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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205173/measurement-of-mitochondrial-cholesterol-import-using-a-mitochondria-targeted-cyp11a1-fusion-construct
#1
Barry E Kennedy, Mark Charman, Barbara Karten
All animal membranes require cholesterol as an essential regulator of biophysical properties and function, but the levels of cholesterol vary widely among different subcellular compartments. Mitochondria, and in particular the inner mitochondrial membrane, have the lowest levels of cholesterol in the cell. Nevertheless, mitochondria need cholesterol for membrane maintenance and biogenesis, as well as oxysterol, steroid, and hepatic bile acid production. Alterations in mitochondrial cholesterol have been associated with a range of pathological conditions, including cancer, hepatosteatosis, cardiac ischemia, Alzheimer's, and Niemann-Pick Type C Disease...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205168/crispr-cas9-mediated-generation-of-niemann-pick-c1-knockout-cell-line
#2
Ximing Du, Ivan Lukmantara, Hongyuan Yang
Generating a cholesterol storage phenotype of Niemann-Pick Type C (NPC) disease is important for investigating the mechanisms of intracellular cholesterol trafficking, as well as screening drugs for potential treatment of NPC disease. The use of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology to knockout specific genes within the genome of mammals has become routine in the past few years. Here, we describe a protocol for producing a cellular NPC cholesterol storage phenotype in HeLa cells using the CRISPR-Cas9 system to disrupt the NPC1 gene...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203333/anesthetic-management-in-a-child-with-niemann-pick-disease
#3
Ebrahim Espahbodi, Amir Abbas Yaghooti, Abbas Ostadalipour, Shaqayeq Marashi
Niemann-Pick is a lipid storage disease that results from a lysosomal enzyme deficiency (sphingomyelinase). It has different presentations, and it may affect various organs such as the central nervous system, kidney, liver, and spleen. Due to the complexity of the disease, careful perianesthetic management is necessary in order to reduce the risks and sequels. As there is little evidence available in the literature regarding the anesthetic implications of such patients, in this case report we describe the anesthetic management of a two-year-old female with Niemann-Pick disease...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199789/plasma-cholesterol-lowering-activity-of-tartary-buckwheat-protein
#4
Chengnan Zhang, Rui Zhang, Yuk Man Li, Ning Liang, Yimin Zhao, Hanyue Zhu, Zouyan He, Jianhui Liu, Wangjun Hao, Rui Jiao, Ka Ying Ma, Zhen-Yu Chen
Previous research has shown Tartary buckwheat flour is capable of reducing plasma cholesterol. The present study was to examine the effect of rutin and Tartary buckwheat protein on plasma total cholesterol (TC) in hypercholesterolemia hamsters. In the first animal experiment, 40 male hamsters were divided into four groups fed either the control diet or one of the three experimental diets containing 8.2 mmol rutin, 8.2 mmol quercetin, and 2.5 g kg-1 cholestyramine, respectively. Result showed that only cholestyramine but not rutin and its aglycone quercetin decreased plasma TC, suggesting rutin was not the active ingredient responsible for plasma TC-lowering activity of Tartary buckwheat flour...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197106/inhibition-of-intermediate-conductance-calcium-activated-k-channel-kca3-1-and-fibroblast-mitogenesis-by-%C3%AE-linolenic-acid-and-alterations-of-channel-expression-in-the-lysosomal-storage-disorders-fabry-disease-and-niemann-pick-c
#5
Aida Oliván-Viguera, Javier Lozano-Gerona, Laura López de Frutos, Jorge J Cebolla, Pilar Irún, Edgar Abarca-Lachen, Ana J García-Malinis, Ángel Luis García-Otín, Yolanda Gilaberte, Pilar Giraldo, Ralf Köhler
The calcium/calmodulin-gated KCa3.1 channel regulates normal and abnormal mitogenesis by controlling K(+)-efflux, cell volume, and membrane hyperpolarization-driven calcium-entry. Recent studies suggest modulation of KCa3.1 by omega-3 fatty acids as negative modulators and impaired KCa3.1 functions in the inherited lysosomal storage disorder (LSD), Fabry disease (FD). In the first part of present study, we characterize KCa3.1 in murine and human fibroblasts and test the impact of omega-3 fatty acids on fibroblast proliferation...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193631/histone-deacetylase-inhibitors-correct-the-cholesterol-storage-defect-in-most-npc1-mutant-cells
#6
Nina H Pipalia, Kanagaraj Subramanian, Shu Mao, Harold Ralph, Darren M Hutt, Samantha M Scott, William E Balch, Frederick R Maxfield
