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Mukesh Dhamala, Hualou Liang, Steven L Bressler, Mingzhou Ding
In a recent PNAS article1 , Stokes and Purdon performed numerical simulations to argue that Granger-Geweke causality (GGC) estimation is severely biased, or of high variance, and GGC application to neuroscience is problematic because the GGC measure is independent of 'receiver' dynamics. Here, we use the same simulation examples to show that GGC measures, when properly estimated either via the spectral factorization-enabled nonparametric approach or the VAR-model based parametric approach, do not have the claimed bias and high variance problems...
April 20, 2018: NeuroImage
Z T Ai, A K Melikov
This paper reviews past studies of airborne transmission between occupants in indoor environments, focusing on the spread of expiratory droplet nuclei from mouth/nose to mouth/nose for non-specific diseases. Special attention is paid to summarizing what is known about the influential factors, the inappropriate simplifications of the thermofluid boundary conditions of thermal manikins, the challenges facing the available experimental techniques, and the limitations of available evaluation methods. Secondary issues are highlighted and some new ways to improve our understanding of airborne transmission indoors are provided...
April 23, 2018: Indoor Air
Eric W Burkholder, John F Brady
We study the motion of a spherical active Brownian particle (ABP) of size a, moving with a fixed speed U0, and reorienting on a time scale τR in the presence of a confining boundary. Because momentum is conserved in the embedding fluid, we show that the average force per unit area on the boundary equals the bulk mechanical pressure P∞ = p∞f + Π∞, where p∞f is the fluid pressure and Π∞ is the particle pressure; this is true for active and passive particles alike regardless of how the particles interact with the boundary...
April 23, 2018: Soft Matter
Florian Frank, Chen Liu, Alessio Scanziani, Faruk O Alpak, Beatrice Riviere
We consider an energy-based boundary condition to impose an equilibrium wetting angle for the Cahn-Hilliard-Navier-Stokes phase-field model on voxel-set-type computational domains. These domains typically stem from μCT (micro computed tomography) imaging of porous rock and approximate a (on μm scale) smooth domain with a certain resolution. Planar surfaces that are perpendicular to the main axes are naturally approximated by a layer of voxels. However, planar surfaces in any other directions and curved surfaces yield a jagged/topologically rough surface approximation by voxels...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Roger L Papke, Can Peng, Ashok Kumar, Clare Stokes
Long-term potentiation (LTP) in the dentate gyrus was previously shown to be enhanced by nicotine, an effect dependent on both homomeric α7 and heteromeric α2β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). In our experiments, bath-applied nicotine produced no significant enhancement of LTP. The α7 nAChR silent agonist NS6740, a weak activator of α7 nAChR ion channels but an effective modulator of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, decreased LTP and, additionally, produced a substantial reduction in the baseline synaptic function prior to the high frequency stimulation used to induce LTP...
April 18, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Wei He, Ning Huang, Bin Xu, Wenbo Wang
A bridge built inside the reversed flow region of a sand dune will change the characteristics of wind-sand movement in this region. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulation and discrete particle tracing are used to simulate the wind-sand movement around a sand dune with a bridge built inside the reversed region. Three cases with different bridge positions are studied. The results show that 1) compared with the isolated dune case, a tall bridge built at the leeward toe leads to an increase in the deposition rate on the leeward slope and a longer reversed flow region downstream of the sand dune; meanwhile, the high speed of crosswind on the bridge indicates that some measures should be taken to protect trains from strong crosswind; 2) a low bridge at the leeward toe has little effect on the sand deposition and reversed flow region of the dune; however, low sand transport rate and crosswind speed on the bridge show that anti-crosswind/sand measures should be taken according to the actual situation and 3) a low bridge on the leeward slope has little effect on the length of reversed flow region, however, high crosswind speed and sand flux on the bridge reveal the need of anti-crosswind/sand measures on the bridge...
April 23, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Melissa H Bloodworth, Mark Rusznak, Connor C Pfister, Jian Zhang, Lisa Bastarache, Sandra Alvarez Calvillo, James D Chappell, Kelli L Boyd, Shinji Toki, Dawn C Newcomb, Matthew T Stier, Weisong Zhou, Kasia Goleniewska, Martin L Moore, Tina V Hartert, Kevin D Niswender, R Stokes Peebles
GLP-1R signaling, an emerging anti-inflammatory therapeutic target, attenuated type 2-associated immunopathology in mice infected with a strain of RSV that was isolated from a hospitalized infant with severe lower respiratory tract infection and bronchiolitis.
