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Weight bias

Kalliopi Pitarokoili, Moritz Kronlage, Philip Bäumer, Daniel Schwarz, Ralf Gold, Martin Bendszus, Min-Suk Yoon
Background: We present a clinical, electrophysiological, sonographical and magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) study examining the complementary role of two neuroimaging methods of the peripheral nervous system for patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Furthermore, we explore the significance of cross-sectional area (CSA) increase through correlations with MRN markers of nerve integrity. Methods: A total of 108 nerve segments on the median, ulnar, radial, tibial and fibular nerve, as well as the lumbar and cervical plexus of 18 CIDP patients were examined with high-resonance nerve ultrasound (HRUS) and MRN additionally to the nerve conduction studies...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
Choon Sen Seah, Shahreen Kasim, Mohd Farhan Md Fudzee, Jeffrey Mark Law Tze Ping, Mohd Saberi Mohamad, Rd Rohmat Saedudin, Mohd Arfian Ismail
Microarray technology has become one of the elementary tools for researchers to study the genome of organisms. As the complexity and heterogeneity of cancer is being increasingly appreciated through genomic analysis, cancerous classification is an emerging important trend. Significant directed random walk is proposed as one of the cancerous classification approach which have higher sensitivity of risk gene prediction and higher accuracy of cancer classification. In this paper, the methodology and material used for the experiment are presented...
December 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Alessandro L Colosio, S Pogliaghi
INTRODUCTION: Performance during army loaded runs provides a synthetic indicator of a soldier's capacity to move while carrying loads and thereby remain able to execute a mission. The aim of this study was to estimate and compare the energy expenditure (EE) of army loaded runs, conducted in a field environment using laboratory-based equations and HR index (HRindex ). METHODS: 45 Ranger recruits had HR monitored during three loaded runs (10, 15 and 20 km) in full military equipment in the field environment...
March 17, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
Fabian Wenzel, Carsten Meyer, Thomas Stehle, Jochen Peters, Susanne Siemonsen, Christian Thaler, Lyubomir Zagorchev
This work presents a novel approach for the rapid segmentation of clinically relevant subcortical brain structures in T1-weighted MRI by utilizing a shape-constrained deformable surface model. In contrast to other approaches for segmenting brain structures, its design allows for parallel segmentation of individual brain structures within a flexible and robust hierarchical framework such that accurate adaptation and volume computation can be achieved within a minute of processing time. Furthermore, adaptation is driven by local and not global contrast, potentially relaxing requirements with respect to preprocessing steps such as bias-field correction...
March 9, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
Elsa Garot, Alice Denis, Yves Delbos, David Manton, Mihiri Silva, Patrick Rouas
OBJECTIVES: Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) and Hypomineralised Second Primary Molars (HSPM) involve qualitative structural developmental anomalies of tooth enamel affecting the first permanent molars (and often incisors) and the second primary molars, respectively. A putative relationship between HSPM and MIH has been reported in the scientific literature. The aim was to determine whether children with HSPM are more likely to develop MIH. SOURCE: A systematic search using PubMed/Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library electronic databases for publications from 2001 to August 2017 investigating the link between MIH and HSPM was undertaken...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Dentistry
Dipender Gill, Christopher F Brewer, Fabiola Del Greco M, Prasanthi Sivakumaran, Jack Bowden, Nuala A Sheehan, Cosetta Minelli
BACKGROUND: Pubertal timing has psychological and physical sequelae. While observational studies have demonstrated an association between age at menarche and adult body mass index (BMI), confounding makes it difficult to infer causality. METHODS: The Mendelian randomization (MR) technique is not limited by traditional confounding and was used to investigate the presence of a causal effect of age at menarche on adult BMI. MR uses genetic variants as instruments under the assumption that they act on BMI only through age at menarche (no pleiotropy)...
