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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231283/rapid-evolution-of-distinct-helicobacter-pylori-subpopulations-in-the-americas
#1
Kaisa Thorell, Koji Yahara, Elvire Berthenet, Daniel J Lawson, Jane Mikhail, Ikuko Kato, Alfonso Mendez, Cosmeri Rizzato, María Mercedes Bravo, Rumiko Suzuki, Yoshio Yamaoka, Javier Torres, Samuel K Sheppard, Daniel Falush
For the last 500 years, the Americas have been a melting pot both for genetically diverse humans and for the pathogenic and commensal organisms associated with them. One such organism is the stomach-dwelling bacterium Helicobacter pylori, which is highly prevalent in Latin America where it is a major current public health challenge because of its strong association with gastric cancer. By analyzing the genome sequence of H. pylori isolated in North, Central and South America, we found evidence for admixture between H...
February 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231280/alkbh7-variant-related-to-prostate-cancer-exhibits-altered-substrate-binding
#2
Alice R Walker, Pavel Silvestrov, Tina A Müller, Robert H Podolsky, Gregory Dyson, Robert P Hausinger, Gerardo Andrés Cisneros
The search for prostate cancer biomarkers has received increased attention and several DNA repair related enzymes have been linked to this dysfunction. Here we report a targeted search for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and functional impact characterization of human ALKBH family dioxygenases related to prostate cancer. Our results uncovered a SNP of ALKBH7, rs7540, which is associated with prostate cancer disease in a statistically significantly manner in two separate cohorts, and maintained in African American men...
February 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231133/soybean-enriched-snacks-based-on-african-rice
#3
Mauro Marengo, Hannah F Akoto, Miriam Zanoletti, Aristodemo Carpen, Simona Buratti, Simona Benedetti, Alberto Barbiroli, Paa-Nii T Johnson, Esther O Sakyi-Dawson, Firibu K Saalia, Francesco Bonomi, Maria Ambrogina Pagani, John Manful, Stefania Iametti
Snacks were produced by extruding blends of partially-defatted soybean flour with flours from milled or parboiled African-grown rice. The interplay between composition and processing in producing snacks with a satisfactory sensory profile was addressed by e-sensing, and by molecular and rheological approaches. Soybean proteins play a main role in defining the properties of the protein network in the products. At the same content in soybean flour, use of parboiled rice flour increases the snack's hardness. Electronic nose and electronic tongue discriminated samples containing a higher amount of soybean flour from those with a lower soybean flour content...
May 20, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231077/association-of-genetic-variation-in-the-tachykinin-receptor-3-locus-with-hot-flashes-and-night-sweats-in-the-women-s-health-initiative-study
#4
Carolyn J Crandall, JoAnn E Manson, Chancellor Hohensee, Steve Horvath, Jean Wactawski-Wende, Erin S LeBlanc, Mara Z Vitolins, Rami Nassir, Janet S Sinsheimer
OBJECTIVE: Vasomotor symptoms (VMS, ie, hot flashes or night sweats) are reported by many, but not all, women. The extent to which VMS are genetically determined is unknown. We evaluated the relationship of genetic variation and VMS. METHODS: In this observational study, we accessed data from three genome-wide association studies (GWAS) (SNP Health Association Resource cohort [SHARe], WHI Memory Study cohort [WHIMS+], and Genome-Wide Association Studies of Treatment Response in Randomized Clinical Trials [GARNET] studies, total n = 17,695) of European American, African American, and Hispanic American postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years at baseline in the Women's Health Initiative Study...
March 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231051/short-communication-challenges-relating-to-comparison-of-flavonoid-glycosides-dissolution-profiles-from-sutherlandia-frutescens-products
#5
Oluchi N Mbamalu, James Syce, Halima Samsodien
Unlike the case of conventional drug formulations, dissolution tests have hitherto not been required for herbal medicinal products commercially available in South Africa. This study investigated dissolution of the South African Sutherlandia frutescens using selected flavonoid glycosides as marker compounds. Dissolution of markers was assessed in three dissolution media at pH 1.2, 4.5 and 6.8, and samples were analysed using a validated HPLC method. The dissolution profile of each marker varied for the different materials investigated...
