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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779027/association-of-pre-end-stage-renal-disease-hemoglobin-with-early-dialysis-outcomes
#1
Carola-Ellen Kleine, Melissa Soohoo, Omesh N Ranasinghe, Christina Park, Maria V Marroquin, Yoshitsugu Obi, Connie M Rhee, Hamid Moradi, Csaba P Kovesdy, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Elani Streja
BACKGROUND: Incident hemodialysis patients have a high mortality risk within the first months after dialysis initiation. Pre-end-stage renal disease (ESRD) factors like anemia management may impact early post-ESRD outcomes. Therefore, we evaluated the impact of pre-ESRD hemoglobin (Hgb) and pre-ESRD Hgb slope on post-ESRD mortality and hospitalization outcomes. METHODS: The study included 31,472 veterans transitioning to ESRD. Using Cox and negative binomial regression models, we evaluated the association of pre-ESRD Hgb and Hgb slope with 12-month post-ESRD all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and hospitalization rates using 4 levels of hierarchical multivariable adjustment, including erythropoietin use and kidney decline in slope models...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778999/idiopathic-nodular-glomerulosclerosis-ing-in-an-african-american-aa-man-with-hepatitis-c
#2
Nirmal K Onteddu, Jayasri Duggirala, Anand C Reddy
Idiopathic nodular glomerulosclerosis (ING) in a non-diabetic patient is uncommon. Nodular glomerulosclerosis is hallmark sign of diabetic nephropathy. ING is a very rare clinicopathological disease associated with smoking, obesity and hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and metabolic syndrome. A 68-year-old non-obese African American man with hypertension, smoking and history of hepatitis C presented to the clinic with progressive worsening of lower extremity oedema and declining renal function over few months...
May 18, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778701/natural-history-of-avian-papillomaviruses
#3
REVIEW
Daniel A Truchado, Richard A J Williams, Laura Benítez
Papillomaviruses (Family: Papillomaviridae) are small non-enveloped viruses that cause skin and mucosa infections in diverse vertebrates. The vast majority have been detected in mammals. However, the number of papillomaviruses described in birds is growing, especially because of metagenomic studies. Seven complete genomes and one partial sequence have been described, corresponding to five papillomavirus genera. These have been detected from various sample types, including skin, internal epithelium, and faecal material, from seven highly diverse wild and captive avian species...
May 17, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778634/genetic-characterization-of-anaplasma-marginale-strains-from-tunisia-using-single-and-multiple-gene-typing-reveals-novel-variants-with-an-extensive-genetic-diversity
#4
Mourad Ben Said, Alaa Ben Asker, Hanène Belkahia, Raoua Ghribi, Rachid Selmi, Lilia Messadi
Anaplasma marginale, which is responsible for bovine anaplasmosis in tropical and subtropical regions, is a tick-borne obligatory intraerythrocytic bacterium of cattle and wild ruminants. In Tunisia, information about the genetic diversity and the phylogeny of A. marginale strains are limited to the msp4 gene analysis. The purpose of this study is to investigate A. marginale isolates infecting 16 cattle located in different bioclimatic areas of northern Tunisia with single gene analysis and multilocus sequence typing methods on the basis of seven partial genes (dnaA, ftsZ, groEL, lipA, secY, recA and sucB)...
May 12, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778466/in-vitro-susceptibility-of-trypanosoma-brucei-brucei-to-selected-essential-oils-and-their-major-components
#5
Sonya Costa, Cláudia Cavadas, Carlos Cavaleiro, Lígia Salgueiro, Maria do Céu Sousa
Aiming for discovering effective and harmless antitrypanosomal agents, 17 essential oils and nine major components were screened for their effects on T. b. brucei. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation from fresh plant material and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The trypanocidal activity was assessed using blood stream trypomastigotes cultures of T. b. brucei and the colorimetric resazurin method. The MTT test was used to assess the cytotoxicity of essential oils on macrophage cells and Selectivity Indexes were calculated...
May 17, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778349/a-contemporary-prostate-biopsy-risk-calculator-based-on-multiple-heterogeneous-cohorts
#6
Donna P Ankerst, Johanna Straubinger, Katharina Selig, Lourdes Guerrios, Amanda De Hoedt, Javier Hernandez, Michael A Liss, Robin J Leach, Stephen J Freedland, Michael W Kattan, Robert Nam, Alexander Haese, Francesco Montorsi, Stephen A Boorjian, Matthew R Cooperberg, Cedric Poyet, Emily Vertosick, Andrew J Vickers
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer prediction tools provide quantitative guidance for doctor-patient decision-making regarding biopsy. The widely used online Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial Risk Calculator (PCPTRC) utilized data from the 1990s based on six-core biopsies and outdated grading systems. OBJECTIVE: We prospectively gathered data from men undergoing prostate biopsy in multiple diverse North American and European institutions participating in the Prostate Biopsy Collaborative Group (PBCG) in order to build a state-of-the-art risk prediction tool...