February 26, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Lisa M Jones, Kimberly J Mitchell, Heather A Turner, Michele L Ybarra
Using a national sample of youth from the U.S., this paper examines incidents of bias-based harassment by peers that include language about victims' perceived sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, religion, weight or height, or intelligence. Telephone interviews were conducted with youth who were 10-20 years old (n = 791). One in six youth (17%) reported at least one experience with bias-based harassment in the past year. Bias language was a part of over half (52%) of all harassment incidents experienced by youth...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Adolescence
Ruchita Dixit, Sowmya Nettem, Simerjit S Madan, Htoo Htoo Kyaw Soe, Adinegara Bl Abas, Leah D Vance, Patrick J Stover
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of disorders that affects haemoglobin, which causes distorted sickle- or crescent-shaped red blood cells. It is characterized by anaemia, increased susceptibility to infections and episodes of pain. The disease is acquired by inheriting abnormal genes from both parents, the combination giving rise to different forms of the disease. Due to increased erythropoiesis in people with SCD, it is hypothesized that they are at an increased risk for folate deficiency...
March 16, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Hythem Sidky, Jonathan K Whitmer
Existing adaptive bias techniques, which seek to estimate free energies and physical properties from molecular simulations, are limited by their reliance on fixed kernels or basis sets which hinder their ability to efficiently conform to varied free energy landscapes. Further, user-specified parameters are in general non-intuitive yet significantly affect the convergence rate and accuracy of the free energy estimate. Here we propose a novel method, wherein artificial neural networks (ANNs) are used to develop an adaptive biasing potential which learns free energy landscapes...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Katsuyuki Taguchi, Toshihide Itoh, Matthew K Fuld, Eric Fournie, Okkyun Lee, Kyo Noguchi
OBJECTIVES: A novel imaging technique ("X-map") has been developed to identify acute ischemic lesions for stroke patients using non-contrast-enhanced dual-energy computed tomography (NE-DE-CT). Using the 3-material decomposition technique, the original X-map ("X-map 1.0") eliminates fat and bone from the images, suppresses the gray matter (GM)-white matter (WM) tissue contrast, and makes signals of edema induced by severe ischemia easier to detect. The aim of this study was to address the following 2 problems with the X-map 1...
March 14, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Mosarrat J Qureshi, Manoj Kumar
BACKGROUND: Providing effective positive pressure ventilation is considered to be the single most important component of successful neonatal resuscitation. Ventilation is frequently initiated manually with bag and face mask (BMV) followed by endotracheal intubation if respiratory depression continues. These techniques may be difficult to perform successfully resulting in prolonged resuscitation or neonatal asphyxia. The laryngeal mask airway (LMA) may achieve initial ventilation and successful resuscitation faster than a bag-mask device or endotracheal intubation...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Matthew J Page, Joanne E McKenzie, Julian P T Higgins
BACKGROUND: Several scales, checklists and domain-based tools for assessing risk of reporting biases exist, but it is unclear how much they vary in content and guidance. We conducted a systematic review of the content and measurement properties of such tools. METHODS: We searched for potentially relevant articles in Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid PsycINFO and Google Scholar from inception to February 2017. One author screened all titles, abstracts and full text articles, and collected data on tool characteristics...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Linden Disney-Hogg, Alex J Cornish, Amit Sud, Philip J Law, Ben Kinnersley, Daniel I Jacobs, Quinn T Ostrom, Karim Labreche, Jeanette E Eckel-Passow, Georgina N Armstrong, Elizabeth B Claus, Dora Il'yasova, Joellen Schildkraut, Jill S Barnholtz-Sloan, Sara H Olson, Jonine L Bernstein, Rose K Lai, Minouk J Schoemaker, Matthias Simon, Per Hoffmann, Markus M Nöthen, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Stephen Chanock, Preetha Rajaraman, Christoffer Johansen, Robert B Jenkins, Beatrice S Melin, Margaret R Wrensch, Marc Sanson, Melissa L Bondy, Richard S Houlston
BACKGROUND: An inverse relationship between allergies with glioma risk has been reported in several but not all epidemiological observational studies. We performed an analysis of genetic variants associated with atopy to assess the relationship with glioma risk using Mendelian randomisation (MR), an approach unaffected by biases from temporal variability and reverse causation that might have affected earlier investigations. METHODS: Two-sample MR was undertaken using genome-wide association study data...
