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Attribution theory

Maria Demireva, JungSoo Kim, P B Armentrout
Guided ion beam mass spectrometry (GIBMS) is used to measure the kinetic energy dependent product ion cross sections for reactions of the lanthanide metal gadolinium cation (Gd(+)) with O2, CO2, and CO and for reactions of GdO(+) with CO, O2, and Xe. GdO(+) is formed through barrierless and exothermic processes in the reactions of Gd(+) with O2 and CO2. All other reactions observed are endothermic, and analyses of their kinetic energy dependent cross sections yield 0 K bond dissociation energies (BDEs) for GdO(+), GdC(+), and GdCO(+)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Xue Li, Jianfeng Feng, Christopher Wellen, Yuqiu Wang
In this study, a modeling framework based on the theory of SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model was developed to identify impaired river reaches with respect to total nitrogen (TN) and estimate the TN sources in the Xin'anjiang River basin, which had limited monitoring sites. A Bayesian approach was applied to estimate the mean values and uncertainties of parameters, including land use export coefficients and in-stream attention rates. Based on the parameters, the midranges (25-75 %) of annual TN concentrations were assessed by the model and 4...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jan Tünnermann, Ingrid Scharlau
Peripheral visual cues lead to large shifts in psychometric distributions of temporal-order judgments. In one view, such shifts are attributed to attention speeding up processing of the cued stimulus, so-called prior entry. However, sometimes these shifts are so large that it is unlikely that they are caused by attention alone. Here we tested the prevalent alternative explanation that the cue is sometimes confused with the target on a perceptual level, bolstering the shift of the psychometric function. We applied a novel model of cued temporal-order judgments, derived from Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Sebastian Sippel, Holger Lange, Miguel D Mahecha, Michael Hauhs, Paul Bodesheim, Thomas Kaminski, Fabian Gans, Osvaldo A Rosso
Data analysis and model-data comparisons in the environmental sciences require diagnostic measures that quantify time series dynamics and structure, and are robust to noise in observational data. This paper investigates the temporal dynamics of environmental time series using measures quantifying their information content and complexity. The measures are used to classify natural processes on one hand, and to compare models with observations on the other. The present analysis focuses on the global carbon cycle as an area of research in which model-data integration and comparisons are key to improving our understanding of natural phenomena...
2016: PloS One
Zhi-Hao Cui, Feng Wu, Hong Jiang
The relative stability of TiO2 in the rutile and anatase structure is wrongly described by density functional theory in various local, semilocal, or even hybrid functional approximations. In this work, we have found that by considering high-order correlations in the adiabatic connection fluctuation-dissipation theory with the random phase approximation (ACFDT-RPA), rutile is correctly predicted to be more stable than anatase, which can be physically attributed to different characters in the electronic band structure of rutile and anatase, including, in particular, that rutile has a smaller band gap than anatase...
October 20, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Anna G Mirer, Terry Young, Mari Palta, Ruth M Benca, Amanda Rasmuson, Paul E Peppard
OBJECTIVE: Menopause is widely believed to be an established cause of sleep disorders, but evidence for this theory is inconclusive. Attributing any sleep problem to normal processes of menopause may lead to underdiagnosis of treatable sleep disorders in midlife women. This study uses detailed longitudinal data on sleep and menopausal health from participants in the Sleep in Midlife Women Study to investigate whether risk and severity of sleep-disordered breathing increase with progression through menopause, accounting for changes in age and body habitus...
October 10, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Caroline H D Jones, Margaret Glogowska, Louise Locock, Daniel S Lasserson
BACKGROUND: Many point of care diagnostic technologies are available which produce results within minutes, and offer the opportunity to deliver acute care out of hospital settings. Increasing access to diagnostics at the point of care could increase the volume and scope of acute ambulatory care. Yet these technologies are not routinely used in many settings. We aimed to explore how point of care testing is used in a setting where it has become 'normalized' (embedded in everyday practice), in order to inform future adoption and implementation in other settings...
