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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334233/perceived-discrimination-and-mental-health-among-older-african-americans-the-role-of-psychological-well-being
#1
Eunkyung Yoon, Corvell Coburn, Susie A Spence
OBJECTIVES: Examine the effect of perceived discrimination (both racial and non-racial) on the mental health of older African Americans and explore the buffering role of psychological well-being (purpose in life and self-acceptance). METHODS: Using an older African American subsample from the National Health Measurement Study (n = 397), multiple regression model by gender was used to estimate the effects of two types of discrimination (every day and lifetime) on SF-36 mental component and mediating role of two concepts of psychological well-being...
January 15, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333887/physical-and-psychological-abuse-among-seropositive-african-american-msm-50-aged-years-and-older
#2
Christopher Lance Coleman
Little is known about abuse experienced among African American men who have sex with men (MSM) who are 50 years and older. A series of focus groups were conducted to examine perspectives of seropositive African American MSM age 50 years and older who reported experiencing some form of psychological or physical abuse. Thirty African American MSM were divided into four focus groups and four themes emerged: "Fear Being Gay," "No One Else to Love Me," "Nowhere to Turn," and "Sexual Risk & Control." The data suggest there is a need to develop culturally tailored interventions for this population...
January 15, 2018: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333881/reproductive-travel-to-ghana-testimonies-transnational-relationships-and-stratified-reproduction
#3
Trudie Gerrits
In this article, I address reproductive travel to Ghana, based on research conducted in two private fertility clinics. Both clinics attract clients from West African countries as well as Ghanaian people living in US and Europe. Their motivations to visit these clinics include positive "testimonies" about treatment results, "bioavailability" of matching donor material and surrogates, lower treatment costs and the circumvention of restricting regulations in the country of residence. Next to structural features in the countries of residence and in Ghana, I discuss the centrality of communication technologies facilitating reproductive travel and argue that the "international choreographies" of reproductive travel are co-shaped by the unique biographies and transnational relationships of the people involved...
January 15, 2018: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333865/parental-supervision-and-discomfort-with-children-walking-to-school-in-low-income-communities-in-cape-town-south-africa
#4
Abigail Simons, Karin Koekemoer, Ashley van Niekerk, Rajen Govender
Objective The risk of pedestrian injury is compounded for children living in low-income communities due to factors such as poor road and pedestrian infrastructure, reliance on walking as a means of transport, and compromised supervision. Parents play an important role in child pedestrian safety. The primary objective of this study was to examine the effects of child pedestrian variables on parental discomfort with regard to letting their child walk to and from school and on the frequency of adult supervision...
January 15, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333678/supplementary-feeding-as-a-source-of-multiresistant-salmonella-in-endangered-egyptian-vultures
#5
Guillermo Blanco
Wild birds have repeatedly been highlighted as vectors in the dissemination of livestock and human pathogens. Here, the occurrence, serotypes and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella were assessed in adult Egyptian vultures (Neophron percnopterus), to test the hypothesis that infection is associated with the consumption of swine carcasses provided at supplementary feeding stations (SFSs). Faeces of year-round resident griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) were also tested to assess whether infection was acquired in the breeding grounds of both species or in the African wintering quarters of Egyptian vultures...
January 14, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333643/race-sex-and-discrimination-in-school-settings-a-multilevel-analysis-of-associations-with-delinquency
#6
Brittany D Chambers, Jennifer Toller Erausquin
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a critical phase of development and experimentation with delinquent behaviors. There is a growing body of literature exploring individual and structural impacts of discrimination on health outcomes and delinquent behaviors. However, there is limited research assessing how school diversity and discrimination impact students' delinquent behaviors. In response, the purpose of this study was to assess if individual- and school-level indicators of discrimination and diversity were associated with student delinquent behaviors among African American and White students...
February 2018: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333640/comparing-mental-health-of-us-children-of-immigrants-and-non-immigrants-in-4-racial-ethnic-groups
#7
JaHun Kim, Semret Nicodimos, Siri E Kushner, Isaac C Rhew, Elizabeth McCauley, Ann Vander Stoep
BACKGROUND: To compare the mental health status of children of immigrant (COI) and non-immigrant (NI) parents and to determine whether differences in mental health status between COI and NI vary across 4 racial/ethnic groups. METHODS: We conducted universal mental health screening of 2374 sixth graders in an urban public school district. To screen, we administered well-validated adolescent depression and disruptive behavior problem questionnaires. We evaluated associations between child mental health, parent immigration status, and race/ethnicity using binomial regression...
