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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350440/identification-of-trypanosoma-brucei-adometdc-inhibitors-using-a-high-throughput-mass-spectrometry-based-assay
#1
Oleg A Volkov, Casey C Cosner, Anthony J Brockway, Martin Kramer, Michael Booker, Shihua Zhong, Ariel Ketcherside, Shuguang Wei, Jamie Longgood, Melissa K McCoy, Thomas E Richardson, Stephen A Wring, Michael Peel, Jeffrey D Klinger, Bruce A Posner, Jef K De Brabander, Margaret A Phillips
Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a fatal infectious disease caused by the eukaryotic pathogen Trypanosoma brucei. Available treatments are difficult to administer and have significant safety issues. S-Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) is an essential enzyme in the parasite polyamine biosynthetic pathway. Previous attempts to develop TbAdoMetDC inhibitors into anti-HAT therapies failed due to poor brain exposure. Here, we describe a large screening campaign of two small-molecule libraries (~400,000 compounds) employing a new high-throughput (~7 s per sample) mass spectrometry-based assay for AdoMetDC activity...
March 28, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346766/maternal-thyroid-parameters-in-pregnant-women-with-different-ethnic-backgrounds-do-ethnicity-specific-reference-ranges-improve-the-diagnosis-of-subclinical-hypothyroidism
#2
Flora Veltri, Julie Belhomme, Pierre Kleynen, Lidia Grabczan, Serge Rozenberg, Thierry Pepersack, Kris Poppe
OBJECTIVE: Guidelines on the management of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy have recently been updated and, for the diagnosis of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), a TSH upper reference limit (cutoff) of 4.0 mIU/L has been proposed when no institutional values are available. It is also suggested that serum TSH and thyroid autoimmunity (TAI) may be different according to the ethnic background of the women. We therefore determined the prevalence of TAI and SCH in pregnant women with different ethnic backgrounds and, to define SCH, we used different first trimester TSH upper reference cutoffs (institutional, ethnicity-specific, 2...
March 27, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346622/future-of-family-medicine-faculty-development-in-sub-saharan-africa
#3
Paul R Larson, Patrick Chege, Bruce Dahlman, Christine Gibson, Ann Evensen, Maria C Colon-Gonzalez, Stephanie Onguka, Roberta Lamptey, William E Cayley, Bich-May Nguyen, Brian Johnson, Sawra Getnet, Memoona Hasnain
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: High-quality family medicine education is needed in sub-Saharan Africa to facilitate the future growth of primary care health systems. Current faculty educators recognize the value of dedicated teacher training and ongoing faculty development. However, they are constrained by inadequate faculty development program availability and institutional support. METHODS: A cross-sectional study design was used to conduct a qualitative needs assessment comprised of 37 in-depth, semi-structured interviews of individual faculty trainers from postgraduate family medicine training programs in eight sub-Saharan African countries...
March 2017: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346621/current-status-of-family-medicine-faculty-development-in-sub-saharan-africa
#4
Paul R Larson, Patrick Chege, Bruce Dahlman, Christine Gibson, Ann Evensen, Maria C Colon-Gonzalez, Stephanie Onguka, Roberta Lamptey, William E Cayley, Bich-May Nguyen, Brian Johnson, Sawra Getnet, Memoona Hasnain
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Reducing the shortage of primary care physicians in sub-Saharan Africa requires expansion of training programs in family medicine. Challenges remain in preparing, recruiting, and retaining faculty qualified to teach in these pioneering programs. Little is known about the unique faculty development needs of family medicine faculty within the sub-Saharan African context. The purpose of this study was to assess the current status and future needs for developing robust family medicine faculty in sub-Saharan Africa...
