptide (HDP) that may serve as a paradigm for the development of new antimicrobial agents. While previous studies have elucidated the mechanism by which CATH-2 kills Escherichia coli, its mode of action against Gram-positive bacteria remains to be determined. In this study, we explored the underlying antibacterial mechanism of CATH-2 against a methicillin-resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus and the effect of CATH-2-mediated S...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102683/meeting-summary-2nd-aegean-conference-on-cytokine-signaling-in-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Subburaj Ilangumaran, Bryan R G Williams, Dhan V Kalvakolanu
Cytokines and chemokines are intricately connected to cancer initiation, progression and metastasis as well as to innate and adaptive host defense mechanisms against transformed cells. The Aegean Conference on Cytokine Signaling in Cancer (ACCSC) aims to bring together researchers in this highly targeted area of cancer research in a lovely and relaxing Greek-Mediterranean backdrop to discuss latest developments. Being small in size with about one hundred participants, this conference fosters scientific and social interactions among established and emerging scientists in clinical and basic research in diverse fields of oncology, biochemistry, biophysics, genetics and immunology...
November 1, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102630/display-of-gcrv-vp7-protein-on-the-surface-of-escherichia-coli-and-its-immunoprotective-effects-in-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#9
Kai Hao, Xiao-Hui Chen, Xiao-Zhou Qi, Bin Zhu, Gao-Xue Wang, Fei Ling
Infection with Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is becoming unprecedentedly widespread in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) aquaculture industry, yet the management of GCRV infection still remains a challenge. Therefore, it is of importance to develop effective means against GCRV. As a delivery system of viral antigens, surface displaying of heterologous proteins on bacteria using anchoring motifs has successfully been implemented in human and veterinary vaccines research. In this study, a novel vaccine (BL21/InpN/vp7) was developed based on surface displaying a major capsid protein (vp7) of GCRV using the anchoring motif of N-terminal unique domain of ice-nucleation protein (InpN) on Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) vaccine...
November 6, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056740/the-use-of-recombinant-feline-interferon-omega-therapy-as-an-immune-modulator-in-cats-naturally-infected-with-feline-immunodeficiency-virus-new-perspectives
#10
REVIEW
Rodolfo Oliveira Leal, Solange Gil
Type I interferons (IFNs) are well-known cytokines that, among their main functions, are key components of the host immune response against viral infections. Due to its immune modulation properties, they are commonly used in the therapeutic approach of various retroviral infections, namely human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). In HIV infection, it has been shown that IFN therapy limits early viral replication, particularly useful on post-exposure prophylaxis. In veterinary medicine, recombinant feline interferon omega (rFeIFN-ω) was the first interferon licensed for use in cats...
October 27, 2016: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056675/felis-catus-gammaherpesvirus-1-dnaemia-in-whole-blood-from-therapeutically-immunosuppressed-or-retrovirus-infected-cats
#11
Alicia J McLuckie, Vanessa R Barrs, Bethany Wilson, Mark E Westman, Julia A Beatty
Gammaherpesviruses are major co-pathogens of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, making the interactions between feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 (FcaGHV1) pertinent to both human and veterinary medical research. FIV-infected cats are at increased risk of FcaGHV1 DNAemia and consistently harbor higher FcaGHV1 loads than FIV-uninfected cats. Whether immune deficiencies unrelated to FIV are associated with similar risks is unknown. Using whole blood FcaGHV1 qPCR, we found no difference in the frequency of DNAemia or DNA load in therapeutically immunosuppressed (P1, n = 18) or feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-infected (P2, n = 57) patients compared with age- and sex-matched controls (C1, n = 58; C2, n = 57)...
March 14, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056666/the-comparative-value-of-feline-virology-research-can-findings-from-the-feline-lentiviral-vaccine-be-translated-to-humans
#12
REVIEW
Margaret J Hosie, Navapon Techakriengkrai, Paweł M Bęczkowski, Matthew Harris, Nicola Logan, Brian J Willett
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus of domestic cats that shares several similarities with its human counterpart, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Their analogies include genomic organization, lymphocyte tropism, viral persistence and induction of immunodeficiency. FIV is the only lentivirus for which a commercial vaccine is registered for prevention in either human or veterinary medicine. This provides a unique opportunity to investigate the mechanisms of protection induced by lentivirus vaccines at the population level and might contribute to the development of efficacious HIV vaccines...
January 28, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056660/in-vitro-research-tools-in-the-field-of-human-immediate-drug-hypersensitivity-and-their-present-use-in-small-animal-veterinary-medicine
#13
REVIEW
Lavergne S Lavergne
Drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHR) are immune-mediated idiosyncratic adverse drug events. Type I DHR are often referred to as "immediate" and involve B lymphocyte-secreted IgE that bind to the membrane of basophils and mast cells, inducing their degranulation. This review presents various in vitro tests that were developed in the field of human type I HS and implemented as clinical diagnostic tools in human cases of immediate DHR. The respective strengths and weaknesses of each test will be discussed in parallel of validation data such as specificity and sensitivity whenever available...