February 2018: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333504/community-based-physical-activity-as-adjunctive-smoking-cessation-treatment-rationale-design-and-baseline-data-for-the-lifestyle-enhancement-program-leap-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Mark W Vander Weg, Mace Coday, Michelle B Stockton, Barbara McClanahan, George Relyea, Mary C Read, Nancy Wilson, Stephanie Connelly, Phyllis Richey, Karen C Johnson, Kenneth D Ward
Despite advances in behavioral and pharmacological treatment for tobacco use and dependence, quit rates remain suboptimal. Increasing physical activity has shown some promise as a strategy for improving cessation outcomes. However, initial efficacy studies focused on intensive, highly structured exercise programs that may not be applicable to the general population of smokers. We describe the rationale and study design and report baseline participant characteristics from the Lifestyle Enhancement Program (LEAP), a two-group, randomized controlled trial...
March 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333200/perceptions-of-mindfulness-in-a-low-income-primarily-african-american-treatment-seeking-sample
#9
Claire Adams Spears, Sean C Houchins, Wendy P Bamatter, Sandra Barrueco, Diana Stewart Hoover, Rokas Perskaudas
Individuals with low socioeconomic status (SES) and members of racial/ethnic minority groups often experience profound disparities in mental health and physical well-being. Mindfulness-based interventions show promise for improving mood and health behaviors in higher-SES and non-Latino White populations. However, research is needed to explore what types of adaptations, if any, are needed to best support underserved populations. This study used qualitative methods to gain information about a) perceptions of mindfulness, b) experiences with meditation, c) barriers to practicing mindfulness, and d) recommendations for tailoring mindfulness-based interventions in a low-income, primarily African American treatment-seeking sample...
December 2017: Mindfulness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332980/domain-specific-daily-hassles-anxiety-and-delinquent-behaviors-among-low-income-urban-youth
#10
Jerry L Mize, Wendy Kliewer
We studied contributions of domain-specific daily hassles to anxiety and delinquency prior to and during the transition into middle (N = 186) or high school (N = 167) in a sample of low-income, urban adolescents (93% African American; 54% female) using a two-wave longitudinal design. Path models controlling for baseline maladjustment and sex examined how hassles from parents, peers, academics, and the neighborhood were associated with maladjustment once youth had made the transition into a new school. Hassles with friends both prior to and during the school transition mattered for older youth's maladjustment only, whereas hassles with parents mattered for both older and younger youth...
November 2017: Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332930/bullosis-diabeticorum-a-rare-presentation-with-immunoglobulin-g-igg-deposition-related-vasculopathy-case-report-and-focused-review
#11
Hardik Sonani, Sohail Abdul Salim, Vishnu V Garla, Anna Wile, Venkataraman Palabindala
BACKGROUND Bullosis diabeticorum (BD) is a condition characterized by recurrent, spontaneous, and non-inflammatory blistering in patients with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. While etiopathogenesis remains unclear, roles of neuropathy, vasculopathy and UV light are hypothesized. Most literature reports negative direct and indirect immunofluorescence findings in diabetics with bullous eruptions. Porphyria cutanea tarda, bullous pemphigoid, epidermolysis bullosa, and pseudoporphyria are other differential diagnoses of bullous lesions, and they must be excluded...
January 15, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332675/sleep-duration-and-incidence-of-type-2-diabetes-the-multiethnic-cohort
#12
Gertraud Maskarinec, Simone Jacobs, Yvette Amshoff, Veronica W Setiawan, Yurii B Shvetsov, Adrian A Franke, Laurence N Kolonel, Christopher A Haiman, Loïc Le Marchand
OBJECTIVES: As an emerging risk factor for the rising incidence of type 2 diabetes, we examined sleep duration in relation to type 2 diabetes and several biomarkers. DESIGN: Prospective cohort recruited 1993-1996. SETTING: The Multiethnic Cohort in Hawaii and California. PARTICIPANTS: A cohort of 151,691 White, African American, Japanese American, Native Hawaiian, and Latino participants; 9695 cohort members had biomarker measurements...
February 2018: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332534/mediated-effects-of-coping-on-mental-health-outcomes-of-african-american-women-exposed-to-physical-and-psychological-abuse
#13
Chmaika P Mills, Hope M Hill, Joshua A D Johnson
Few studies have assessed the individual symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as separate mental health consequences of intimate partner abuse (IPA). This study examined the role of coping strategies associated with symptoms of PTSD in a community sample of African American women who have experienced abuse ( N = 128). The results revealed that nonphysical abuse was more prevalent than physical abuse. Specific symptoms of PTSD expressed depended on the type of abuse experienced and the type of coping strategies utilized...
