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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635950/genetically-predicted-high-body-mass-index-was-associated-with-increased-gastric-cancer-risk
#1
Yingying Mao, Caiwang Yan, Qun Lu, Meng Zhu, Fei Yu, Cheng Wang, Juncheng Dai, Hongxia Ma, Zhibin Hu, Hongbing Shen, Guangfu Jin
Epidemiological studies have linked body mass index (BMI) with risk of gastrointestinal cancers. However, for gastric cancer, the relationship is more controversial. In particular, it is unclear whether the observed association is due to confounding or bias inherent in conventional observational studies. To investigate whether BMI is causally associated with gastric cancer risk, we applied Mendelian randomization using individual-level data from 2631 gastric cancer cases and 4373 cancer-free controls. We derived a weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) using 37 BMI-associated genetic variants as an instrumental variable...
June 21, 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633650/effects-of-tolvaptan-in-patients-with-acute-heart-failure-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Chunbin Wang, Bo Xiong, Lin Cai
BACKGROUND: Acute heart failure, which requires urgent evaluation and treatment, is a leading cause for admission to the emergency department. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of tolvaptan on acute heart failure and compare them with the effects of conventional therapy or placebo. METHODS: The electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Controlled Trial registry were searched from their starting dates to October 24, 2016. Two authors independently read the trials and extracted related information from the included studies...
June 20, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629648/ten-reasons-to-embrace-scientism
#3
Rik Peels
A strong version of scientism, such as that of Alex Rosenberg, says, roughly, that natural science reliably delivers rational belief or knowledge, whereas common sense sources of belief, such as moral intuition, memory, and introspection, do not. In this paper I discuss ten reasons that adherents of scientism have or might put forward in defence of scientism. The aim is to show which considerations could plausibly count in favour of scientism and what this implies for the way scientism ought to be formulated...
June 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628848/sexual-dysfunction-in-infertile-women-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Carolina R de Mendonça, Jalsi T Arruda, Matias Noll, Paulo M de O Campoli, Waldemar N do Amaral
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) score in women with infertility. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic search of the literature was conducted using PubMed, EMBASE, IBECS, and LILACS. The search was limited to articles published from January 2000 to September 2016, without language restriction. Data were analyzed using Stata 12.0. Random effects meta-analyses in weighted mean difference (WMD) were performed for six comparative studies (infertility versus fertility)...
June 7, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628215/monitoring-pathogen-induced-sickness-in-mice-and-rats
#5
Daria Kolmogorova, Emma Murray, Nafissa Ismail
Sickness behavior monitoring, a technique for examining the development of sickness symptomatology following infection, is necessary in experiments studying neurochemical and physiological changes associated with pathogen-induced immune activation. However, the results of sickness behavior monitoring are difficult to reconcile due to inconsistencies in protocol methods and rater bias. The protocol described herein offers a non-invasive and unbiased approach to assess the progression of pathogen-induced sickness behaviors...
June 19, 2017: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627212/efficacy-of-enteral-nutritional-support-after-hospital-discharge-in-major-gastrointestinal-surgery-patients-a-systematic-review
#6
Alfonso Vidal Casariego, Alicia Calleja Fernández, Rocío Villar Taibo, Ana Urioste Fondo, Begoña Pintor de la Maza, Ana Hernández Moreno, Isidoro Cano Rodríguez, María D Ballesteros Pomar
INTRODUCTION: Nutritional support for malnourished patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery reduces the complication rate and shortens the length of stay. The efficacy of nutritional support after hospital discharge was analyzed in this systematic review. METHODS: The search strategy (nutrition OR "enteral nutrition" OR "nutritional supplements" OR "oral nutritional supplements" OR "sip feed" OR "sip feeding" OR "dietary counseling") AND ("patient discharge" OR discharge OR postdischarge) AND (surgery OR operation OR "surgical procedure") was followed in Medline, CENTRAL, and Trip databases...
June 5, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626291/machine-learning-in-a-graph-framework-for-subcortical-segmentation
#7
Zhihui Guo, Satyananda Kashyap, Milan Sonka, Ipek Oguz
Automated and reliable segmentation of subcortical structures from human brain magnetic resonance images is of great importance for volumetric and shape analyses in quantitative neuroimaging studies. However, poor boundary contrast and variable shape of these structures make the automated segmentation a tough task. We propose a 3D graph-based machine learning method, called LOGISMOS-RF, to segment the caudate and the putamen from brain MRI scans in a robust and accurate way. An atlas-based tissue classification and bias-field correction method is applied to the images to generate an initial segmentation for each structure...
