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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906393/geometric-control-of-active-collective-motion
#1
Maxime Theillard, Roberto Alonso-Matilla, David Saintillan
Recent experimental studies have shown that confinement can profoundly affect self-organization in semi-dilute active suspensions, leading to striking features such as the formation of steady and spontaneous vortices in circular domains and the emergence of unidirectional pumping motions in periodic racetrack geometries. Motivated by these findings, we analyze the two-dimensional dynamics in confined suspensions of active self-propelled swimmers using a mean-field kinetic theory where conservation equations for the particle configurations are coupled to the forced Navier-Stokes equations for the self-generated fluid flow...
December 1, 2016: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906367/cultivation-of-lemon-fields
#2
Sushanta Kumar Pal, P Senthilkumaran
The sign rule requires that adjacent singularities on a contour have opposite signs and hence cultivation of lemon only fields poses problem as all lemons have positive index. In this paper we show that the interference of three linearly polarized plane waves can create regions of ellipse and vector fields in 2-dimensions (2D) in which a lemon lattice is interlaced in a V-point lattice. The lemons appear at intensity maxima of the lattice structure while the V-points take care of index conservation by sitting at intensity minima...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906351/mitigating-transverse-mode-instability-in-all-fiber-laser-oscillator-and-scaling-power-up-to-2-5-kw-employing-bidirectional-pump-scheme
#3
Baolai Yang, Hanwei Zhang, Chen Shi, Xiaolin Wang, Pu Zhou, Xiaojun Xu, Jinbao Chen, Zejin Liu, Qisheng Lu
Transverse mode instability (TMI) is one of the main limiting factors in kW-level fiber lasers. Unlike fiber amplifiers, TMI in fiber laser oscillators attracts less attention from researchers. In this work, we construct an all-fiber ytterbium-doped laser oscillator and investigate the performance in co-pumping and bidirectional-pumping configurations, respectively. In the co-pumping scheme, TMI occurs at ~1.6kW and restricts further output power scaling. Different from the characteristic of dynamic TMI in fiber amplifiers, quasi-static TMI is observed in the laser oscillator...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906349/single-longitudinal-mode-diamond-raman-laser-in-the-eye-safe-spectral-region-for-water-vapor-detection
#4
Oliver Lux, Soumya Sarang, Robert J Williams, Aaron McKay, Richard P Mildren
We report a narrowband and tunable diamond Raman laser generating eye-safe radiation suitable for water vapor detection. Frequency conversion of a tunable pump laser operating from 1063 to 1066 nm to the second order Stokes component in an external standing-wave cavity yielded 7 W of multimode output power in the wavelength range from 1483 to 1488 nm at a conversion efficiency of 21%. Stable single longitudinal mode operation was achieved over the whole tuning range at low power (0.1 W), whereas incorporation of a volume Bragg grating as an output coupler enabled much higher stable power to be attained (0...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906269/electromagnetic-theory-of-optical-coherence-invited
#5
Ari T Friberg, Tero Setälä
The coherence theory of random, vector-valued optical fields has been of great research interest in recent years. In this work we formulate the foundations of electromagnetic coherence theory both in the space-time and space-frequency domains, with particular emphasis on various types of optical interferometry. Analyzing statistically stationary, two-component (paraxial) electric fields in the classical and quantum-optical contexts we show fundamental connections between the conventional (polarization) Stokes parameters and the associated two-point (coherence) Stokes parameters...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905599/non-scaling-behavior-of-electroosmotic-flow-in-voltage-gated-nanopores
#6
Cheng Lian, Alejandro Gallegos, Honglai Liu, Jianzhong Wu
Ionic transport through nanopores is of fundamental importance for the design and development of nanofiltration membranes and novel electrochemical devices including supercapacitors, fuel cells and batteries. Recent experiments have shown an unusual variation of electrical conductance with the pore size and the electrolyte parameters that defies conventional scaling relations. Here ionic transport through voltage-gated nanopores was studied by using the classical density functional theory for ion distributions in combination with the Navier-Stokes equation for the electroosmotic flow...
December 1, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900170/low-fitness-low-body-mass-and-prior-injury-predict-injury-risk-during-military-recruit-training-a-prospective-cohort-study-in-the-british-army
#7
Mark Robinson, Andrew Siddall, James Bilzon, Dylan Thompson, Julie Greeves, Rachel Izard, Keith Stokes
BACKGROUND: Injuries sustained by military recruits during initial training impede training progression and military readiness while increasing financial costs. This study investigated training-related injuries and injury risk factors among British Army infantry recruits. METHODS: Recruits starting infantry training at the British Army Infantry Training Centre between September 2008 and March 2010 were eligible to take part. Information regarding lifestyle behaviours and injury history was collected using the Military Pre-training Questionnaire...