March 2017: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346524/rare-mutations-and-potentially-damaging-missense-variants-in-genes-encoding-fibrillar-collagens-and-proteins-involved-in-their-production-are-candidates-for-risk-for-preterm-premature-rupture-of-membranes
#5
Bhavi P Modi, Maria E Teves, Laurel N Pearson, Hardik I Parikh, Piya Chaemsaithong, Nihar U Sheth, Timothy P York, Roberto Romero, Jerome F Strauss
Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) is the leading identifiable cause of preterm birth with ~ 40% of preterm births being associated with PPROM and occurs in 1% - 2% of all pregnancies. We hypothesized that multiple rare variants in fetal genes involved in extracellular matrix synthesis would associate with PPROM, based on the assumption that impaired elaboration of matrix proteins would reduce fetal membrane tensile strength, predisposing to unscheduled rupture. We performed whole exome sequencing (WES) on neonatal DNA derived from pregnancies complicated by PPROM (49 cases) and healthy term deliveries (20 controls) to identify candidate mutations/variants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346504/diagnostic-accuracy-of-two-multiplex-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-assays-for-the-diagnosis-of-meningitis-in-children-in-a-resource-limited-setting
#6
Jermaine Khumalo, Mark Nicol, Diana Hardie, Rudzani Muloiwa, Phindile Mteshana, Colleen Bamford
INTRODUCTION: Accurate etiological diagnosis of meningitis is important, but difficult in resource-limited settings due to prior administration of antibiotics and lack of viral diagnostics. We aimed to develop and validate 2 real-time multiplex PCR (RT-PCR) assays for the detection of common causes of community-acquired bacterial and viral meningitis in South African children. METHODS: We developed 2 multiplex RT- PCRs for detection of S. pneumoniae, N. meningitidis, H...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346373/harmful-use-of-alcohol-a-shadow-over-sub-saharan-africa-in-need-of-workable-solutions
#7
Carina Ferreira-Borges, Charles D H Parry, Thomas F Babor
Alcohol consumption and alcohol-attributable burden of disease in Africa are expected to rise in the near future, yet. increasing alcohol-related harm receives little attention from policymakers and from the population in general. Even where new legislation is proposed it is rarely enacted into law. Being at the center of social and cultural activities in many countries, alcohol's negative role in society and contribution to countries' burden of disease are rarely questioned. After the momentum created by the adoption in 2010 of the WHO Global Strategy and the WHO Regional Strategy (for Africa) to Reduce the Harmful Use of Alcohol, and the WHO Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Non-Communicable Diseases, in 2013, little seems to have been done to address the increasing use of alcohol, its associated burden and the new challenges that derive from the growing influence of the alcohol industry in Africa...
March 27, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346163/sleep-and-mental-health-the-moderating-role-of-perceived-adolescent-parent-attachment
#8
Kelly M Tu, Brian T Marks, Mona El-Sheikh
OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated whether the effects of sleep duration and quality on adolescent adjustment were moderated by perceived attachment to mothers and fathers. DESIGN: The study used a cross-sectional design. SETTING: Participants were recruited from small town and semirural communities in Alabama. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were 106 adolescents (mean age=13.61 years, SD=.73; 55% girls; 28% African American, 72% European American) and their parents...
April 2017: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346162/household-chaos-and-sleep-disturbing-behavior-of-family-members-results-of-a-pilot-study-of-african-american-early-adolescents
#9
James C Spilsbury, Sanjay R Patel, Nathan Morris, Aida Ehayaei, Stephen S Intille
BACKGROUND: Although disorganized, chaotic households have been linked to poorer sleep outcomes, how household chaos actually manifests itself in the behaviors of others around the bedtime of a child or adolescent is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether household chaos was associated with specific, nightly sleep-disturbing activities of adolescents' family members. DESIGN: Longitudinal study. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-six African American or multiethnic early adolescent (ages 11-12 years) and parent dyads, recruited from local schools and social-service agencies in greater Cleveland, OH...
