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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726630/dissection-of-specific-binding-of-hiv-1-gag-to-the-packaging-signal-in-viral-rna
#1
Mauricio Comas-Garcia, Siddhartha Ak Datta, Laura Baker, Rajat Varma, Prabhakar R Gudla, Alan Rein
Selective packaging of HIV-1 genomic RNA (gRNA) requires the presence of a cis-acting RNA element called the "packaging signal" (Ψ). However, the mechanism by which Ψ promotes selective packaging of the gRNA is not well understood. We used fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and quenching data to monitor the binding of recombinant HIV-1 Gag protein to Cy5-tagged 190-base RNAs. At physiological ionic strength, Gag binds with very similar, nanomolar affinities to both Ψ-containing and control RNAs. We challenged these interactions by adding excess competing tRNA; introducing mutations in Gag; or raising the ionic strength...
July 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726130/transmission-network-characteristics-based-on-env-and-gag-sequences-from-msm-during-acute-hiv-1-infection-in-beijing-china
#2
Zhimin Zhang, Lili Dai, Yan Jiang, Kaidi Feng, Lifeng Liu, Wei Xia, Fengjiao Yu, Jun Yao, Wenge Xing, Lijun Sun, Tong Zhang, Hao Wu, Bin Su, Maofeng Qiu
Molecular epidemiology can be used to identify human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission clusters, usually using pol sequence for analysis. In the present study, we explored appropriate parameters to construct a simple network using HIV env and gag sequences instead of pol sequences for constructing a phylogenetic tree and a genetic transmission subnetwork, which were used to identify individuals with many potential transmission links and to explore the evolutionary dynamics of the virus among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Beijing...
July 19, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723112/surfen-assembled-graphene-oxide-for-fluorescence-turn-on-detection-of-sulfated-glycosaminoglycans-in-biological-matrix
#3
Yen-Ting Wang, Wei-Lung Tseng
Sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) not only serve as a biomarker for mucopolysaccharidoses disease but also participate in various biological processes, such as blood clot medication (heparin) and signal transduction (heparan sulfate). However, few fluorescent sensors, such as 1,9-dimethylmethylene blue, have been developed for the detection of sulfated GAGs in the real world. Herein, we fabricated a surfen/few-layer graphene oxide (FLGO) nanocomplex for sensing sulfated GAGs in biological fluids. Surfen molecules are self-assembled onto the surface of FLGO through electrostatic attraction, and their fluorescence was then quenched by the creation of the FLGO-surfen complex (static quenching) and partially combined with the energy transfer from surfen to FLGO (dynamic quenching)...
June 23, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721664/reciprocal-influence-of-hmscs-hacat-cultivated-on-electrospun-scaffolds
#4
Sirsendu Bhowmick, Sandra Rother, Heike Zimmermann, Poh S Lee, Stephanie Moeller, Matthias Schnabelrauch, Veena Koul, Dieter Scharnweber
Here, we investigated the synergistic effect of electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds made of gelatin /sulfated hyaluronan (sHA) or native hyaluronan (HA)/chondroitin sulfate (CS) and, keratinocytes (HaCaT)-human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) contact co-culture on epithelial differentiation of hMSCs. The hMSCs were co-cultured in contact with HaCaT cells for 5 days on electrospun scaffold. Results show that electrospun scaffolds containing sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) stimulate epithelial differentiation in terms of various protein expression markers (keratin 14, ΔNp63α and Pan-cytokeratin) and gene expression of several dermal proteins (keratin 14, ΔNp63α)...
August 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721397/hivis-dna-or-hivisopt-dna-priming-followed-by-cmdr-vaccinia-based-boosts-induce-both-humoral-and-cellular-murine-immune-responses-to-hiv
#5
J Hinkula, S Petkov, K Ljungberg, D Hallengärd, A Bråve, M Isaguliants, T Falkeborn, S Sharma, V Liakina, M Robb, M Eller, B Moss, G Biberfeld, E Sandström, C Nilsson, K Markland, P Blomberg, B Wahren
BACKGROUND: In order to develop a more effective prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine it is important optimize the components, improve Envelope glycoprotein immunogenicity as well as to explore prime-boost immunization schedules. It is also valuable to include several HIV-1 subtype antigens representing the world-wide epidemic. METHODS: HIVIS-DNA plasmids which include Env genes of subtypes A, B and C together with Gag subtypes A and B and RTmut/Rev of subtype B were modified as follows: the Envelope sequences were shortened, codon optimized, provided with an FT4 sequence and an immunodominant region mutated...