April 17, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Anu Kadyan, Siddharth Pandey
Salt-added ionic liquid media have emerged as versatile alternative to the conventional electrolytes in several applications. Lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (LiTf2N)-added ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([emim][Tf2N]) system up to LiTf2N mole fraction (x_(LiTf_2 N)) of 0.40 is investigated using fluorophore-quencher pair of pyrene-nitromethane in 298.15 - 358.15 K temperature range. Excited-state intensity decay of pyrene fits best to a single exponential decay function irrespective of the concentration of nitromethane, x_(LiTf_2 N) and the temperature...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Dawoon Jung, Daeyoon Kim, Woo Joo Yang, Eou Sik Cho, Sang Jik Kwon, Jae-Hee Han
In this work, the UV-Vis-NIR absorption spectrum of liquid-phase exfoliated two-dimensional (2D) MoS2 nanosheets, revealed two prominent peaks at 608 nm (2.04 eV) and 668 nm (1.86 eV). These peaks were blue-shifted compared to the reported literature values and are attributed to the quantum confinement effect. Interestingly, the WS2 nanosheets exhibited the same characteristic absorption peak at ~624 nm (1.99 eV). Raman spectroscopy analysis revealed that both nanosheets displayed distinctive peaks [377.8 cm-1 and 405...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Dan Mei, Meng Wen, Yuzheng Zhu, Xuemei Xu, Futang Xing
In atmospheric environment, the layout difference of urban buildings has a powerful influence on accelerating or inhibiting the dispersion of particle matters (PM). In industrial cities, buildings of variable heights can obstruct the diffusion of PM from industrial stacks. In this study, PM dispersed within building groups was simulated by Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations coupled Lagrangian approach. Four typical street building arrangements were used: (a) a low-rise building block with Height/base H/b = 1 (b = 20 m); (b) step-up building layout (H/b = 1, 2, 3, 4); (c) step-down building layout (H/b = 4, 3, 2, 1); (d) high-rise building block (H/b = 5)...
April 20, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Jianxu Zhang, Bin Xu, Wenjing Tian, Zhigang Xie
The rational design of robust fluorescent organic materials for long-term cell tracing is still challenging, and aggregation-caused quenching of emission is a big limitation of this strategy. Organic dyes with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) can effectively address this problem. Herein, AIEgen-containing nanoparticles, with different morphologies and emission, were prepared by assembling amphiphilic copolymers with an AIEgen. We compared the physical and chemical properties of rod-like and spherical nanoparticles, particularly investigating the effects of the shape on internalization and the imaging effect...
March 7, 2018: Chemical Science
K W C Poon, C Brideau, R Klaver, G J Schenk, J J Geurts, P K Stys
Multiple sclerosis (MS) exhibits demyelination, inflammatory infiltration, axonal degeneration, and gliosis, affecting widespread regions of the central nervous system (CNS). While white matter MS lesions have been well characterized pathologically, evidence indicates that the MS brain may be globally altered, with subtle abnormalities found in grossly normal appearing white matter (NAWM). These subtle changes are difficult to investigate by common methods such as histochemical stains and conventional magnetic resonance imaging...
February 14, 2018: Chemical Science
Asier Uribeetxebarria, Elisa Daniele, Alexandre Escolà, Jaume Arnó, José A Martínez-Casasnovas
The change from traditional to a more mechanized and technical agriculture has involved, in many cases, land transformations. This has supposed alteration of landforms and soils, with significant consequences. The effects of induced soil variability and the subsequent implications in site-specific crop management have not been sufficiently studied. The present work investigated the application of a resistivity soil sensor (Veris 3100), to map the apparent electrical conductivity (ECa), and detailed multispectral airborne images to analyse soil and crop spatial variability to assist in site-specific orchard management...
April 16, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Mary J Stokes, Jeffrey P Wilkinson
McCaw-Binns' identified trends in maternal and late maternal mortality in Jamaica which mirror trends seen elsewhere. The WHO reported in 2016 that non-communicable diseases (NCD) were the leading cause of death for women (comprising 65% of deaths), with over 75% of these deaths occurring in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). (World Health Organization and UNICEF (2016) A systematic analysis of global causes of maternal deaths from 2003-2009 found one-quarter were due to indirect causes - primarily NCDs including heart disease, stroke, cancer, and chronic respiratory disease...