April 2017: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345819/outbreak-investigations-and-molecular-characterization-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-viruses-circulating-in-south-west-niger
#10
B Souley Kouato, F M Elliot, D P King, J Hyera, N J Knowles, A B Ludi, V Mioulet, G Matlho, K De Clercq, E Thys, H Marichatou, S Issa, C Saegerman
In Niger, the epidemiological situation regarding foot-and-mouth disease is unclear as many outbreaks are unreported. This study aimed (i) to identify Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) strains currently circulating in cattle herds, and (ii) to identify risk factors associated with Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD)-seropositive animals in clinical outbreaks. Epithelial tissues (n = 25) and sera (n = 227) were collected from cattle in eight districts of the south-western part of Niger. Testing of clinical material revealed the presence of FMDV serotype O that was characterized within the O/WEST AFRICA topotype...
March 27, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345493/genetic-risk-scores-sex-and-dietary-factors-interact-to-alter-serum-uric-acid-trajectory-among-african-american-urban-adults
#11
May A Beydoun, Jose-Atilio Canas, Marie T Fanelli-Kuczmarski, Salman M Tajuddin, Michele K Evans, Alan B Zonderman
Serum uric acid (SUA), a causative agent for gout among others, is affected by both genetic and dietary factors, perhaps differentially by sex. We evaluated cross-sectional (SUAbase) and longitudinal (SUArate) associations of SUA with a genetic risk score (GRS), diet and sex. We then tested the interactive effect of GRS, diet and sex on SUA. Longitudinal data on 766 African-American urban adults participating in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhood of Diversity across the Lifespan study were used. In all, three GRS for SUA were created from known SUA-associated SNP (GRSbase (n 12 SNP), GRSrate (n 3 SNP) and GRStotal (n 15 SNP))...
March 27, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345302/outcome-of-subsequent-pregnancies-in-patients-with-a-history-of-peripartum-cardiomyopathy
#12
Denise Hilfiker-Kleiner, Arash Haghikia, David Masuko, Justus Nonhoff, Dominik Held, Elena Libhaber, Mark C Petrie, Niki L Walker, Edith Podewski, Dominik Berliner, Johann Bauersachs, Karen Sliwa
AIMS: Subsequent pregnancies (SSPs) in patients with peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) have a high risk of heart failure relapse. We report on outcome of SSPs in PPCM patients in Germany, Scotland, and South Africa. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among 34 PPCM patients with a SSP, pregnancy ended prematurely in four patients while it was full-term in 30. Overall relapse rate [left ventricular ejection fraction, LVEF <50% or death after at least 6-month follow-up] was 56% with 12% (4/34) mortality...
March 27, 2017: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344952/peer-reviewed-abstracts-of-scientific-paper-presentation-at-the-56th-annual-conference-of-the-west-african-college-of-the-surgeons-at-yaounde-cameroun-15th-19th-february-2016-contd
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Journal of the West African College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344897/testing-of-microsatellite-multiplexes-for-individual-identification-of-cape-parrots-poicephalus-robustus-paternity-testing-and-monitoring-trade
#14
Willem G Coetzer, Colleen T Downs, Mike R Perrin, Sandi Willows-Munro
BACKGROUND: Illegal trade in rare wildlife species is a major threat to many parrot species around the world. Wildlife forensics plays an important role in the preservation of endangered or threatened wildlife species. Identification of illegally harvested or traded animals through DNA techniques is one of the many methods used during forensic investigations. Natural populations of the South African endemic Cape Parrot (Poicephalus robustus) are negatively affected by the removal of eggs and chicks for the pet trade...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344855/changes-in-colorectal-cancer-screening-knowledge-behavior-beliefs-self-efficacy-and-barriers-among-community-health-clinic-patients-after-a-health-literacy-intervention
#15
Connie L Arnold, Alfred Rademaker, Dachao Liu, Terry C Davis
OBJECTIVE: The objective in this pre- and post-survey assessment was to compare the effectiveness of a health literacy-directed intervention designed to increase knowledge, beliefs, barriers, self-efficacy and behavior associated with CRC screening with FOBT among patients cared for in predominantly rural community clinics and the change in these characteristics over the first 15 months after enrolling in a study designed to assess screening strategies. METHODS: Between 2008 and 2011, a quasi-experimental intervention was conducted in 8 predominantly rural Federally Qualified Health Centers...
