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María Andrea Hernández-Castañeda, Smart Mbagwu, Kehinde Adebayo Babatunde, Michael Walch, Luis Filgueira, Pierre-Yves Mantel
Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by Plasmodium parasites, with P. falciparum being the most prevalent on the African continent and responsible for most malaria-related deaths globally. Several factors including parasite sequestration in tissues, vascular dysfunction, and inflammatory responses influence the evolution of the disease in malaria-infected people. P. falciparum-infected red blood cells (iRBCs) release small extracellular vesicles (EVs) containing different kinds of cargo molecules that mediate pathogenesis and cellular communication between parasites and host...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Cicely Marston, Alicia Renedo, Gertrude Nsorma Nyaaba, Kazuyo Machiyama, Placide Tapsoba, John Cleland
CONTEXT: According to Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data, highly educated urban women in some West African countries simultaneously have low rates of both contraceptive use and fertility-suggesting that the DHS may not be capturing a complete picture of women's contraceptive practices. METHODS: Individual in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with a total of 48 women aged 18-49 in Accra, Ghana, who had at least a secondary education to explore their reproductive lives and relationships, and their views on and use of fertility regulation strategies...
September 1, 2017: International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health
Erika Chenais, Karl Ståhl, Vittorio Guberti, Klaus Depner
The African swine fever epizootic in central and eastern European Union member states has a newly identified component involving virus transmission by wild boar and virus survival in the environment. Insights led to an update of the 3 accepted African swine fever transmission models to include a fourth cycle: wild boar-habitat.
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Denis Kolbasov, Ilya Titov, Sodnom Tsybanov, Andrey Gogin, Alexander Malogolovkin
African swine fever (ASF) is arguably the most dangerous and emerging swine disease worldwide. ASF is a serious problem for the swine industry. The first case of ASF in Russia was reported in 2007. We report an outbreak of ASF in Siberia, Russia, in 2017.
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Michael S McLachlan, Emma Undeman, Fangyuan Zhao, Matthew MacLeod
Predicting human exposure to an environmental contaminant based on its emissions is one of the great challenges of environmental chemistry. It has been done successfully on a local or regional scale for some persistent organic pollutants. Here we assess whether it can be done at a global scale, using PCB 153 as a test chemical. The global multimedia fate model BETR Global and the human exposure model ACC-HUMAN were employed to predict the concentration of PCB 153 in human milk for 56 countries around the world from a global historical emissions scenario...
March 19, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Theophilus Aanuoluwa Adagunodo, Sebastian Lüning, Adekunle Michael Adeleke, Julius Oluwasegun Omidiora, Ahzegbobor Philips Aizebeokhai, Kehinde David Oyeyemi, Olaide Sakiru Hammed
This article evaluates the occurrence of 0 [Formula: see text] M [Formula: see text] 8 earthquake data sets for the period of 50 years (that is, January 1, 1966 to December 31, 2015) in African and Western Asia region. It is bounded by latitude 40° S to 40° N and longitude 30° W to 60° E with the focal depth of 0-700 km. Seventy seven thousand, six hundred and ninety-six data points were presented for the analysis. The data used were extracted from earthquake catalog of Advanced National Seismic system via http://quake...
April 2018: Data in Brief
Ricardo Carrasco-Garcia, Patricia Barroso, Javier Perez-Olivares, Vidal Montoro, Joaquín Vicente
Understanding the role that facultative scavenger species may play in spreading infectious pathogens, and even becoming reservoirs for humans, domestic and wild ungulates or, on the contrary, preventing the spread of disease, requires a prior understanding of the pattern of carrion scavenging in specific scenarios. The objectives of this paper are (i) to describe the guild of vertebrate scavengers and (ii) to study the species-specific, habitat, and management-related factors involved in the usage of gut piles in South Central Spain (SCS), a tuberculosis (TB) endemic area...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Robert Joseph Taylor, Reuben Miller, Dawne Mouzon, Verna M Keith, Linda M Chatters
The present study examined the impact of criminal justice contact on experiences of everyday discrimination among a national sample of African American men. African American men have a high likelihood of being targets of major discrimination, as well as experiencing disproportionate contact with the criminal justice system. Few studies, however, examine everyday discrimination (e.g., commonplace social encounters of unfair treatment) among this group. Using data from the National Survey of American Life, we provide a descriptive assessment of different types of everyday discrimination among African American men...
