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Attribution theory

Seung Eun Jung, Amy C Ellis, Kristi Crowe-White
To strengthen randomized controlled trials (RCT) evaluating the efficacy of 100% watermelon juice on vascular function of older women, theory-driven behavioral analysis as well as comparative sensory analysis of the intervention and placebo were conducted. The Theory of Planned Behavior was adopted to assess psychosocial determinants of intention to consume watermelon juice. Sensory attributes were assessed utilizing hedonic scales. Analysis included Structural Equation Modeling with maximum likelihood. The measurement model provided a good fit (x2  = 70...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Nutrition in Gerontology and Geriatrics
Tuhin Shuvra Basu, Simon Diesch, Elke Scheer
We have fabricated organically capped stable luminescent silicon nanocrystals with narrow size distribution by a novel, high yield and easy to implement technique. We demonstrate transport measurements of individual silicon nanocrystals by scanning tunnelling microscopy at a low temperature in a double-barrier tunnel junction arrangement in which we observed pronounced single electron tunnelling effects. The tunnelling spectroscopy of these nanocrystals with different diameters reveals quantum confinement induced bandgap modifications...
May 21, 2018: Nanoscale
Shenjun Zha, Guodong Sun, Tengfang Wu, Jiubing Zhao, Zhi-Jian Zhao, Jinlong Gong
The intrinsic errors due to functionals are always a concern on the reliability of the predicted catalytic performance by density functional theory. This paper describes a probability-based computational screening study, which has successfully identified an optimal bimetallic alloy (Pt3 In) for the propane dehydrogenation reaction (PDH). Considering DFT uncertainty, Pt3 In was found to have an activity comparable to that of pure Pt and Pt3 Sn. Meanwhile, Pt3 In shows a considerable improvement in the propylene selectivity compared with pure Pt...
April 28, 2018: Chemical Science
Arif Khan, Shahadat Uddin, Uma Srinivasan
BACKGROUND: Chronic diseases management outside expensive hospital settings has become a major target for governments, funders and healthcare service providers. It is well known that chronic diseases such as Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) do not occur in isolation, and has a shared aetiology common to many other diseases and disorders. Diabetes Australia reports that it is associated with a myriad of complications, which affect the feet, eyes, kidneys, and cardiovascular health. For instance, nerve damage in the lower limbs affects around 13% of Australians with diabetes, diabetic retinopathy occurs in over 15% of Australians with diabetes, and diabetes is now the leading cause of end-stage kidney disease...
July 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
Nian-Ke Chen, Xian-Bin Li, Junhyeok Bang, Xue-Peng Wang, Dong Han, Damien West, Shengbai Zhang, Hong-Bo Sun
Time-dependent density-functional theory molecular dynamics reveals an unexpected effect of optical excitation in the experimentally observed rhombohedral-to-cubic transition of GeTe. The excitation induces coherent forces along [001], which may be attributed to the unique energy landscape of Peierls-distorted solids. The forces drive the A_{1g} optical phonon mode in which Ge and Te move out of phase. Upon damping of the A_{1g} mode, phase transition takes place, which involves no atomic diffusion, defect formation, or the nucleation and growth of the cubic phase...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Heather M Clarke, Kara A Arnold
Research demonstrates the bias faced by individuals engaged in occupations that are perceived as inconsistent with their gender. The lack of fit model and role congruity theory explain how gender stereotypes give rise to the perception that an individual lacks the attributes necessary to be successful in a gender-incongruent job. Men employed in jobs traditionally held by women are perceived as wimpy and undeserving of respect. The majority of studies in this area have, however, failed to account for the sexual orientation of the individual being rated...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Rachael Al-Saadon, Christopher Sutton, Weitao Yang
Thermally activated delayed florescence (TADF) is a mechanism that increases the electroluminescence efficiency in organic light-emitting diodes by harnessing both singlet and triplet excitons. TADF is facilitated by a small energy difference between the first singlet (S1 ) and triplet (T1 ) excited states (ΔE(ST)), which is minimized by spatial separation of the donor and acceptor moieties. The resultant charge-transfer (CT) excited states are difficult to model using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) because of the delocalization error present in standard density functional approximations to the exchange-correlation energy...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Georgios D Sideridis, Panagiotis Simos, Angeliki Mouzaki, Dimitrios Stamovlasis, George K Georgiou
