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Attribution theory

Filippo Savazzi, Francesca Risplendi, Giuseppe Mallia, Nicholas M Harrison, Giancarlo Cicero
Graphene oxide (GO) is a versatile 2D material, whose properties can be tuned by changing the type and concentration of oxygen containing functional groups attached to its surface. However, a detailed knowledge of the dependence of the chemo/physical features of this material on its chemical composition is largely unknown. In this paper, we combine classical molecular dynamics and density functional theory simulations to predict the structural and electronic properties of GO at low degree of oxidation and suggest a revision of the Lerf-Klinowski model...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Kengran Yang, V Ongun Özçelik, Nishant Garg, Kai Gong, Claire E White
Conventional drying of colloidal materials and gels (including cement) can lead to detrimental effects due to the buildup of internal stresses as water evaporates from the nano/microscopic pores. However, for these gel materials the underlying nanoscopic alterations that are, in part, responsible for macroscopically-measured strain values (especially at low relative humidity) remain a topic of open debate in the literature. In this study, sodium-based calcium-alumino-silicate-hydrate (C-(N)-A-S-H) gel, the major binding phase of silicate-activated blast furnace slag (one type of low-CO2 cement), is investigated from a drying perspective, since it is known to suffer extensively from drying-induced microcracking...
March 20, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Worasak Rotjanapittayakul, Wanchai Pijitrojana, Thomas Archer, Stefano Sanvito, Jariyanee Prasongkit
Recently magnetic tunnel junctions using two-dimensional MoS2 as nonmagnetic spacer have been fabricated, although their magnetoresistance has been reported to be quite low. This may be attributed to the use of permalloy electrodes, injecting current with a relatively small spin polarization. Here we evaluate the performance of MoS2 -based tunnel junctions using Fe3 Si Heusler alloy electrodes. Density functional theory and the non-equilibrium Green's function method are used to investigate the spin injection efficiency (SIE) and the magnetoresistance (MR) ratio as a function of the MoS2 thickness...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Cameron Laue, Marcus Griffey, Ping-I Lin, Kirk Wallace, Menno van der Schoot, Paul Horn, Ernest Pedapati, Drew Barzman
Social information processing theory hypothesizes that aggressive children pay more attention to cues of hostility and threat in others' behavior, consequently leading to over-interpretation of others' behavior as hostile. While there is abundant evidence of aggressive children demonstrating hostile attribution biases, less well documented is whether such biases stem from over-attendance and hypersensitivity to hostile cues in social situations. Over-attendance to hostile cues would be typified by deviations at any stage of the multi-stage process of social information processing models...
March 19, 2018: Psychiatric Quarterly
Jamie L Manson, Jamie Brambleby, Paul A Goddard, Peter M Spurgeon, Jacqueline A Villa, Junjie Liu, Saman Ghannadzadeh, Francesca Foronda, John Singleton, Tom Lancaster, Stewart J Clark, Iorwerth O Thomas, Fan Xiao, Robert C Williams, Francis L Pratt, Stephen J Blundell, Craig V Topping, Christopher Baines, Charles Campana, Bruce Noll
Strong hydrogen bonds such as F···H···F offer new strategies to fabricate molecular architectures exhibiting novel structures and properties. Along these lines and, to potentially realize hydrogen-bond mediated superexchange interactions in a frustrated material, we synthesized [H2 F]2 [Ni3 F6 (Fpy)12 ][SbF6 ]2 (Fpy = 3-fluoropyridine). It was found that positionally-disordered H2 F+ ions link neutral NiF2 (Fpy)4 moieties into a kagome lattice with perfect 3-fold rotational symmetry. Detailed magnetic investigations combined with density-functional theory (DFT) revealed weak antiferromagnetic interactions (J ~ 0...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rami Benbenishty, Ron Avi Astor, Ilan Roziner
OBJECTIVES: To assess the between-school variation in suicide ideation and to estimate the contribution of school-level attributes, student-level characteristics, and 2 cross-level interactions (school by student) to student suicide ideation. STUDY DESIGN: A secondary analysis of the California Healthy Kids Survey in 2 large and representative samples of California high schools and students: 2009-2011 and 2011-2013. This is a population sample of all public high school students (grades 9 and 11) in California...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Yuriy Akimov
This Letter revises the resonance theory of Kretschmann and Otto configurations, where enhanced electromagnetic fields and strong reflectance dips observed under total internal reflection are conventionally attributed to the resonance on surface plasmon-polaritons, the subsystem eigenwaves supported by a single metal/dielectric interface. The rigorous mathematical analysis demonstrates that the field enhancement and reflection decrease, in fact, are two independent physical phenomena that occur under different conditions...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Katie N Dainty, M Bianca Seaton, Ian R Drennan, Laurie J Morrison
OBJECTIVE: Community paramedicine (CP) is a model of community-based health care being used around the world. Our objective was to study the patient perspective and valuation of this type of program to understand its potential value for primary care innovation in the future. STUDY SETTING: The EPIC community paramedicine program is a partnership between primary care physicians and specially trained community paramedics, designed to provide in-home support for complex chronic disease patients in Ontario, Canada...
