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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159017/gardening-and-age-related-weight-gain-results-from-a-cross-sectional-survey-of-denver-residents
#1
Jill S Litt, Jeffrey Richard Lambert, Deborah H Glueck
This study examined whether gardening modifies the association between age and body mass index (BMI). We used data from the Neighborhood Environments and Health Survey, which was conducted in Denver (N = 469) between 2006 and 2007. We fit two general linear mixed models. The base model had BMI in kg/m(2) as the outcome, and age, an indicator variable for non-gardening status and the age-by-non-gardening status interaction as predictors. The adjusted model included as covariates the potential confounders of education, ethnicity and self-reported health...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158677/a-meta-analysis-of-effects-of-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-on-blood-pressure-in-depression-treatment-outcomes-from-placebo-and-serotonin-and-noradrenaline-reuptake-inhibitor-controlled-trials
#2
REVIEW
Zhuoyuan Zhong, Limin Wang, Xiaojun Wen, Yunyun Liu, Yafei Fan, Zhonglin Liu
Background: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) have been commonly prescribed for depression treatment. However, their effects on blood pressure are unclear. Materials and methods: Effects on blood pressure of depressive patients in two groups (SSRIs versus placebo and SSRIs versus SNRIs) were evaluated. A search was conducted for double-blind, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, PsycNET, CCRCT, and DARE (up to March 2017)...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158228/stigma-experienced-by-children-and-adolescents-with-obesity
#3
Stephen J Pont, Rebecca Puhl, Stephen R Cook, Wendelin Slusser
The stigmatization of people with obesity is widespread and causes harm. Weight stigma is often propagated and tolerated in society because of beliefs that stigma and shame will motivate people to lose weight. However, rather than motivating positive change, this stigma contributes to behaviors such as binge eating, social isolation, avoidance of health care services, decreased physical activity, and increased weight gain, which worsen obesity and create additional barriers to healthy behavior change. Furthermore, experiences of weight stigma also dramatically impair quality of life, especially for youth...
November 20, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157268/the-impact-of-signal-to-noise-ratio-diffusion-weighted-directions-and-image-resolution-in-cardiac-diffusion-tensor-imaging-insights-from-the-ex-vivo-rat-heart
#4
Darryl McClymont, Irvin Teh, Jürgen E Schneider
BACKGROUND: Cardiac diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is limited by scan time and signal-to-noise (SNR) restrictions. This invariably leads to a trade-off between the number of averages, diffusion-weighted directions (ND), and image resolution. Systematic evaluation of these parameters is therefore important for adoption of cardiac DTI in clinical routine where time is a key constraint. METHODS: High quality reference DTI data were acquired in five ex-vivo rat hearts...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155925/exposure-biomarkers-indicate-more-than-just-exposure
#5
David A Savitz, Gregory A Wellenius
Biomarkers of environmental exposures have notable strengths in integrating across diverse sources and routes of exposure and providing a marker reflecting biological dose. However, the physiologic determinants of biomarker toxicokinetics and measured levels may also affect or be affected by disease determinants and thus introduce confounding. Sagiv et al. (1) sought empirical evidence on the role of renal clearance in biasing the association between perfluoroalkyl compounds measured in plasma during pregnancy and infant birth weight and found little empirical support for such bias...
November 16, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155919/neonatal-outcomes-in-a-medicaid-population-with-opioid-dependence
#6
Susan B Brogly, Sonia Hernández-Diaz, Emily Regan, Ela Fadli, Kristen A Hahn, Martha M Werler
Confounding may account for the apparent improved infant outcomes after prenatal exposure to buprenorphine versus methadone. We used Massachusetts Medicaid Analytic eXtract (MAX) data to identify a cohort of opioid dependent mother-infant pairs (2006-2011) supplemented with confounder data from an external Boston cohort (2015-2016). Associations between prenatal buprenorphine versus methadone exposure and infant outcomes in the MAX Cohort were adjusted for measured MAX confounders, and unmeasured confounders with bias analysis using External Cohort data...
