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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437070/large-scale-synthesis-of-carbon-shell-coated-fep-nanoparticles-for-robust-hydrogen-evolution-reaction-electrocatalyst
#1
Dong Young Chung, Samuel Woojoo Jun, Gabin Yoon, Hyunjoong Kim, Ji Mun Yoo, Kug-Seung Lee, Taehyun Kim, Heejong Shin, Arun Kumar Sinha, Soon Gu Kwon, Kisuk Kang, Taeghwan Hyeon, Yung-Eun Sung
Highly active and stable non-Pt electrocatalyst for hydrogen production has been pursed for a long time as alternative of expensive Pt catalyst. Herein we report a simple and effective approach to prepare highly stable iron phosphide (FeP) nanoparticle electrocatalyst using iron oxide nanoparticles as the precursor. A single step heating procedure of polydopamine-coated iron oxide nanoparticles leads to carbonization of dopamine coating to carbon shell and phosphidation of iron oxide to FeP, simultaneously...
April 24, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435960/meteorite-impacts-on-ancient-oceans-opened-up-multiple-nh3-production-pathways
#2
Kohei Shimamura, Fuyuki Shimojo, Aiichiro Nakano, Shigenori Tanaka
A recent series of shock experiments by Nakazawa et al. starting in 2005 (e.g. [Nakazawa et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 2005, 235, 356]) suggested that meteorite impacts on ancient oceans would have yielded a considerable amount of NH3 to the early Earth from atmospheric N2 and oceanic H2O through reduction by meteoritic iron. To clarify the mechanisms, we imitated the impact events by performing multi-scale shock technique-based ab initio molecular dynamics in the framework of density functional theory in combination with multi-scale shock technique (MSST) simulations...
April 24, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435275/pathogenic-beliefs-among-patients-with-depressive-disorders
#3
Adam Neelapaijit, Tinakon Wongpakaran, Nahathai Wongpakaran, Kulvadee Thongpibul
INTRODUCTION: Pathogenic belief is a central construct within control-mastery theory, which is an integrated dynamic-cognitive-relational approach in psychotherapy. Pathogenic beliefs result from traumatic life experiences and are considered the root of any psychological disorders presented clinically. Nevertheless, how and what type of pathogenic beliefs are attributed to clinical depressive disorder is unknown. The present study aimed to examine this issue. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty patients with depressive disorder, who came for psychotherapy at a psychotherapy clinic, were matched based on age and gender with healthy controls who were medical students...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434230/single-layer-graphene-membranes-withstand-ultrahigh-applied-pressure
#4
Luda Wang, Christopher M Williams, Michael S H Boutilier, Piran R Kidambi, Rohit Karnik
High mechanical strength is essential for pressure-driven membrane separations with nanoporous single-layer graphene, but its ability to withstand high pressures remains to be demonstrated. We monitored failure of centimeter-scale single-layer graphene membranes on porous supports subjected to high pressures. Consistent with theory, the membranes were found to withstand higher pressures when placed on porous supports with smaller pore diameters, but failure occurred over a surprisingly broad range of pressures, attributed to heterogeneous susceptibility to failure at wrinkles, defects, and slack in the suspended graphene...
April 24, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432814/do-males-choose-their-mates-in-the-lekking-moth-achroia-grisella-influence-of-female-body-mass-and-male-reproductive-status-on-male-mate-choice
#5
Marlène Goubault, Rebecca Burlaud
Lekking males aggregate to attract females and contribute solely to egg fertilization, without any further parental care. Evolutionary theory therefore predicts them to be non-choosy towards their mates, because any lost mating opportunities would outweigh the benefits associated with such preferences. Nevertheless, due to time costs, the production of energetically costly sexual displays, and potential sperm limitation, the mating effort of lekking males is often considerable. These factors, combined with the fact that many females of varying quality are likely to visit leks, could favor the evolution of male mate preferences...
April 22, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428152/convenience-food-with-environmentally-sustainable-attributes-a-consumer-perspective
#6
Stefanella Stranieri, Elena Claire Ricci, Alessandro Banterle
The use of chemicals in agriculture poses risks on both human health and the environment. Regulatory measures, both mandatory and voluntary, have been introduced to promote a reduction in the use of pesticides. The proliferation of such standards is related to the gradual shift of consumer preferences towards foods with reduced negative health and environmental impacts. Beside consumer demand for sustainable food products, convenience foods are also assuming an increasingly important role in developed countries...