March 1, 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231042/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-four-simulated-colorectal-cancer-screening-interventions-north-carolina
#6
Kristen Hassmiller Lich, David A Cornejo, Maria E Mayorga, Michael Pignone, Florence K L Tangka, Lisa C Richardson, Tzy-Mey Kuo, Anne-Marie Meyer, Ingrid J Hall, Judith Lee Smith, Todd A Durham, Steven A Chall, Trisha M Crutchfield, Stephanie B Wheeler
INTRODUCTION: Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates are suboptimal, particularly among the uninsured and the under-insured and among rural and African American populations. Little guidance is available for state-level decision makers to use to prioritize investment in evidence-based interventions to improve their population's health. The objective of this study was to demonstrate use of a simulation model that incorporates synthetic census data and claims-based statistical models to project screening behavior in North Carolina...
February 23, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231033/evaluation-of-a-commercial-field-test-to-detect-african-swine-fever
#7
Stefano Cappai, Federica Loi, Annamaria Coccollone, Manuele Cocco, Caterina Falconi, Giovanna Dettori, Francesco Feliziani, Maria Luisa Sanna, Annalisa Oggiano, Sandro Rolesu
African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most important and complex infectious diseases affecting pigs ( Sus scrofa ). The disease has been present in Sardinia, Italy, since 1978. Factors influencing the presence of the disease on the island are the presence of illegally bred pigs, uncontrolled movements of animals, and local traditions. Implementation of public health programs is essential for controlling ASF. The use of new diagnostic techniques on both wild boar (WB) and illegally bred pigs would provide tools for faster and more inexpensive control of the disease...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230728/optimistic-bias-risk-factors-and-development-of-high-blood-pressure-and-obesity-among-african-american-adolescents-in-mississippi-usa
#8
Monique S White, Clifton C Addison, Brenda W Campbell Jenkins, Vanessa Bland, Adrianne Clark, Donna Antoine LaVigne
Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions and is linked to hypertension among African American youth. Optimistic bias influences behavior of youth causing them to underestimate their susceptibility to negative health outcomes. This study explored adolescent behaviors and prevalence of high blood pressure and obesity in a school district. We examined the relationship between individual health risk practices and optimistic bias on health outcomes; 433 African American high school students were administered a survey and had their obesity and blood pressure measured by the school nurse...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230458/progression-to-type-2-diabetes-and-its-effect-on-health-care-costs-in-low-income-and-insured-patients-with-prediabetes-a-retrospective-study-using-medicaid-claims-data
#9
Jun Wu, Eileen Ward, Tiffaney Threatt, Z Kevin Lu
BACKGROUND: Prediabetes is a high-risk factor for progression to diabetes. Without lifestyle changes, such as weight loss and moderate physical activity, 15%-30% of people with prediabetes are projected to develop type 2 diabetes within 5 years. Progression to diabetes increases the financial burden significantly for patients and health care systems. Populations with low socioeconomic status are associated with a higher risk of diabetes. However, knowledge is limited about the effect of transition to diabetes on future costs incurred in low-income populations...
March 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230402/adolescents-conceptions-of-national-wealth-distribution-connections-with-perceived-societal-fairness-and-academic-plans
#10
William F Arsenio, Chris Willems
This study examined mostly lower-middle-income Latino (37%) and African American (33%) adolescents' (N = 90, Mage = 15.90) conceptions of how U.S. wealth is and ought to be distributed, and whether these judgments are related to adolescents' views about societal and legal fairness and their immediate academic plans. Individually administered multipart interviews assessed conceptions regarding (a) actual and ideal U.S. wealth distribution and related "Rawlsian" judgments, (b) social system and legal fairness, and (c) adolescents' near-term life goals...