November 16, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155915/optimizing-soil-coring-strategies-to-quantify-root-length-density-distribution-in-field-grown-maize-virtual-coring-trials-using-3-d-root-architecture-models
#7
Qian Wu, Jie Wu, Bangyou Zheng, Yan Guo
Background and Aims: Root distribution has a major influence on soil exploration and nutrient and water acquisition by plants. Soil coring is a well-known way to estimate root distribution. However, identifying an optimal core-sampling strategy is important if one is to strike the right balance between the high cost of making field estimates of root length density (RLD) vs. the need for accurate estimates. Virtual assessment of competing soil-coring strategies, based on three-dimensional (3-D) models of root system architecture (RSA), is a highly effective way to find that balance...
November 16, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154442/a-biomimetic-tumor-tissue-phantom-for-validating-diffusion-weighted-mri-measurements
#8
Damien J McHugh, Feng-Lei Zhou, Ian Wimpenny, Gowsihan Poologasundarampillai, Josephine H Naish, Penny L Hubbard Cristinacce, Geoffrey J M Parker
PURPOSE: To develop a biomimetic tumor tissue phantom which more closely reflects water diffusion in biological tissue than previously used phantoms, and to evaluate the stability of the phantom and its potential as a tool for validating diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI measurements. METHODS: Coaxial-electrospraying was used to generate micron-sized hollow polymer spheres, which mimic cells. The bulk structure was immersed in water, providing a DW-MRI phantom whose apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and microstructural properties were evaluated over a period of 10 months...
November 20, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153258/novel-equations-for-estimating-lean-body-mass-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#9
Xue Tian, Yuan Chen, Zhi-Kai Yang, Zhen Qu, Jie Dong
OBJECTIVE: Simplified methods to estimate lean body mass (LBM), an important nutritional measure representing muscle mass and somatic protein, are lacking in nondialyzed patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We developed and tested 2 reliable equations for estimation of LBM in daily clinical practice. DESIGN AND METHODS: The development and validation groups both included 150 nondialyzed patients with CKD Stages 3 to 5. Two equations for estimating LBM based on mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC) or handgrip strength (HGS) were developed and validated in CKD patients with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry as referenced gold method...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152325/changes-of-intestinal-microbiota-composition-and-diversity-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants-related-to-strategies-of-nec-prophylaxis-protocol-for-an-observational-multicentre-pilot-study
#10
Stefan Kurath-Koller, Christine Moissl-Eichinger, Gregor Gorkiewicz, Raimund Kraschl, Claudia Kanduth, Barbara Hopfer, Berndt Urlesberger, Bernhard Resch
Background: At the Division of Neonatology, Department of Paediatrics, Medical University Graz, a unique regimen of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) prophylaxis in preterm infants showing a < 1500 g birth weight (i.e. very low birth weight, VLBW) is used. The regimen includes oral antibiotic and antifungal therapy and probiotic preparations as well as a standardised feeding regimen. The incidence of NEC in preterm infants treated by this regimen has been shown to be lower, reflecting 0...
2017: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151838/observation-and-model-based-estimates-of-particulate-dry-nitrogen-deposition-to-the-oceans
#11
Alex R Baker, Maria Kanakidou, Katye E Altieri, Nikos Daskalakis, Gregory S Okin, Stelios Myriokefalitakis, Frank Dentener, Mitsuo Uematsu, Manmohan M Sarin, Robert A Duce, James N Galloway, William C Keene, Arvind Singh, Lauren Zamora, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Shih-Chieh Hsu, Shital S Rohekar, Joseph M Prospero
Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) emissions to the atmosphere have increased significantly the deposition of nitrate (NO3(-)) and ammonium (NH4(+)) to the surface waters of the open ocean, with potential impacts on marine productivity and the global carbon cycle. Global-scale understanding of the impacts of N deposition to the oceans is reliant on our ability to produce and validate models of nitrogen emission, atmospheric chemistry, transport and deposition. In this work, ~2900 observations of aerosol NO3(-) and NH4(+) concentrations, acquired from sampling aboard ships in the period 1995 - 2012, are used to assess the performance of modelled N concentration and deposition fields over the remote ocean...
