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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103417/diabetes-as-a-risk-factor-for-acute-coronary-syndrome-in-women-compared-with-men-a-meta-analysis-including-10-856-279-individuals-and-106-703-acute-coronary-syndrome-events
#1
Xue Dong, Rongrong Cai, Jie Sun, Rong Huang, Pin Wang, Haixia Sun, Sai Tian, Shaohua Wang
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a significant cause of death and disability worldwide and is a strong risk factor for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Whether diabetes confers the same excess risk of ACS in both sexes is unknown. Therefore, we undertook a meta-analysis to estimate the relative risk for ACS associated with diabetes in men and women. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases for both case-control and cohort studies published between Jan 1, 1966, and Jan 1, 2015...
January 19, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102546/ataluren-and-similar-compounds-specific-therapies-for-premature-termination-codon-class-i-mutations-for-cystic-fibrosis
#2
REVIEW
Aisha A Aslam, Colin Higgins, Ian P Sinha, Kevin W Southern
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis is a common life-shortening genetic disorder in the Caucasian population (less common in other ethnic groups) caused by the mutation of a single gene that codes for the production of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein. This protein coordinates the transport of salt (and bicarbonate) across cell surfaces and the mutation most notably affects the airways. In the lungs of people with cystic fibrosis, defective protein results in a dehydrated surface liquid and compromised mucociliary clearance...
January 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100734/does-the-superior-colliculus-control-perceptual-sensitivity-or-choice-bias-during-attention-evidence-from-a-multialternative-decision-framework
#3
Devarajan Sridharan, Nicholas A Steinmetz, Tirin Moore, Eric I Knudsen
: Distinct networks in the forebrain and the midbrain coordinate to control spatial attention. The critical involvement of the superior colliculus (SC)-the central structure in the midbrain network-in visuospatial attention has been shown by four seminal, published studies in monkeys (Macaca mulatta) performing multialternative tasks. However, due to the lack of a mechanistic framework for interpreting behavioral data in such tasks, the nature of the SC's contribution to attention remains unclear...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100656/perceptual-attraction-in-tool-use-evidence-for-a-reliability-based-weighting-mechanism
#4
Nienke B Debats, Marc O Ernst, Herbert Heuer
Humans are well able to operate tools whereby their hand movement is linked, via a kinematic transformation, to a spatially distant object moving in a separate plane of motion. An everyday example is controlling a cursor on a computer monitor. Despite these separate reference frames, the perceived positions of the hand and the object were found to be biased towards each other. We propose that this perceptual attraction is based on the principles by which the brain integrates redundant sensory information of single objects or events, known as optimal multisensory integration...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099908/the-association-of-two-polymorphisms-in-adiponectin-encoding-gene-with-hypertension-risk-and-the-changes-of-circulating-adiponectin-and-blood-pressure-a-meta-analysis
#5
Jianmin Wu, Guoyan Xu, Wenqin Cai, Yun Huang, Ningyu Xie, Yihua Shen, Liangdi Xie
OBJECTIVES: This meta-analysis was prepared to synthesize published data on the association of two polymorphisms (T45G and G276T) in adiponectin-encoding gene (ADIPOQ) with hypertension risk and the changes of circulating adiponectin and blood pressure.Methodology and Major Findings: Data were collected and corrected by two authors, and were managed with Stata software. In total, 12 articles were synthesized, including 12 studies (3358 cases and 5121 controls) for the association of two study polymorphisms with hypertension risk and 11 studies (3053 subjects) for the between-genotype changes of adiponectin and/or blood pressure...
January 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099771/purging-putative-siblings-from-population-genetic-datasets-a-cautionary-view
#6
Robin S Waples, Eric C Anderson
: Interest has surged recently in removing siblings from population genetic datasets before conducting downstream analyses. However, even if the pedigree is inferred correctly, this has the potential to do more harm than good. We used computer simulations and empirical samples of coho salmon to evaluate strategies for adjusting samples to account for family structure. We compared performance in full samples and sibling-reduced samples of estimators of allele frequency (P), population differentiation (FST ), and effective population size (Ne )...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097444/obstetric-outcome-of-vanishing-twins-syndrome-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Ling Sun, Ling X Jiang, Heng Z Chen
PURPOSE: Due to the high number of multiple embryo transfers into the uterus performed in assisted reproductive technology treatment (ART), the incidences of twin pregnancy and of vanishing twin syndrome (VTS) are correspondingly high. A number of studies have described the obstetric outcomes of the remaining fetus produced after the other twin had vanished compared with a singleton at the start following ART, but the results are mixed and contradictory. We performed a systematic review of the existing studies to explore the actual obstetric outcome of VTS to allow physicians to adequately advise their patients...