October 19, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Huacheng Xu, Changming Yang, Helong Jiang
The stability/aggregation propensity of inorganic colloids in eutrophic shallow lakes is of great essence in governing the water transparency and contaminant behavior. In this study, time-resolved dynamic light scattering was employed to investigate the aggregation kinetics of Al2O3 inorganic colloids over a wide range of cyanobacterial extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) concentrations in the absence and presence of electrolyte cations. The results showed that EPS adsorption alone greatly decreased the hydrodynamic diameters of colloidal particles, whose stability behavior followed closely the predictions of the classical DLVO theory...
October 8, 2016: Water Research
Michael J Houghton, David B Collum
Enolization of O-methyl hydroxamic acids (Weinreb amides) in tetrahydrofuran solution with lithium diisopropylamide affords predominantly tetrameric enolates. Aryl substituents on the enolates promote deaggregation. The aggregation states are assigned by using the method of continuous variation in conjunction with (6)Li NMR spectroscopy. Decoalescence of the tetramer resonance below -100 °C shows considerable spectral complexity attributed to isomerism of the methoxy-based chelates. Density functional theory calculations were used to examine the consequences of the bite angle of five-membered chelates in cubic tetramers and resulting solvation numbers that were higher than anticipated...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Jing Liu, Xiangyu Fu, Qiwei Chen, Yajie Zhang, Yongfeng Wang, Dahui Zhao, Wei Chen, Guo Qin Xu, Peilin Liao, Kai Wu
Ordered two-dimensional arrays of silver adatoms with tunable metal atom density stabilized by 1,4-diethynyl-2,5-dimethylbenzene, a terminal alkyne, were prepared on Ag(111) and scrutinized by scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory calculations. Stabilization of the adatom arrays was attributed to the substrate-mediated electron localizations of the Ag adatom and terminal alkynyl in the molecule.
October 17, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Craig W Trumbo, Raquel Harper
We examine differences between college students and non-students with respect to orientation toward e-cigarettes. Participants were U.S. adults 18-24 (465 students, 409 non-students). Data collection employed an online survey by GfK Custom Research. Smoking, vaping, and use of alternate tobacco were assessed, as were variables from the Theory of Reasoned Action and Diffusion of Innovations. This study showed that smoking status largely explains use and orientation toward electronic cigarettes among both students and non-students, with differences attributable to higher smoking rates among non-students...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Public Health Research
Hugh Stephen Leff, Clifton M Chow, Stephen C Graves
OBJECTIVE: A random-effects meta-analysis of studies that used Markov transition probabilities (TPs) to describe outcomes for mental health service systems of differing quality for persons with serious mental illness was implemented to improve the scientific understanding of systems performance, to use in planning simulations to project service system costs and outcomes over time, and to test a theory of how outcomes for systems varying in quality differ. METHODS: Nineteen systems described in 12 studies were coded as basic (B), maintenance (M), and recovery oriented (R) on the basis of descriptions of services provided...
October 17, 2016: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
M-N Babinet, C Rigard, É Peyroux, A-R Dragomir, I Plotton, H Lejeune, C Demily
INTRODUCTION: The Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is a genetic condition characterized by an X supernumerary sex chromosome in males. The syndrome is frequently associated with cognitive impairment. Indeed, the different areas of the executive sphere can be affected such as inhibition, cognitive flexibility but also attentional and visual-spatial domain. Social cognition disorders, predominantly on emotional recognition processes, have also been documented. In addition, the syndrome may be associated with psychiatric symptoms...
October 12, 2016: L'Encéphale
Julia M Kobulsky, Nancy Jo Kepple, Megan R Holmes, David L Hussey
Knowledge about the concordance of parent- and child-reported child physical abuse is scarce, leaving researchers and practitioners with little guidance on the implications of selecting either informant. Drawing from a 2008-2009 sample of 11- to 17-year-olds (N = 636) from Wave 1 of the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, this study first examined parent-child concordance in physical abuse reporting (Parent-Child Conflict Tactic Scale). Second, it applied multivariate regression analysis to relate parent-child agreement in physical abuse to parent-reported (Child Behavior Checklist) and child-reported (Youth Self Report) child behavioral problems...
