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Nicolas Marinval, Pierre Saboural, Oualid Haddad, Murielle Maire, Kevin Bassand, Frederic Geinguenaud, Nadia Djaker, Khadija Ben Akrout, Marc Lamy de la Chapelle, Romain Robert, Olivier Oudar, Erwan Guyot, Christelle Laguillier-Morizot, Angela Sutton, Cedric Chauvierre, Frederic Chaubet, Nathalie Charnaux, Hanna Hlawaty
Herein we investigate the structure/function relationships of fucoidans from Ascophyllum nodosum to analyze their pro-angiogenic effect and cellular uptake in native and glycosaminoglycan-free (GAG-free) human endothelial cells (HUVECs). Fucoidans are marine sulfated polysaccharides, which act as glycosaminoglycans mimetics. We hypothesized that the size and sulfation rate of fucoidans influence their ability to induce pro-angiogenic processes independently of GAGs. We collected two fractions of fucoidans, Low and Medium Molecular Weight Fucoidan (LMWF and MMWF, respectively) by size exclusion chromatography and characterized their composition (sulfate, fucose and uronic acid) by colorimetric measurement and Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy...
October 17, 2016: Marine Drugs
Shirin Masjedi, Ying Lei, Jenny Patel, Zannatul Ferdous
Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a major cardiovascular disorder in the developed countries. Male is a known risk factor in this disease; unfortunately, how sex contributes to CAVD is mostly unknown. The objective of this study is to determine whether valvular interstitial cells (VICs) isolated from male versus female aortic valves demonstrate difference in osteogenic differentiation and/or extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. VICs were isolated from male and female rat or porcine aortic valves and cultured in osteogenic media for 10, 15 and 20 days...
October 19, 2016: Heart and Vessels
J Do Cao, A Wiedemann, T Quinaux, S F Battaglia-Hsu, L Mainard, R Froissart, C Bonnemains, S Ragot, B Leheup, P Journeau, F Feillet
: Patients under 5 years were not evaluated in the phase-3 study for enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in MPS IV A. Here we describe the evolution of a severe Morquio A pediatric patient who was diagnosed at 19 months old and treated by ERT at 21 months old for the next 30 months. Applying the standard ERT protocol on this very young patient appeared to reduce his urinary excretion of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs); the improvements in both the 6 minute-walk test (6MWT) and the stair climb test, however, were no different than those reported in the nature history study...
December 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
Julie Yamaguchi, Catherine A Brennan, Elodie Alessandri, Jean-Christophe Plantier, Gavin Cloherty, Michael G Berg
HIV-2 exhibits a natural history of infection distinct from HIV-1. Primarily found in West Africa and in only 10-20% of HIV infections in this region, patients with HIV-2 typically exhibit a slower progression to AIDS, lower viral loads, and decreased rates of transmission. Here we used next-generation sequencing (NGS) to determine the sequence and phylogenetic classification of 9 HIV-2 genomes. We identified a patient with a series of mutations in an invariant cytotoxic lymphocyte (CTL)-restricted gag epitope required for retroviral structure and replication, and implicated in long-term non-progression to AIDS...
October 19, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
T Hertz, M G Logan, M Rolland, C A Magaret, C Rademeyer, A Fiore-Gartland, P T Edlefsen, A DeCamp, H Ahmed, N Ngandu, B B Larsen, N Frahm, J Marais, R Thebus, D Geraghty, J Hural, L Corey, J Kublin, G Gray, M J McElrath, J I Mullins, P B Gilbert, C Williamson
INTRODUCTION: The Merck Adenovirus-5 Gag/Pol/Nef HIV-1 subtype-B vaccine evaluated in predominately subtype B epidemic regions (Step Study), while not preventing infection, exerted vaccine-induced immune pressure on HIV-1 breakthrough infections. Here we investigated if the same vaccine exerted immune pressure when tested in the Phambili Phase 2b study in a subtype C epidemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A sieve analysis, which compares breakthrough viruses from placebo and vaccine arms, was performed on 277 near full-length genomes generated from 23 vaccine and 20 placebo recipients...
October 15, 2016: Vaccine
Bin Liu, Jiaojiao Lu, Chunqing Ai, Bao Zhang, Li Guo, Shuang Song, Beiwei Zhu
Uronic acid-containing polysaccharides (UACPs) including well-known glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and some non-GAGs exist widely in animal kingdom. Although numerous methods have been established to analyze GAGs, few methods are available for non-GAG UACPs. In the present study, a protocol to identify all kinds of UACPs with repeating disaccharide units of hexosamine and uronic acid was demonstrated, and UACP components in five shellfishes, namely Turritella fortilirata Sowerby (GTF), Batillaria zonalis (GBZ), Nassarius variciferus (GNV), Monodonta labio Linnaeus (GML), and Argopecten irradians Lamarck (BAI) were primarily revealed...