February 2017: Journal of Community Medicine & Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344738/adherence-to-exercise-prescription-and-improvements-in-the-clinical-and-vascular-health-of-african-americans
#16
Dianne M Babbitt, Amanda M Perkins, Keith M Diaz, Deborah L Feairheller, Kathleen M Sturgeon, Praveen Veerabhadrappa, Sheara T Williamson, Jan Kretzschmar, Chenyi Ling, Hojun Lee, Heather Grim, Michael D Brown
Improvements in indices of vascular health and endothelial function have been inversely associated with hypertension, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (e.g., myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure), renal failure, and mortality. Aerobic exercise training (AEXT) has been positively associated with improvements in clinical health values, as well as vascular health biomarkers, and endothelial function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether measures of exercise adherence were related to clinical outcome measures and indices of vascular health subsequent to a 6-month AEXT intervention in a middle-to-older aged African American cohort...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344639/aflatoxin-b1-inhibits-the-type-1-interferon-response-pathway-via-stat1-suggesting-another-mechanism-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#17
Patrick W Narkwa, David J Blackbourn, Mohamed Mutocheluh
BACKGROUND: Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination of food is very high in most sub-Saharan African countries. AFB1 is known to cause hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by inducing mutation in the tumour suppressor gene TP53. The number of new HCC cases is high in West Africa with an accompanying high mortality. The type I interferon (IFN) pathway of the innate immune system limits viral infections and exerts its anti-cancer property by up-regulating tumour suppressor activities and pro-apoptotic pathways...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344403/toxoplasma-gondii-infection-in-meat-animals-from-africa-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-sero-epidemiological-studies
#18
Aretas Babatoundé Nounnagnon Tonouhewa, Yao Akpo, Philippe Sessou, Camus Adoligbe, Eric Yessinou, Yaovi Gildas Hounmanou, Marc Napoléon Assogba, Issaka Youssao, Souaïbou Farougou
AIM: Toxoplasma gondii is an ubiquitous apicomplexan parasite which causes toxoplasmosis in humans and animals. Felids especially cats are definitive hosts and almost all warm-blooded mammals, including livestock and human can serve as intermediate hosts. Food animals can be reservoirs for T. gondii and act as one of the sources for parasite transmission to humans. The objective of this study is to collect serological data on the prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibody, and risk factors for certain food animals from Africa to provide a quantitative estimate of T...
February 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344120/a-systematic-review-of-lifestyle-counseling-for-diverse-patients-in-primary-care
#19
REVIEW
Cathy L Melvin, Melanie S Jefferson, LaShanta J Rice, Lynne S Nemeth, Andrea M Wessell, Paul J Nietert, Chanita Hughes-Halbert
Prior research and systematic reviews have examined strategies related to weight management, less is known about lifestyle and behavioral counseling interventions optimally suited for implementation in primary care practices generally, and among racial and ethnic patient populations. Primary care practitioners may find it difficult to access and use available research findings on effective behavioral and lifestyle counseling strategies and to assess their effects health behaviors among their patients. This systematic review compiled existing evidence from randomized trials to inform primary care providers about which lifestyle and behavioral change interventions are shown to be effective for changing patients' diet, physical activity and weight outcomes...
March 23, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343920/impact-of-insurance-status-and-race-on-receipt-of-treatment-for-acoustic-neuroma-a-national-cancer-database-analysis
#20
Shearwood McClelland, Ellen Kim, James D Murphy, Jerry J Jaboin
Acoustic neuroma (AN) management involves surgery, radiation, or observation. Previous studies have demonstrated that patient race and insurance status impact in-hospital morbidity/mortality following surgery; however the nationwide impact of these demographics on the receipt of each treatment modality has not been examined. The National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) from 2004 to 2013 identified AN patients. Multivariate analysis adjusted for several variables within each treatment modality, including patient age, race, sex, income, primary payer for care, tumor size, and medical comorbidities...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
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