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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780384/discrimination-between-human-leukocyte-antigen-class-i-bound-and-co-purified-hiv-derived-peptides-in-immunopeptidomics-workflows
#1
Thomas Partridge, Annalisa Nicastri, Anna E Kliszczak, Louis-Marie Yindom, Benedikt M Kessler, Nicola Ternette, Persephone Borrow
Elucidation of novel peptides presented by human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I alleles by immunopeptidomics constitutes a powerful approach that can inform the rational design of CD8+ T cell inducing vaccines to control infection with pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) or to combat tumors. Recent advances in the sensitivity of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry instrumentation have facilitated the discovery of thousands of natural HLA-restricted peptides in a single measurement...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779903/glycosaminoglycans-analysis-in-blood-and-urine-of-patients-with-mucopolysaccharidosis
#2
Shaukat A Khan, Robert W Mason, Roberto Giugliani, Kenji Orii, Toshiyuki Fukao, Yasuyuki Suzuki, Seiji Yamaguchi, Hironori Kobayashi, Tadao Orii, Shunji Tomatsu
To explore the correlation between glycosaminoglycan (GAG) levels and mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type, we have evaluated the GAG levels in blood of MPS II, III, IVA, and IVB and urine of MPS IVA, IVB, and VI by tandem mass spectrometry. Dermatan sulfate (DS), heparan sulfate (HS), keratan sulfate (KS; mono-sulfated KS, di-sulfated KS), and the ratio of di-sulfated KS in total KS were measured. Patients with untreated MPS II had higher levels of DS and HS in blood while untreated MPS III had higher levels of HS in blood than age-matched controls...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779902/molecular-genetics-and-metabolism-special-edition-diagnosis-diagnosis-and-prognosis-of-mucopolysaccharidosis-iva
#3
REVIEW
Hira Peracha, Kazuki Sawamoto, Lauren Averill, Heidi Kecskemethy, Mary Theroux, Mihir Thacker, Kyoko Nagao, Christian Pizarro, William Mackenzie, Hironori Kobayashi, Seiji Yamaguchi, Yasuyuki Suzuki, Kenji Orii, Tadao Orii, Toshiyuki Fukao, Shunji Tomatsu
Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA, Morquio A syndrome) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to the accumulation of specific glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), chondroitin-6-sulfate (C6S) and keratan sulfate (KS), which are mainly synthesized in the cartilage. Therefore, the substrates are stored primarily in the cartilage and its extracellular matrix (ECM), leading to a direct impact on bone development and successive systemic skeletal spondylepiphyseal dysplasia...
May 15, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773674/deep-sequencing-of-complex-proteoglycans-a-novel-strategy-for-high-coverage-and-site-specific-identification-of-glycosaminoglycan-linked-peptides
#4
Joshua A Klein, Le Meng, Joseph Zaia
Proteoglycans are distributed in all animal tissues and play critical, multifaceted, physiological roles.  Expressed in a spatially- and temporally-regulated manner, these molecules regulate interactions among growth factors and cell surface receptors and play key roles in basement membranes and other extracellular matrices.  Due to the high degree of glycosylation by glycosaminoglycan (GAG), N-glycan and mucin-type O-glycan classes, the peptide sequence coverage of complex proteoglycans is revealed poorly by standard mass spectrometry-based proteomics methods...