March 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230390/effectiveness-of-an-internet-intervention-deprexis-for-depression-in-a-united-states-adult-sample-a-parallel-group-pragmatic-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Christopher G Beevers, Rahel Pearson, James S Hoffman, A Alban Foulser, Jason Shumake, Björn Meyer
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness of an Internet intervention for depression with a randomized, controlled trial in a large sample of adults recruited from the United States. METHOD: The current study examines the effectiveness of Deprexis, an Internet treatment for depression that was provided with relatively minimal support. There were 376 treatment-seeking adults (mean age = 32 years; 74% female; 77% Caucasian, 7% Asian, 7% multiple races, 4% African American, and 11% Hispanic/Latino) with elevated depression (Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms-Self-Report [QIDS-SR] > = 10) who were randomized to receive an 8-week course of treatment immediately (n = 285) or after an 8-week delay (n = 91; i...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230275/the-development-and-correlates-of-gender-role-attitudes-in-african-american-youth
#12
Chun Bun Lam, Christine Stanik, Susan M McHale
This research examined the longitudinal trajectories and family correlates of gender role attitudes in African American youth in a sample of 166 sibling pairs residing with their mothers and fathers. Multilevel modelling revealed that (1) girls and boys exhibited significant declines in gender attitude traditionality from ages 9 to 15 that levelled off through age 18, (2) mothers' (but not fathers') gender role attitude traditionality was positively related to youth's attitude traditionality, and (3) within-person variation in mothers' (but not fathers') racial discrimination experiences was negatively related to within-person variation in youth's gender role attitude traditionality...
February 23, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230175/cardiovascular-disease-in-africa-epidemiological-profile-and-challenges
#13
REVIEW
Ashley K Keates, Ana O Mocumbi, Mpiko Ntsekhe, Karen Sliwa, Simon Stewart
From a global perspective, the large and diverse African population is disproportionately affected by cardiovascular disease (CVD). The historical balance between communicable and noncommunicable pathways to CVD in different African regions is dependent on external factors over the life course and at a societal level. The future risk of noncommunicable forms of CVD (predominantly driven by increased rates of hypertension, smoking, and obesity) is a growing public health concern. The incidence of previously rare forms of CVD such as coronary artery disease will increase, in concert with historically prevalent forms of disease, such as rheumatic heart disease, that are yet to be optimally prevented or treated...
February 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229924/outcomes-in-adults-and-children-with-end-stage-kidney-disease-requiring-dialysis-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-systematic-review
#14
Gloria Ashuntantang, Charlotte Osafo, Wasiu A Olowu, Fatiu Arogundade, Abdou Niang, John Porter, Saraladevi Naicker, Valerie A Luyckx
BACKGROUND: The burden of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in sub-Saharan Africa is unknown but is probably high. Access to dialysis for ESKD is limited by insufficient infrastructure and catastrophic out-of-pocket costs. Most patients remain undiagnosed, untreated, and die. We did a systematic literature review to assess outcomes of patients who reach dialysis and the quality of dialysis received. METHODS: We searched PubMed, African Journals Online, WHO Global Health Library, and Web of Science for articles in English or French from sub-Saharan Africa reporting dialysis outcomes in patients with ESKD published between Jan 1, 1990, and Dec 22, 2015...
February 17, 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229824/normal-arterial-stiffness-in-familial-mediterranean-fever-evidence-for-a-possible-cardiovascular-protective-role-of-colchicine
#15
Olga Kukuy, Avi Livneh, Liran Mendel, Ariel Benor, Eitan Giat, Oleg Perski, Olga Feld, Yonatan Kassel, Ilan Ben-Zvi, Merav Lidar, Eliezer J Holtzman, Adi Leiba
OBJECTIVES: Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autoinflammatory disorder with episodic and persistent inflammation, which is only partially suppressed by continuous colchicine treatment. While chronic inflammation is considered an important cardiovascular risk factor in many inflammatory disorders, its impact in FMF is still disputed. We measured arterial stiffness, a marker of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, in a group of FMF patients, in order to evaluate the cardiovascular consequences of inflammation in FMF and the role of colchicine in their development...
