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Obesity stereotypes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063380/what-twin-studies-tell-us-about-brain-responses-to-food-cues
#1
REVIEW
Ellen Schur, Susan Carnell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using visual food cues provides insight into brain regulation of appetite in humans. This review sought evidence for genetic determinants of these responses. RECENT FINDINGS: Echoing behavioral studies of food cue responsiveness, twin study approaches detect significant inherited influences on brain response to food cues. Both polygenic (whole genome) factors and polymorphisms in single genes appear to impact appetite regulation, particularly in brain regions related to satiety perception...
October 23, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016150/imagine-that-the-effect-of-counterstereotypic-imagined-intergroup-contact-on-weight-bias
#2
Jamie L Dunaev, Paula M Brochu, Charlotte H Markey
OBJECTIVE: Higher body-weight people are highly stigmatized and face prejudice and discrimination across a number of domains. Further, experiences of weight stigmatization are associated with a host of negative physical, psychological, and social consequences. However, less is known about effective means for reducing weight bias. One strategy that has shown some success in prejudice reduction, yet is relatively untested for weight bias, is imagined intergroup contact. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of counterstereotypic imagined intergroup contact on weight bias...
October 9, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992513/evaluation-of-second-step-child-protection-videos-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Amanda B Nickerson, Jennifer A Livingston, Kimberly Kamper-DeMarco
This randomized controlled trial (RCT) examined the effects of the Second Step Child Protection Unit videos on parents' knowledge, motivation, and self-reported communication with their child about personal safety and childhood sexual abuse prevention. Parents of children between the ages of 3-11 years were randomly assigned to the intervention (watching the Second Step videos) or the control (watching videos on child obesity) groups. They completed measures assessing their knowledge of child sexual abuse (CSA), motivation to discuss CSA, self-reported discussions of CSA, child history of victimization, parent exposure to CSA, and comparable measures on topics of health and nutrition at pre-test...
October 6, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851240/african-american-women-and-obesity-through-the-prism-of-race
#4
Francoise Knox-Kazimierczuk, Karly Geller, Sherrill Sellers, Denise Taliaferro Baszile, Meredith Smith-Shockley
BACKGROUND: There are minimal studies focusing on African American women and obesity, and there are even fewer studies examining obesity through a critical race theoretical framework. African American obesity research has largely focused on individual and community interventions, which have not been sufficient to reverse the obesity epidemic. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between race and body mass index (BMI) for African American women...
August 1, 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716588/cathodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-of-the-extrastriate-visual-cortex-modulates-implicit-anti-fat-bias-in-male-but-not-female-participants
#5
Valentina Cazzato, Stergios Makris, Cosimo Urgesi
Explicit negative attitudes toward obese individuals are well documented and seem to modulate the activity of perceptual areas, such as the Extrastriate Body Area (EBA) in the lateral occipito-temporal cortex, which is critical for body-shape perception. Nevertheless, it is still unclear whether EBA serves a role in implicit weight-stereotypical bias, thus reflecting stereotypical trait attribution on the basis of perceptual cues. Here, we used an Implicit Association Test (IAT) to investigate whether applying transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over bilateral extrastriate visual cortex reduces pre-existing implicit weight stereotypical associations (i...
July 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684308/characterizing-ingestive-behavior-through-licking-microstructure-underlying-neurobiology-and-its-use-in-the-study-of-obesity-in-animal-models
#6
REVIEW
Alexander W Johnson
Ingestive behavior is controlled by multiple distinct peripheral and central physiological mechanisms that ultimately determine whether a particular food should be accepted or avoided. As rodents consume a fluid they display stereotyped rhythmic tongue movements, and by analyzing the temporal distribution of pauses of licking, it is possible through analyses of licking microstructure to uncover dissociable evaluative and motivational variables that contribute to ingestive behavior. The mean number of licks occurring within each burst of licking (burst and cluster size) reflects the palatability of the consumed solution, whereas the frequency of initiating novel bouts of licking behavior (burst and cluster number) is dependent upon the degree of gastrointestinal inhibition that accrues through continued fluid ingestion...
July 3, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601888/weight-bias-a-systematic-review-of-characteristics-and-psychometric-properties-of-self-report-questionnaires
#7
Emilie Lacroix, Angela Alberga, Shelly Russell-Mathew, Lindsay McLaren, Kristin von Ranson
BACKGROUND: People living with overweight and obesity often experience weight-based stigmatization. Investigations of the prevalence and correlates of weight bias and evaluation of weight bias reduction interventions depend upon psychometrically-sound measurement. Our paper is the first to comprehensively evaluate the psychometric properties, use of people-first language within items, and suitability for use with various populations of available self-report measures of weight bias. METHODS: We searched five electronic databases to identify English-language self-report questionnaires of weight bias...