October 11, 2016: Carbohydrate Research
Denis R Chopera, Roman Ntale, Nonkululeko Ndabambi, Nigel Garrett, Clive M Gray, David Matten, Quarraisha Abdool Karim, Salim Abdool Karim, Carolyn Williamson
OBJECTIVE: HIV-1 escape from cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) results in the accumulation of HLA-associated mutations in the viral genome. To understand the contribution of early escape to disease progression, this study investigated the evolution and pathogenic implications of CTL escape in a cohort followed from infection for five years. METHODS: Viral loads and CD4+ counts were monitored in 78 subtype C infected individuals from onset of infection until CD4+ decline to <350 cells/μl or five years post-infection...
October 14, 2016: AIDS
Yin Chen, Megan Reddy, Yanlei Yu, Fuming Zhang, Robert J Linhardt
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were prepared from the muscular stomach or gizzard of the chicken. The content of GAGs on a dry weight basis contains 0.4 wt.% a typical value observed for a muscle tissue. The major GAG components were chondroitin-6-sulfate and chondroitin-4-sulfate (~64 %) of molecular weight 21-22 kDa. Hyaluronan (~24 %) had a molecular weight 120 kDa. Smaller amounts (12 %) of heparan sulfate was also present which was made of more highly sulfated chains of molecular weight of 21-22 kDa and a less sulfated low molecular weight (< 10 kDa) heterogeneous partially degraded heparan sulfate...
October 17, 2016: Glycoconjugate Journal
Taerim Kim, Shin Ahn, Chang Hwan Sohn, Dong Woo Seo, Won Young Kim
OBJECTIVE: Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is an underestimated cause of thunderclap headache that shares many characteristics with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This fact makes the two easily confused by emergency physicians. This study evaluated the clinical manifestations, radiological features, and outcomes of patients with RCVS. METHODS: The electronic medical records of 18 patients meeting the diagnostic criteria of RCVS at our emergency department between January 2013 and December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed...
December 2015: Clin Exp Emerg Med
Tanja Radovanovic, Slobodan Spasojevic, Vesna Stojanovic, Aleksandra Doronjski
INTRODUCTION: An apparent life-threatening event (ALTE) is defined as "an episode that is frightening to the observer and is characterized by some combination of apnea, color change, marked change of muscle tone, choking, or gagging." OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to determine etiology and outcome of severe ALTE (requiring resuscitation measures) and to review diagnostic approaches in infants hospitalized after such an episode of ALTE. METHODS: Retrospective analysis included patients hospitalized at the Intensive Care Unit, Institute of Child and Youth Healthcare of Vojvodina, after an episode of severe ALTE over a 4-year period...
September 30, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Thomas Godet, Russell Chabanne, Julien Marin, Sophie Kauffmann, Emmanuel Futier, Bruno Pereira, Jean-Michel Constantin
BACKGROUND: The decision to extubate brain-injured patients with residual impaired consciousness holds a high degree of uncertainty of success. The authors developed a pragmatic clinical score predictive of extubation failure in brain-injured patients. METHODS: One hundred and forty brain-injured patients were prospectively included after the first spontaneous breathing trial success. Assessment of multiparametric hemodynamic, respiratory, and neurologic functions was performed just before extubation...
October 3, 2016: Anesthesiology
Naiyin Yu, Abhijit Ghosh, Michael F Hagan
We use computer simulations and simple theoretical models to analyze the morphologies that result when rod-like particles end-attach onto a curved surface, creating a finite-thickness monolayer aligned with the surface normal. This geometry leads to two forms of frustration, one associated with the incompatibility of hexagonal order on surfaces with Gaussian curvature, and the second reflecting the deformation of a layer with finite thickness on a surface with non-zero mean curvature. We show that the latter effect leads to a faceting mechanism...