October 13, 2016: Child Maltreatment
Frances Buttelmann, David Buttelmann
The ability to attribute and represent others' mental states (e.g., beliefs; so-called "theory of mind") is essential for participation in human social interaction. Despite a considerable body of research using tasks in which protagonists in the participants' attentional focus held false or true beliefs, the question of automatic belief attribution to bystander agents has received little attention. In the current study, we presented adults and 6-year-olds (N=92) with an implicit computer-based avoidance false-belief task in which participants were asked to place an object into one of three boxes...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Mordehai Milgrom
I derive a new modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) relation for pure-disc galaxies: The "dynamical" central surface density, Σ_{D}^{0}, deduced from the measured velocities, is a universal function of only the true, "baryonic'' central surface density, Σ_{B}^{0}: Σ_{D}^{0}=Σ_{M}S(Σ_{B}^{0}/Σ_{M}), where Σ_{M}≡a_{0}/2πG is the MOND surface density constant. This surprising result is shown to hold in both existing, nonrelativistic MOND theories. S(y) is derived: S(y)=∫_{0}^{y}ν(y^{'})dy^{'}, with ν(y) being the interpolating function of the theory...
September 30, 2016: Physical Review Letters
D Prakashbabu, H B Ramalingam, R Hari Krishna, B M Nagabhushana, R Chandramohan, C Shivakumara, J Thirumalai, Tiju Thomas
Red light emitting cubic Zr0.99Eu0.01O2:Li(+) (0-9 mol%) nanoparticles are synthesized by a low temperature, self-propagating solution combustion method using oxalyl di-hydrazide (ODH) as fuel. In this study, we report systematic investigation of the effect of lithium ion (Li(+)) concentration on the structural properties and the photoluminescence of zirconia. With increasing lithium concentration, the crystallinity of the samples increases and the lattice strain decreases. The higher crystallinity is likely due to charge compensation achieved by replacing one Zr(4+) ion by a Eu(3+) and a Li(+) ion...
October 14, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Marcelina Jasmine Silva, Andrea Rubinstein
Buprenorphine, a semisynthetic thebaine derivative, is a unique opioid, as it has activity at multiple receptors, including mu (partial agonist), kappa (antagonist), OLR-1 (agonist), and delta (antagonist). Because buprenorphine's pharmacology is relatively complex, misconceptions about its actions are common. Most other opioids act solely or predominately as full mu receptor agonists. Common practice at many institutions calls for the cessation of regular buprenorphine use 48-72 hours prior to surgery. This practice is based on three foundational theories that have come from scant data about the properties of buprenorphine: (1) that buprenorphine is only a partial mu agonist and therefore is not a potent analgesic; (2) because buprenorphine has a ceiling effect on respiratory depression, it also has a ceiling effect on analgesia; and (3) that buprenorphine acts as a "blockade" to the analgesic effects of other opiates when coadministered due to its strong binding affinity...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy
Jakob Buchheim, Hyung Gyu Park
Polymer melt infiltration is one of the feasible methods for manufacturing filter membranes out of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on large scales. Practically, however, its process suffers from low yields, and the mechanism behind this failure is rather poorly understood. Here, we investigate a failure mechanism of polymer melt infiltration of vertical aligned (VA-) CNTs. In penetrating the VA-CNT interstices, polymer melts exert a capillarity-induced attractive force laterally on CNTs at the moving meniscus, leading to locally agglomerated macroscale bunches...
October 13, 2016: Nanotechnology
Silvia Haag, Paula Haffner, Esther Quinlivan, Martin Brüne, Thomas Stamm
BACKGROUND: Research on theory of mind (ToM) abilities in patients with bipolar disorder has yielded conflicting results. Meta-analyses point to a stable moderate impairment in remitted patients, but factors such as subsyndromal symptoms, illness severity, and deficits in basic neurocognitive functions might act as confounders. Also, differences in deficits depending on task area (cognitive or affective) or task modality (visual or verbal) have been observed. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that euthymic bipolar patients would perform more poorly than healthy subjects on visual cognitive and visual affective ToM tasks...
December 2016: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders
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