2017: Obesity Facts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473781/stigmatization-of-overweight-and-obese-peers-among-children
#8
REVIEW
Roberta Di Pasquale, Laura Celsi
Children get involved in social categorization. Thus, they are able to stigmatize peers as well as to show in-group favoritism theorized by Tajfel and Turner (1986). Moreover, according to Aboud's Cognitive-Developmental Theory (1988, 2003) the intensity of children's stereotypes and negative attitudes toward socially devalued group members changes with age, in line with their cognitive development. In our Western society, which addresses especially females with the message that thinness is beauty, self-efficacy, power, and success, being overweight or obese is one of the most socially devalued and stigmatized conditions among children...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441394/maternal-obese-type-gut-microbiota-differentially-impact-cognition-anxiety-and-compulsive-behavior-in-male-and-female-offspring-in-mice
#9
Annadora J Bruce-Keller, Sun-Ok Fernandez-Kim, R Leigh Townsend, Claudia Kruger, Richard Carmouche, Susan Newman, J Michael Salbaum, Hans-Rudolf Berthoud
Maternal obesity is known to predispose offspring to metabolic and neurodevelopmental abnormalities. While the mechanisms underlying these phenomena are unclear, high fat diets dramatically alter intestinal microbiota, and gut microbiota can impact physiological function. To determine if maternal diet-induced gut dysbiosis can disrupt offspring neurobehavioral function, we transplanted high fat diet- (HFD) or control low fat diet-associated (CD) gut microbiota to conventionally-housed female mice. Recipient mice were then bred and the behavioral phenotype of male and female offspring was tracked...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225732/integrating-and-assessing-structural-competency-in-an-innovative-prehealth-curriculum-at-vanderbilt-university
#10
Jonathan M Metzl, JuLeigh Petty
PROBLEM: Structural competency is a framework for conceptualizing and addressing health-related social justice issues that emphasizes diagnostic recognition of economic and political conditions producing and racializing inequalities in health. Strategies are needed to teach prehealth undergraduate students concepts central to structural competency (e.g., structural inequity, structural racism, structural stigma) and to evaluate their impact. APPROACH: The curriculum for Vanderbilt University's innovative prehealth major in medicine, health, and society (MHS) was reshaped in 2013 to incorporate structural competency concepts and skills into undergraduate courses...
March 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868444/-plant-based-diets-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Zoltán Szabó, Attila Erdélyi, Andrea Gubicskóné Kisbenedek, Tamás Ungár, Éva Lászlóné Polyák, Szilvia Szekeresné Szabó, Réka Erika Kovács, László Bence Raposa, Mária Figler
Plant-based diet is an old-new trend in nutrition. In this review based on a historical context, we wish to introduce this popular nutritional trend. Our aim is to present plant-based diet as a primary measure for prevention. We intend to critically analyse some past stereotypes related to plant-based diet - whose main components include fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts and seeds - according to the literature (e.g. protein, vitamin B12, folic acid, and iron intake) by doing so we wish to create an adequate conceptual basis for its interpretation...
November 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821368/preferred-descriptions-for-loss-of-control-while-eating-and-weight-among-patients-with-binge-eating-disorder
#12
Christina A Roberto, Katharine Galbraith, Janet A Lydecker, Valentina Ivezaj, Rachel D Barnes, Marney A White, Carlos M Grilo
Patients with binge eating disorder (BED) typically also have excess weight, making them vulnerable to stigmatizing attitudes about mental illness and obesity. Further, one of the diagnostic features of BED is experiencing a loss of control during binge eating episodes. It is possible that patients feel negatively judged when clinicians assess for loss of control as it may activate stereotypes of patients with obesity lacking willpower. We developed a questionnaire to assess preferences for common loss of control descriptions and gathered data on preferences for weight-related terms among 46 patients with BED...
December 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744732/undergraduate-female-nutrition-students-perceptions-of-curricular-influence-on-attitudes-toward-individuals-with-obesity
#13
John J M Dwyer, Andrea Starr, Christine Mills, Jess Haines
PURPOSE: This qualitative study, guided by a phenomenological approach, explored senior-level undergraduate, nutrition students' perceptions of how obesity and weight bias were addressed in the undergraduate curricula and how the curricula influenced their attitudes toward individuals with obesity. METHODS: Twenty senior-level undergraduate, nutrition students from the University of Guelph participated in interviews. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim...