February 9, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229462/harmonization-of-nucleic-acid-testing-for-zika-virus-development-of-the-1-st-world-health-organization-international-standard
#16
Sally A Baylis, Kay-Martin O Hanschmann, Barbara S Schnierle, Jan-Hendrik Trösemeier, Johannes Blümel
BACKGROUND: With the ongoing public health emergency due to Zika virus (ZIKV), nucleic acid testing (NAT) is essential for clinical diagnosis and screening of blood donors. However, NAT for ZIKV has not been standardized, and this study was performed to establish a World Health Organization (WHO) International Standard (IS) for ZIKV RNA; WHO ISs have been used to improve detection and quantification of blood-borne viruses. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The candidate IS (cIS), code number 11468/16, was prepared by heat inactivation and lyophilization of a ZIKV strain isolated from a patient in French Polynesia in 2013...
February 23, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229454/analysis-of-a-fully-penetrant-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-8-brazilian-family
#17
V P Cintra, C M Lourenço, M M V Rocha, P J Tomaselli, W Marques
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 8 (SCA8) is a progressive neurological disorder caused by the expanded repeat CTA/CTG of two overlapping genes, ATXN8OS and ATXN8, expressed bidirectionally. Normal alleles have 15-50 repeats, and pathogenic alleles range from 71 to 1300 repeats. The disorder is relatively rare, accounting for about 2%-5% of the autosomal dominant forms of hereditary ataxia worldwide. However, the prevalence of disease-causing ATXN8OS/ATXN8 expansions is higher than the disease because of the reduced penetrance of the expanded allele...
February 22, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229310/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-non-24-h-sleep-wake-disorder-in-the-blind
#18
REVIEW
Jonathan S Emens, Charmane I Eastman
Non-24-h sleep-wake disorder (non-24) is a circadian rhythm disorder occurring in 55-70% of totally blind individuals (those lacking conscious light perception) in which the 24-h biological clock (central, hypothalamic, circadian pacemaker) is no longer synchronized, or entrained, to the 24-h day. Instead, the overt rhythms controlled by the biological clock gradually shift progressively earlier or later (free run) in accordance with the clock's near-24-h period, resulting in a recurrent pattern of daytime hypersomnolence and night-time insomnia...
February 22, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229260/dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate-dhea-s-sex-and-age-in-zoo-housed-western-lowland-gorillas-gorilla-gorilla-gorilla
#19
Ashley N Edes
Among humans, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) declines with age and is hypothesized to be involved in somatic maintenance and healthy aging. Men have significantly higher DHEA-S than women, contradicting longer lifespans in the latter. Declines of DHEA-S with age also are observed in chimpanzees. In both chimpanzees and bonobos, males and females show no differences in DHEA-S production. Based on human and chimpanzee data, gorillas were predicted to show declining DHEA-S with age. Similar to chimpanzees and bonobos, it also was predicted DHEA-S would not be significantly different between males and females...
February 22, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228878/pancreatic-cancer-seeding-of-percutaneous-needle-tract
#20
Qiao Zhou, Shashi Murthy, Harlan Vingan
A 65-year old African-American female presents with biliary ductal dilatation due to an obstructive pancreatic head mass. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiogram performed and biliary drainage catheter placement for decompression of the biliary system. The patient had a Whipple procedure performed several months later. On follow up CT imaging, there was interval development and enlargement of a subcutaneous lesion by the right oblique muscles. Biopsy of this lesion revealed pancreatic adenocarcinoma from percutaneous seeding of the transhepatic needle tract...
March 2017: Radiology case reports
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