December 22, 2016: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056423/effect-of-recombinant-glutathione-s-transferase-as-vaccine-antigen-against-rhipicephalus-appendiculatus-and-rhipicephalus-sanguineus-infestation
#14
Gabriela Alves Sabadin, Luís Fernando Parizi, Irene Kiio, Marina Amaral Xavier, Renata da Silva Matos, Maria Izabel Camargo-Mathias, Naftaly Wang'ombe Githaka, Vish Nene, Itabajara da Silva Vaz
The ticks Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus are the main vectors of Theileria parva and Babesia spp. in cattle and dogs, respectively. Due to their impact in veterinary care and industry, improved methods against R. appendiculatus and R. sanguineus parasitism are under development, including vaccines. We have previously demonstrated the induction of a cross-protective humoral response against Rhipicephalus microplus following vaccination with recombinant glutathione S-transferase from Haemaphysalis longicornis tick (rGST-Hl), suggesting that this protein could control tick infestations...
October 19, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029729/schmallenberg-virus-a-novel-virus-of-veterinary-importance
#15
Kerstin Wernike, Martin Beer
In late 2011, unspecific clinical symptoms such as fever, diarrhea, and decreased milk production were observed in dairy cattle in the Dutch/German border region. After exclusion of classical endemic and emerging viruses by targeted diagnostic systems, blood samples from acutely diseased cows were subjected to metagenomics analysis. An insect-transmitted orthobunyavirus of the Simbu serogroup was identified as the causative agent and named Schmallenberg virus (SBV). It was one of the first detections of the introduction of a novel virus of veterinary importance to Europe using the new technology of next-generation sequencing...
2017: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018438/antibody-immunity-induced-by-h7n9-avian-influenza-vaccines-evaluation-criteria-affecting-factors-and-implications-for-rational-vaccine-design
#16
Zenglei Hu, Xinan Jiao, Xiufan Liu
Severe H7N9 avian influenza virus (AIV) infections in humans have public health authorities around the world on high alert for the potential development of a human influenza pandemic. Currently, the newly-emerged highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H7N9) virus poses a dual challenge for public health and poultry industry. Numerous H7N9 vaccine candidates have been generated using various platforms. Immunization trials in animals and humans showed that H7N9 vaccines are apparently poorly immunogenic because they induced low hemagglutination inhibition and virus neutralizing antibody titers...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985326/the-effects-of-captivity-on-the-mammalian-gut-microbiome
#17
Valerie J McKenzie, Se Jin Song, Frédéric Delsuc, Tiffany L Prest, Angela M Oliverio, Timothy M Korpita, Alexandra Alexiev, Katherine R Amato, Jessica L Metcalf, Martin Kowalewski, Nico L Avenant, Andres Link, Anthony Di Fiore, Andaine Seguin-Orlando, Claudia Feh, Ludovic Orlando, Joseph R Mendelson, Jon Sanders, Rob Knight
Recent studies increasingly note the effect of captivity or the built environment on the microbiome of humans and other animals. As symbiotic microbes are essential to many aspects of biology (e.g., digestive and immune functions), it is important to understand how lifestyle differences can impact the microbiome, and, consequently, the health of hosts. Animals living in captivity experience a range of changes that may influence the gut bacteria, such as diet changes, treatments, and reduced contact with other individuals, species and variable environmental substrates that act as sources of bacterial diversity...
August 7, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936557/adjuvant-activity-of-saponins-from-kazakhstani-plants-on-the-immune-responses-to-subunit-influenza-vaccine
#18
A S Turmagambetova, P G Alexyuk, A P Bogoyavlenskiy, I A Zaitseva, E S Omirtaeva, M S Alexyuk, N S Sokolova, V E Berezin
In recent years, there have been a number of reports on the successful use of immunostimulatory complexes with saponins and viral glycoproteins as veterinary vaccines and in clinical trials for human medicine. The saponins Algiox, Sapanox and Pangisan were isolated and purified by HPLC from Allochrusa gypsophiloides, Saponaria officinalis and Gypsophila paniculata plants in Kazakhstan and they proved to have low toxicity in experiments with mice, chickens and chicken embryos. Algiox, Sapanox and Pangisan can be used to create immunostimulatory complexes (ISCOMs) similar to saponin-Quil-A-containing ISCOMs both in structure and in immunostimulatory efficiency...
December 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931425/neutralizing-immune-responses-induced-by-oligomeric-h5n1-hemagglutinins-from-plants
#19
Hoang Trong Phan, Thuong Thi Ho, Ha Hoang Chu, Trang Huyen Vu, Ulrike Gresch, Udo Conrad
Plant-based transient expression is an alternative platform to produce hemagglutinin-based subunit vaccines. This production system provides not only fast and effective response in the context of a pandemic but also enables the supply of big volume vaccines at low cost. Crude plant extracts containing influenza hemagglutinin are considered to use as vaccine sources because of avoidance of related purification steps resulting in low cost production allowing veterinary applications. Highly immunogenic influenza hemagglutinins are urgently required to meet these pre-conditions...
September 20, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930546/tick-host-pathogen-systems-immunobiology-an-interactive-trio
#20
Stephen K Wikel
Significant new insights are being made into tick modulation of host immune defenses and the implications of those host defense changes on tick-borne pathogen transmission and establishment of infection. Understanding tick saliva complexity increased with construction and analyses of salivary gland cDNA libraries. High throughput next generation sequencing and advances in proteomics are revealing greater complexity of saliva, nature of gene families and differential gene expression patterns not previously attainable...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
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