2018: Race and Justice
Rashmi Sarkar, Pallavi Ailawadi, Shilpa Garg
Melasma is a common skin condition that affects both men and women. However, it is more commonly seen in women and dark-skinned individuals, such as in Hispanics, Asians, and African Americans who live in areas with intense ultraviolet radiation. Melasma is less common in men, but it negatively affects the quality of life in men as much as it does in women. While melasma has been studied in detail in women, however, there is a paucity of studies on the clinico- etiopathology and therapeutics of melasma in men...
February 2018: Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology
Sudeesh Karumathil, Nimal T Raveendran, Doss Ganesh, Sampath Kumar Ns, Rahul R Nair, Vijaya R Dirisala
The evolution of bias in synonymous codon usage in chosen monkeypox viral genomes and the factors influencing its diversification have not been reported so far. In this study, various trends associated with synonymous codon usage in chosen monkeypox viral genomes were investigated, and the results are reported. Identification of factors that influence codon usage in chosen monkeypox viral genomes was done using various codon usage indices, such as the relative synonymous codon usage, the effective number of codons, and the codon adaptation index...
2018: Evolutionary Bioinformatics Online
Babak Ebrahimi, Bryan T Jackson, Julie L Guseman, Colin M Przybylowicz, Christopher M Stone, Woodbridge A Foster
Knowledge of the link between a vector population's pathogen-transmission potential and its biotic environment can generate more realistic forecasts of disease risk due to environmental change. It also can promote more effective vector control by both conventional and novel means.This study assessed the effect of particular plant species assemblages differing in nectar production on components of the vectorial capacity of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae s.s. , an important vector of African malaria.We followed cohorts of mosquitoes for three weeks in greenhouse mesocosms holding nectar-poor and nectar-rich plant species by tracking daily mortalities and estimating daily biting rates and fecundities...
March 2018: Journal of Applied Ecology
Frank Portillo, William R Branch, Werner Conradie, Mark-Oliver Rödel, Johannes Penner, Michael F Barej, Chifundera Kusamba, Wandege M Muninga, Mwenebatu M Aristote, Aaron M Bauer, Jean-François Trape, Zoltán T Nagy, Piero Carlino, Olivier S G Pauwels, Michele Menegon, Marius Burger, Tomáš Mazuch, Kate Jackson, Daniel F Hughes, Mathias Behangana, Eli Greenbaum
Members of the snake subfamily Aparallactinae occur in various habitats throughout sub-Saharan Africa. The monophyly of aparallactine snakes is well established, but relationships within the subfamily are poorly known. We sampled 158 individuals from six of eight aparallactine genera in sub-Saharan Africa. We employed concatenated gene-tree analyses, divergence dating approaches, and ancestral-area reconstructions to infer phylogenies and biogeographic patterns with a multi-locus data set consisting of three mitochondrial (16S, cyt b, and ND4) and two nuclear genes (c-mos and RAG1)...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Akash A Kapadia, Ann Martinez Acevedo, Jen-Jane Liu, Mark Garzotto, Michael Conlin, Christopher Amling, Ryan P Kopp
PURPOSE: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is an important adjunct to cystectomy in management of muscle invasive bladder cancer. We investigated factors that predict failure to receive surgery following multi-agent chemotherapy for non-metastatic muscle invasive bladder cancer utilizing the National Cancer Database. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a cohort study including patients diagnosed with cT2-4aN0M0 urothelial cell carcinoma of the bladder between 2004 and 2013 who underwent multi-agent chemotherapy...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Urology
Trisha-Jean Mahon, Louise Jacqui Friedling, Guinevere Marianne Gordon
Despite indicating numerous demographic features such as sex, stature, and age; the sacrum remains a relatively insufficiently researched skeletal element. A set pattern of ossification and fusion of the sacrum makes it a useful bone for estimating age-at-death in unknown skeletal individuals. The aims of this study, which examined a black South African skeletal sample, were to establish if fusion correlated to age and to estimate the age at which fusion between the first two sacral vertebrae began and ended...