The purpose of the present study was to explain the moderating role of rapid automatized naming (RAN) in word reading with a cusp catastrophe model. We hypothesized that increases in RAN performance speed beyond a critical point would be associated with the disruption in word reading, consistent with a "generic shutdown" hypothesis. Participants were 587 elementary schoolchildren (Grades 2-4), among whom 87 had reading comprehension difficulties per the IQ-achievement discrepancy criterion. Data were analyzed via a cusp catastrophe model derived from the nonlinear dynamics systems theory...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Thomas Reed Reppert, Ioannis Rigas, David Herzfeld, Ehsan Sedaghat-Nejad, Oleg Komogortsev, Reza Shadmehr
A common aspect of individuality is our subjective preferences in evaluation of reward and effort. The neural circuits that evaluate these commodities influence circuits that control our movements, raising the possibility that vigor differences between individuals may also be a trait of individuality, reflecting a willingness to expend effort. In contrast, classic theories in motor-control suggest that vigor differences reflect a speed-accuracy trade-off, predicting that those who move fast are sacrificing accuracy for speed...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Zhongheng Fu, Dominik Legut, Timothy C Germann, Chen Si, Shiyu Du, Joseph S Francisco, Ruifeng Zhang
Two-dimensional transition metal carbides (MXenes) exhibit excellent thermodynamic stability, mechanical strength and flexibility, which make them promising candidates in flexible devices and reinforcements in nanocomposites. However, the dynamic stability may intrinsically determine the preferred adsorption sites of functional groups in MXenes and lead to premature failure under finite strain before approaching the elastic limits. It is found interestingly that different adsorption sites of the functional groups correspond to the different phonon stabilities and adsorption energies of MXenes, which can be attributed to different hybridization characteristics between the metal-d and O-pz states and delocalized electron behaviors around the metal atoms...
May 16, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Robert A Laird
Cooperation is a central topic in evolutionary biology because (a) it is difficult to reconcile why individuals would act in a way that benefits others if such action is costly to themselves, and (b) it underpins many of the 'major transitions of evolution', making it essential for explaining the origins of successively higher levels of biological organization. Within evolutionary game theory, the Prisoner's Dilemma and Snowdrift games are the main theoretical constructs used to study the evolution of cooperation in dyadic interactions...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Nayanika Majumdar, Mahesh S Tirumkudulu
The process of atomization often involves ejecting thin liquid sheets at high speeds from a nozzle that causes the sheet to flap violently and break up into fine droplets. The flapping of the liquid sheet has long been attributed to the sheet's interaction with the surrounding gas phase. Here, we present experimental evidence to the contrary and show that the flapping is caused by the thinning of the liquid sheet as it spreads out from the nozzle exit. The measured growth rates of the waves agree remarkably well with the predictions of a recent theory that accounts for the sheet's thinning but ignores aerodynamic interactions...
April 20, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Claudia Feitosa-Santana, Margaret Lutze, Pablo A Barrionuevo, Dingcai Cao
Based on known color vision theories, there is no complete explanation for the perceptual dichotomy of #TheDress in which most people see either white-and-gold (WG) or blue-and-black (BK). We determined whether some standard color vision tests (i.e., color naming, color matching, anomaloscope settings, unique white settings, and color preferences), as well as chronotypes, could provide information on the color perceptions of #TheDress. Fifty-two young observers were tested. Fifteen of the observers (29%) reported the colors as BK, 21 (40%) as WG, and 16 (31%) reported a different combination of colors...
March 2018: I-Perception
Jesse M Pines, Mark S Zocchi, Caitlin Carter, Charles Z Marriott, Matthew Bernard, Leah H Warner
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Point-of-care testing (POCT) is a commonly used technology that hastens the time to laboratory results in emergency departments (ED). We evaluated an ED-based POCT program on ED length of stay and time to care, coupled with qualitative interviews of local ED stakeholders. METHODS: We conducted a mixed-methods study (2012-16) to examine the impact of point-of-care testing in a single, community ED. The quantiative analysis involved an observational before-after study comparing time to laboratory test result (POC troponin or POC chemistry) and ED length of stay after implementation of POCT, using a propensity-weighted interrupted time series analysis (ITSA)...
