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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436273/proteome-analysis-of-sheep-b-lymphocytes-in-the-course-of-bovine-leukemia-virus-induced-leukemia
#1
Michal Reichert
Presented are the results of a study of the expression pattern of different proteins in the course of bovine leukemia virus-induced leukemia in experimental sheep and I discuss how the obtained data may be useful in gaining a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease, diagnosis, and for the selection of possible therapeutic targets. In cattle, the disease is characterized by life-long persistent lymphocytosis leading to leukemia/lymphoma in about 5% of infected animals. In sheep, as opposed to cattle, the course of the disease is always fatal and clinical symptoms usually occur within a three-year period after infection...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426803/dendritic-cell-maturation-but-not-type-i-interferon-exposure-restricts-infection-by-htlv-1-and-viral-transmission-to-t-cells
#2
Gergès Rizkallah, Sandrine Alais, Nicolas Futsch, Yuetsu Tanaka, Chloé Journo, Renaud Mahieux, Hélène Dutartre
Human T lymphotropic Virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiological agent of Adult T cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL) and HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Both CD4+ T-cells and dendritic cells (DCs) infected with HTLV-1 are found in peripheral blood from HTLV-1 carriers. We previously demonstrated that monocyte-derived IL-4 DCs are more susceptible to HTLV-1 infection than autologous primary T-cells, suggesting that DC infection precedes T-cell infection. However, during blood transmission, breast-feeding or sexual transmission, HTLV-1 may encounter different DC subsets present in the blood, the intestinal or genital mucosa respectively...
April 20, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420387/effects-of-host-restriction-factors-and-the-htlv-1-subtype-on-susceptibility-to-htlv-1-associated-myelopathy-tropical-spastic-paraparesis
#3
Satoshi Nozuma, Eiji Matsuura, Daisuke Kodama, Yuichi Tashiro, Toshio Matsuzaki, Ryuji Kubota, Shuji Izumo, Hiroshi Takashima
BACKGROUND: Although human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is a prerequisite for the development of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), specific provirus mutations in HAM/TSP have not yet been reported. In this study, we examined whether HAM/TSP patients had the disease-specific genomic variants of HTLV-1 by analyzing entire sequences of HTLV-1 proviruses in these patients, including familial cases. In addition, we investigated the genetic variants of host restriction factors conferring antiretroviral activity to determine which mutations may be related to resistance or susceptibility to HAM/TSP...
April 19, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412826/prevalence-of-human-t-lymphotropic-virus-type-1-htlv-1-infection-in-patients-with-hematologic-disorders-and-non-hematologic-malignancies-in-a-tertiary-referral-hospital
#4
Hasan Jalaeikhoo, Mosayeb Soleymani, Mohsen Rajaeinejad, Manoutchehr Keyhani
BACKGROUND: Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was the first retrovirus identified in human. The current evidence is quite scarce regarding the potential role of HTLV-1 in pathogenesis of hematologic disorders and non-hematologic malignancies. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of HTLV-1 infection in patients with hematologic disorders and non-hematologic malignancies. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 505 cases of definite diagnosis of hematologic disorders including malignancies as well as non-malignant disorders such as polycythemia and myelofibrosis and non-hematologic malignancies referred to the hematology and medical oncology ward at Army Hospital 501 from January 2015 to January 2016...
April 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410448/il17a-polymorphism-is-not-associated-with-human-t-lymphotropic-virus-1-associated-myelopathy-tropical-spastic-paraparesis
#5
Heytor V P C Neco, Vanessa G S Teixeira, Ana C L Trindade, Paula M R Magalhães, Virgínia M B Lorena, Luydson R Vasconcelos, Patricia M M F Moura, Clarice N L Morais
The human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The present study investigated the association between the rs2275913 polymorphism in the IL17A gene and the development of HAM/TSP. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 116 patients (29 symptomatic patients with HAM/TSP and 87 asymptomatic) with a positive diagnosis of HTLV-1. The single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping was carried out by real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) using TaqMan(®) probes...
April 14, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392570/human-t-cell-lymphotropic-virus-type-1-and-its-oncogenesis
#6
REVIEW
Lan-Lan Zhang, Jing-Yun Wei, Long Wang, Shi-le Huang, Ji-Long Chen
Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), a rapidly progressing clonal malignancy of CD4+ T lymphocytes. Exploring the host-HTLV-1 interactions and the molecular mechanisms underlying HTLV-1-mediated tumorigenesis is critical for developing efficient therapies against the viral infection and associated leukemia/lymphoma. It has been demonstrated to date that several HTLV-1 proteins play key roles in the cellular transformation and immortalization of infected T lymphocytes...