Niemann Pick C disease (NPC) is an autosomal recessive disorder that leads to excessive storage of cholesterol and other lipids in late endosomes and lysosomes. The large majority of NPC disease is caused by mutations in NPC1, a large polytopic membrane protein that functions in late endosomes. There are many disease-associated mutations in NPC1, and most patients are compound heterozygotes. The most common mutation NPC1I1061T has been shown to cause endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation of the NPC1 protein...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191915/routes-and-mechanisms-of-post-endosomal-cholesterol-trafficking-a-story-that-never-ends
#7
REVIEW
Jie Luo, Luyi Jiang, Hongyuan Yang, Bao-Liang Song
Mammalian cells acquire most exogenous cholesterol through receptor-mediated endocytosis of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs). After internalization, LDL cholesteryl esters are hydrolyzed to release free cholesterol, which then translocates to late endosomes (LEs)/lysosomes (LYs) and incorporates into the membranes by coordinated actions of Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) 1 and NPC2 proteins. However, how cholesterol exits LEs/LYs and moves to other organelles remain largely unclear. Growing evidence has suggested that nonvesicular transport is critically involved in the post-endosomal cholesterol trafficking...
February 13, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185960/lipid-nanovehicles-with-adjustable-surface-properties-for-overcoming-multiple-barriers-simultaneously-in-oral-administration
#8
Lei Wu, Min Liu, Wei Shan, Yi Cui, Zhirong Zhang, Yuan Huang
Lipid nanoparticles (LNs) are widely investigated for oral drug delivery, and for achieving significant advantages in colloidal stability, biocompatibility and scaled-up possibility. However, researchers face challenge of developing methods to improve the ability of LNs in overcoming multiple barriers (i.e., mucus and epithelium barrier) in gastrointestinal (GI) tract because of the contradictory requirement of nanoparticle (NP) surface properties in the two processes. Therefore, we designed novel LNs with adjustable surface properties by coating lipid core with hydrophobic substitutes grafting N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide copolymer (pHPMA)...
February 6, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185534/effect-of-inhibition-of-intestinal-cholesterol-absorption-on-the-prevention-of-cholesterol-gallstone-formation
#9
Piero Portincasa, David Q-H Wang
BACKGROUND: Cholesterol cholelithiasis is a multifactorial hepatobiliary disease. METHODS: Interactions between genetic and environmental factors play a critical role in biliary cholesterol homeostasis and its imbalance enhances cholelithogenesis. RESULTS: In patients developing symptoms or complications of gallstone disease, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is recommended for treatment of gallstones. In a subgroup of patients with small, radiolucent pure cholesterol gallstones, the hydrophilic bile acid, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is still considered only pharmacological therapy able to induce oral litholysis...
February 9, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179943/synthesis-of-multi-lactose-appended-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-and-its-cholesterol-lowering-effects-in-niemann-pick-type-c-disease-like-hepg2-cells
#10
Keiichi Motoyama, Rena Nishiyama, Yuki Maeda, Taishi Higashi, Yoichi Ishitsuka, Yuki Kondo, Tetsumi Irie, Takumi Era, Hidetoshi Arima
Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease, characterized by intracellular accumulation of unesterified cholesterol and other lipids owing to defects in two proteins NPC1 and NPC2, causes neurodegeneration and other fatal neurovisceral symptoms. Currently, treatment of NPC involves the use of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD). HP-β-CD is effective in the treatment of hepatosplenomegaly in NPC disease, albeit at a very high dose. One of the methods to reduce the required dose of HP-β-CD for treatment of NPC is to actively targeting hepatocytes with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD)...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167864/ezetimibe-reduces-cholesterol-content-and-nf-kappab-activation-in-liver-but-not-in-intestinal-tissue-in-guinea-pigs
#11
Peter Fraunberger, Elisabeth Gröne, Hermann-Josef Gröne, Heinz Drexel, Autar K Walli
BACKGROUND: Statins (HMG CoA reductase inhibitors), in addition to reducing circulating cholesterol and incidence of coronary heart disease, also have pleiotropic, anti-inflammatory effects. Patients with chronic liver diseases, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or hepatitis C are often excluded from statin therapy because of adverse effects in a small cohort of patients despite increased cardiovascular risk cholesterol. Ezetimibe, which inhibits cholesterol absorption by inhibition of Niemann-Pick C1 like 1 (NPC1L1) protein in the brush border of intestinal cells, has been suggested as a new therapeutic option in these patients...