February 2018: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331521/increased-transcript-levels-and-kinetic-function-of-pyruvate-kinase-during-severe-dehydration-in-aestivating-african-clawed-frogs-xenopus-laevis
#14
Neal J Dawson, Yulia Biggar, Amal I Malik, Kenneth B Storey
The African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, can withstand extremely arid conditions through aestivation, resulting in dehydration and urea accumulation. Aestivating X. laevis reduce their metabolic rate, and rely on anaerobic glycolysis to meet reduced ATP demands. The present study investigated how severe dehydration affected the transcript levels, kinetic profile, and phosphorylation state of the key glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase (PK) in the liver and skeletal muscle of X. laevis. Compared to control frogs, severely dehydrated frogs showed an increase in the transcript abundance of both liver and muscle isoforms of PK...
January 10, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331315/ethnobotany-phytochemistry-and-pharmacology-of-arctotis-arctotoides-l-f-o-hoffm-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Md Moshfekus Saleh-E-In, Johannes Van Staden
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Arctotis arctotoides (Asteraceae) is part of the genus Arctotis. Arctotis is an African genus of approximately 70 species that occur widely in the African continent with diverse medicinal values. This plant is used for the treatment of indigestion and catarrh of the stomach, epilepsy, topical wounds and skin disorders among the ethnic groups in South Africa and reported to have a wide spectrum of pharmacological properties. AIM OF THE REVIEW: The aim of the present review is to appraise the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological potential, analytical methods and safety issues of A...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331268/the-population-biology-and-transmission-dynamics-of-loa-loa
#16
REVIEW
Charles Whittaker, Martin Walker, Sébastien D S Pion, Cédric B Chesnais, Michel Boussinesq, María-Gloria Basáñez
Endemic to Central Africa, loiasis - or African eye worm (caused by the filarial nematode Loa loa) - affects more than 10 million people. Despite causing ocular and systemic symptoms, it has typically been considered a benign condition, only of public health relevance because it impedes mass drug administration-based interventions against onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis in co-endemic areas. Recent research has challenged this conception, demonstrating excess mortality associated with high levels of infection, implying that loiasis warrants attention as an intrinsic public health problem...
January 10, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331012/capillary-haemangioma-of-lower-lip-in-an-african-patient
#17
Manas Bajpai, Nilesh Pardhe, Manish Kumar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330891/why-do-african-american-have-a-higher-risk-for-cerebral-disease
#18
Shigehiko Ogoh
Clinical and epidemiological studies have reported significant racial differences in cardiovascular (CVD) and metabolic disease including hypertension, stroke, atherosclerosis, and type II diabetes which is most prevalent in the African American population. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
January 12, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330856/reproductive-history-breast-feeding-and-risk-of-triple-negative-breast-cancer-the-breast-cancer-etiology-in-minorities-bem-study
#19
Esther M John, Lisa M Hines, Amanda I Phipps, Jocelyn Koo, Teri A Longacre, Sue A Ingles, Kathy B Baumgartner, Martha L Slattery, Anna H Wu
Few risk factors have been identified for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) which lacks expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). This more aggressive subtype disproportionately affects some racial/ethnic minorities and is associated with lower survival. We pooled data from three population-based studies (558 TNBC and 5,111 controls) and examined associations of TNBC risk with reproductive history and breast-feeding. We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using multivariable logistic regression...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330643/antihypertensive-medication-and-dementia-risk-in-older-adult-african-americans-with-hypertension-a-prospective-cohort-study
#20
Michael D Murray, Hugh C Hendrie, Kathleen A Lane, Mengjie Zheng, Roberta Ambuehl, Shanshan Li, Frederick W Unverzagt, Christopher M Callahan, Sujuan Gao
BACKGROUND: African Americans are especially at risk of hypertension and dementia. Antihypertensive medications reduce the risk of cardiovascular events, but may also reduce the risk of dementia. OBJECTIVE: To assess the longitudinal effects of antihypertensive medications and blood pressure on the onset of incident dementia in a cohort of African Americans. DESIGN: Prospective cohort. PARTICIPANTS: 1236 community-dwelling patients from an inner-city public health care system, aged 65 years and older, with a history of hypertension but no history of dementia, and who had at least three primary care visits and a prescription filled for any medication...
January 12, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
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