2017: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151815/how-should-we-evaluate-research-on-counselling-and-the-treatment-of-depression-a-case-study-on-how-the-national-institute-for-health-and-care-excellence-s-draft-2018-guideline-for-depression-considered-what-counts-as-best-evidence
#12
Michael Barkham, Naomi P Moller, Joanne Pybis
Background: Health guidelines are developed to improve patient care by ensuring the most recent and 'best available evidence' is used to guide treatment recommendations. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence's (NICE's ) guideline development methodology acknowledges that evidence needed to answer one question (treatment efficacy) may be different from evidence needed to answer another (cost-effectiveness, treatment acceptability to patients). This review uses counselling in the treatment of depression as a case study, and interrogates the constructs of 'best' evidence and 'best' guideline methodologies...
December 2017: Couns Psychother Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150418/immune-enhancing-formulas-for-patients-with-cancer-undergoing-esophagectomy-systematic-review-protocol
#13
Astrid Naranjo, Elizabeth Isenring, Laisa Teleni
BACKGROUND: Adult patients with an esophageal cancer can potentially be compromised with postoperative leaks or fistulae if patients' nutritional status is in a vulnerable stage. Currently in Australia, there is a growing need for clinicians to know whether use of immune-enhancing formulas (IEFs) containing Arg, omega-3, and RNA are a cost-effective approach compared with isonitrogenous-isocaloric formulas to reduce postoperative infectious complications in esophagectomy patients. Since IEFs may carry higher costs, this has led to inconsistencies in practice among clinicians and hospitals...
November 17, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150296/structural-mri-based-measures-of-neuroplasticity-in-an-extended-amygdala-network-as-a-target-for-attention-bias-modification-treatment-outcome
#14
Jacob Aday, Joshua M Carlson
Increased attentional bias to threat has been identified as a causal mechanism in the development of anxiety. As such, attention bias modification (ABM) was conceived as a treatment option where anxiety is alleviated through a computerized cognitive training regimen that reduces an individual's attentional bias to threat. Although ABM appears to be a promising treatment option for anxiety, the mechanism of action by which the treatment is effective is unknown. We hypothesize that effective ABM treatment is associated with neuroplasticity-related structural changes in an extended amygdala - prefrontal cortex network that can be detected with standard T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147930/snp-association-study-in-pms2-associated-lynch-syndrome
#15
Sanne W Ten Broeke, Fadwa A Elsayed, Lisa Pagan, Maran J W Olderode-Berends, Encarna Gomez Garcia, Hans J P Gille, Liselot P van Hest, Tom G W Letteboer, Lizet E van der Kolk, Arjen R Mensenkamp, Theo A van Os, Liesbeth Spruijt, Bert J W Redeker, Manon Suerink, Yvonne J Vos, Anja Wagner, Juul T Wijnen, E W Steyerberg, Carli M J Tops, Tom van Wezel, Maartje Nielsen
Lynch syndrome (LS) patients are at high risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). Phenotypic variability might in part be explained by common susceptibility loci identified in Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS). Previous studies focused mostly on MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 carriers, with conflicting results. We aimed to determine the role of GWAS SNPs in PMS2 mutation carriers. A cohort study was performed in 507 PMS2 carriers (124 CRC cases), genotyped for 24 GWAS SNPs, including SNPs at 11q23.1 and 8q23.3...