2017: Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167839/new-murine-niemann-pick-type-c-models-bearing-a-pseudoexon-generating-mutation-recapitulate-the-main-neurobehavioural-and-molecular-features-of-the-disease
#12
Marta Gómez-Grau, Júlia Albaigès, Josefina Casas, Carme Auladell, Mara Dierssen, Lluïsa Vilageliu, Daniel Grinberg
Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a rare neurovisceral disease caused mainly by mutations in the NPC1 gene. This autosomal recessive lysosomal disorder is characterised by the defective lysosomal secretion of cholesterol and sphingolipids. No effective therapy exists for the disease. We previously described a deep intronic point mutation (c.1554-1009 G > A) in NPC1 that generated a pseudoexon, which could be corrected at the cellular level using antisense oligonucleotides. Here, we describe the generation of two mouse models bearing this mutation, one in homozygosity and the other in compound heterozygosity with the c...
February 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164782/types-a-and-b-niemann-pick-disease
#13
REVIEW
Edward H Schuchman, Robert J Desnick
The eponym Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) refers to a group of patients who present with varying degrees of lipid storage and foam cell infiltration in tissues, as well as overlapping clinical features including hepatosplenomegaly, pulmonary insufficiency and/or central nervous system (CNS) involvement. Due to the pioneering work of Roscoe Brady and co-workers, we now know that there are two distinct metabolic abnormalities that account for NPD. The first is due to the deficient activity of the enzyme acid sphingomyelinase (ASM; "types A & B" NPD), and the second is due to defective function in cholesterol transport ("type C" NPD)...
January 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155026/early-experience-with-compassionate-use-of-2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin-for-niemann-pick-type-c-disease-review-of-initial-published-cases
#14
REVIEW
Juan Eduardo Megías-Vericat, Ana García-Robles, María José Company-Albir, María José Fernández-Megía, Francisco Carlos Pérez-Miralles, Eduardo López-Briz, Bonaventura Casanova, José Luis Poveda
Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder. Management is mainly supportive and symptomatic. The investigational use of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) showed a promising role in treating NP-C, although efficacy and safety have not been established. We conducted searches of MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE, and other databases of reported cases of HP-β-CD compassionate use in NP-C disease. Sixteen reported cases were eligible, including evaluable information of 17 patients. The median onset age of HP-β-CD was 14 years (range 2-49 years)...
February 2, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154130/trifunctional-lipid-probes-for-comprehensive-studies-of-single-lipid-species-in-living-cells
#15
Doris Höglinger, André Nadler, Per Haberkant, Joanna Kirkpatrick, Martina Schifferer, Frank Stein, Sebastian Hauke, Forbes D Porter, Carsten Schultz
Lipid-mediated signaling events regulate many cellular processes. Investigations of the complex underlying mechanisms are difficult because several different methods need to be used under varying conditions. Here we introduce multifunctional lipid derivatives to study lipid metabolism, lipid-protein interactions, and intracellular lipid localization with a single tool per target lipid. The probes are equipped with two photoreactive groups to allow photoliberation (uncaging) and photo-cross-linking in a sequential manner, as well as a click-handle for subsequent functionalization...
February 2, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153452/adenosine-receptors-modulators-of-lipid-availability-that-are-controlled-by-lipid-levels
#16
REVIEW
Andrea Leiva, Enrique Guzmán-Gutiérrez, Susana Contreras-Duarte, Bárbara Fuenzalida, Claudette Cantin, Lorena Carvajal, Rocío Salsoso, Jaime Gutiérrez, Fabián Pardo, Luis Sobrevia
Adenosine as well as agonists and antagonists for the four adenosine receptor subtypes (A1R, A2AR, A2BR and A3R) play a role in several key physiological and pathophysiological processes, including the regulation of vascular tone, thrombosis, immune response, inflammation, and angiogenesis. This review focuses on the adenosine-mediated regulation of lipid availability in the cell and in the systemic circulation as well in humans and animal models. Therefore, adenosine, mainly by acting on A1R, inhibits lipolysis activity, leading to reduction of the circulating fatty acid levels...
