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Jiandong Wu, Juan Wei, John D Hogan, Pradeep Chopra, Apoorva Joshi, Weigang Lu, Joshua Klein, Geert-Jan Boons, Cheng Lin, Joseph Zaia
Among dissociation methods, negative electron transfer dissociation (NETD) has been proven the most useful for glycosaminoglycan (GAG) sequencing because it produces informative fragmentation, a low degree of sulfate losses, high sensitivity, and translatability to multiple instrument types. The challenge, however, is to distinguish positional sulfation. In particular, NETD has been reported to fail to differentiate 4-O- versus 6-O-sulfation in chondroitin sulfate decasaccharide. This raised the concern of whether NETD is able to differentiate the rare 3-O-sulfation from predominant 6-O-sulfation in heparan sulfate (HS) oligosaccharides...
March 21, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Evelyn Rogerson, Julien Pelletier, Alvaro Acosta-Serrano, Clair Rose, Sarah Taylor, Scott Guimond, Marcelo Lima, Mark Skidmore, Edwin Yates
Tsetse flies are the principal insect vectors of African trypanosomes -sleeping sickness in humans and Nagana in cattle. One of the tsetse fly species, Glossina morsitans morsitans , is host to the parasite, Trypanosoma brucei , a major cause of African trypanosomiasis. Precise details of the life cycle have yet to be established, but the parasite life cycle involves crossing the insect peritrophic matrix (PM). The PM consists of the polysaccharide chitin, several hundred proteins, and both glycosamino- and galactosaminoglycan (GAG) polysaccharides...
March 19, 2018: Pathogens
Andrew C Peifer, Patrick H Maxwell
Retrotransposons are abundant mobile DNA elements in eukaryotic genomes that are more active with age in diverse species. Details of the regulation and consequences of retrotransposon activity during aging remain to be determined. Ty1 retromobility in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is more frequent in mother cells compared to daughter cells, and we found that Ty1 was more mobile in nonquiescent compared to quiescent subpopulations of stationary phase cells. This retromobility asymmetry was absent in mutant strains lacking BRP1 that have reduced expression of the essential Pma1p plasma membrane proton pump, lacking the mRNA decay gene LSM1 , and in cells exposed to a high concentration of calcium...
March 21, 2018: Aging
Jesse Lowe, Rohan Bansal, Stephen Badylak, Bryan Brown, William Chung, Alejandro Almarza
A subset of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders are attributed to joint degeneration. The pig has been considered the preferred in-vivo model for the evaluation of potential therapies for TMJ disorders, and practical considerations such as cost and husbandry issues have favored the use of young, skeletally immature animals. However, the effect of growth on the biochemical and biomechanical properties of the TMJ disc and articulating cartilage has not been examined. The present study investigates the effect of age on the biochemical and biomechanical properties of healthy porcine TMJs at 3, 6, and 9 months of age...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Ke Ding, Xing Zhang, Jan Mrazek, Valerie A Kickhoefer, Mason Lai, Hwee L Ng, Otto O Yang, Leonard H Rome, Z Hong Zhou
Prior crystal structures of the vault have provided clues of its structural variability but are non-conclusive due to crystal packing. Here, we obtained vaults by engineering at the N terminus of rat major vault protein (MVP) an HIV-1 Gag protein segment and determined their near-atomic resolution (∼4.8 Å) structures in a solution/non-crystalline environment. The barrel-shaped vaults in solution adopt two conformations, 1 and 2, both with D39 symmetry. From the N to C termini, each MVP monomer has three regions: body, shoulder, and cap...
March 7, 2018: Structure
Eric Barklis, August O Staubus, Andrew Mack, Logan Harper, Robin Lid Barklis, Ayna Alfadhli
The matrix (MA) domain of the HIV-1 precursor Gag protein (PrGag) has been shown interact with the HIV-1 envelope (Env) protein, and to direct PrGag proteins to plasma membrane (PM) assembly sites by virtue of its affinity to phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI[4,5]P2). Unexpectedly, HIV-1 viruses with large MA deletions (ΔMA) have been shown to be conditionally infectious as long as they are matched with Env truncation mutant proteins or alternative viral glycoproteins. To characterize the interactions of wild type (WT) and ΔMA Gag proteins with PI(4,5)P2 and other acidic phospholipids, we have employed a set of lipid biosensors as probes...