February 11, 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623634/perfusion-bias-in-the-apparent-diffusion-coefficient-measurements-of-diffusion-weighted-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#8
Adriano M Priola, Andrea Veltri, Sandro M Priola
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2017: Tumori
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620013/the-evolution-of-vertical-climbing-in-primates-evidence-from-reaction-forces
#9
Jandy B Hanna, Michael C Granatosky, Pooja Rana, Daniel Schmitt
Vertical climbing is an essential behavior for arboreal animals, yet limb mechanics during climbing are poorly understood and rarely compared to those observed during horizontal walking. Primates commonly engage in both arboreal walking and vertical climbing, and this makes them an ideal taxa in which to compare these locomotor forms. Additionally, primates exhibit unusual limb mechanics compared to most other quadrupeds, with weight distribution biased towards the hindlimbs, a pattern that is argued to have evolved in response to the challenges of arboreal walking...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618554/memory-induced-diffusive-superdiffusive-transition-ensemble-and-time-averaged-observables
#10
Adrián A Budini
The ensemble properties and time-averaged observables of a memory-induced diffusive-superdiffusive transition are studied. The model consists in a random walker whose transitions in a given direction depend on a weighted linear combination of the number of both right and left previous transitions. The diffusion process is nonstationary, and its probability develops the phenomenon of aging. Depending on the characteristic memory parameters, the ensemble behavior may be normal, superdiffusive, or ballistic. In contrast, the time-averaged mean squared displacement is equal to that of a normal undriven random walk, which renders the process nonergodic...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617801/gastrointestinal-adverse-events-during-methylphenidate-treatment-of-children-and-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-and-trial-sequential-analysis-of-randomised-clinical-trials
#11
Mathilde Holmskov, Ole Jakob Storebø, Carlos R Moreira-Maia, Erica Ramstad, Frederik Løgstrup Magnusson, Helle B Krogh, Camilla Groth, Donna Gillies, Morris Zwi, Maria Skoog, Christian Gluud, Erik Simonsen
OBJECTIVES: To study in more depth the relationship between type, dose, or duration of methylphenidate offered to children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and their risks of gastrointestinal adverse events based on our Cochrane systematic review. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We use data from our review including 185 randomised clinical trials. Randomised parallel-group trials and cross-over trials reporting gastrointestinal adverse events associated with methylphenidate were included...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617352/equivalent-circuit-model-of-low-frequency-magnetoelectric-effect-in-disk-type-terfenol-d-pzt-laminate-composites-considering-a-new-interface-coupling-factor
#12
Guofeng Lou, Xinjie Yu, Shihua Lu
This paper describes the modeling of magnetoelectric (ME) effects for disk-type Terfenol-D (Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.92)/PZT (Pb(Zr,Ti)O₃) laminate composite at low frequency by combining the advantages of the static elastic model and the equivalent circuit model, aiming at providing a guidance for the design and fabrication of the sensors based on magnetoelectric laminate composite. Considering that the strains of the magnetostrictive and piezoelectric layers are not equal in actual operating due to the epoxy resin adhesive bonding condition, the magnetostrictive and piezoelectric layers were first modeled through the equation of motion separately, and then coupled together with a new interface coupling factor kc, which physically reflects the strain transfer between the phases...
June 15, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615342/supramodal-representation-of-temporal-priors-calibrates-interval-timing
#13
Huihui Zhang, Xiaolin Zhou
Human timing behaviors are consistent with Bayesian inference, according to which both previous knowledge (prior) and current sensory information determine final responses. However, it is unclear whether the brain represents temporal priors exclusively for individual modalities or in a supramodal manner when temporal information comes from different modalities at different times. Here we asked participants to reproduce time intervals in either a unisensory or a multisensory context. In unisensory tasks, sample intervals drawn from a uniform distribution were presented in a single visual or auditory modality...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613395/clozapine-dose-for-schizophrenia
#14
REVIEW
Selvizhi Subramanian, Birgit A Völlm, Nick Huband
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia and related disorders such as schizophreniform and schizoaffective disorder are serious mental illnesses characterised by profound disruptions in thinking and speech, emotional processes, behaviour and sense of self. Clozapine is useful in the treatment of schizophrenia and related disorders, particularly when other antipsychotic medications have failed. It improves positive symptoms (such as delusions and hallucinations) and negative symptoms (such as withdrawal and poverty of speech)...