April 17, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422487/stepwise-deoxygenation-of-nitrite-as-a-route-to-two-families-of-ruthenium-corroles-group-8-periodic-trends-and-relativistic-effects
#7
Abraham B Alemayehu, Hugo Vazquez-Lima, Kevin J Gagnon, Abhik Ghosh
Given the many applications of ruthenium porphyrins, the rarity of ruthenium corroles and the underdeveloped state of their chemistry are clearly indicative of an area ripe for significant breakthroughs. The tendency of ruthenium corroles to form unreactive metal-metal-bonded dimers has been recognized as a key impediment in this area. Herein, by exposing free-base meso-tris(p-X-phenyl)corroles, H3[TpXPC] (X = CF3, H, Me, and OMe), and [Ru(COD)Cl2]x in refluxing 2-methoxyethanol to nitrite, we have been able to reliably intercept the series Ru[TpXPC](NO) in a matter of seconds to minutes and subsequently Ru(VI)[TpXPC](N), the products of a second deoxygenation, over some 16 h...
April 19, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422244/adhesion-and-friction-in-polymer-films-on-solid-substrates-conformal-sites-analysis-and-corresponding-surface-measurements
#8
Rong An, Liangliang Huang, Kenneth P Mineart, Yihui Dong, Richard J Spontak, Keith E Gubbins
In this work, we present a statistical mechanical analysis to elucidate the molecular-level factors responsible for the static and dynamic properties of polymer films. This analysis, which we term conformal sites theory, establishes that three dimensionless parameters play important roles in determining differences from bulk behavior for thin polymer films near to surfaces: a microscopic wetting parameter, αwx, defined as the ratio of polymer-substrate interaction to polymer-polymer interaction; a dimensionless film thickness, H*; and dimensionless temperature, T*...
April 19, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421029/a-historical-view-of-motion-sickness-a-plague-at-sea-and-on-land-also-with-military-impact
#9
Doreen Huppert, Judy Benson, Thomas Brandt
Seasickness and its triggers, symptoms, and preventive measures were well known in antiquity. This chapter is based on an analysis of descriptions of motion sickness, in particular seasickness, in ancient Greek, Roman, and Chinese literature. A systematic search was made from the Greek period beginning with Homer in 800 BC to the late Roman period and ending with Aetios Amidenos in 600 AD, as well as in the Chinese medical classics dating from around 300 AD. Major aspects are the following: body movements caused by waves were identified in all cultures as the critical stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416803/optical-helicity-driven-magnetization-dynamics-in-metallic-ferromagnets
#10
Gyung-Min Choi, André Schleife, David G Cahill
Recent observations of switching of magnetic domains in ferromagnetic metals by circularly polarized light, so-called all-optical helicity dependent switching, has renewed interest in the physics that governs the interactions between the angular momentum of photons and the magnetic order parameter of materials. Here we use time-resolved-vectorial measurements of magnetization dynamics of thin layers of Fe, Ni and Co driven by picosecond duration pulses of circularly polarized light. We decompose the torques that drive the magnetization into field-like and spin-transfer components that we attribute to the inverse Faraday effect and optical spin-transfer torque, respectively...
April 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415366/statistical-mechanics-of-the-triple-contact-line
#11
Michel Y Louge
We outline a statistical mechanics of the triple gas-solid-liquid contact line on a rough plane. The analysis regards the neighborhood of the line as a solid dotted with cavities. It adopts the simplest mean-field statistical mechanics, in which each cavity is either full or empty, while being connected to near neighbors by thin necks. The theory predicts equilibrium angles for advance and recession in terms of the Young contact angle and the joint statistical distribution of two quantifiable geometrical parameters representing specific neck cross-section and specific cavity opening...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415353/noise-induced-symmetry-breaking-far-from-equilibrium-and-the-emergence-of-biological-homochirality
#12
Farshid Jafarpour, Tommaso Biancalani, Nigel Goldenfeld
The origin of homochirality, the observed single-handedness of biological amino acids and sugars, has long been attributed to autocatalysis, a frequently assumed precursor for early life self-replication. However, the stability of homochiral states in deterministic autocatalytic systems relies on cross-inhibition of the two chiral states, an unlikely scenario for early life self-replicators. Here we present a theory for a stochastic individual-level model of autocatalytic prebiotic self-replicators that are maintained out of thermal equilibrium...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415275/effects-of-surface-roughness-on-shear-viscosity
#13
Michail Papanikolaou, Michael Frank, Dimitris Drikakis
This paper investigates the effect of surface roughness on fluid viscosity using molecular dynamics simulations. The three-dimensional model consists of liquid argon flowing between two solid walls whose surface roughness was modeled using fractal theory. In tandem with previously published experimental work, our results show that, while the viscosity in smooth channels remains constant across the channel width, in the presence of surface roughness it increases close to the walls. The increase of the boundary viscosity is further accentuated by an increase in the depth of surface roughness...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415137/drivers-of-species-role-in-avian-seed-dispersal-mutualistic-networks
#14
Esther Sebastián-González
The mutualistic interaction between frugivore birds and the fruiting plants they disperse presents an asymmetric interaction pattern, with some species having a more important role (i.e. being essential) for maintaining the structure and functioning of the interaction network. The identification of the biological characteristics of these species is of major importance for the understanding and conservation of seed-dispersal interactions. In this study, I use a network approach and avian seed-dispersal networks from 23 different geographical areas to test 5 hypotheses about species characteristics determining the structure of the assemblage...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413906/development-and-validation-of-the-masculine-attributes-questionnaire
#15
Junhan Cho, Steven M Kogan
The present study describes the development and validation of the Masculine Attributes Questionnaire (MAQ). The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretically and empirically grounded measure of masculine attributes for sexual health research with African American young men. Consistent with Whitehead's theory, the MAQ items were hypothesized to comprise two components representing reputation-based and respect-based attributes. The sample included 505 African American men aged 19 to 22 years ( M = 20.29, SD = 1...