March 15, 2018: BMC Medicine
Yupeng Wu, Dandan Sun, Bin Wang, Yanfeng Li, Yi Ma
Objectives The relationship of depressive symptoms and subclinical atherosclerosis remains controversial. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of depressive symptoms on the functional and structural markers of subclinical atherosclerosis as measured by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), pulse wave velocity (PWV) and flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD). Methods A systematic literature search was performed electronically. Studies relating IMT, PWV or FMD to depressive symptoms were included...
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Andrés Pomi
BACKGROUND: One of the central challenges of third millennium medicine is the abatement of medical errors. Among the most frequent and hardiest causes of misdiagnosis are cognitive errors produced by faulty medical reasoning. These errors have been analyzed from the perspectives of cognitive psychology and empirical medical studies. We introduce a neurocognitive model of medical diagnosis to address this issue. METHODS: We construct a connectionist model based on the associative nature of human memory to explore the non-analytical, pattern-recognition mode of diagnosis...
November 27, 2017: Diagnosis
George Hindy, Gunnar Engström, Susanna C Larsson, Matthew Traylor, Hugh S Markus, Olle Melander, Marju Orho-Melander
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Statin therapy is associated with a lower risk of ischemic stroke supporting a causal role of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. However, more evidence is needed to answer the question whether LDL cholesterol plays a causal role in ischemic stroke subtypes. In addition, it is unknown whether high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides have a causal relationship to ischemic stroke and its subtypes. Our aim was to investigate the causal role of LDL cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides in ischemic stroke and its subtypes through Mendelian randomization (MR)...
March 13, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Greg Keir, Nevenka Bulovic, Neil McIntyre
Setting limits on groundwater extractions is important to ensure sustainable groundwater management. Lack of extraction data can affect interpretations of historical pressure changes, predictions of future impacts, accuracy of groundwater model calibration, and identification of sustainable management options. Yet, many groundwater extractions are unmetered. Therefore, there is a need for models that estimate extraction rates and quantify model outputs uncertainties arising due to a lack of data. This paper develops such a model within the Generalised Linear Modelling (GLM) framework, using a case study of stock and domestic extractions in the Surat Cumulative Management Area, a predominantly cattle farming region in eastern Australia...
March 13, 2018: Ground Water
Na Wang, Renkai Wang, Ruoqing Wang, Songlin Chen
The Chinese tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) is a typical female heterogamete species that exhibits female-biased sexual size dimorphism, which has severely hindered the sustainable development of the species in aquaculture. In the present study, four important somatotropic and reproductive tissues including brain, pituitary, liver, and gonad from 15 females and 15 males were used for transcriptome analysis via RNA-seq. A mean of 37,533,991 high-quality clean reads was obtained from each library and 806, 1482, 818, and 14,695 differentially expressed genes in female and male were identified from the brain, pituitary, liver, and gonad, respectively (fold change ≥ 2 and q < 0...
March 12, 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Anabelle Retondario, Ricardo Fernandes, Gabriele Rockenbach, Mariane de Almeida Alves, Liliana Paula Bricarello, Erasmo Benicio Santos de Moraes Trindade, Francisco de Assis Guedes de Vasconcelos
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Metabolic syndrome is a multi-causal disease. Its treatment includes lifestyle changes with a focus on weight loss. This systematic review assessed the association between Selenium intake and metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Data were collected mainly from four databases: PubMed, CENTRAL (Cochrane), Scopus and Web of Knowledge. Keywords related to metabolic syndrome, selenium, as well as metabolic syndrome features were searched. This review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement...
March 2, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Davide D'Alimonte, Giuseppe Zibordi, Tamito Kajiyama
This work investigates the effects of integration time on in-water downward irradiance Ed , upward irradiance Eu and upwelling radiance Lu profile data acquired with free-fall hyperspectral systems. Analyzed quantities are the subsurface value and the diffuse attenuation coefficient derived by applying linear and non-linear regression schemes. Case studies include oligotrophic waters (Case-1), as well as waters dominated by Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) and Non-Algal Particles (NAP). Assuming a 24-bit digitization, measurements resulting from the accumulation of photons over integration times varying between 8 and 2048ms are evaluated at depths corresponding to: 1) the beginning of each integration interval (Fst); 2) the end of each integration interval (Lst); 3) the averages of Fst and Lst values (Avg); and finally 4) the values weighted accounting for the diffuse attenuation coefficient of water (Wgt)...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
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