January 17, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097076/a-critical-issue-in-model-based-inference-for-studying-trait-based-community-assembly-and-a-solution
#8
Cajo J F Ter Braak, Pedro Peres-Neto, Stéphane Dray
Statistical testing of trait-environment association from data is a challenge as there is no common unit of observation: the trait is observed on species, the environment on sites and the mediating abundance on species-site combinations. A number of correlation-based methods, such as the community weighted trait means method (CWM), the fourth-corner correlation method and the multivariate method RLQ, have been proposed to estimate such trait-environment associations. In these methods, valid statistical testing proceeds by performing two separate resampling tests, one site-based and the other species-based and by assessing significance by the largest of the two p-values (the pmax test)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096158/vancomycin-area-under-the-curve-estimation-in-obese-adults-the-peak-improves-precision-and-lowers-bias
#9
Manjunath P Pai, Joseph Hong, Lynne Krop
Vancomycin area under the curve (AUC) estimates may be skewed in obese adults due to weight-dependent pharmacokinetic parameters. We demonstrate that peak and trough measurements reduce bias and improve the precision of vancomycin AUC estimates in obese adults (n=75) and validate this in an independent cohort (n=31). The precision and mean %bias of Bayesian vancomycin AUC estimates are comparable between covariate-dependent (R(2)=0.774, 3.55%) and covariate-independent (R(2)=0.804, 3.28%) models when peaks and troughs are measured but not when restricted to trough only measurements (R(2),= 0...
January 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095944/applications-of-the-propensity-score-weighting-method-in-psychogeriatric-research-correcting-selection-bias-and-adjusting-for-confounders
#10
Chung-Chou H Chang
The propensity score (PS) weighting method is an analytic technique that has been applied in multiple fields for a number of purposes. Here, we discuss two common applications, which are (1) to correct for selection bias and (2) to adjust for confounding variables when estimating the effect of an exposure variable on the outcome of interest.
January 18, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095650/bone-tissue-engineering-in-oral-peri-implant-defects-in-preclinical-in-vivo-research-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Siddharth Shanbhag, Nikolaos Pandis, Kamal Mustafa, Jens R Nyengaard, Andreas Stavropoulos
Regeneration and establishment of osseointegration within oral peri-implant bone defects remains a clinical challenge. Bone tissue engineering (BTE) is emerging as a promising alternative to autogenous and/or biomaterial-based bone grafting. The objective of this systematic review was to answer the focused question: in animal models, do cell-based BTE strategies enhance bone regeneration and/or implant osseointegration in experimental peri-implant defects, compared to grafting with autogenous bone or only biomaterial scaffolds? Electronic databases were searched for controlled animal studies reporting on peri-implant defects and implantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) or other cells seeded on biomaterial scaffolds, following PRISMA guidelines...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095331/the-effect-of-combined-avoidance-and-control-training-on-implicit-food-evaluation-and-choice
#12
Naomi Kakoschke, Eva Kemps, Marika Tiggemann
BACKGROUND: Continual exposure to food cues in the environment contributes to unhealthy eating behaviour. According to dual-process models, such behaviour is partly determined by automatic processing of unhealthy food cues (e.g., approach bias), which fails to be regulated by controlled processing (e.g., inhibitory control). The current study aimed to investigate the effect of combined avoidance and control training on implicit evaluation (liking), choice, and consumption of unhealthy snack food...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094851/blood-transfusion-for-preventing-primary-and-secondary-stroke-in-people-with-sickle-cell-disease
#13
REVIEW
Lise J Estcourt, Patricia M Fortin, Sally Hopewell, Marialena Trivella, Winfred C Wang
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease is one of the commonest severe monogenic disorders in the world, due to the inheritance of two abnormal haemoglobin (beta globin) genes. Sickle cell disease can cause severe pain, significant end-organ damage, pulmonary complications, and premature death. Stroke affects around 10% of children with sickle cell anaemia (HbSS). Chronic blood transfusions may reduce the risk of vaso-occlusion and stroke by diluting the proportion of sickled cells in the circulation...