March 1, 2018: Forensic Science International
Dong-Hyeon Lee, Jolanda Roux, Brenda D Wingfield, Michael J Wingfield
The African fungal tree pathogen, Ceratocystis albifundus, undergoes uni-directional mating type switching, giving rise to either self-fertile or self-sterile progeny. Self-sterile isolates lack the MAT1-2-1 gene and have reduced fitness such as slower growth and reduced pathogenicity, relative to self-fertile isolates. While it has been hypothesized that there is a 1:1 ratio of self-fertile to self-sterile ascospore progeny in relatives of C. albifundus, some studies have reported a significant bias in this ratio...
April 2018: Fungal Biology
Yolanda Revilla, Daniel Pérez-Núñez, Juergen A Richt
African swine fever (ASF) is an acute and often fatal disease affecting domestic pigs and wild boar, with severe economic consequences for affected countries. ASF is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa and the island of Sardinia, Italy. Since 2007, the virus emerged in the republic of Georgia, and since then spread throughout the Caucasus region and Russia. Outbreaks have also been reported in Belarus, Ukraine, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Romania, Moldova, Czech Republic, and Poland, threatening neighboring West European countries...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
Jackson Emanuel, Andrea Marzi, Heinz Feldmann
The Filoviridae are a family of negative-strand RNA viruses that include several important human pathogens. Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus are well-known filoviruses which cause life-threatening viral hemorrhagic fever in human and nonhuman primates. In addition to severe pathogenesis, filoviruses also exhibit a propensity for human-to-human transmission by close contact, posing challenges to containment and crisis management. Past outbreaks, in particular the recent West African EBOV epidemic, have been responsible for thousands of deaths and vaulted the filoviruses into public consciousness...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
Ramya Vangipuram, Tiffany Hinojosa, Daniel J Lewis, Christopher Downing, Caleb Hixson, Julio César Salas-Alanis, Stephen K Tyring
A 75-year-old African-American man presented with a 3-year history of painless, fluid-filled blisters, for which his primary care physician had treated him with doxycycline, cephalexin, and topical corticosteroids, with no significant improvement. The blisters had ruptured spontaneously and healed with scarring. He denied antecedent trauma. His medical history was remarkable for insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, primary cutaneous melanoma status-post excision, and breast cancer status-post mastectomy and chemotherapy...
2018: Skinmed
Lindsay P Galway, Yubraj Acharya, Andrew D Jones
Deforestation worldwide could have important consequences for diet quality and human nutrition given the numerous ecosystem services that are provided by forests and biodiverse landscapes. Yet, empirical research assessing the links between deforestation and diets is lacking. In this study, we examined the association between deforestation and diet diversity among children using geolocated Demographic and Health Survey data for 33,777 children across 15 countries of sub-Saharan Africa coupled with remotely-sensed data on forest cover loss...
March 15, 2018: Health & Place
Bing Liu, Chi Toan Le, Russell L Barrett, Daniel L Nickrent, Zhiduan Chen, Limin Lu, Romina Vidal-Russell
Coadaptation between mistletoes and birds captured the attention of Charles Darwin over 150 years ago, stimulating considerable scientific research. Here we used Loranthaceae, a speciose and ecologically important mistletoe family, to obtain new insights into the interrelationships among its hosts and dispersers. Phylogenetic analyses of Loranthaceae were based on a dataset of nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequences. Divergence time estimation, ancestral area reconstruction, and diversification rate analyses were employed to examine historical biogeography...
March 14, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
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