April 10, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384290/mait-cells-are-reduced-in-frequency-and-functionally-impaired-in-human-t-lymphotropic-virus-type-1-infection-potential-clinical-implications
#7
Dominic Paquin-Proulx, Benjamin C Greenspun, Emanuela A S Costa, Aluisio C Segurado, Esper G Kallas, Douglas F Nixon, Fabio E Leal
HTLV-1 infection is associated with several inflammatory disorders, including the neurodegenerative condition HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). It is unclear why a minority of infected subjects develop HAM/TSP. The cellular immune response has been implicated in the development of inflammatory alterations in these patients; however the pathogenic mechanisms for disease progression remain unclear. Furthermore, HTLV-1-infected individuals have an increase incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, suggesting that immunological defect are associated with HTLV-1 infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384180/silent-dissemination-of-htlv-1-in-an-endemic-area-of-argentina-epidemiological-and-molecular-evidence-of-intrafamilial-transmission
#8
María C Frutos, Rene Gastaldello, Marcos Balangero, Carlos Remondegui, Sebastián Blanco, Koko Otsuki, Ana Carolina Paulo Vicente, David Elías, Arnaldo Mangeaud, Silvia Nates, Sandra Gallego
BACKGROUND: Molecular and epidemiological studies of transmission routes and risk factors for infection by HTLV-1 are extremely important in order to implement control measures, especially because of the high prevalence of HTLV-1 in several regions of the world. San Salvador de Jujuy, Northwest Argentina, is a highly endemic area for HTLV-1 and foci of tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1-associated myelopathy. OBJECTIVE: To gain further insight into the role of intrafamilial transmission of HTLV-1 in a highly endemic region in Argentina...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378248/role-of-il-21-in-htlv-1-infections-with-emphasis-on-htlv-1-associated-myelopathy-tropical-spastic-paraparesis-ham-tsp
#9
Taraneh Rajaei, Hamid Farajifard, Houshang Rafatpanah, Reza Bustani, Narges Valizadeh, Bahareh Rajaei, Seyed Abdolrahim Rezaee
Interleukin-21 (IL-21) enhances the survival and cytotoxic properties of cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) and exhibits essential roles in controlling chronic viral infections. HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a chronic progressive inflammatory disease of the nervous system. The main determinant of disease progression is efficiency of the CTL response to Human T lymphotropic virus types I (HTLV-1). In this study, the expression of host IL-21 and HTLV-I Tax and proviral load (PVL) was evaluated to understand the role and mechanism of IL-21 in HTLV-1 infections and the subsequent development of HAM/TSP...
April 4, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376092/cytokine-profile-and-proviral-load-among-japanese-immigrants-and-non-japanese-infected-with-htlv-1-in-a-non-endemic-area-of-brazil
#10
João Américo Domingos, Luana Silva Soares, Larissa M Bandeira, Camila Mareti Bonin, Ana C P Vicente, Louise Zanella, Marco Antonio Moreira Puga, Inês Aparecida Tozetti, Ana Rita Coimbra Motta-Castro, Rivaldo Venâncio da Cunha
The lifetime risk of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) development differs among ethnic groups. To better understand these differences, this prospective cohort study was conducted to investigate the cytokine profile and the HTLV-1 proviral load (PVL) in Japanese and non-Japanese populations with HAM/TSP and asymptomatic carriers (ACs). The serum IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, TNF-α, and IFN-γ levels were quantified using the Cytometric Bead Array in 40 HTLV-1-infected patients (11 HAM/TSP and 29 ACs) and 18 healthy controls (HCs) in Brazil...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374110/htlv-1-infection-and-neuropathogenesis-in-the-context-of-rag1-%C3%AE-c-rag1-hu-and-blt-mice
#11
Rashida Ginwala, Breanna Caruso, Zafar K Khan, Ajinkya Pattekar, Glen M Chew, Michael J Corley, Ronak Loonawat, Steven Jacobson, Sreesha Sreedhar, Lishomwa C Ndhlovu, Pooja Jain
To date, the lack of a suitable small animal model has hindered our understanding of Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-1 chronic infection and associated neuropathogenesis defined as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The host immune response plays a critical role in the outcome of HTLV-1 infection, which could be better tested in the context of humanized (hu) mice. Thus, we employ here the Balb/c-Rag1(-/-)γc(-/-) or Rag1 as well as Bone marrow-Liver-Thymic (BLT) mouse models for engraftment of human CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357671/analysis-of-nk-cell-function-and-receptor-expression-during-htlv-1-and-htlv-2-infection
#12
Federica Bozzano, Francesco Marras, Andrea De Maria
Cytofluorimetric analysis is a typical method in immunology to evaluate phenotype and function of Natural Killer (NK) cells derived from HTLV-1/2 infected patients and healthy donors. Here, we described protocols to NK cells phenotypical and cytotoxicity assay, performed by flow cytometry on fresh and immune-magnetically or flow cytometry sorted NK cells. A new developed protocol able to evaluate IFNγ production has been included.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357670/quantification-of-cell-turnover-in-the-bovine-leukemia-virus-model
#13
Alix de Brogniez, Pierre-Yves Barez, Alexandre Carpentier, Geronimo Gutierrez, Michal Reichert, Karina Trono, Luc Willems
In a perspective of a comparative virology approach, characterization of the bovine leukemia virus (BLV) model may be helpful to better understand infection by the related human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). In this paper, we first provide detailed protocols to inoculate cloned BLV proviruses into sheep or cattle. We also describe methods to quantify apoptosis ex vivo and cell turnover in vivo.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357669/expression-of-htlv-1-genes-in-t-cells-using-rna-electroporation