June 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718461/-multidisciplinary-treatment-approach-in-a-patient-with-a-severe-gag-reflex
#6
C Borsjé
A patient was referred to a centre for special care dentistry due to problems with a severe gag reflex and dental care-related anxiety. A regular treatment was started with gradual exposure in vivo in combination with breathing exercises, which involved the patient doing exercises at home. In addition, she was referred to an (external) speech therapist. During the treatment the patient suffered from pain in [molar] tooth 27 and a short-term solution was necessary. Regular treatment was not (yet) possible due to the existing severe gag reflex...
July 2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Tandheelkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718046/complete-genome-sequencing-and-characterization-revealed-a-recombinant-subgroup-b-isolate-of-avian-leukosis-virus-with-a-subgroup-j-like-u3-region
#7
Peikun Wang, Yongli Yang, Lulu Lin, Haijuan Li, Ping Wei
One natural recombinant subgroup B avian leukosis virus (ALV) with a subgroup J-like U3 region was isolated from commercial native chickens that experienced disease in 2014 and named GX14FF03. GX14FF03 was isolated by DF-1 cell culture and then identified with ELISA detection of avian leukosis virus p27 group-specific antigen, the detection of subtype specific PCR, and indirect immunofluorescence assay with ALV-B-specific monoclonal antibody. Its complete proviral genome was sequenced and compared with the reference strains of ALVs and found that the gag and pol were relatively conservative...
July 17, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718045/full-length-genome-sequence-analysis-of-four-subgroup-j-avian-leukosis-virus-strains-isolated-from-chickens-with-clinical-hemangioma
#8
Lulu Lin, Peikun Wang, Yongli Yang, Haijuan Li, Teng Huang, Ping Wei
Since 2014, cases of hemangioma associated with avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) have been emerging in commercial chickens in Guangxi. In this study, four strains of the subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J), named GX14HG01, GX14HG04, GX14LT07, and GX14ZS14, were isolated from chickens with clinical hemangioma in 2014 by DF-1 cell culture and then identified with ELISA detection of ALV group specific antigen p27, the detection of subtype specific PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) with ALV-J specific monoclonal antibody...
July 17, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715962/in-vitro-analysis-of-the-differentiation-capacity-of-postmortally-isolated-human-chondrocytes-influenced-by-different-growth-factors-and-oxygen-levels
#9
Anika Jonitz-Heincke, Annett Klinder, Diana Boy, Achim Salamon, Doris Hansmann, Juliane Pasold, Andreas Buettner, Rainer Bader
Objective In the present in vitro study, we analyzed the chondrogenic differentiation capacity of human chondrocytes postmortally isolated from unaffected knee cartilage by the addition of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and/or insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and different oxygen levels. Design After 14 and 35 days, DNA concentrations and protein contents of Col1, Col2, aggrecan as well as glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) of chondrocytes cultivated as pellet cultures were analyzed. Additionally, expression rates of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-associated differentiation markers were assessed in monolayer cultures...
July 1, 2017: Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713940/a-novel-method-to-identify-hub-pathways-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-based-on-differential-pathway-networks
#10
Shi-Tong Wei, Yong-Hua Sun, Shi-Hua Zong
The aim of the current study was to identify hub pathways of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using a novel method based on differential pathway network (DPN) analysis. The present study proposed a DPN where protein‑protein interaction (PPI) network was integrated with pathway‑pathway interactions. Pathway data was obtained from background PPI network and the Reactome pathway database. Subsequently, pathway interactions were extracted from the pathway data by building randomized gene‑gene interactions and a weight value was assigned to each pathway interaction using Spearman correlation coefficient (SCC) to identify differential pathway interactions...
