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Michael Sokolov, Jonathan Ritscher, Nicola MacKinnon, Jean-Marc Bielser, David Brühlmann, Dominik Rothenhäusler, Gian Thanei, Miroslav Soos, Matthieu Stettler, Jonathan Souquet, Hervé Broly, Massimo Morbidelli, Alessandro Butté
This work presents a multivariate methodology combining Principal Component Analysis, the Mahalanobis distance and Decision Trees for the selection of process factors and their levels in early process development of generic molecules. It is applied to a high throughput study testing more than 200 conditions for the production of a biosimilar monoclonal antibody at microliter scale. The methodology provides the most important selection criteria for the process design in order to improve product quality towards the quality attributes of the originator molecule...
September 30, 2016: Biotechnology Progress
Daniel J Levitin, Scott T Grafton
Functional brain imaging has revealed much about the neuroanatomical substrates of higher cognition, including music, language, learning, and memory. The technique lends itself to studying of groups of individuals. In contrast, the nature of expert performance is typically studied through the examination of exceptional individuals using behavioral case studies and retrospective biography. Here, we combined fMRI and the study of an individual who is a world-class expert musician and composer in order to better understand the neural underpinnings of his music perception and cognition, in particular, his mental representations for music...
August 12, 2016: Neurocase
Reginaldo Brito da Costa, Jeane Cabral da Silva, Leandro Skowronski, Michel Constantino, Hemerson Pistori, Jannaína Velasques da Costa Pinto
Assessing the parental genetic differences and their subsequent prediction of progeny performance is an important first step to assure the efficiency of any breeding program. In this study, we estimate the genetic divergence in Eucalyptus camaldulensis based on the morphological traits of 132 progenies grown in a savanna biome. Thus, a field experiment was performed using a randomized block design and five replications to compare divergences in total height, commercial height, diameter at breast height, stem form and survival rate at 48 months...
2016: PloS One
Colin Campbell, Laura Russo, Alessandra Marins, Og DeSouza, Karsten Schönrogge, David Mortensen, John Tooker, Réka Albert, Katriona Shea
The analysis of ecological networks is generally bottom-up, where networks are established by observing interactions between individuals. Emergent network properties have been indicated to reflect the dominant mode of interactions in communities that might be mutualistic (e.g., pollination) or antagonistic (e.g., host-parasitoid communities). Many ecological communities, however, comprise species interactions that are difficult to observe directly. Here, we propose that a comparison of the emergent properties from detail-rich reference communities with known modes of interaction can inform our understanding of detail-sparse focal communities...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Kristina Andrėkutė, Gintarė Linkevičiūtė, Renaldas Raišutis, Skaidra Valiukevičienė, Jurgita Makštienė
We describe a novel automatic diagnostic system based on quantitative analysis of ultrasound data for differential diagnosis of melanocytic skin tumors. The proposed method has been tested on 160 ultrasound data sets (80 of malignant melanoma and 80 of benign melanocytic nevi). Acoustical, textural and shape features have been evaluated for each segmented lesion. Using parameters selected according to Mahalanobis distance and linear support vector machine classifier, we are able to differentiate malignant melanoma from benign melanocytic skin tumors with 82...
September 13, 2016: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Marcus C Araújo, Renata M C R Souza, Rita C F Lima, Telmo M Silva Filho
Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of death in women. Because of this, thermographic images have received a refocus for diagnosing this cancer type. This work proposes an innovative approach to classify breast abnormalities (malignant, benignant and cyst), employing interval temperature data in order to detect breast cancer. The learning step takes into account the internal variation of the intervals when describing breast abnormalities and uses a way to map these intervals into a space where they can be more easily separated...
September 15, 2016: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Concepción Crespo Turrado, Fernando Sánchez Lasheras, José Luis Calvo-Rollé, Andrés-José Piñón-Pazos, Manuel G Melero, Francisco Javier de Cos Juez
The storage of data is a key process in the study of electrical power networks related to the search for harmonics and the finding of a lack of balance among phases. The presence of missing data of any of the main electrical variables (phase-to-neutral voltage, phase-to-phase voltage, current in each phase and power factor) affects any time series study in a negative way that has to be addressed. When this occurs, missing data imputation algorithms are required. These algorithms are able to substitute the data that are missing for estimated values...
2016: Sensors
Keurcien Luu, Eric Bazin, Michael G B Blum
The R package pcadapt performs genome scans to detect genes under selection based on population genomic data. It assumes that candidate markers are outliers with respect to how they are related to population structure. Because population structure is ascertained with principal component analysis, the package is fast and works with large-scale data. It can handle missing data and pooled sequencing data. By contrast to population-based approaches, the package handle admixed individuals and does not require grouping individuals into populations...
September 7, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
Ana Pérez Antón, Miguel Del Nogal Sánchez, Ángel Pedro Crisolino Pozas, José Luis Pérez Pavón, Bernardo Moreno Cordero
A rapid method for the analysis of volatiles in saliva samples is proposed. The method is based on direct coupling of three components: a headspace sampler (HS), a programmable temperature vaporizer (PTV) and a quadrupole mass spectrometer (qMS). Several applications in the biomedical field have been proposed with electronic noses based on different sensors. However, few contributions have been developed using a mass spectrometry-based electronic nose in this field up to date. Samples of 23 patients with some type of cancer and 32 healthy volunteers were analyzed with HS-PTV-MS and the profile signals obtained were subjected to pattern recognition techniques with the aim of studying the possibilities of the methodology to differentiate patients with cancer from healthy controls...