November 17, 2017: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145852/a-preliminary-evaluation-of-influence-of-body-mass-index-on-in-vitro-fertilization-outcome-in-non-obese-endometriosis-patients
#16
Eliana Garalejic, Biljana Arsic, Jovana Radakovic, Dragana Bojovic Jovic, Dragana Lekic, Biljana Macanovic, Ivan Soldatovic, Milan Perovic
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Obese and overweight women experience a lower probability for pregnancy after IVF. However, despite the increasing prevalence of obesity, the large majority of infertile women are non-obese. One of the most common indications for IVF is endometriosis. Thought-provoking inverse correlation has been established between BMI and endometriosis. Lower BMI is a risk factor for development of endometriosis and a predictive factor for severe endometriosis. Since severe endometriosis carries lower reproductive chances, even after IVF, we preliminary tested a hypothesis that higher BMI among non-obese endometriosis patients improves IVF outcomes...
November 16, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143991/genetic-and-non-genetic-risk-factors-for-pre-eclampsia-an-umbrella-review-of-systematic-reviews-and-meta-analyses-of-observational-studies
#17
REVIEW
Konstantinos Giannakou, Evangelos Evangelou, Stefania I Papatheodorou
OBJECTIVE: To summarize evidence from the literature on the risk factors associated with preeclampsia, assess the presence of statistical biases and identify associations with robust evidence. METHODS: We searched PubMed and ISI Web of Science from inception to October, 2016, to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies examining associations between genetic and non-genetic risk factors for preeclampsia. For each meta-analysis we estimated the summary effect size by random-effects and fixed-effects models, the 95% confidence interval and the 95% prediction interval...
November 16, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143712/accuracy-and-bias-of-genomic-prediction-with-different-de-regression-methods
#18
H Song, L Li, Q Zhang, S Zhang, X Ding
Genomic selection has become increasingly important in the breeding of animals and plants. The response variable is an important factor, influencing the accuracy of genomic selection. The de-regressed proof (DRP) based on traditional estimated breeding value (EBV) is commonly used as response variable. In the current study, simulated data from 16th QTL-MAS Workshop and real data from Chinese Holstein cattle were used to compare accuracy and bias of genomic prediction with two methods of calculating DRP. Our results with simulated data showed that the correlation between genomic EBV and true breeding value achieved using the Jairath method (DRP_J) was superior to that achieved using the Garrick method (DRP_G) for simulated trait 1 but the reverse was true for simulated trait 3, and these two methods performed comparably for simulated trait 2...
November 16, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141096/quantifying-publication-bias-in-meta-analysis
#19
Lifeng Lin, Haitao Chu
Publication bias is a serious problem in systematic reviews and meta-analyses, which can affect the validity and generalization of conclusions. Currently, approaches to dealing with publication bias can be distinguished into two classes: selection models and funnel-plot-based methods. Selection models use weight functions to adjust the overall effect size estimate and are usually employed as sensitivity analyses to assess the potential impact of publication bias. Funnel-plot-based methods include visual examination of a funnel plot, regression and rank tests, and the nonparametric trim and fill method...
November 15, 2017: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137180/metabolomic-modularity-analysis-mma-to-quantify-human-liver-perfusion-dynamics
#20
Gautham Vivek Sridharan, Bote Bruinsma, Shyam Sundhar Bale, Anandh Swaminathan, Nima Saeidi, Martin L Yarmush, Korkut Uygun
Large-scale -omics data are now ubiquitously utilized to capture and interpret global responses to perturbations in biological systems, such as the impact of disease states on cells, tissues, and whole organs. Metabolomics data, in particular, are difficult to interpret for providing physiological insight because predefined biochemical pathways used for analysis are inherently biased and fail to capture more complex network interactions that span multiple canonical pathways. In this study, we introduce a nov-el approach coined Metabolomic Modularity Analysis (MMA) as a graph-based algorithm to systematically identify metabolic modules of reactions enriched with metabolites flagged to be statistically significant...
November 13, 2017: Metabolites
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