July 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710431/hiv-1-enhances-mtorc1-activity-and-repositions-lysosomes-to-the-periphery-by-co-opting-rag-gtpases
#11
Alessandro Cinti, Valerie Le Sage, Miroslav P Milev, Fernando Valiente-Echeverría, Christina Crossie, Marie-Joelle Miron, Nelly Panté, Martin Olivier, Andrew J Mouland
HIV-1 co-opts several host machinery to generate a permissive environment for viral replication and transmission. In this work we reveal how HIV-1 impacts the host translation and intracellular vesicular trafficking machineries for protein synthesis and to impede the physiological late endosome/lysosome (LEL) trafficking in stressful conditions. First, HIV-1 enhances the activity of the master regulator of protein synthesis, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Second, the virus commandeers mTOR-associated late endosome/lysosome (LEL) trafficking and counteracts metabolic and environmental stress-induced intracellular repositioning of LEL...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709984/micrometer-scale-guidance-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-form-structurally-oriented-large-scale-tissue-engineered-cartilage
#12
Chih-Ling Chou, Alexander L Rivera, Valencia Williams, Jean F Welter, Joseph M Mansour, Judith A Drazba, Takao Sakai, Harihara Baskaran
Current clinical methods to treat articular cartilage lesions provide temporary relief of the symptoms but fail to permanently restore the damaged tissue. Tissue engineering, using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) combined with scaffolds and bioactive factors, is viewed as a promising method for repairing cartilage injuries. However, current tissue engineered constructs display inferior mechanical properties compared to native articular cartilage, which could be attributed to the lack of structural organization of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of these engineered constructs in comparison to the highly oriented structure of articular cartilage ECM...
July 11, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708257/aquaporin1-and-3-modification-as-a-result-of-chondrogenic-differentiation-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cell
#13
Adriana Carol Eleonora Graziano, Rosanna Avola, Giovanna Pannuzzo, Venera Cardile
Chondrocytes are cells of articular cartilage particularly sensitive to water transport and ionic and osmotic changes from extracellular environment and responsible for the production of the synovial fluid. Aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of water and small solute transport channel proteins identified in several tissues, involved in physiological pathways and in manifold human diseases. In a recent period, AQP1 and 3 seem to have a role in metabolic water regulation in articular cartilage of load bearing joints...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706183/modulation-of-interleukin-12-activity-in-the-presence-of-heparin
#14
Srinivas Jayanthi, Bhanu Prasanth Koppolu, Khue G Nguyen, Sean G Smith, Barbara K Felber, Thallapuranam Krishnaswamy Suresh Kumar, David A Zaharoff
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), especially heparin and heparan sulfate (HS), modulate the functions of numerous cytokines. The aims of this multidisciplinary research were to characterize heparin binding to interleukin-12 (IL-12) and determine the mechanism(s) by which heparin influences IL-12 bioactivity. Heparin and HS were found to bind human IL-12 (hIL-12) with low micromolar affinity and increase hIL-12 bioactivity by more than 6-fold. Conversely, other GAGs did not demonstrate significant binding, nor did their addition affect hIL-12 bioactivity...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704392/redifferentiation-of-aged-human-articular-chondrocytes-by-combining-bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-and-melanoma-inhibitory-activity-protein-in-3d-culture
#15
Stephan Payr, Brigitte Tichy, Clemens Atteneder, Marc Michel, Thomas Tiefenboeck, Nikolaus Lang, Sylvia Nuernberger, Stefan Hajdu, Elizabeth Rosado-Balmayor, Stefan Marlovits, Christian Albrecht
Melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA) affects the differentiation to hyaline cartilage and can inhibit the osteogenic potential of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 in mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). The aim of this study was to investigate if MIA also inhibits the osteogenic potential of BMP-2 in human articular chondrocytes during redifferentiation, which may lead to a higher grade of differentiation without calcification. HAC of four female patients (mean age: 73.75 ±6.98) were seeded into 3D culture for 28 days; after adding the recombinant proteins, four groups were formed (Control, BMP-2, MIA, BMP-2+MIA)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702876/cardiovascular-histopathology-of-a-11-year-old-with-mucopolysaccharidosis-vii-demonstrates-fibrosis-macrophage-infiltration-and-arterial-luminal-stenosis
#16
Valerie Lew, Louis Pena, Robert Edwards, Raymond Y Wang
Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII) is caused by β-glucuronidase deficiency, resulting in lysosomal accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and multisystemic disease. We present cardiovascular gross and histopathology findings from a 11-year-old MPS VII male, who expired after developing ventricular fibrillation following anesthesia induction. Gross anatomic observations were made at autopsy; postmortem formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples of the carotid artery, aorta, myocardium, and valves were sectioned and stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Verhoeff-Van Gieson, CD68, and trichrome stains...