#14
Mariangela Manicone, Francesca Rende, Ilaria Cavallari, Andrea K Thoma-Kress, Vincenzo Ciminale
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infects about 20 million people world-wide. Around 5% of the infected individuals develop adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) or a neurological disease termed tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP) after a clinical latency of years to decades. Through the use of two promoters and alternative splicing HTLV-1 expresses at least 12 different proteins. HTLV-1 establishes a life-long persistent infection by inducing the clonal expansion of infected cells, a property largely ascribed to the viral genes Tax and HBZ...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357668/str-profiling-of-htlv-1-infected-cell-lines
#15
Vittoria Raimondi, Sonia Minuzzo, Vincenzo Ciminale, Donna M D'Agostino
Many investigations of the replication and pathogenesis of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) employ chronically infected cell lines, cell lines stabilized from primary adult T-cell leukemia cells, and noninfected T-cell lines. The validity of data obtained from such studies depends on the unambiguous identification of each cell line, which can be performed by short-tandem-repeat (STR) profiling (DNA fingerprinting). While kit-based profiling represents the standard method for cell line authentication, not all labs have ready access to the required capillary electrophoresis equipment, and the costs of such tests can become substantial, especially if the cell lines are to be tested frequently...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357666/methods-for-identifying-and-examining-htlv-1-hbz-post-translational-modifications
#16
Jacob Al-Saleem, Mamuka Kvaratskhelia, Patrick L Green
Post-translational modifications (PTMs) are chemical alterations to individual amino acids that alter a protein's conformation, stability, and/or function. Several pathogenic viruses have been shown to encode proteins with PTMs, including human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax and Rex regulatory proteins. HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper protein (HBZ) was hypothesized to feature PTMs due to its functional activities and interactions with cellular transcription factors and acetyltransferases. Here, we describe the approach used to identify, via mass spectrometry, the PTMs of HBZ...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357663/a-luciferase-functional-quantitative-assay-for-measuring-nf-%C3%A4-b-promoter-transactivation-mediated-by-htlv-1-and-htlv-2-tax-proteins
#17
Elisa Bergamo, Erica Diani, Umberto Bertazzoni, Maria Grazia Romanelli
HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 viruses express Tax transactivator proteins required for viral genome transcription and capable of transforming cells in vivo and in vitro. Although Tax oncogenic potential needs to be further elucidated, it is well established that Tax proteins activate, among others, transcription factors of the NF-ĸB family, which are involved in immune and inflammatory responses, cell growth, apoptosis, stress responses and oncogenesis. Here, we describe a reporter gene assay applied for quantitative analysis of Tax-dependent NF-ĸB activation...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357661/quantitative-analysis-of-human-t-lymphotropic-virus-type-1-htlv-1-infection-using-co-culture-with-jurkat-ltr-luciferase-or-jurkat-ltr-gfp-reporter-cells
#18
Sandrine Alais, Hélène Dutartre, Renaud Mahieux
Unlike HIV-1, HTLV-1 viral transmission requires cell-to-cell contacts, while cell-free virions are poorly infectious and almost absent from body fluids. Though the virus uses three nonexclusive mechanisms to infect new target cells: (1) MTOC polarization followed by formation of a virological synapse and viral transfer into a synaptic cleft, (2) genesis of a viral biofilm and its transfer of embedded viruses, or (3) HTLV-1 transmission using conduits. The Tax transactivator and the p8 viral proteins are involved in virological synapse and nanotube formation respectively...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357660/reporter-systems-to-study-htlv-1-transmission
#19
Christine Gross, Andrea K Thoma-Kress
The retrovirus Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) preferentially infects CD4(+) T-cells via cell-to-cell transmission, while cell-free infection of T-cells is inefficient. Substantial insights into the different routes of transmission have largely been obtained by imaging techniques or by flow cytometry. Recently, strategies to quantify infection events with HTLV-1 improved. In this chapter, we present two different methods to quantitate virus transmission. Both methods are based on measuring gene activity of luciferase with a cost-saving in-house luciferase assay...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357659/molecular-epidemiology-database-for-sequence-management-and-data-mining
#20
Thessika Hialla Almeida Araújo, Filipe Ferreira de Almeida Rego, Luiz Carlos Junior Alcantara
A central database to aggregate sequence information from a range of epidemiological aspects including HTLV-1 pathogenesis, origin, and evolutionary dynamic would be useful to scientists and physicians worldwide. This Chapter describes two online tools for studies related to HTLV-1, the HTLV-1 Molecular Epidemiology Database and the HTLV-1 Subtyping Tool. The HTLV-1 Molecular Epidemiology Database is a tool for sequence management and data mining which allows researchers to download sequences with clinical and demographic information...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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