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Michael Z L Zhu, Andrew Martin, Andrew D Cochrane, Julian A Smith, Amanda G Thrift, Gerard K Harrop, Jennifer P Ngo, Roger G Evans
Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common after cardiac surgery and profoundly affects postoperative mortality and morbidity. There are no validated methods to assess risk of AKI intraoperatively. Methods: We determined the association between postoperative AKI and intraoperative urinary oxygen tension (PO2), measured via a fiber optic probe in the tip of the urinary catheter, in 65 patients undergoing high-risk cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB)...
March 14, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
D Valenzuela, F Moya, M Luco, J L Tapia
50 years ago, Northway described Broncopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants exposed to mechanical ventilation. Since then, their survival has increased, nevertheless a "new BPD" has appeared and its incidence has not diminished. One of the characteristics of this pathology is the the abnormal vascular remodeling, which in its most severe expression is known as Pulmonary Hyper tension (PH); with an incidence of 17% in patients with BPD, which is proportional to the severity of the disease (33% in severe BPD), and as mortality factor (up to 48% 2-year mortality in PH-BPD)...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Sergio Barroso Rosa, Zaid Bahho, Kenji Doma, Kaushik Hazratwala, Peter McEwen, Varaguna Manoharan, Brent Matthews, Matthew Wilkinson
INTRODUCTION: Patella alta (PA) is one of the primary correctable risk factors for patellofemoral instability (PFI). Both an accurate diagnosis of PA and a clinically relevant target for correction are necessary for optimal treatment. An ideal test for PA should relate the position of the patella to the femur rather than tibia, should do so with the quadriceps contracted and the patellar tendon under tension and should have good sensitivity and specificity. None of the currently used radiographic tests PA meet these criteria, most of which are based on the position of the patella relative to the tibia with diagnostic cutoffs based on 2 standard deviations from the mean rather than optimal sensitivity and specificity...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
Sam Goodman
This article considers the significance of eating and drinking within a series of diaries and journals produced in British colonial India during the Indian Rebellion of 1857. The discussion of food and drink in this context was not simply a means to add color or compelling detail to these accounts, but was instead a vital ingredient of the authors' understanding of health and medical treatment. These texts suggest a broader colonial medical understanding of the importance of regulating diet to maintain physical health...
March 13, 2018: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
Sabina Kedzierska-Mieszkowska, Joanna Renke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Tadashi Sugahara, Yuichiro Takamatsu, Avinash Bhadani, Masaaki Akamatsu, Kenichi Sakai, Masahiko Abe, Hideki Sakai
In this study, we synthesize a novel oleic acid-based gemini surfactant with carboxylate headgroups, and study the effect of stereochemistry (anti- vs. syn-) on self-aggregation properties in water. We investigate these properties using phase diagrams, static surface tension, and one-dimensional and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements. We find that a phase transition from a hexagonal liquid crystal (H1) phase to a lamellar liquid crystal (Lα) phase occurs at a lower surfactant concentration in the syn form, when compared with the anti form...
March 16, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Brooke McClarren, Ronke Olabisi
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells capable of differentiating into any mesenchymal tissue, including bone, cartilage, muscle, and fat. MSC differentiation can be influenced by a variety of stimuli, including environmental and mechanical stimulation, scaffold physical properties, or applied loads. Numerous studies have evaluated the effects of vibration or cyclic tensile strain on MSCs towards developing a mechanically based method of differentiation, but there is no consensus between studies and each investigation uses different culture conditions, which also influence MSC fate...
2018: International Journal of Biomaterials
Tina C Roeske, Damian Kelty-Stephen, Sebastian Wallot
Music is thought to engage its listeners by driving feelings of surprise, tension, and relief through a dynamic mixture of predictable and unpredictable patterns, a property summarized here as "expressiveness". Birdsong shares with music the goal to attract its listeners' attention and might use similar strategies to achieve this. We here tested a thrush nightingale's (Luscinia luscinia) rhythm, as represented by song amplitude envelope (containing information on note timing, duration, and intensity), for evidence of expressiveness...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
J D Santoro, N D Forkert, Q-Z Yang, S Pavitt, S J MacEachern, M E Moseley, K W Yeom
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Tension-type and migraine-type headaches are the most common chronic paroxysmal disorders of childhood. The goal of this study was to compare regional cerebral volumes and diffusion in tension-type and migraine-type headaches against published controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients evaluated for tension-type or migraine-type headache without aura from May 2014 to July 2016 in a single center were retrospectively reviewed. Thirty-two patients with tension-type headache and 23 with migraine-type headache at an average of 4 months after diagnosis were enrolled...
March 15, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
George Richard Holt, Kevin Christopher McMains, Randal A Otto
Evaluating and providing global health assistance, humanitarian aid, and medical missions to Middle Eastern countries can be rewarding and challenging. A broad spectrum of financial capabilities supports effective health care delivery and infrastructure. Middle East tension can make obtaining a visa difficult. Personal safety considerations may hinder efforts to develop and carry out clinical and educational programs. Several Middle East countries have sophisticated and modern health care systems. Medical education and specialty training compares with that of Western medicine...