May 16, 2018: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778207/evolution-in-europe-of-african-swine-fever-genotype-ii-viruses-from-highly-to-moderately-virulent
#7
Gallardo C, Nurmoja I, Soler A, Delicado V, Simón A, Martin E, Perez C, Nieto R, Arias M
Since its arrival in the Caucasus and Russia in 2007, African swine fever virus (ASFV) has spread widely and has now affected the EU countries of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and, more recently, the Czech Republic and Romania. The ever-increasing evidence of seropositive wild boar in certain areas suggests that some animals may be surviving for some time or could even be recovering from the disease. This could be due to acquired immunity after the primary infection and/or the presence of related viruses of reduced virulence...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778199/disinfection-of-transboundary-animal-disease-viruses-on-surfaces-used-in-pork-packing-plants
#8
Peter W Krug, Talina Davis, Catherine O'Brien, Michael LaRocco, Luis L Rodriguez
In the event of an intentional or accidental incursion of a transboundary animal disease (TAD) virus into the US, a major concern to the meat industry would be the potential contamination of packing plants by processing infected animals. TAD agents such as foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV), African swine fever virus (ASFV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) are found in swine products such as blood and feces and are present in the tissues of infected animals. To test the disinfection of TAD viruses in a pork-packing environment, a previously developed disinfection assay was used to test two biocides currently used by industry sanitarians, against TAD viruses dried on industry relevant surfaces in saline or swine products...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778187/sensitivity-of-african-swine-fever-virus-asfv-to-heat-alkalinity-and-peroxide-treatment-in-presence-or-absence-of-porcine-plasma
#9
I D Kalmar, A B Cay, M Tignon
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a highly resistant viraemic virus with devastating socio-economic impact. Its present epidemiology in Eastern Europe and Russia warrants increased biosecurity measures in Western Europe. This includes proactive precautions on traffic of pork products within and between areas that are officially free from ASF. Namely, delayed notification of clinical signs or introduction of a low-virulent strain in ASF-free areas could result in presence of ASFV in veterinary inspected pork and pork by-products...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778134/central-serous-chorioretinopathy-in-african-americans-at-wilmer-eye-institute
#10
Pooja H Mehta, Jay Chhablani, Jiangxia Wang, Catherine B Meyerle
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) in African Americans/blacks within an academic center in a predominantly African American city, as the current belief is that CSC is rare in this population. METHODS: A retrospective review of all patients' charts diagnosed with CSC at Wilmer Eye Institute/Johns Hopkins University from August 2009-August 2015 was conducted via an electronic health record search (EPIC). The charts were categorized by self-reported race and gender...
June 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778123/educated-and-at-risk-how-the-shortage-of-available-partners-influences-hiv-risk-for-college-educated-african-american-women
#11
Valerie R Newsome, Collins O Airhihenbuwa, Shedra Amy Snipes
BACKGROUND: African-Americans have the greatest gender-ratio imbalance compared to other racial groups in the United States. This has been associated with higher rates of concurrent sexual partnerships, increasing risk of HIV infection. College-educated African-American women are of particular interest as they are not often represented in studies on HIV prevention, while their dating and sexual negotiation patterns may differ from those of their lower-educated and lower-income counterparts more often the subject of study in HIV research among African-Americans...
June 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778121/does-the-race-ethnicity-or-gender-of-a-physician-s-name-impact-patient-selection-of-the-physician
#12
Jessica Greene, Judith H Hibbard, Rebecca M Sacks
This study's objective was to examine the extent to which individuals exhibit a preference for physicians based upon the race/ethnicity and gender of a physician's name. We conducted an online survey of 915 adults, who viewed a comparative display of four physicians' quality performance. We randomized the name of one physician, whose quality performance was equal to that of one physician and better than two other physicians, to be either typically African American male, African American female, white male, white female, or Middle Eastern (gender ambiguous)...