2016: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900148/the-efficacy-of-a-movement-control-exercise-programme-to-reduce-injuries-in-youth-rugby-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#8
M D Hislop, K A Stokes, S Williams, C D McKay, M England, S P T Kemp, G Trewartha
BACKGROUND: Injuries to youth rugby players have become an increasingly prominent health concern, highlighting the importance of developing and implementing appropriate preventive strategies. A growing body of evidence from other youth sports has demonstrated the efficacy of targeted exercise regimens to reduce injury risk. However, studies have yet to investigate the effect of such interventions in youth contact sport populations like rugby union. OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of an evidence-based movement control exercise programme compared with a sham exercise programme to reduce injury risk in youth rugby players...
2016: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897678/a-tale-of-two-temporal-coding-strategies-common-and-dissociable-brain-regions-involved-in-recency-versus-associative-temporal-order-retrieval-strategies
#9
Jennifer S Lieberman, Colin T Kyle, Amber Schedlbauer, Jared Stokes, Arne D Ekstrom
Numerous studies indicate the importance of the hippocampus to temporal order retrieval. However, behavioral studies suggest that there are different ways to retrieve temporal order information from encoded sequences, one involving an associative strategy (retrieving associations using neighboring items in a list) and another involving a recency strategy (determining which of two items came first). It remains unresolved, however, whether both strategies recruit the hippocampus or only associative strategies, consistent with the hippocampus's role in relational processing...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896626/cheyne-stokes-respiration-during-wakefulness-in-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure
#10
Wolfram Grimm, Karl Kesper, Werner Cassel, Nina Timmesfeld, Olaf Hildebrandt, Ulrich Koehler
PURPOSE: Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) during sleep has been studied extensively in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Prevalence and prognostic significance of CSR during wakefulness in CHF, however, are largely unknown. METHODS: CSR during wakefulness with an apnea-hypopnea cut-off ≥5/h and moderate to severe CSR with an apnea-hypopnea cutoff ≥15/h were analyzed using polysomnographic recordings in 267 patients with stable CHF with reduced left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction at our institution...
November 28, 2016: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896547/chemical-analysis-of-a-miller-type-complex-prebiotic-broth-part-ii-gas-oil-water-and-the-oil-water-interface
#11
Sabrina Scherer, Eva Wollrab, Luca Codutti, Teresa Carlomagno, Stefan Gomes da Costa, Andreas Volkmer, Amela Bronja, Oliver J Schmitz, Albrecht Ott
We have analyzed the chemical variety obtained by Miller-Urey-type experiments using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy, gas chromatography followed by mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and two-dimensional gas chromatography followed by mass spectrometry (GCxGC/MS). In the course of a running Miller-Urey-type experiment, a hydrophobic organic layer emerged besides the hydrophilic aqueous phase and the gaseous phase that were initially present...
November 28, 2016: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895989/diet-induced-obesity-skin-changes-monitored-by-in-vivo-shg-and-ex-vivo-cars-microscopy
#12
Dóra Haluszka, Kende Lőrincz, Norbert Kiss, Róbert Szipőcs, Enikő Kuroli, Nóra Gyöngyösi, Norbert M Wikonkál
Obesity related metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes have severe consequences on our skin. Latest developments in nonlinear microscopy allow the use of noninvasive, label free imaging methods, such as second harmonic generation (SHG) and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), for early diagnosis of metabolic syndrome-related skin complications by 3D imaging of the skin and the connective tissue. Our aim was to study effects of various types of diet-induced obesity in mice using these methods. We examined mice on different diets for 32 weeks...
November 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894565/validating-a-summary-measure-of-weight-history-for-modeling-the-health-consequences-of-obesity
#13
Andrew Stokes, Yu Ni
PURPOSE: Data on weight history may enhance the predictive validity of epidemiologic models of the health risks of obesity, but collecting such data is often not feasible. In this study, we investigate the validity of a summary measure of weight history. METHODS: We evaluated the quality of reporting of maximum weight in a sample of adults aged 50-84 years using data from the Health and Retirement Study. Recalled max body mass index (BMI, measured in kilogram per square meter) based on recalled weight in 2004 was compared with calculated max BMI based on self-reported weight collected biennially between 1992 and 2004...
December 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894000/synthesis-and-fluorescence-studies-of-nine-1-5-benzodiazepine-2-4-dione-derivatives-dual-emission-and-excimer-fluorescence
#14
Hamid Reza Qomi, Azizollah Habibi, Seyyed Mohammad Shahcheragh
The photophysical properties of nine 1,5-benzodiazepine-2,4-dione (BZD) derivatives were investigated using absorption and fluorescence spectral techniques in dimethyl sulfoxide. The trend of red shifts caused by the substitutions had full compliance with the trend of decreasing the calculated band gap (ΔELUMO-HOMO) by semi-empirical AM1 and DFT/B3LYP/6-311+G* computational methods. The positive solvatochromism of BZD a demonstrated the π-π* nature of the singlet excited state. Dual fluorescence was observed in the emission spectra of BZD f and g, while their spectrum in different concentration showed only one peak short wavelength (SW) in dilute solutions...