April 1, 2017: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412510/empathy-networks-in-the-parental-brain-and-their-long-term-effects-on-children-s-stress-reactivity-and-behavior-adaptation
#16
Eyal Abraham, Gal Raz, Orna Zagoory-Sharon, Ruth Feldman
Parental empathy is a key component of sensitive parenting that supports children's social adaptation throughout life. Consistent with a two dissociable network perspective on empathy, we measured within- and between-network integrity of two empathy-related networks in the parental brain as predictors of children's social outcomes across the first six years of life. We focused on two empathy networks; embodied simulation, which supports parents' capacity to resonate with infant state and emotions and implicates cingulo-insulary structures, and mentalizing, which underpins parents' theory-of-mind and mental attributions via prefrontal-temporo-parietal circuit...
April 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411477/comparative-surface-energetic-study-of-matrigel-%C3%A2-and-collagen-i-interactions-with-endothelial-cells
#17
Michael J Hill, Debanjan Sarkar
Understanding of the surface energetic aspects of the spontaneously deposited proteins on biomaterial surfaces and how this influences cell adhesion and differentiation is an area of regenerative medicine that has not received adequate attention. Current controversies surround the role of the biomaterial substratum surface chemistry, the range of influence of said substratum, and the effects of different surface energy components of the protein interface. Endothelial cells (ECs) are a highly important cell type for regenerative medicine applications, such as tissue engineering, and In-vivo they interact with collagen I based stromal tissue and basement membranes producing different behavioral outcomes...
April 4, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406663/neuropsychological-correlates-of-theory-of-mind-deficits-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#18
Simona Raimo, Luigi Trojano, Simona Pappacena, Raffaella Alaia, Daniele Spitaleri, Dario Grossi, Gabriella Santangelo
BACKGROUND: Theory of mind (ToM) is the ability to understand and interpret another person's beliefs, intentions (cognitive ToM) and emotions (affective ToM). OBJECTIVE: To explore affective and cognitive ToM and their neuropsychological correlates in patients affected by multiple sclerosis (MS). MATERIAL AND METHOD: Forty MS patients and 40 matched control individuals underwent tasks assessing cognitive (the ToM Pictures Sequencing Task and the Advanced Test of ToM) and affective ToM (the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task and the Emotion Attribution Task), in both verbal and nonverbal modality, a comprehensive neuropsychological battery, and questionnaires for behavioral disorders...
April 13, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406376/thinking-fast-increases-framing-effects-in-risky-decision-making
#19
Lisa Guo, Jennifer S Trueblood, Adele Diederich
Every day, people face snap decisions when time is a limiting factor. In addition, the way a problem is presented can influence people's choices, which creates what are known as framing effects. In this research, we explored how time pressure interacts with framing effects in risky decision making. Specifically, does time pressure strengthen or weaken framing effects? On one hand, research has suggested that framing effects evolve through the deliberation process, growing larger with time. On the other hand, dual-process theory attributes framing effects to an intuitive, emotional system that responds automatically to stimuli...
April 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406375/who-dares-who-errs-disentangling-cognitive-and-motivational-roots-of-age-differences-in-decisions-under-risk
#20
Thorsten Pachur, Rui Mata, Ralph Hertwig
We separate for the first time the roles of cognitive and motivational factors in shaping age differences in decision making under risk. Younger and older adults completed gain, loss, and mixed-domain choice problems as well as measures of cognitive functioning and affect. The older adults' decision quality was lower than the younger adults' in the loss domain, and this age difference was attributable to the older adults' lower cognitive abilities. In addition, the older adults chose the more risky option more often than the younger adults in the gain and mixed domains; this difference in risk aversion was attributable to less pronounced negative affect among the older adults...
April 2017: Psychological Science
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