June 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777925/epidemiology-of-respiratory-pathogen-carriage-in-the-homeless-population-within-2-shelters-in-marseille-france-2015-2017-cross-sectional-one-day-surveys
#13
Tran Duc Anh Ly, Sophie Edouard, Sekene Badiaga, Herve Tissot-Dupont, Van Thuan Hoang, Vincent Pommier de Santi, Philippe Brouqui, Didier Raoult, Philippe Gautret
OBJECTIVES: To assess risk factors for respiratory tract infection symptoms and signs in sheltered homeless people in Marseille during the winter season, including pathogen carriage. METHODS: Data on 479 male participants within 2 shelters who completed questionnaires and a total of 950 nasal and pharyngeal samples were collected during the winters of 2015-2017. Respiratory pathogen carriage including 7 viruses and 4 bacteria was assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
May 16, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777811/electrospun-chitosan-polycaprolactone-hyaluronic-acid-bilayered-scaffold-for-potential-wound-healing-applications
#14
Amit Chanda, Jaideep Adhikari, Aritri Ghosh, Sougata Roy Chowdhury, Sabu Thomas, Pallab Datta, Prosenjit Saha
Fabrication of mechanically stable, biocompatible bilayered polymeric scaffold consisting of chitosan(CS)/polycaprolactone(PCL) and hyaluronic acid(HA) using less toxic solvent system is presented in this study. Electrospinning technique to make the scaffold was used followed by morphological, physiochemical and mechanical characterizations. Average fiber diameter of CS/PCL-HA bilayered scaffold was found 362.2 ± 236 nm which is in the range of collagen fiber found in the extracellular matrices. Enhanced swelling, degradation, hydrophilicity and water vapour transmission rate were found for the bilayered scaffold compared to that of the PCL and CS-PCL scaffolds...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777641/social-norms-and-adolescents-sexual-health-an-introduction-for-practitioners-working-in-low-and-mid-income-african-countries
#15
Beniamino Cislaghi, Holly Shakya
Donors, practitioners and scholars are increasingly interested in harnessing the potential of social norms theory to improve adolescents' sexual and reproductive health outcomes. However, social norms theory is multifaceted, and its application in field interventions is complex. An introduction to social norms that will be beneficial for those who intend to integrate a social norms perspective in their work to improve adolescents' sexual health in Africa is presented. First three main schools of thought on social norms, looking at the theoretical standpoint of each, are discussed...
March 2018: African Journal of Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777541/developmental-transactions-between-self-regulation-and-academic-achievement-among-low-income-african-american-and-latino-children
#16
Britain Mills, Nazly Dyer, Daniel Pacheco, Dawn Brinkley, Margaret T Owen, Margaret O Caughy
This study examined the development of emerging self-regulation (SR) skills across the preschool years and relations to academic achievement in kindergarten and first grade. SR skills of 403 low-income African American and Latino children were measured at 2&1/2, 3&1/2, and 5 years (kindergarten). Reading and math skills were measured at 5 and 6 years (first grade) using the Woodcock-Johnson. Transactional relations between SR skills and achievement outcomes were estimated with latent difference score models...
May 19, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777385/changes-in-selection-intensity-on-the-mitogenome-of-subterranean-and-fossorial-rodents-respective-to-aboveground-species
#17
William Corrêa Tavares, Hector N Seuánez
Several rodent lineages independently acquired the ability to dig complex networks of tunnels where fossorial and subterranean species spend part or their whole life, respectively. Their underground lifestyles imposed harsh physiological demands, presumably triggering strong selective pressures on genes involved in energy metabolism like those coding for mitochondrial proteins. Moreover, underground lifestyles must have increased inbreeding and susceptibility to population bottlenecks as well as restricted migration, leading to small effective population size (Ne ) that, in turn, must have reduced the effectiveness of selection...
May 18, 2018: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777049/prospective-study-of-coffee-consumption-and-cancer-incidence-in-non-white-populations
#18
Song-Yi Park, Neal D Freedman, Christopher A Haiman, Loic Le Marchand, Lynne R Wilkens, Veronica Wendy Setiawan
BACKGROUND: Coffee intake has been associated with risk of cancers, but the findings, mostly from studies in white populations, are inconsistent. We examined the association of coffee consumption with overall cancer incidence and specific cancer sites in a prospective study of African Americans, Native Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, Latinos and whites. METHODS: 167,720 participants of the Multiethnic Cohort in Hawaii and Los Angeles were included. Baseline coffee intake was assessed by a validated food-frequency questionnaire...
May 18, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777021/serum-6-bromotryptophan-levels-identified-as-a-risk-factor-for-ckd-progression
#19
Adrienne Tin, Girish Nadkarni, Anne M Evans, Cheryl A Winkler, Erwin Bottinger, Casey M Rebholz, Mark J Sarnak, Lesley A Inker, Andrew S Levey, Michael S Lipkowitz, Lawrence J Appel, Dan E Arking, Josef Coresh, Morgan E Grams
Background Metabolite levels reflect physiologic homeostasis and may serve as biomarkers of disease progression. Identifying metabolites associated with APOL1 risk alleles-genetic variants associated with CKD risk commonly present in persons of African descent-may reveal novel markers of CKD progression relevant to other populations. Methods We evaluated associations between the number of APOL1 risk alleles and 760 serum metabolites identified via untargeted profiling in participants of the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) ( n =588; Bonferroni significance threshold P <6...
May 18, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776782/an-intervention-to-increase-students-physical-activity-a-2-year-pilot-study
#20
R Glenn Weaver, Collin A Webster, Michael W Beets, Keith Brazendale, Lauren Schisler, Mazen Aziz
INTRODUCTION: Schools are called upon to provide children with 30 minutes/day of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Most school-based physical activity interventions have not targeted schools that serve children from low-income families. This study evaluated the effects of a pilot, competency-building professional development program on the school day MVPA and total activity (light- to vigorous-intensity activity) of students from schools that serve low-income families. STUDY DESIGN: Single group intervention with multiple follow-up repeated cross-sectional measures...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
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