May 13, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Elizabeth Starmann, Lori Heise, Nambusi Kyegombe, Karen Devries, Tanya Abramsky, Lori Michau, Tina Musuya, Charlotte Watts, Martine Collumbien
BACKGROUND: A growing number of complex public health interventions combine mass media with community-based "change agents" and/or mobilisation efforts acting at multiple levels. While impact evaluations are important, there is a paucity of research into the more nuanced roles intervention and social network factors may play in achieving intervention outcomes, making it difficult to understand how different aspects of the intervention worked (or did not). This study applied aspects of diffusion of innovations theory to explore how SASA!, a community mobilisation approach for preventing HIV and violence against women, diffused within intervention communities and the factors that influenced the uptake of new ideas and behaviours around intimate partner relationships and violence...
May 11, 2018: BMC Public Health
Ruud Hortensius, Emily S Cross
Understanding the mechanisms and consequences of attributing socialness to artificial agents has important implications for how we can use technology to lead more productive and fulfilling lives. Here, we integrate recent findings on the factors that shape behavioral and brain mechanisms that support social interactions between humans and artificial agents. We review how visual features of an agent, as well as knowledge factors within the human observer, shape attributions across dimensions of socialness. We explore how anthropomorphism and dehumanization further influence how we perceive and interact with artificial agents...
May 11, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Pierre-Henri Heitz, Jean-François Aubin-Fournier, Éric Parent, Carole Fortin
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Posture changes are a major consequence of IS (IS). Posture changes can lead to psychosocial and physical impairments in adolescents with IS. Therefore, it is important to assess posture but the test-retest reliability of posture measurements still remains unknown in this population. PURPOSE: The primary objective was to determine the test-retest reliability of 25 head and trunk posture indices using the Clinical Photographic Postural Assessment Tool (CPPAT) in adolescents with IS...
May 7, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Matthias Jürgen Mickert, Hans H Gorris
Transition state theory (TST) provides an important framework for analyzing and explaining the reaction rates of enzymes. TST, however, needs to account for protein dynamic effects and heterogeneities in enzyme catalysis. We have analyzed the reaction rates of β-galactosidase and β-glucuronidase at the single molecule level by using large arrays of femtoliter-sized chambers. Heterogeneities in individual reaction rates yield information on the intrinsic distribution of the free energy of activation (ΔG‡ ) in an enzyme ensemble...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Afzal Javed, Asha Charles
Social cognition has become recognized as an important driver of functional outcomes and overall recovery in patients with schizophrenia, mediating the relationship between neurocognition and social functioning. Since antipsychotic therapy targeting remission of clinical symptoms has been shown to have a limited impact on social cognition, there has been an increasing drive to develop therapeutic strategies to specifically improve social cognition in schizophrenia. We sought to review current evidence relating to social cognition in schizophrenia and its clinical implications, including interventions designed to target the core domains of social cognition (emotion processing, theory of mind, attributional bias, and social perception) as a means of improving functional outcomes and thereby increasing the likelihood of recovery...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Ognen Pop-Georgievski, Ralf Zimmermann, Ilya Kotelnikov, Vladimir Proks, Dirk Romeis, Jan Kucka, Anja Caspari, Frantisek Rypacek, Carsten Werner
Polymer layers capable of suppressing protein adsorption from biological media while presenting extracellular matrix derived peptide motifs offer valuable new options for biomimetic surface engineering. Herein, we provide detailed insights into physico-chemical changes induced in a non-fouling poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) brush/polydopamine (PDA) system by incorporation of adhesion ligand (RGD) peptides. Brushes with high surface chain densities (σ ≥ 0.5 chains·nm-2 ) and pronounced hydrophilicity (water contact angles ≤ 10°) were prepared by end-tethering of hetero-bifunctional PEOs (Mn ~ 20000 g∙mol-1 ) to PDA-modified surfaces from a reactive melt...
May 4, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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