May 17, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773649/ptap-motif-duplication-in-the-p6-gag-protein-confers-a-replication-advantage-on-hiv-1-subtype-c
#5
Shilpee Sharma, Prabhu S Arunachalam, Malini Menon, Viswanath Ragupathy, Ravi Vijaya Satya, Joshua Jebaraj, Shambhu Ganeshappa Aralaguppe, Chaitra Rao, Sreshtha Pal, Shanmugam Saravanan, Kailapuri G Murugavel, Pachamuthu Balakrishnan, Suniti Solomon, Indira Hewlett, Udaykumar Ranga
HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1C) may duplicate longer amino acid stretches in the p6 Gag protein, leading to the creation of an additional Pro-Thr/Ser-Ala-Pro (PTAP) motif necessary for viral packaging. However, the biological significance of a duplication of the PTAP motif for HIV-1 replication and pathogenesis has not been experimentally validated. In a longitudinal study of two different clinical cohorts of select HIV-1 seropositive, drug-naive individuals from India, we found that 8 of 50 of these individuals harbored a mixed infection of viral strains discordant for the PTAP duplication...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773224/early-env-specific-ctls-effectively-suppress-viral-replication-in-shiv-controller-macaques
#6
Jin Fan, Hua Liang, Tao Shen, Shuo Wang, Xiaolin Ji, Cassian Yee, Fengmin Lu, Yiming Shao
Early immunological events in acute HIV infection are thought to fundamentally influence long-term disease outcomes. Though the contribution of Gag-specific CD8 T cell responses to early viral control is well established, little is known about the role of Env-specific CD8 T cell responses in controlling viral replication during acute infection. In a macaque simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) model, some macaques who were able to control SHIV replication after ART interruption showed expansion of Env-specific CD8 T cell responses during acute infection, compared to macaques who progressed to viral rebound...
May 5, 2018: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772651/properties-and-functions-of-feline-immunodeficiency-virus-gag-domains-in-virion-assembly-and-budding
#7
REVIEW
Silvia A González, José L Affranchino
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is an important cat pathogen worldwide whose biological and pathophysiological properties resemble those of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Therefore, the study of FIV not only benefits its natural host but is also useful for the development of antiviral strategies directed against HIV-1 infections in humans. FIV assembly results from the multimerization of a single but complex viral polypeptide, the Gag precursor. In this review, we will first give an overview of the current knowledge of the proteins encoded by the FIV pol , env , rev , vif, and orf-A genes, and then we will describe and discuss in detail the critical roles that each of the FIV Gag domains plays in virion morphogenesis...
May 16, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768676/ccl19-with-ccl21-tail-displays-enhanced-glycosaminoglycan-binding-with-retained-chemotactic-potency-in-dendritic-cells
#8
Astrid S Jørgensen, Pontian E Adogamhe, Julia M Laufer, Daniel F Legler, Christopher T Veldkamp, Mette M Rosenkilde, Gertrud M Hjortø
CCL19 is more potent than CCL21 in inducing chemotaxis of human dendritic cells (DC). This difference is attributed to 1) a stronger interaction of the basic C-terminal tail of CCL21 with acidic glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the environment and 2) an autoinhibitory function of this C-terminal tail. Moreover, different receptor docking modes and tissue expression patterns of CCL19 and CCL21 contribute to fine-tuned control of CCR7 signaling. Here, we investigate the effect of the tail of CCL21 on chemokine binding to GAGs and on CCR7 activation...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762123/identification-of-a-critical-sulfation-in-chondroitin-that-inhibits-axonal-regeneration
#9
Craig S Pearson, Caitlin P Mencio, Amanda C Barber, Keith R Martin, Herbert M Geller
The failure of mammalian CNS neurons to regenerate their axons derives from a combination of intrinsic deficits and extrinsic factors. Following injury, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) within the glial scar inhibit axonal regeneration, an action mediated by the sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains of CSPGs, especially those with 4-sulfated (4S) sugars. Arylsulfatase B (ARSB) selectively cleaves 4S groups from the non-reducing ends of GAG chains without disrupting other, growth-permissive motifs...
May 15, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760942/induction-of-chondrogenesis-of-human-placenta-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-via-heparin-grafted-human-fibroblast-derived-matrix
#10
Yong Kwan Noh, Ping Du, Avelino Dos Santos Da Costa, Kwideok Park
Background: Formation of mature and functional articular cartilage is still challenging in cartilage tissue engineering. This study investigates the potential of using heparin-grafted decellularized extracellular matrix (ECM) as a novel growth factor delivery platform towards human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hPMSCs) chondrogenic differentiation. Human fibroblast-derived extracellular matrix (hFDM) is naturally obtained from in vitro-cultured human lung fibroblasts via a mild decellularization process...