March 12, 2018: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
Sheng Yan, Yuxing Li, Yuanqing Zhu, Minsu Liu, Qianbin Zhao, Dan Yuan, Guolin Yun, Shiwu Zhang, Weijia Wen, Shi-Yang Tang, Weihua Li
This work presents a simple, low-cost method to fabricate semi-circular channels using solder paste, which can amalgamate the cooper surface to form a half-cylinder mould using the surface tension of Sn-Pd alloy (the main component in solder paste). This technique enables semi-circular channels to be manufactured with different dimensions. These semi-circular channels will then be integrated with a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) frame and machine screws to create miniaturised, portable microfluidic valves for sequential liquid delivery and particle synthesis...
March 15, 2018: Electrophoresis
Marta Martínez-Calle, Bárbara Olmeda, Paul Dietl, Manfred Frick, Jesús Pérez-Gil
The release of pulmonary surfactant by alveolar type II (ATII) cells is essential for lowering surface tension at the respiratory air-liquid interface, stabilizing the lungs against physical forces tending to alveolar collapse. Hydrophobic surfactant protein (SP)-B ensures the proper packing of newly synthesized surfactant particles, promotes the formation of the surface active film at the alveolar air-liquid interface and maintains its proper structure along the respiratory dynamics. We report that membrane-associated SP-B efficiently induces secretion of pulmonary surfactant by ATII cells, at the same level as potent secretagogues such as ATP...
March 15, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
S P Paul
Objective There remains confusion between Langer's lines and wrinkle lines with respect to the optimal orientation of elliptical excisions on the trunk. This study sought to determine the directions of wound closure that would result in least wound tension after skin lesion excisions. Materials and methods Some 1181 consecutive skin lesion excisions were investigated (age range 13-95 years, median 64 years) using a tensiometer to determine directions of least wound tension. These lines were mapped. Skin tension measurements were taken during the procedure and analysed...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
S R Ali, H Mohamedbhai, A Ibrahim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
A Giorgini, S Avino, P Malara, P De Natale, M Yannai, T Carmon, G Gagliardi
Liquid droplets are ubiquitous in nature wherein surface tension shapes them into perfect spheres with atomic-scale smooth surfaces. Here, we use stable droplets that cohost equatorial acoustical and optical resonances phase matched to enable the exchange of energy and momentum between sound and light. Relying on free-space laser excitation of multiple whispering-gallery modes, we harness a triple-resonant forward Brillouin scattering to stimulate optomechanical surface waves. Nonlinear amplification of droplet vibrations in the 60-70 MHz range is realized with spectral narrowing beyond the limit of material loss, thereby activating the droplet as hypersound-laser emitter...
February 16, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Xiaoxiao Li, Jianning Liu, Zhuonan Liu, Mesfin Tsige, Shi-Qing Wang
New experiments show that tensile stress vanishes shortly after preyield deformation of polymer glasses while tensile stress after postyield deformation stays high and relaxes on much longer time scales, thus hinting at a specific molecular origin of stress in ductile cold drawing: chain tension rather than intersegmental interactions. Molecular dynamics simulation based on a coarse-grained model for polystyrene confirms the conclusion that the chain network plays an essential role, causing the glassy state to yield and to respond with a high level of intrachain retractive stress...
February 16, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Lin Lei, Dylan A Kovacevich, Michael P Nitzsche, Jihyun Ryu, Kutaiba Al-Marzoki, Gabriela Rodriguez, Lisa Klein, Andrei Jitianu, Jonathan P Singer
The electrospray process utilizes the balance of electrostatic forces and surface tension within a charged spray to produce charged microdroplets with a narrow dispersion in size. In electrospray deposition, each droplet carries a small quantity of suspended material to a target substrate. Past electrospray deposition results fall into two major categories: (1) continuous spray of films onto conducting substrates and (2) spray of isolated droplets onto insulating substrates. A cross-over regime, or a self-limited spray, has only been limitedly observed in the spray of insulating materials onto conductive substrates...
March 15, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Zhao Pan, Floriane Weyer, William G Pitt, Nicolas Vandewalle, Tadd T Truscott
Inspired by the huge droplets attached on cypress tree leaf tips after rain, we find that a bent fibre can hold significantly more water in the corner than a horizontally placed fibre (typically up to three times or more). The maximum volume of the liquid that can be trapped is remarkably affected by the bending angle of the fibre and surface tension of the liquid. We experimentally find the optimal included angle (∼36°) that holds the most water. Analytical and semi-empirical models are developed to explain these counter-intuitive experimental observations and predict the optimal angle...
March 15, 2018: Soft Matter
Marian Krawczyk, Richard Sawatzky, Kara Schick-Makaroff, Kelli Stajduhar, Joakim Öhlen, Sheryl Reimer-Kirkham, Esther Mercedes Laforest, Robin Cohen
This article applies a micro-meso-macro analytical framework to understand clinicians' experiences and perspectives of using patient-reported outcome and experience measures (PROMs and PREMs) in routine hospital-based palliative care. We structure our discussion through qualitative analysis of a design and implementation project for using an electronic tablet-based tool among hospital-based palliative clinicians to assess patients' and their family caregivers' quality of life concerns and experiences of care...
March 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
Josette M Northcott, Ivory S Dean, Janna K Mouw, Valerie M Weaver
The tumor microenvironment is a dynamic landscape in which the physical and mechanical properties evolve dramatically throughout cancer progression. These changes are driven by enhanced tumor cell contractility and expansion of the growing tumor mass, as well as through alterations to the material properties of the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM). Consequently, tumor cells are exposed to a number of different mechanical inputs including cell-cell and cell-ECM tension, compression stress, interstitial fluid pressure and shear stress...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
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