November 22, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892582/lubrication-of-chocolate-during-oral-processing
#15
S A Rodrigues, N Selway, M P Morgenstern, L Motoi, J R Stokes, B J James
The structure of chocolate is drastically transformed during oral processing from a composite solid to an oil/water fluid emulsion. Using two commercial dark chocolates varying in cocoa solids content, this study develops a method to identify the factors that govern lubrication in molten chocolate and saliva's contribution to lubrication following oral processing. In addition to chocolate and its individual components, simulated boluses (molten chocolate and phosphate buffered saline), in vitro boluses (molten chocolate and whole human saliva) and ex vivo boluses (chocolate expectorated after chewing till the point of swallow) were tested...
November 28, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892561/aie-fluorophore-with-enhanced-cellular-uptake-for-tracking-esterase-activated-release-of-taurine-and-ros-scavenging
#16
Jun Wang, Yinglong Wu, Fang Zeng, Shuailing Huang, Shuizhu Wu
Fluorophores with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) characteristics are attractive and versatile tools for both chemical sensing and biological imaging. Herein, we designed and synthesized a fluorescent light-up system CTPE-Tau with enhanced cellular uptake ability. The system possesses several advantages, such as a large Stokes shift, low cytotoxicity, and good photostability. Also, it has been successfully utilized to track esterase-activated release of taurine and to scavenge intracellular ROS, and shows great potential for trackable visualized therapy...
November 28, 2016: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892516/in-vivo-coherent-raman-imaging-of-the-melanomagenesis-associated-pigment-pheomelanin
#17
Hequn Wang, Sam Osseiran, Vivien Igras, Alexander J Nichols, Elisabeth M Roider, Joachim Pruessner, Hensin Tsao, David E Fisher, Conor L Evans
Melanoma is the most deadly form of skin cancer with a yearly global incidence over 232,000 patients. Individuals with fair skin and red hair exhibit the highest risk for developing melanoma, with evidence suggesting the red/blond pigment known as pheomelanin may elevate melanoma risk through both UV radiation-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Although the ability to identify, characterize, and monitor pheomelanin within skin is vital for improving our understanding of the underlying biology of these lesions, no tools exist for real-time, in vivo detection of the pigment...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891748/an-isosteric-and-fluorescent-dna-base-pair-consisting-of-4-aminophthalimide-and-2-4-diaminopyrimidine-as-c-nucleosides
#18
Marcus Merkel, Lars Dehmel, Nikolaus P Ernsting, Hans-Achim Wagenknecht
A 13mer DNA duplex containing the artificial 4-aminophthalimide:2,4-diaminopyrimidine (4AP:DAP) base pair in the central position was characterized by optical and NMR spectroscopy. The fluorescence of 4AP in the duplex has a large Stokes shift of Δλ=124 nm and a quantum yield of ΦF =24 %. The NMR structure shows that two interstrand hydrogen bonds are formed and confirms the artificial base pairing. In contrast, the 4-N,N-dimethylaminophthalimide moiety prefers the syn conformation in DNA. The fluorescence intensity of this chromophore in DNA is very low and the NMR structure shows no significant interaction with DAP...
November 28, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889852/effects-of-stiffness-and-volume-on-the-transit-time-of-an-erythrocyte-through-a-slit
#19
Sara Salehyar, Qiang Zhu
By using a fully coupled fluid-cell interaction model, we numerically simulate the dynamic process of a red blood cell passing through a slit driven by an incoming flow. The model is achieved by combining a multiscale model of the composite cell membrane with a boundary element fluid dynamics model based on the Stokes flow assumption. Our concentration is on the correlation between the transit time (the time it takes to finish the whole translocation process) and different conditions (flow speed, cell orientation, cell stiffness, cell volume, etc...
November 26, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889675/solvatochromic-fluorescence-properties-of-phenothiazine-based-dyes-involving-thiazolo-4-5-b-quinoxaline-and-benzo-e-indole-as-strong-acceptors
#20
Saurabh S Deshpande, Haribhau S Kumbhar, Ganapati S Shankarling
The present work describes the photophysical properties of two newly synthesized compounds, namely (E)-10-butyl-3-(2-(thiazolo[4,5-b]quinoxalin-2-yl)vinyl)-10H-phenothiazine (PTQ) and (E)-10-butyl-3-(2-(1,1-dimethyl-1H-benzo[e]indol-2-yl)vinyl)-10H-phenothiazine (PBI). A strong intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) is observed in both dyes as indicated from absorption and emission studies on varying the solvent polarity. This can be concluded from the large Stokes shifts among these dyes as PTQ exhibits large Stokes shift with >270nm and PBI around 200nm...
November 1, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
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