March 15, 2018: Health Services Research
Julian Cespedes-Guevara, Tuomas Eerola
Basic Emotion theory has had a tremendous influence on the affective sciences, including music psychology, where most researchers have assumed that music expressivity is constrained to a limited set of basic emotions. Several scholars suggested that these constrains to musical expressivity are explained by the existence of a shared acoustic code to the expression of emotions in music and speech prosody. In this article we advocate for a shift from this focus on basic emotions to a constructionist account. This approach proposes that the phenomenon of perception of emotions in music arises from the interaction of music's ability to express core affects and the influence of top-down and contextual information in the listener's mind...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Wanderlei Abadio de Oliveira, Jorge Luiz da Silva, Iara Falleiros Braga, Claudio Romualdo, Simona Carla Silvia Caravita, Marta Angélica Iossi Silva
This study unveils the meaning attributed by students to bullying and contributes to the approach of student health. The objective was to identify the dimensions of the conceptions of students regarding bullying. A total of 55 students from 11 public schools participated by answering semi-structured interviews. Dimensional analysis was used to treat data and a matrix was constructed with the dimensions identified. The Grounded Theory was adopted as the methodological and theoretical framework. The adolescents were aware of the main dimensions of bullying but explained it descriptively and from individual perspectives...
March 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Ning Liu, Ramana Pidaparti, Xianqiao Wang
Phosphorene, also known as monolayer black phosphorous, has been widely used in electronic devices due to its superior electrical properties. However, its relatively low Young's modulus, low fracture strength and susceptibility to structural failure has limited its application in nano devices. Therefore, in order to design more mechanically reliable devices that utilize phosphorene, it is necessary to explore the mechanical properties of polycrystalline phosphorene. Here molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the effect of grain size on the mechanical performance of polycrystalline phosphorene sheets...
March 14, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Yolanda Maroño Souto, Miriam Vázquez Campo, Francisco Díaz Llenderrozas, Marina Rodríguez Álvarez, Raimundo Mateos, Alejandro García Caballero
Background: Schizophrenia patients present deficits in social cognition (SC), emotion and social perception, theory of mind (ToM), and attributional style. This study tested the efficacy, in real clinical conditions, of a online self-training program in SC, e-Motional Training® , in comparison with treatment as usual. Method: A randomized single-blinded multicenter clinical trial was conducted with 60 schizophrenia stable outpatients. All patients (control and intervention) were treated with drug therapy, case management, and individual and group psychotherapy (not focused on SC)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Marlysa B Sullivan, Matt Erb, Laura Schmalzl, Steffany Moonaz, Jessica Noggle Taylor, Stephen W Porges
Yoga therapy is a newly emerging, self-regulating complementary and integrative healthcare (CIH) practice. It is growing in its professionalization, recognition and utilization with a demonstrated commitment to setting practice standards, educational and accreditation standards, and promoting research to support its efficacy for various populations and conditions. However, heterogeneity of practice, poor reporting standards, and lack of a broadly accepted understanding of the neurophysiological mechanisms involved in yoga therapy limits the structuring of testable hypotheses and clinical applications...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Kristin M Brown, Susan J Elliott, Jennifer Robertson-Wilson, Michelle M Vine, Scott T Leatherdale
BACKGROUND: Despite the potential population-level impact of a health-promoting schools approach, schools face challenges in implementation, indicating a gap between school health research and practice. Knowledge exchange provides an opportunity to reduce this gap; however, there has been limited evaluation of these initiatives. This research explored researchers' and knowledge users' perceptions of outcomes associated with a knowledge exchange initiative within COMPASS, a longitudinal study of Canadian secondary students and schools...