January 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093444/chinese-patent-medicine-fei-liu-ping-ointment-as-an-adjunctive-treatment-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#14
Honggang Zheng, Shulin He, Rui Liu, Xinyao Xu, Tao Xu, Shuntai Chen, Qiujun Guo, Yebo Gao, Baojin Hua
INTRODUCTION: Fei-Liu-Ping ointment has been widely applied as adjunctive drug in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, there has been no systematic review of research findings regarding the efficacy of this treatment. Here, we provide a protocol for assessing the effectiveness and safety of Fei-Liu-Ping ointment in the treatment of NSCLC. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The electronic databases to be searched will include MEDLINE (PubMed), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, Excerpt Medica Database (EMBASE), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China Scientific Journal Database (VIP), Wanfang Database and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM)...
January 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093094/impact-of-hurricane-exposure-on-reproductive-health-outcomes-florida-2004
#15
Shannon C Grabich, Whitney R Robinson, Charles E Konrad, Jennifer A Horney
OBJECTIVE: Prenatal hurricane exposure may be an increasingly important contributor to poor reproductive health outcomes. In the current literature, mixed associations have been suggested between hurricane exposure and reproductive health outcomes. This may be due, in part, to residual confounding. We assessed the association between hurricane exposure and reproductive health outcomes by using a difference-in-difference analysis technique to control for confounding in a cohort of Florida pregnancies...
January 17, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090351/the-prevalence-and-practice-impact-of-weight-bias-amongst-australian-dietitians
#16
T M Diversi, R Hughes, K J Burke
OBJECTIVES: This study explored weight bias amongst Australian Accredited Practising Dietitians (APDs) and the effect of client weight status on dietetic practice. METHODS: Participants were 201 APDs, recruited using purposive sampling. A self-administered questionnaire, the fat phobia scale (FPS), was completed to assess explicit weight bias. Participants were then randomized to receive either a female within the healthy weight range or female with obesity, accompanied by an identical case study for a condition unrelated to weight...
December 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090339/a-mixed-methods-approach-to-improving-recruitment-and-engagement-of-emerging-adults-in-behavioural-weight-loss-programs
#17
J G LaRose, K M Guthrie, A Lanoye, D F Tate, E Robichaud, L J Caccavale, R R Wing
OBJECTIVE: Emerging adults ages 18-25 are at high risk for obesity, but are markedly underrepresented in behavioural weight loss (BWL) programs and experience lower engagement and retention relative to older adults. PURPOSE: To utilize a mixed methods approach to inform future efforts to effectively recruit and engage this high-risk population in BWL programs. METHODS: We used a convergent parallel design in which quantitative and qualitative data were given equal priority...
December 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090134/outcome-dependent-sampling-design-and-inference-for-cox-s-proportional-hazards-model
#18
Jichang Yu, Yanyan Liu, Jianwen Cai, Dale P Sandler, Haibo Zhou
We propose a cost-effective outcome-dependent sampling design for the failure time data and develop an efficient inference procedure for data collected with this design. To account for the biased sampling scheme, we derive estimators from a weighted partial likelihood estimating equation. The proposed estimators for regression parameters are shown to be consistent and asymptotically normally distributed. A criteria that can be used to optimally implement the ODS design in practice is proposed and studied. The small sample performance of the proposed method is evaluated by simulation studies...
November 2016: Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089943/resveratrol-supplementation-and-plasma-adipokines-concentrations-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#19
REVIEW
Mohsen Mohammadi Sartang, Zohreh Mazloom, Zahra Sohrabi, Saeed Sherafatmanesh, Reza Barati Boldaji
The results of human clinical trials have revealed that the effects of resveratrol on adipokines are inconsistent. Our objective was to elucidate the role of resveratrol supplementation on adipokines through a systematic review and a meta-analysis of available randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs).(1) The search included PubMed-MEDLINE, SCOPUS and ISI web of sciences database till up to 6th November 2016. Weight mean differences (WMD)(2) were calculated for net changes in adipokines using fixed-effects or random-effects models; meta-regression analysis and publication bias were conducted in accordance with standard methods...
January 13, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089245/diagnostic-accuracy-of-postmortem-imaging-vs-autopsy-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Anders Eriksson, Torfinn Gustafsson, Malin Höistad, Monica Hultcrantz, Stella Jacobson, Ingegerd Mejare, Anders Persson
Background Postmortem imaging has been used for more than a century as a complement to medico-legal autopsies. The technique has also emerged as a possible alternative to compensate for the continuous decline in the number of clinical autopsies. To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of postmortem imaging for various types of findings, we performed this systematic literature review. Data sources The literature search was performed in the databases PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library through January 7, 2015. Relevant publications were assessed for risk of bias using the QUADAS tool and were classified as low, moderate or high risk of bias according to pre-defined criteria...
December 7, 2016: European Journal of Radiology
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