December 2016: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27493939/the-effects-of-dietary-fat-and-iron-interaction-on-brain-regional-iron-contents-and-stereotypical-behaviors-in-male-c57bl-6j-mice
#14
Lumei Liu, Aria Byrd, Justin Plummer, Keith M Erikson, Scott H Harrison, Jian Han
Adequate brain iron levels are essential for enzyme activities, myelination, and neurotransmitter synthesis in the brain. Although systemic iron deficiency has been found in genetically or dietary-induced obese subjects, the effects of obesity-associated iron dysregulation in brain regions have not been examined. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of dietary fat and iron interaction on brain regional iron contents and regional-associated behavior patterns in a mouse model. Thirty C57BL/6J male weanling mice were randomly assigned to six dietary treatment groups (n = 5) with varying fat (control/high) and iron (control/high/low) contents...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27068174/does-this-tweet-make-me-look-fat-a-content-analysis-of-weight-stigma-on-twitter
#15
Janet A Lydecker, Elizabeth W Cotter, Allison A Palmberg, Courtney Simpson, Melissa Kwitowski, Kelly White, Suzanne E Mazzeo
PURPOSE: Weight stigma involves stereotyping individuals based on body size. Individuals with obesity face weight stigma in many areas of their lives, and consequences can include impairment of mental and physical health, relationships, and academic performance. Weight-stigmatizing messages are pervasive in mass media, but the degree and characteristics of its presence within new-media social environments remain comparatively unknown. METHODS: This study examined weight stigma on Twitter by coding Tweet content that included the word "fat" within a 4-h timeframe (N = 4596)...
June 2016: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26936253/the-construal-of-midwives-by-pregnant-women-with-a-body-mass-index-greater-than-or-equal-to-30%C3%A2-kg-m-2-bmi%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-30%C3%A2-kg-m-2-a-repertory-grid-study
#16
Emma L Hodgkinson, Debbie M Smith, Dougal Julian Hare, Anja Wittkowski
OBJECTIVE: To explore the construal of midwives by pregnant women with a body mass index greater than 30 kg/m(2) (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2) ). METHOD: Ten pregnant women with a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2) were recruited from antenatal clinics at a maternity hospital in the North West of England. Each participant completed a repertory grid. The participants chose people to match roles including themselves, pregnant women, midwives of different BMIs and hypothetical elements...
March 2017: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26883770/-obesity-stigmatization-discrimination-body-image
#17
Johann F Kinzl
Obesity is a heterogeneous condition with multifactorial genesis (genetic predisposition, life-style, psychosocial situation), but there is a relatively homogeneous negative stereotype of obese individuals, because overweight and obesity are seen as self-inflicted disorders caused by physical inactivity and disorderd eating behavior. Obese individuals are confronted with far-reaching stigmatization and discrimination. Typical stereotypes are laziness, unattractiveness, work refusal. This negative image by the environment contributes to negative self-awareness and self-stigmatization, accompanied by a poor self-esteem and feelings of poor self-control and reduced self-efficacy, resulting in poor constructive coping strategies for overweight reduction...
March 2016: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26843806/commentary-persistence-and-health-related-consequences-of-the-model-minority-stereotype-for-asian-americans
#18
Stella S Yi, Simona C Kwon, Rachel Sacks, Chau Trinh-Shevrin
Fifty years ago, the term model minority was coined to describe the extraordinary ability of Asian Americans to overcome hardship to succeed in American society. Less well-known is how the model minority stereotype was cultivated within the context of Black-White race relations during the second half of the 20th century, and how this stereotype, in turn, has contributed to the understanding and prioritization of health disparities experienced by Asian Americans. The objectives of this article are to define the model minority stereotype, present its controversies, and provide examples of its social and health-related consequences (ie, implications for obesity and tobacco) across multiple levels of society and institutions...
2016: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26604973/characteristics-of-spinal-microglia-in-aged-and-obese-mice-potential-contributions-to-impaired-sensory-behavior
#19
SeungHwan Lee, YaSi Wu, Xiang Qun Shi, Ji Zhang
BACKGROUND: Both aging and obesity have been recognized widely as health conditions that profoundly affect individuals, families and the society. Aged and obese people often report altered pain responses while underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. We aim to understand whether spinal microglia could potentially contribute to altered sensory behavior in aged and obese population. RESULTS: In this study, we monitored pain behavior in adult (6 months) and aged (17 months) mice fed with diet containing 10 % or 60 % Kcal fat...
2015: Immunity & Ageing: I & A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26384115/sleep-and-gastrointestinal-disturbances-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-children
#20
REVIEW
Mark Klukowski, Jolanta Wasilewska, Dariusz Lebensztejn
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a neurodevelopmental disorder with a prevalence of 1 in 68 children, commonly presents with comorbid conditions which include sleep disorders. Sleep disorders reported in ASD include, among others, increased bedtime resistance, insomnia, parasomnia, sleep disordered breathing, morning rise problems, and daytime sleepiness. Polysomnography studies show that children with ASD have altered sleep architecture including shorter total sleep time and longer sleep latency than typically developing peers...
April 2015: Developmental Period Medicine
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