October 17, 2016: Soft Matter
Songhui Zhai, Lijuan Hu, Lin Zhong, Yannan Guo, Liqun Dong, Ruizhen Jia, Zheng Wang
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between renal injury and reinfection that is caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and to analyze the mechanism of renal injury. Rats were repeatedly infected with RSV on days 4, 8, 14, and 28, then sacrificed and examined on day 56 after the primary infection. Renal injury was examined by transmission electron microscopy and histopathology. The F protein of RSV was detected in the renal tissue by indirect immunofluorescence. Proteinuria and urinary glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), serum levels of albumin, urea nitrogen, and creatinine, secretion of cytokines, T lymphocyte population and subsets, and dendritic cell (DC) activation state were examined...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Mathieu F Chevalier, Céline Didier, Pierre-Marie Girard, Maria E Manea, Pauline Campa, Françoise Barré-Sinoussi, Daniel Scott-Algara, Laurence Weiss
Early events during primary HIV infection (PHI) are thought to influence disease outcome. Although a growing body of evidence suggests a beneficial role of HIV-specific CD4 help in HIV infection, it is unclear how early viral replication, systemic immune activation, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) may shape CD4 T-cell responses during PHI, and whether HIV-specific CD4 responses contribute to the high immune activation observed in PHI. Twenty-seven patients with early PHI were included in a prospective longitudinal study and 12 of them received ART after enrollment...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Eleni Maniatopoulou, Stefanos Bonovas, Nikolaos Sitaras
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are present in the hair shaft within the follicle but there are no studies regarding GAGs isolation and measurement in the human hair shaft over the scalp surface, it means, in the free hair shaft. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our research was to isolate and measure the total GAGs from human free hair shaft. METHODS: Seventy-five healthy individuals participated in the study, 58 adults, men and women over the age of 50 and 17 children (aged 4~9)...
October 2016: Annals of Dermatology
Francyne Kubaski, Harumi Osago, Robert W Mason, Seiji Yamaguchi, Hironori Kobayashi, Mikako Tsuchiya, Tadao Orii, Shunji Tomatsu
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are long blocks of negatively charged polysaccharides. They are one of the major components of the extracellular matrix and play multiple roles in different tissues and organs. The accumulation of undegraded GAGs causes mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS). GAGs are associated with other pathological conditions such as osteoarthritis, inflammation, diabetes mellitus, spinal cord injury, and cancer. The need for further understanding of GAG functions and mechanisms of action boosted the development of qualitative and quantitative (alcian blue, toluidine blue, paper and thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography, high pressure liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, 1,9-dimethylmethylene blue, enzyme linked-immunosorbent assay, mass spectrometry) techniques...
September 28, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Li Ou, Michael J Przybilla, Chester B Whitley
Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is due to deficiency of α-l-iduronidase (IDUA) and subsequent storage of undegraded glycosaminoglycans (GAG). The severe form of the disease, known as Hurler syndrome, is characterized by mental retardation and neurodegeneration of unknown etiology. To identify potential biomarkers and unveil the neuropathology mechanism of MPS I disease, two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and nanoliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS) were applied to compare proteome profiling of brains from MPS I and control mice (5-month old)...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Mirko Nowak, Uwe Freudenberg, Mikhail V Tsurkan, Carsten Werner, Kandice R Levental
Matrix systems used to study complex three-dimensional (3D) cellular processes like mammary epithelial tissue morphogenesis and tumorigenesis ex vivo often require ill-defined biological components, which lead to poor reproducibility and a lack of control over physical parameters. In this study, a well-defined, tunable synthetic biohybrid hydrogel composed of the glycosaminoglycan heparin, star-shaped poly(ethylene glycol) (starPEG), and matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) cleavable crosslinkers was applied to dissect the biophysical and biochemical signals promoting human mammary epithelial cell (MEC) morphogenesis...
October 6, 2016: Biomaterials
Stefania Pagani, Veronica Borsari, Francesca Veronesi, Andrea Ferrari, Simona Cepollaro, Paola Torricelli, Giuseppe Filardo, Milena Fini
OBJECTIVES: Primarily, to compare the behavior of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow (hBMSCs) and adipose tissue (hADSCs) in an osteoarthritic (OA) microenvironment; secondly, to investigate the reaction of these cell types in two alternative in vitro culture systems, obtained by using TNFα and/or IL1β as inflammation mediators, or by using synovial fluid harvested by OA patients (OSF) to simulate the complex inflamed knee microenvironment. METHODS: 3D micromass cultures of hBMSCs or hADSCs were grown in chondrogenic medium (CTR), in the presence of TNFα and/or IL1β, or synovial fluid from OA patients...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Francesca Maccari, Fabio Galeotti, Lucia Zampini, Lucia Padella, Rosella Tomanin, Daniela Concolino, Agata Fiumara, Tiziana Galeazzi, Giovanni Coppa, Orazio Gabrielli, Nicola Volpi
BACKGROUND: Urine are easily accessible and relatively simple to process and uronic acid-bearing glycosaminoglycans (UA-GAGs) may serve as biomarkers for several diseases, like for mucopolysaccharidosis. METHODS: We report a study from a large cohort of healthy newborns of 2-3days to have a basic profile of total content of urinary UA-GAGs, their composition and structural signatures utilizing a rapid extractive method and sensitive separation of enzymatic released disaccharides by capillary electrophoresis-light induced fluorescence...
October 11, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
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