2018: Biomaterials Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760693/treatment-intensification-in-hiv-infected-patients-is-associated-with-reduced-frequencies-of-regulatory-t-cells
#11
Eva M Grützner, Tanja Hoffmann, Eva Wolf, Elke Gersbacher, Ashley Neizert, Renate Stirner, Ramona Pauli, Albrecht Ulmer, Jürgen Brust, Johannes R Bogner, Hans Jaeger, Rika Draenert
In untreated HIV infection, the efficacy of T cell responses decreases over the disease course, resulting in disease progression. The reasons for this development are not completely understood. However, immunosuppressive cells are supposedly crucially involved. Treatment strategies to avoid the induction of these cells preserve immune functions and are therefore the object of intense research efforts. In this study, we assessed the effect of treatment intensification [=5-drug antiretroviral therapy (ART)] on the development of suppressive cell subsets...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758159/redox-responsive-micellar-nanoparticles-from-glycosaminoglycans-for-cd44-targeted-drug-delivery
#12
Ana M Carvalho, Raquel Teixeira, Ramon Novoa-Carballal, Ricardo A Pires, Rui L Reis, Iva Pashkuleva
Cancer progression is associated with overexpression of various receptors at the cell surface. Among these, CD44 is known to recognize and bind specifically hyaluronan (HA) and interact with less affinity to other glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), such as chondroitin sulfate (CS). In this study, we describe a simple method to obtain micellar nanoparticles with GAGs shell (HA or CS) as potential drug delivery systems that target cancer cells overexpressing CD44. Alkane thiol was conjugated at the reducing end of the respective GAG using highly efficient oxime chemistry...
May 14, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755652/correlation-of-mdr1-gene-polymorphism-with-propofol-combined-with-remifentanil-anesthesia-in-pediatric-tonsillectomy
#13
YunLong Zhang, Yongpei Li, Hongfa Wang, Fang Cai, Sheliang Shen, Xiaopan Luo
The motive of this study was to investigate the interaction between polymorphisms in the MDR1 gene and anesthetic effects following pediatric tonsillectomy. In total, 240 children undergoing tonsillectomy with preoperative propofol-remifentanil anesthesia were selected. Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood of children after operation, and the MDR1 gene polymorphisms of 2677 G>T/A, 1236 C>T and 3435 C>T were detected by direct sequencing. We tested mean arterial pressure, diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure, and heart rate at several time-points: T0 (5 mins after the repose), T1 (0 min after tracheal intubation), T2 (5 mins after the tracheal intubation), T3 (0 min after the tonsillectomy), T4 (0 min after removal of the mouth-gag) and T5 (5 min after the extubation)...
April 17, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752967/hiv-1-matrix-protein-interactions-with-trna-implications-for-membrane-targeting
#14
Christy R Gaines, Emre Tkacik, Amalia Rivera-Oven, Phoebe Somani, Alecia Achimovich, Tawakalitou Alabi, Angela Zhu, Noel Getachew, Ae Lim Yang, Matthew McDonough, Tarik Hawkins, Zoe Spadaro, Michael F Summers
The N-terminally myristoylated matrix domain (MA) of the HIV-1 Gag polyprotein promotes virus assembly by targeting Gag to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane (PM). Recent studies indicate that, prior to membrane binding, MA associates with cytoplasmic tRNAs (including tRNALys3 ), and in vitro studies of tRNA-dependent MA interactions with model membranes have led to proposals that competitive tRNA interactions contribute to membrane discrimination. We have characterized interactions between native, mutant, and unmyristylated (myr-) MA proteins and recombinant tRNALys3 by NMR spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC)...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752409/specific-glycosaminoglycan-chain-length-and-sulfation-patterns-are-required-for-cell-uptake-of-tau-vs-%C3%AE-synuclein-and-%C3%AE-amyloid-aggregates
#15
Barbara E Stopschinski, Brandon B Holmes, Gregory M Miller, Victor A Manon, Jaime Vaquer-Alicea, William L Prueitt, Linda C Hsieh-Wilson, Marc I Diamond
Transcellular propagation of protein aggregate "seeds" has been proposed to mediate the progression of neurodegenerative diseases in tauopathies and α-synucleinopathies. We previously reported that tau and α-synuclein aggregates bind heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) on the cell surface, promoting cellular uptake and intracellular seeding. However, the specificity and binding mode of these protein aggregates to HSPGs remain unknown. Here, we measured direct binding to modified heparins to determine the size and sulfation requirements for tau, α-synuclein, and β-amyloid (Aβ) aggregate binding to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs)...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752339/resveratrol-enhances-matrix-biosynthesis-of-nucleus-pulposus-cells-through-activating-autophagy-via-the-pi3k-akt-pathway-under-oxidative-damage
#16
Jinlou Gao, Qingyun Zhang, Lin Song
BACKGROUND: The decrease in nucleus pulposus (NP) matrix production is a classic  feature during disc degeneration. Resveratrol (RSV) is reported to play protective effects under many pathological factors. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to study the effects of RSV on NP matrix homeostasis under oxidative damage and the potential mechanism. METHODS: Rat NP cells were exposed to H2 O2 solution to create an oxidative damage. RSV and the 3‑Methyladenine (3-MA) was added along with the culture medium to respectively investigate the role of RSV and cellular autophagy...
