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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340594/keratan-sulphate-a-complex-glycosaminoglycan-with-unique-functional-capability
#1
Bruce Caterson, James Melrose
From an evolutionary perspective keratan sulphate (KS) is the newest glycosaminoglycan (GAG) but the least understood. KS is a sophisticated molecule with a diverse structure, and unique functional roles continue to be uncovered for this GAG. The cornea is the richest tissue source of KS in the human body but the central and peripheral nervous systems also contain significant levels of KS and a diverse range of KS-proteoglycans with essential functional roles. KS also displays important cell regulatory properties in epithelial and mesenchymal tissues and in bone and in tumour development of diagnostic and prognostic utility...
January 11, 2018: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339801/cardiac-glycoside-aglycones-inhibit-hiv-1-gene-expression-by-a-mechanism-requiring-mek1-2-erk1-2-signaling
#2
Raymond W Wong, Clifford A Lingwood, Mario A Ostrowski, Tyler Cabral, Alan Cochrane
The capacity of HIV-1 to develop resistance to current drugs calls for innovative strategies to control this infection. We aimed at developing novel inhibitors of HIV-1 replication by targeting viral RNA processing-a stage dependent on conserved host processes. We previously reported that digoxin is a potent inhibitor of this stage. Herein, we identify 12 other cardiac glycoside/aglycones or cardiotonic steroids (CSs) that impede HIV growth in HIV-infected T cells from clinical patients at IC50s (1.1-1.3 nM) that are 2-26 times below concentrations used in patients with heart conditions...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338738/rapid-hiv-disease-progression-following-superinfection-in-an-hla-b-27-05-b-57-01-positive-transmission-recipient
#3
Jacqui Brener, Astrid Gall, Jacob Hurst, Rebecca Batorsky, Nora Lavandier, Fabian Chen, Anne Edwards, Chrissy Bolton, Reena Dsouza, Todd Allen, Oliver G Pybus, Paul Kellam, Philippa C Matthews, Philip J R Goulder
BACKGROUND: The factors determining differential HIV disease outcome among individuals expressing protective HLA alleles such as HLA-B*27:05 and HLA-B*57:01 remain unknown. We here analyse two HIV-infected subjects expressing both HLA-B*27:05 and HLA-B*57:01. One subject maintained low-to-undetectable viral loads for more than a decade of follow up. The other progressed to AIDS in < 3 years. RESULTS: The rapid progressor was the recipient within a known transmission pair, enabling virus sequences to be tracked from transmission...
January 16, 2018: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338582/a-human-pericardium-biopolymeric-scaffold-for-autologous-heart-valve-tissue-engineering-cellular-and-extracellular-matrix-structure-and-biomechanical-properties-in-comparison-with-a-normal-aortic-heart-valve
#4
Frantisek Straka, David Schornik, Jaroslav Masin, Elena Filova, Tomas Mirejovsky, Zuzana Burdikova, Zdenek Svindrych, Hynek Chlup, Lukas Horny, Matej Daniel, Jiri Machac, Jelena Skibová, Jan Pirk, Lucie Bacakova
The objective of our study was to compare the cellular and extracellular matrix (ECM) structure and the biomechanical properties of human pericardium (HP) with the normal human aortic heart valve (NAV). HP tissues (from 12 patients) and NAV samples (from 5 patients) were harvested during heart surgery. The main cells in HP were pericardial interstitial cells (PICs), which are fibroblast-like cells of mesenchymal origin similar to the valvular interstitial cells (VICs) in NAV tissue. The extracellular matrix (ECM) of HP had a statistically significantly (p ≤ 0...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338056/context-dependent-autoprocessing-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-protease-precursors
#5
ChihFeng Tien, Liangqun Huang, Susan M Watanabe, Jordan T Speidel, Carol A Carter, Chaoping Chen