April 19, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Qin Wang, Yahui Niu, Rong Wang, Haoran Wu, Yanrong Zhang
The significant progress recently achieved in designing smart acid-responsive materials based on intramolecular charge transfer inspired us to utilize excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) for developing a turn-on acid-responsive fluorescent system with an exceedingly large Stokes shift. Two ESIPT-active fluorophores, 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)pyridine (HPP) and 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzothiazole (HBT), were fused into a novel dye (HBT-HPP) fluorescent only in the protonated state. Moreover, we also synthesized three structurally relevant control compounds to compare their steady-state fluorescent spectra and optimized geometric structures in neutral and acidic media, suggesting that the fluorescence turn-on was caused by the acid-induced shift of the ESIPT-responsible intramolecular hydrogen bond from HPP to HBT moiety...
April 19, 2018: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Adrian D Elliott, Rajiv Mahajan, Dominik Linz, Michael Stokes, Christian V Verdicchio, Melissa E Middeldorp, Andre La Gerche, Dennis H Lau, Prashanthan Sanders
BACKGROUND: Atrial remodeling, vagal tone and atrial ectopic triggers have been suggested to contribute to the increased incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in endurance athletes. How these parameters change with increased lifetime training hours is debated. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesised that atrial remodeling occurs in proportion to total training history, thus contributing to the elevated risk of AF. METHODS: We recruited 99 recreational endurance athletes, subsequently grouped according to lifetime training hours, to undergo evaluation of atrial size, autonomic modulation and atrial ectopy...
April 19, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
Syed S Razi, Yun Hee Koo, Woojae Kim, Wenbo Yang, Zhijia Wang, Habtom Gobeze, Francis D'Souza, Jianzhang Zhao, Dongho Kim
A boron dipyrromethane (BDP)-containing Pt(II)-Schiff base complex (Pt-BDP), showing ping-pong singlet-triplet energy transfer, was synthesized, and the detailed photophysical properties were investigated using various steady-state and time-resolved transient spectroscopies. Femtosecond/nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopies demonstrated that, upon selective excitation of the BDP unit in Pt-BDP at 490 nm, Förster resonance energy transfer from the BDP unit to the Pt(II) coordination center occurred (6...
April 19, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Vivian Szeto, Nai-Hong Chen, Hong-Shuo Sun, Zhong-Ping Feng
ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP ) channels are ubiquitously expressed on the plasma membrane of cells in multiple organs, including the heart, pancreas and brain. KATP channels play important roles in controlling and regulating cellular functions in response to metabolic state, which are inhibited by ATP and activated by Mg-ADP, allowing the cell to couple cellular metabolic state (ATP/ADP ratio) to electrical activity of the cell membrane. KATP channels mediate insulin secretion in pancreatic islet beta cells, and controlling vascular tone...
April 19, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
TaeGi Lee, Kunio Shimura, DaeGwi Kim
We investigated the effects of surface modification on the defect-related photoluminescence (PL) band in colloidal CdS quantum dots (QDs). A size-selective photoetching process and a surface modification technique with a Cd(OH)2 layer enabled the preparation of size-controlled CdS QDs with high PL efficiency. The Stokes shift of the defect-related PL band before and after the surface modification was ∼1.0 eV and ∼0.63 eV, respectively. This difference in the Stokes shifts suggests that the origin of the defect-related PL band was changed by the surface modification...
April 19, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Chathura S Abeywickrama, Hannah J Baumann, Nicolas Alexander, Leah P Shriver, Michael Konopka, Yi Pang
A series of benzothiazolium-based hemicyanines (3a-3f) have been synthesized. Evaluation of their photophysical properties shows that they exhibit improved photophysical characteristics. In comparison with the available commercial MitoTrackers, the new probes revealed an enhanced Stokes shift (Δλ ∼ 80 nm) and minimized aggregation for increased sensitivity. The synthesized probes are found to exhibit excellent selectivity for mitochondrial staining in an oligodendrocyte cell line. Probes show almost no fluorescence in aqueous environments, while the fluorescence is increased by ∼10-fold in organic solvents, making it possible for mitochondrial imaging without the need for post-staining washing...
April 19, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
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