May 11, 2018: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749312/aav-mediated-overexpression-of-il-10-mitigates-the-inflammatory-cascade-in-stimulated-equine-chondrocyte-pellets
#17
Kyla Ortved, Laila Begum, Darko Stefanovski, Alan Nixon
BACKGROUND: following joint trauma, a post-traumatic inflammatory cascade drives degeneration of the joint. We aimed to assess whether transduction of chondrocytes with AAV5 overexpressing the immunomodulatory cytokine IL-10 would have protective effects in pellet cultures stimulated with IL-1β. METHODS: Chondrocytes were isolated from 3 healthy horses and were transduced with AAV5-IL-10 at a dose of 1 x 105vg/cell. Chondrocyte pellets were formed by centrifugation and were stimulated with IL-1β starting 48 hours following transduction...
May 10, 2018: Current Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749108/biomaterial-characterization-of-off-the-shelf-decellularized-porcine-pericardial-tissue-for-use-in-prosthetic-valvular-applications
#18
Joshua A Choe, Soumen Jana, Brandon J Tefft, Ryan S Hennessy, Jason Go, David Morse, Amir Lerman, Melissa D Young
Fixed pericardial tissue is commonly used for commercially available xenograft valve implants, and has proven durability, but lacks the capability to remodel and grow. Decellularized porcine pericardial tissue has the promise to outperform fixed tissue and remodel, but the decellularization process has been shown to damage the collagen structure and reduce mechanical integrity of the tissue. Therefore, a comparison of uniaxial tensile properties was performed on decellularized, decellularized-sterilized, fixed, and native porcine pericardial tissue, versus native valve leaflet cusps...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748537/single-molecule-fate-of-hiv-1-envelope-reveals-late-stage-viral-lattice-incorporation
#19
Carmen A Buttler, Nairi Pezeshkian, Melissa V Fernandez, Jesse Aaron, Sofya Norman, Eric O Freed, Schuyler B van Engelenburg
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) assembly occurs on the inner leaflet of the host cell plasma membrane, incorporating the essential viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) within a budding lattice of HIV-1 Gag structural proteins. The mechanism by which Env incorporates into viral particles remains poorly understood. To determine the mechanism of recruitment of Env to assembly sites, we interrogate the subviral angular distribution of Env on cell-associated virus using multicolor, three-dimensional (3D) superresolution microscopy...
May 10, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748498/single-viruses-on-the-fluorescence-microscope-imaging-molecular-mobility-interactions-and-structure-sheds-new-light-on-viral-replication
#20
REVIEW
Nagma Parveen, Doortje Borrenberghs, Susana Rocha, Jelle Hendrix
Viruses are simple agents exhibiting complex reproductive mechanisms. Decades of research have provided crucial basic insights, antiviral medication and moderately successful gene therapy trials. The most infectious viral particle is, however, not always the most abundant one in a population, questioning the utility of classic ensemble-averaging virology. Indeed, viral replication is often not particularly efficient, prone to errors or containing parallel routes. Here, we review different single-molecule sensitive fluorescence methods that we employ routinely to investigate viruses...
May 10, 2018: Viruses
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