March 14, 2018: Virology
Elodie Alessandri-Gradt, Fabienne De Oliveira, Marie Leoz, Véronique Lemee, David L Robertson, Felix Feyertag, Paul-Alain Ngoupo, Philippe Mauclere, François Simon, Jean-Christophe Plantier
OBJECTIVES: HIV/1 group P (HIV-1/P) is the last HIV/1 group discovered and to date, comprises only two strains. To obtain new insights into this divergent group, we screened for new infections by developing specific tools, and analysed phenotypic and genotypic properties of the prototypic strain RBF168. In addition, the follow-up of the unique patient monitored so far, has raised the knowledge of the natural history of this infection and its therapeutic management. DESIGN/METHODS: We developed an HIV-1/P specific sero-molecular strategy and screened over 29,498 specimen samples...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
Brett Ronald Cutler, Samira Gholami, Jie Shi Chua, Balagurunathan Kuberan, Pon Velayutham Anandh Babu
BACKGROUND: Glycosaminoglycan (GAG), a major component of the endothelial glycocalyx, is severely perturbed in diabetic vasculature leading to endothelial inflammation and vascular disease in diabetes. We tested the hypothesis that blueberry metabolites (BBM) ameliorate endothelial inflammation in diabetic endothelial cells (ECs) by restoring cell surface GAGs. METHODS: ECs isolated from healthy individuals [human aortic ECs (HAECs)] and diabetic patients (diabetic HAECs) were treated with ±BBM (benzoic acid-4-sulfate, hippuric acid, hydroxyhippuric acid, isovanillic acid-3-sulfate, and vanillic acid-4-sulfate at concentrations known to circulate in human plasma following blueberry consumption) for 3 days, and indices for endothelial inflammation were measured...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Carin K Ingemarsdotter, Jingwei Zeng, Ziqi Long, Andrew M L Lever, Julia C Kenyon
BACKGROUND: NSC260594, a quinolinium derivative from the NCI diversity set II compound library, was previously identified in a target-based assay as an inhibitor of the interaction between the HIV-1 (ψ) stem-loop 3 (SL3) RNA and Gag. This compound was shown to exhibit potent antiviral activity. Here, the effects of this compound on individual stages of the viral lifecycle were examined by qRT-PCR, ELISA and Western blot, to see if its actions were specific to the viral packaging stage...
March 14, 2018: Retrovirology
Christopher Grollman, Francesca L Cavallaro, Diane Duclos, Victoria Bakare, Melisa Martínez Álvarez, Josephine Borghi
The International Conference on Population and Development in 1994 set targets for donor funding to support family planning programmes, and recent initiatives such as FP2020 have renewed focus on the need for adequate funding to rights-based family planning. Disbursements supporting family planning disaggregated by donor, recipient country and year are not available for recent years. We estimate international donor funding for family planning in 2003-13, the period covering the introduction of reproductive health targets to the Millennium Development Goals and up to the beginning of FP2020, and compare funding to unmet need for family planning in recipient countries...
March 9, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
Yuya Otsuka, Toshinori Sato
The structures and amounts of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) produced by cells have attracted much interest because GAG biosynthesis activity can change in cellular processes such as disease and differentiation. β-Xylosides, also called saccharide primers, have been used as artificial acceptors not only to generate GAG oligosaccharides in cells and tissues but also to investigate their biosynthetic pathways. Various analytical methods have been applied to confirm the structure and amounts of GAG oligosaccharides elongated using saccharide primers, yet sample preparation processes such as solid-phase-extraction in analysis can cause experimental error and disrupt accurate comparative quantification of glycosylated products...
March 13, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Pattana Jaroenlak, Dominic Wiredu Boakye, Rapeepun Vanichviriyakit, Bryony A P Williams, Kallaya Sritunyalucksana, Ornchuma Itsathitphaisarn
BACKGROUND: The microsporidian Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) is a spore-forming, intracellular parasite that causes an economically debilitating disease (hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis or HPM) in cultured shrimp. HPM is characterized by growth retardation and wide size variation that can result in economic loss for shrimp farmers. Currently, the infection mechanism of EHP in shrimp is poorly understood, especially at the level of host-parasite interaction. In other microsporidia, spore wall proteins have been reported to be involved in host cell recognition...
March 12, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Agata Zykwinska, Ludivine Tripon-Le Berre, Corinne Sinquin, David Ropartz, Hélène Rogniaux, Sylvia Colliec-Jouault, Christine Delbarre-Ladrat
Polysaccharides have attracted much attention due to their interesting physico-chemical and also biological properties that are explored in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. GY785 exopolysaccharide (EPS) presenting an unusual structure is secreted by the deep-sea hydrothermal bacterium, Alteromonas infernus. Low-molecular weight (LMW) derivatives obtained by chemical depolymerization of the native high molecular weight (HMW) EPS were previously shown to exhibit biological properties similar to glycosaminoglycans (GAG)...