June 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612178/treatment-for-depression-and-health-related-quality-of-life-among-adults-with-arthritis
#15
Drishti Shah, Pragya Rai, Nilanjana Dwibedi, Usha Sambamoorthi
Depression treatment has been proven to relieve depressive symptoms and pain and may therefore improve the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among adults with arthritis. The objective of the current study was to examine the HRQoL associated with depression treatment among adults with arthritis and depression. A retrospective longitudinal cohort study design using data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (2009-2012) was adopted. The study sample consisted of adults (≥ 21 years) with co-existing arthritis and depression (N = 1692)...
June 13, 2017: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611526/different-techniques-for-harvesting-grafts-for-living-donor-liver-transplantation-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Hui Li, Jun-Bin Zhang, Xiao-Long Chen, Lei Fan, Li Wang, Shi-Hui Li, Qiao-Lan Zheng, Xiao-Ming Wang, Yang Yang, Gui-Hua Chen, Gen-Shu Wang
AIM: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on minimally vs conventional invasive techniques for harvesting grafts for living donor liver transplantation. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched comprehensively for studies comparing MILDH with conventional living donor hepatectomy (CLDH). Intraoperative and postoperative outcomes (operative time, estimated blood loss, postoperative liver function, length of hospital stay, analgesia use, complications, and survival rate) were analyzed in donors and recipients...
May 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609445/estimating-the-causal-influence-of-body-mass-index-on-risk-of-parkinson-disease-a-mendelian-randomisation-study
#17
Alastair J Noyce, Demis A Kia, Gibran Hemani, Aude Nicolas, T Ryan Price, Eduardo De Pablo-Fernandez, Philip C Haycock, Patrick A Lewis, Thomas Foltynie, George Davey Smith, Anette Schrag, Andrew J Lees, John Hardy, Andrew Singleton, Mike A Nalls, Neil Pearce, Debbie A Lawlor, Nicholas W Wood
BACKGROUND: Both positive and negative associations between higher body mass index (BMI) and Parkinson disease (PD) have been reported in observational studies, but it has been difficult to establish causality because of the possibility of residual confounding or reverse causation. To our knowledge, Mendelian randomisation (MR)-the use of genetic instrumental variables (IVs) to explore causal effects-has not previously been used to test the effect of BMI on PD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Two-sample MR was undertaken using genome-wide association (GWA) study data...
June 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608328/towards-accurate-and-precise-t-1-and-extracellular-volume-mapping-in-the-myocardium-a-guide-to-current-pitfalls-and-their-solutions
#18
REVIEW
Donnie Cameron, Vassilios S Vassiliou, David M Higgins, Peter D Gatehouse
Mapping of the longitudinal relaxation time (T 1) and extracellular volume (ECV) offers a means of identifying pathological changes in myocardial tissue, including diffuse changes that may be invisible to existing T 1-weighted methods. This technique has recently shown strong clinical utility for pathologies such as Anderson-Fabry disease and amyloidosis and has generated clinical interest as a possible means of detecting small changes in diffuse fibrosis; however, scatter in T 1 and ECV estimates offers challenges for detecting these changes, and bias limits comparisons between sites and vendors...
June 12, 2017: Magma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607526/a-unified-framework-for-constructing-tuning-and-assessing-photometric-redshift-density-estimates-in-a-selection-bias-setting
#19
P E Freeman, R Izbicki, A B Lee
Photometric redshift estimation is an indispensable tool of precision cosmology. One problem that plagues the use of this tool in the era of large-scale sky surveys is that the bright galaxies that are selected for spectroscopic observation do not have properties that match those of (far more numerous) dimmer galaxies; thus, ill-designed empirical methods that produce accurate and precise redshift estimates for the former generally will not produce good estimates for the latter. In this paper, we provide a principled framework for generating conditional density estimates (i...
July 2017: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606966/obesity-and-rates-of-clinical-remission-and-low-mri-inflammation-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#20
Michael D George, Mikkel Østergaard, Philip G Conaghan, Paul Emery, Daniel G Baker, Joshua F Baker
OBJECTIVES: Obesity has been proposed as a risk factor for refractory rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We evaluated the impact of obesity on achieving clinical and imaging definitions of low disease activity. METHODS: This study evaluated 470 patients with RA from GO-BEFORE and GO-FORWARD randomised clinical trials. Included patients had blinded clinical disease activity measures and MRI at baseline, 24 and 52 weeks. Synovitis, osteitis and total inflammation scores were determined using the RA MRI scoring system...
June 12, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
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