HIV-1 protease autoprocessing is responsible for liberation of free mature protease (PR) from the Gag-Pol polyprotein precursor. A cell-based model system was previously developed to examine the autoprocessing mechanism of fusion precursors carrying the p6*-PR miniprecursor sandwiched between various proteins or epitopes. We here report that precursor autoprocessing is context-dependent as its activity and outcomes can be modulated by sequences upstream of p6*-PR. This was exemplified by the 26aa maltose binding protein (MBP) signal peptide (SigP) when placed at the N-terminus of a fusion precursor...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336368/glycosaminoglycan-content-of-the-lateral-compartment-cartilage-in-knees-conforming-to-the-indications-for-oxford-medial-unicompartmental-knee-arthroplasty
#6
Fu-Yin Wan, Ju-An Yue, Wan-Shou Guo, Lu-Yao Ma, Ran Yan, Qi-Dong Zhang, Li-Ming Cheng
BACKGROUND: The quality of the lateral compartment cartilage is important to preoperative evaluation and prognostic prediction of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). Delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage (dGEMRIC) enables noninvasive assessment of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content in cartilage. This study aimed to determine the GAG content of the lateral compartment cartilage in knees scheduled to undergo Oxford medial UKA. METHODS: From December 2016 to May 2017, twenty patients (20 osteoarthritic knees) conforming to the indications for Oxford medial UKA were included as the osteoarthritis (OA) group, and 20 healthy volunteers (20 knees) paired by sex, knee side, age (±3 years), and body mass index (BMI) (±3 kg/m2) were included as the control group...
January 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332865/fibrillar-architecture-at-three-different-sites-of-the-bovine-superficial-digital-flexor-tendon
#7
Naoki Takahashi, Takuya Hirose, Jun A Minaguchi, Hiromi Ueda, Prasarn Tangkawattana, Kazushige Takehana
Superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) of the bovine hindlimb originates from the caudolateral aspect of the distal femur and finally inserts onto the plantar aspect of the middle phalanges. In the present study, morphology and morphometry of the bovine SDFT at the muscle-tendon junction (MTJ), middle metatarsus (mM) and tendon-bone interface (TBI) were investigated. Cross-sectional morphology at the three regions of SDFT were oval, semioval and ring-formed, respectively. Significant difference in cross-sectional area was found only between MTJ-mM and mM-TBI (P<0...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332576/current-understanding-of-physicochemical-mechanisms-for-cell-membrane-penetration-of-arginine-rich-cell-penetrating-peptides-role-of-glycosaminoglycan-interactions
#8
Yuki Takechi-Haraya, Hiroyuki Saito
Arginine-rich cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) are very promising drug carriers to deliver membrane-impermeable pharmaceuticals, such as siRNA, bioactive peptides and proteins. CPPs directly penetrate into cells across cell membranes via a spontaneous energy-independent process, in which CPPs appear to interact with acidic lipids in the outer leaflet of the cell membrane. However, acidic lipids represent only 10 to 20% of the total membrane lipid content and in mammalian cell membranes they are predominantly located in the inner leaflet...
January 11, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332151/1h-13c-and-15n-backbone-and-partial-side-chain-resonance-assignments-of-the-c-terminal-domain-of-hiv-1-pr55gag-encompassed-in-ncp15
#9
Valéry Larue, Marjorie Catala, Anissa Belfetmi, Loussiné Zargarian, Olivier Mauffret, Carine Tisné
During HIV-1 assembly, the Pr55Gag polyprotein precursor (Gag) interacts with the genomic RNA, with lipids of the plasma membrane, with host proteins (ALIX, TSG101) through the ESCRT complex, with the viral protein Vpr and are involved in intermolecular interactions with other Pr55Gag proteins. This network of interactions is responsible for the formation of the viral particle, the selection of genomic RNA and the packaging of Vpr. The C-terminal domain of Gag encompassed in NCp15 is involved in the majority of these interactions, either by its nucleocapsid or its p6 domains...