July 13, 2017: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701422/new-highly-sensitive-real-time-pcr-assay-for-hiv-2-group-a-and-group-b-dna-quantification
#17
Mélanie Bertine, Marie Gueudin, Adeline Mélard, Florence Damond, Diane Descamps, Sophie Matheron, Fidéline Collin, Christine Rouzioux, Jean-Christophe Plantier, Véronique Avettand-Fenoel
HIV-2 infection is characterized by a very low replication in most cases and low progression. That necessitates a different approach to patient monitoring than that for HIV-1 infection. Here, a new, highly specific, and sensitive method for HIV-2 DNA quantification has been developed. The new test is based on quantitative real-time PCR, targeting the LTR and Gag regions and using an internal control. Analytical performance was determined in three laboratories and clinical performance on blood samples from 63 patients infected with HIV-2 group A (n=35) or group B (n=28)...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701395/preferential-targeting-of-conserved-gag-regions-after-vaccination-with-a-heterologous-dna-prime-modified-vaccinia-ankara-mva-boost-hiv-1-vaccine-regimen
#18
Asli Bauer, Lilli Podola, Philipp Mann, Marco Missanga, Antelmo Haule, Lwitiho Sudi, Charlotta Nilsson, Bahati Kaluwa, Cornelia Lueer, Maria Mwakatima, Patricia J Munseri, Leonard Maboko, Merlin L Robb, Sodsai Tovanabutra, Gustavo Kijak, Mary Marovich, Sheena McCormack, Sarah Joseph, Eligius Lyamuya, Britta Wahren, Eric Sandström, Gunnel Biberfeld, Michael Hoelscher, Muhammad Bakari, Arne Kroidl, Christof Geldmacher
Prime-boost vaccination strategies against HIV-1 often include multiple variants for a given immunogen for better coverage of the extensive viral diversity. To study the immunologic effects of this approach, we characterized breadth, phenotype, function and specificity of Gag-specific T cells induced by a DNA-prime Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA)-boost vaccination strategy, which uses mismatched Gag immunogens in the TamoVac 01 phase IIa trial. Healthy Tanzanian volunteers received three injections of the DNA-SMI vaccine encoding for a subtype B and AB-recombinant Gagp37 and two vaccinations with MVA-CMDR encoding subtype A Gagp55 Gag-specific T-cell responses were studied in 42 vaccinees using fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699925/quantifying-baseline-fixed-charge-density-in-healthy-human-cartilage-endplate-a-two-point-electrical-conductivity-method
#19
Yongren Wu, Sarah E Cisewski, Yi Sun, Brooke J Damon, Barton L Sachs, Vincent D Pellegrini, Elizabeth H Slate, Hai Yao
STUDY DESIGN: Regional measurements of fixed charge densities (FCDs) of healthy human cartilage endplate (CEP) using a two-point electrical conductivity approach. OBJECTIVE: To determine the FCDs at four different regions (central, lateral, anterior, and posterior) of human CEP, and correlate the FCDs with tissue biochemical composition. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The CEP, a thin layer of hyaline cartilage on the cranial and caudal surfaces of the intervertebral disc, plays an irreplaceable role in maintaining the unique physiological mechano-electrochemical environment inside the disc...
January 5, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699510/cell-penetrating-peptides-a-promising-tool-for-the-cellular-uptake-of-macromolecular-drugs
#20
Peipei Zhu, Lan Jin
The lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane is a selective impermeable barrier for the internalization of most macromolecules. Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) could cross the plasma membrane barrier to deliver various molecules into cells and are considered as a promising tool to deliver macromolecular drugs. However, the exact cellular uptake mechanisms of CPPs are still ambiguous. It was reported that the exact cellular uptake pathway was determined by numerous factors such as the amino acid sequences (hydrophobicity and net charge), extracellular CPP concentration, cargoes' properties, cell type and the temperature...
July 10, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
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