March 13, 2018: BMC Public Health
Mary Hughes, Eileen Savage, Tom Andrews
This article presents moderating influences, one of the sub-core categories from the theory of accommodating interruptions. This theory emerged in the context of young people who have asthma, explaining how they develop behaviours in their everyday lives (Hughes 2014; Hughes et al., 2017). The aim of this research was to develop a theory on the behaviours of young people who have asthma, in relation to the impact of asthma on the lives and the issues affecting them. This research was undertaken using a classic grounded theory approach...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Child Health Care: for Professionals Working with Children in the Hospital and Community
Jiemeng Tao, Delong Meng, Chong Qin, Xueduan Liu, Yili Liang, Yunhua Xiao, Zhenghua Liu, Yabing Gu, Juan Li, Huaqun Yin
Microbes play a critical role in soil global biogeochemical circulation and microbe-microbe interactions have also evoked enormous interests in recent years. Utilization of green manures can stimulate microbial activity and affect microbial composition and diversity. However, few studies focus on the microbial interactions or detect the key functional members in communities. With the advances of metagenomic technologies, network analysis has been used as a powerful tool to detect robust interactions between microbial members...
March 12, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Tengfei Yu, Qi Feng, Jianhua Si, Patrick J Mitchell, Michael A Forster, Xiaoyou Zhang, Chunyan Zhao
During the night, plant water loss can occur either through the roots, as hydraulic redistribution (HR), or through the leaves via the stoma, as nocturnal transpiration ( E n ), which was methodologically difficult to separate from stem refilling ( R e ). While HR and E n have been reported across a range of species, ecosystem, and climate zone, there is little understanding on the interactions between E n and/or R e and HR. As water movement at night occurs via gradients of water potential, it is expected that during periods of high atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (VPD), water loss via E n will override water loss via HR...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Sonia Bansal, Laurence C Jayet Bray, Barbara L Schwartz, Wilsaan M Joiner
BACKGROUND: Symptoms of psychosis in schizophrenia reflect disturbances in sense of agency-difficulty distinguishing internally from externally generated sensory and perceptual experiences. One theory attributes these anomalies to a disruption in corollary discharge (CD), an internal copy of generated motor commands used to distinguish self-movement-generated sensations from externally generated stimulation. METHODS: We used a transsaccadic shift detection paradigm to examine possible deficits in CD and sense of agency based on the ability to perceive visual changes in 31 schizophrenia patients (SZPs) and 31 healthy control subjects...
February 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Ekaterina Khestanova, John Birkbeck, Mengjian Zhu, Yang Cao, Geliang Yu, Davit Ghazaryan, Jun Yin, Helmuth Berger, László Forró, Takashi Taniguchi, Kenji Watanabe, Roman Vladislavovich Gorbachev, Artem Mishchenko, Andre K Geim, Irina V Grigorieva
It is well known that superconductivity in thin films is generally suppressed with decreasing thickness. This suppression is normally governed by either disorder-induced localization of Cooper pairs, weakening of Coulomb screening, or generation and unbinding of vortex-antivortex pairs as described by the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) theory. Defying general expectations, few-layer NbSe2 - an archetypal example of ultrathin superconductors - has been found to remain superconducting down to monolayer thickness...
March 12, 2018: Nano Letters
Rebecca Maymon, Nathan C Hall, Thomas Goetz, Andrew Chiarella, Sonia Rahimi
As technology becomes increasingly integrated with education, research on the relationships between students' computing-related emotions and motivation following technological difficulties is critical to improving learning experiences. Following from Weiner's (2010) attribution theory of achievement motivation, the present research examined relationships between causal attributions and emotions concerning academic computing difficulties in two studies. Study samples consisted of North American university students enrolled in both traditional and online universities (total N = 559) who responded to either hypothetical scenarios or experimental manipulations involving technological challenges experienced in academic settings...
2018: PloS One
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