January 13, 2018: Biomolecular NMR Assignments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328962/so-you-think-computational-approaches-to-understanding-glycosaminoglycan-protein-interactions-are-too-dry-and-too-rigid-think-again
#10
REVIEW
Nehru Viji Sankaranarayanan, Balaji Nagarajan, Umesh R Desai
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) play key roles in virtually all biologic responses through their interaction with proteins. A major challenge in understanding these roles is their massive structural complexity. Computational approaches are extremely useful in navigating this bottleneck and, in some cases, the only avenue to gain comprehensive insight. We discuss the state-of-the-art on computational approaches and present a flowchart to help answer most basic, and some advanced, questions on GAG-protein interactions...
January 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328922/a-viral-arc-hive-for-metazoan-memory
#11
Nicholas F Parrish, Keizo Tomonaga
Arc, a master regulator of synaptic plasticity, contains sequence elements that are evolutionarily related to retrotransposon Gag genes. Two related papers in this issue of Cell show that Arc retains retroviral-like capsid-forming ability and can transmit mRNA between cells in the nervous system, a process that may be important for synaptic function.
January 11, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328916/the-neuronal-gene-arc-encodes-a-repurposed-retrotransposon-gag-protein-that-mediates-intercellular-rna-transfer
#12
Elissa D Pastuzyn, Cameron E Day, Rachel B Kearns, Madeleine Kyrke-Smith, Andrew V Taibi, John McCormick, Nathan Yoder, David M Belnap, Simon Erlendsson, Dustin R Morado, John A G Briggs, Cédric Feschotte, Jason D Shepherd
The neuronal gene Arc is essential for long-lasting information storage in the mammalian brain, mediates various forms of synaptic plasticity, and has been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. However, little is known about Arc's molecular function and evolutionary origins. Here, we show that Arc self-assembles into virus-like capsids that encapsulate RNA. Endogenous Arc protein is released from neurons in extracellular vesicles that mediate the transfer of Arc mRNA into new target cells, where it can undergo activity-dependent translation...
January 11, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328915/retrovirus-like-gag-protein-arc1-binds-rna-and-traffics-across-synaptic-boutons
#13
James Ashley, Benjamin Cordy, Diandra Lucia, Lee G Fradkin, Vivian Budnik, Travis Thomson
Arc/Arg3.1 is required for synaptic plasticity and cognition, and mutations in this gene are linked to autism and schizophrenia. Arc bears a domain resembling retroviral/retrotransposon Gag-like proteins, which multimerize into a capsid that packages viral RNA. The significance of such a domain in a plasticity molecule is uncertain. Here, we report that the Drosophila Arc1 protein forms capsid-like structures that bind darc1 mRNA in neurons and is loaded into extracellular vesicles that are transferred from motorneurons to muscles...
January 11, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326877/natural-history-of-morquio-a-patient-with-tracheal-obstruction-from-birth-to-death
#14
Caitlin Doherty, Lauren W Averill, Mary Theroux, William G Mackenzie, Christian Pizarro, Robert W Mason, Shunji Tomatsu
Morquio A syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis IVA, MPS IVA) is a lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase, resulting in systemic accumulation of the partially degraded glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), keratan sulfate and chondroitin-6-sulfate. The accumulation of these GAGs leads to distinguishing features as skeletal dysplasia with disproportionate dwarfism, short neck, kyphoscoliosis, pectus carinatum, tracheal obstruction, coxa valga, genu valgum, and joint laxity...
March 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326062/functional-effects-of-an-interpenetrating-polymer-network-on-articular-cartilage-mechanical-properties
#15
Janne Ta Mäkelä, Benjamin G Cooper, Rami K Korhonen, Mark W Grinstaff, Brian D Snyder
OBJECTIVE: Depletion of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and degradation of collagen network are early hallmarks of osteoarthritis. Currently, there are no chondroprotective therapies that mitigate the loss of GAGs or effectively restore the collagen network. Recently, a novel polymeric cartilage supplement was described that forms a charged interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) reconstituting the hydrophilic properties of the extracellular matrix. To investigate the mechanism by which this hydrophilic IPN improves articular cartilage material properties, a finite element (FE) model is used to evaluate the IPN's effect on the fibrillar collagen network, nonfibrillar matrix, and interstitial fluid flow...