May 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Rafael S Aquino, Yvonne Hui-Fang Teng, Pyong Woo Park
Syndecan-1 (Sdc1) is a major cell surface heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycan of epithelial cells, a cell type targeted by many bacterial pathogens early in their pathogenesis. Loss of Sdc1 in mice is a gain-of-function mutation that significantly decreases the susceptibility to several bacterial infections, suggesting that subversion of Sdc1 is an important virulence strategy. HS glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains of cell surface Sdc1 promote bacterial pathogenesis by facilitating the attachment of bacteria to host cells...
March 9, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
Larissa Minicucci, Michelle Carstensen, John Crouse, Jon M Arnemo, Alina Evans
Recent uses for rumen boluses, such as mortality implant transmitters (MITs), in wildlife have made it necessary to adapt deployment techniques developed for livestock. In 29 and 30 attempts to place MITs in Minnesota free-ranging moose ( Alces alces) in 2013 and 2014, respectively, success was achieved 83% and 63% of the time. In 2014, new methods for MIT deployment were evaluated in captive moose in Alaska. Mandible measurements provided guidance for selection of an appropriate-sized bolus applicator. A Schulze mouth gag was used to aid insertion of the applicator, and canola oil was used to lubricate the bolus to facilitate swallowing...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Nancy B Schwartz, Miriam S Domowicz
Proteoglycans are diverse, complex extracellular/cell surface macromolecules composed of a central core protein with covalently-linked glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains; both of these components contribute to the growing list of important bio-active functions attributed to proteoglycans. Increasingly, attention has been paid to the roles of proteoglycans in nervous tissue development due to their highly regulated spatio/temporal expression patterns, whereby they promote/inhibit neurite outgrowth, participate in specification and maturation of various precursor cell types, and regulate cell behaviors like migration, axonal pathfinding, synaptogenesis, and plasticity...
March 7, 2018: FEBS Letters
Leticia Bignardi, Talita Prates, Andiara De Rossi, Paulo Nelson-Filho, Fabrício Kitasono de Carvalho, Talitha de Siqueira Mellara, Alexandra Mussolino de Queiroz
Myelomeningocele (MMC) is a congenital malformation that occurs in the embryonic period, characterized by failure in closure of the caudal portion of the neural tube during central nervous system formation. Alterations and complications can be associated with this condition, such as hydrocephalus, neurogenic bladder, orthopedic problems, and motor and cognitive impairment. This patients with MMC also have predisposition to develop latex allergy and high caries risk and activity due to deficient oral hygiene, fermentable carbon hydrate-rich diet and prolonged use of sugar-containing oral medications...
March 7, 2018: Special Care in Dentistry
Yasar Hoosen, Priyamvada Pradeep, Pradeep Kumar, Lisa C du Toit, Yahya E Choonara, Viness Pillay
Ovarian cancer (OC) has gained a great deal of attention due to its aggressive proliferative capabilities, high death rates and poor treatment outcomes, rendering the disease the ultimate lethal gynaecological cancer. Nanotechnology provides a promising avenue to combat this malignancy by the niche fabrication of optimally-structured nanomedicines that ensure potent delivery of chemotherapeutics to OC, employing nanocarriers to act as "intelligent" drug delivery vehicles, functionalized with active targeting approaches for precision delivery of chemotherapeutics to overexpressed biomarkers on cancer cells...
March 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Zhiqing Zhang, Lei Wang, Shimeng Bai, Jiaming Qiao, Honglin Shen, Fang Huang, Shuangquan Gao, Shaoyong Li, Shaowei Li, Ying Gu, Ningshao Xia
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been a global epidemic since 1983; yet, the virology and immunology related to HIV-1 remain elusive. Furthermore, as there is still no effective chemoprophylaxis or vaccine to treat patients with HIV-1, most research focuses on strategies to prevent HIV-1 infection, such as with antiviral drugs, novel therapeutics, or improved diagnostic kits. The HIV-1 Gag precursor protein (p55)-comprising the matrix (MA/p17), capsid (CA/p24), and nucleocapsid (NC/p7) protein domains-is the main structural HIV-1 protein, and is uniquely responsible for virion assembly within the virus life cycle...
March 5, 2018: Protein Journal
Mohammad Arif Rahman, Katherine M McKinnon, Tatiana S Karpova, David A Ball, David J Venzon, Wenjin Fan, Guobin Kang, Qingsheng Li, Marjorie Robert-Guroff
Follicular CD8+ T (fCD8) cells reside within B cell follicles and are thought to be immune-privileged sites of HIV/SIV infection. We have observed comparable levels of fCD8 cells between chronically SIV-infected rhesus macaques with low viral loads (LVL) and high viral loads (HVL), raising the question concerning their contribution to viremia control. In this study, we sought to clarify the role of SIV-specific fCD8 cells in lymph nodes during the course of SIV infection in rhesus macaques. We observed that fCD8 cells, T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, and T follicular regulatory cells (Tfreg) were all elevated in chronic SIV infection...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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