January 30, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148276/evolution-of-structural-neuroimaging-biomarkers-in-a-series-of-adult-patients-with-niemann-pick-type-c-under-treatment
#17
Marion Masingue, Isaac Adanyeguh, Yann Nadjar, Frédéric Sedel, Damien Galanaud, Fanny Mochel
BACKGROUND: Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by a wide clinical spectrum and non-specific conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signs. As substrate reduction therapy with miglustat is now used in almost all patients, its efficacy and the course of the disease are sometimes difficult to evaluate. Neuroimaging biomarkers could prove useful in this matter. We first performed a retrospective analysis of volumetric and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data on 13 adult NPC patients compared to 13 controls of similar age and sex...
February 2, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134274/a-novel-approach-to-analyze-lysosomal-dysfunctions-through-subcellular-proteomics-and-lipidomics-the-case-of-npc1-deficiency
#18
Arun Kumar Tharkeshwar, Jesse Trekker, Wendy Vermeire, Jarne Pauwels, Ragna Sannerud, David A Priestman, Danielle Te Vruchte, Katlijn Vints, Pieter Baatsen, Jean-Paul Decuypere, Huiqi Lu, Shaun Martin, Peter Vangheluwe, Johannes V Swinnen, Liesbet Lagae, Francis Impens, Frances M Platt, Kris Gevaert, Wim Annaert
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have mainly been used as cellular carriers for genes and therapeutic products, while their use in subcellular organelle isolation remains underexploited. We engineered SPIONs targeting distinct subcellular compartments. Dimercaptosuccinic acid-coated SPIONs are internalized and accumulate in late endosomes/lysosomes, while aminolipid-SPIONs reside at the plasma membrane. These features allowed us to establish standardized magnetic isolation procedures for these membrane compartments with a yield and purity permitting proteomic and lipidomic profiling...
January 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130309/rare-loss-of-function-variants-in-npc1-predispose-to-human-obesity
#19
Ruixin Liu, Yaoyu Zou, Jie Hong, Min Cao, Bin Cui, Huiwen Zhang, Maopei Chen, Juan Shi, Tinglu Ning, Shaoqian Zhao, Wen Liu, Hui Xiong, Cuijie Wei, Zhengqing Qiu, Weiqiong Gu, Yifei Zhang, Wanyu Li, Lin Miao, Yingkai Sun, Minglan Yang, Rui Wang, Qinyun Ma, Min Xu, Yu Xu, Tiange Wang, Kei-Hang Katie Chan, Xianbo Zuo, Haoyan Chen, Lu Qi, Shenghan Lai, Shumin Duan, Baoliang Song, Yufang Bi, Simin Liu, Weiqing Wang, Guang Ning, Jiqiu Wang
Some evidence has indicated a role of NPC1 for obesity traits. However, whether the loss-of-function mutations in NPC1 cause adiposity in humans remains unknown. We recruited 25 probands with rare autosomal recessive Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C) disease and their parents in assessment of the effect of heterozygous NPC1 mutations on adiposity. We found that male NPC1(+/-) carriers had a significantly higher body mass index (BMI) than matched controls or the whole population-based controls. Consistently, male Npc1(+/-) mice had increased fat storage under high-fat diet...
January 27, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126847/lipids-regulate-the-hydrolysis-of-membrane-bound-glucosylceramide-by-lysosomal-%C3%AE-glucocerebrosidase-gba1
#20
Misbaudeen Abdul-Hammed, Bernadette Breiden, Günter Schwarzmann, Konrad Sandhoff
Glucosylceramide is the primary storage lipid in the lysosomes of Gaucher patients and a secondary one in Niemann-Pick disease types A, B and C. The regulatory roles of lipids on the hydrolysis of membrane bound glucosylceramide by glucocerebrosidase GBA1 was probed using a detergent-free liposomal assay. The degradation rarely occurs at uncharged liposomal surfaces in the absence of Sap C. However, anionic lipids stimulate glucosylceramide hydrolysis at low pH by up to 1000 fold depending on the nature and position of the negative charges in their head groups while cationic lipids inhibit the degradation, thus showing the importance of electrostatic interactions between the polycationic GBA1 and the negatively charged vesicle surfaces at low pH...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
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