January 8, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325736/differential-association-of-dennd1agenetic-variants-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-in-tunisian-but-not-bahraini-arab-women
#16
Meriem Dallel, Sameh Sarray, Zeineb Douma, Feten Hachani, Abrar K Al-Ansari, Dhafer B Letaifa, Touhami Mahjoub, Wassim Y Almawi
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder, and results from interaction between modifiable and non-modifiable factors, including genetic predisposition. Previous genome-wide association studies and meta-analysis identified DENND1A as PCOS susceptibility locus in some, but not all populations. We investigated whether the association of DENND1A gene variants with PCOS was similar between Tunisian and Bahraini Arab women. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This was retrospective case-control study...
January 8, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310785/isolation-and-functional-analysis-of-syndecans
#17
Pyong Woo Park
Syndecans comprise a major family of cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). Syndecans are composed of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), heparan sulfate (HS) or both HS and chondroitin sulfate (CS), attached covalently to core proteins. Syndecans regulate many cellular processes, such as adhesion, proliferation, and migration. Syndecans bind and regulate molecules primarily through their HS chains, but do not bind to all HS/heparin-binding molecules. Furthermore, mice ablated for the syndecan-1 or -4 gene do not show major developmental abnormalities, but they do show striking pathological phenotypes when challenged with infectious or inflammatory stimuli and conditions, suggesting that certain functions of syndecans are specific and cannot be compensated for by other syndecans or other HSPGs...
2018: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308619/direct-coculture-of-human-chondrocytes-and-synovium-derived-stem-cells-enhances-in-vitro-chondrogenesis
#18
Tae Woo Kim, Myung Chul Lee, Hyun Cheol Bae, Hyuk-Soo Han
OBJECTIVES: Coculture of chondrocytes and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been developed as a strategy to overcome the dedifferentiation of chondrocytes during in vitro expansion in autologous chondrocyte transplantation. Synovium-derived stem cells (SDSCs) can be a promising cell source for coculture due to their superior chondrogenic potential compared to other MSCs and easy accessibility without donor site morbidity. However, studies on coculture of chondrocytes and SDSCs are very limited...
April 2018: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305777/glycosaminoglycans-from-bovine-eye-vitreous-humour-and-interaction-with-collagen-type-ii
#19
Yanfei Peng, Yanlei Yu, Lei Lin, Xinyue Liu, Xing Zhang, Peipei Wang, Pauline Hoffman, So Young Kim, Fuming Zhang, Robert J Linhardt
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) play an important role in stabilizing the gel state of eye vitreous humour. In this study, the composition of GAGs present in bovine eye vitreous was characterized through disaccharide analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The interaction of GAGs with collagen type II was assessed using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The percentage of hyaluronic acid (HA), chondroitin sulfate (CS) and heparan sulfate (HS), of total GAG, were 96.2%, 3.5% and 0.3%, respectively. The disaccharide composition of CS consisted of 4S (49%), 0S (38%) 6S (12%), 2S6S (1...
January 5, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304063/expression-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-hiv-1-coat-protein-genes-in-plants-using-cotton-leaf-curl-multan-betasatellite-based-vector
#20
Elham Ataie Kachoie, Seyed Ali Akbar Behjatnia, Sara Kharazmi
It has already been demonstrated that a betasatellite associated with cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMB) can be used as a plant and animal gene delivery vector to plants. To examine the ability of CLCuMB as a tool to transfer coat protein genes of HIV-1 to plants, two recombinant CLCuMB constructs in which the CLCuMB βC1 ORF was replaced with two HIV-1 genes fractions including a 696 bp DNA fragment related to the HIV-1 p24 gene and a 1501 bp DNA fragment related to the HIV-1 gag gene were constructed...
2018: PloS One
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