November 1, 2016: Talanta
Victor Mangas-Sanjuan, Sarin Colon-Useche, Isabel Gonzalez-Alvarez, Marival Bermejo, Alfredo Garcia-Arieta
The objective is to compare the performance of dissolution-profile comparison methods when f 2 is inadequate due to high variability. The 90% confidence region of the Mahalanobis distance and the 90% bootstrap confidence interval (CI) of the f 2 similarity factor (f 2-bootstrap) were explored. A modification of the Mahalanobis distance (new D-Mahalanobis) in which those points >85% were not taken into account for calculation was also used. A population kinetic approach in NONMEM was used to simulate dissolution profiles with the first-order or Weibull kinetic models...
August 29, 2016: AAPS Journal
William Edryd Stephens
BACKGROUND: Illicit tobacco products have a disproportionately negative effect on public health. Counterfeits and cheap whites as well as legal brands smuggled from countries not adopting track and trace technologies will require novel forensic tools to aid the disruption of their supply chains. METHODS: Data sets of trace element concentrations in tobacco were obtained using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry on samples of legal and illicit products mainly from Europe...
August 16, 2016: Tobacco Control
Michael L Morris
Vocational interests predict educational and career choices, job performance, and career success (Rounds & Su, 2014). Although sex differences in vocational interests have long been observed (Thorndike, 1911), an appropriate overall measure has been lacking from the literature. Using a cross-sectional sample of United States residents aged 14 to 63 who completed the Strong Interest Inventory assessment between 2005 and 2014 (N = 1,283,110), I examined sex, age, ethnicity, and year effects on work related interest levels using both multivariate and univariate effect size estimates of individual dimensions (Holland's Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional)...
October 2016: Journal of Counseling Psychology
V M Alifirova, K S Brazovskii, I A Zhukova, Ya S Pekker, I V Tolmachev, V A Fokin
A method for quantitative evaluation of the results of postural tests is proposed. The method is based on contact-free measurements of 3D coordinates of body point movements. The result can serve as an integral test based on the Mahalanobis distance.
July 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Hugo Reyes-Centeno, Silvia Ghirotto, Katerina Harvati
OBJECTIVES: In modern humans, the significant correlation between neutral genetic loci and cranial anatomy suggests that the cranium preserves a population history signature. However, there is disagreement on whether certain parts of the cranium preserve this signature to a greater degree than other parts. It is also unclear how different quantitative measures of phenotype affect the association of genetic variation and anatomy. Here, we revisit these matters by testing the correlation of genetic distances and various phenotypic distances for ten modern human populations...
August 4, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Paul H Garthwaite, Inge Koch
Quadratic forms capture multivariate information in a single number, making them useful, for example, in hypothesis testing. When a quadratic form is large and hence interesting, it might be informative to partition the quadratic form into contributions of individual variables. In this paper it is argued that meaningful partitions can be formed, though the precise partition that is determined will depend on the criterion used to select it. An intuitively reasonable criterion is proposed and the partition to which it leads is determined...
March 2016: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Statistics
Robert Verity, Caitlin Collins, Daren C Card, Sara M Schaal, Liuyang Wang, Katie E Lotterhos
Genome scans are widely used to identify "outliers" in genomic data: loci with different patterns compared with the rest of the genome due to the action of selection or other non-adaptive forces of evolution. These genomic datasets are often high-dimensional, with complex correlation structures among variables, making it a challenge to identify outliers in a robust way. The Mahalanobis distance has been widely used, but has the major limitation of assuming that data follow a simple parametric distribution. Here we develop three new metrics that can be used to identify outliers in multivariate space, while making no strong assumptions about the distribution of the data...
July 30, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
Lynne Falconer, Trevor C Telfer, Lindsay G Ross
This study investigated the potential use of two "species distribution models" (SDMs), Mahalanobis Typicality and Maxent, for aquaculture site selection. SDMs are used in ecological studies to predict the spatial distribution of species based on analysis of conditions at locations of known presence or absence. Here the input points are aquaculture sites, rather than species occurrence, thus the models evaluate the parameters at the sites and identify similar areas across the rest of the study area. This is a novel approach that avoids the need for data reclassification and weighting which can be a source of conflict and uncertainty within the commonly used multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) technique...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
William G Pearson, Brandon K Taylor, Julie Blair, Bonnie Martin-Harris
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Determine swallowing mechanics associated with the first and second epiglottic movements, that is, movement to horizontal and full inversion, respectively, to provide a clinical interpretation of impaired epiglottic function. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: A heterogeneous cohort of patients with swallowing difficulties was identified (n = 92). Two speech-language pathologists reviewed 5-mL thin and 5-mL pudding videofluoroscopic swallow studies per subject, and assigned epiglottic component scores of 0 = complete inversion, 1 = partial inversion, and 2 = no inversion, forming three groups of videos for comparison...
August 2016: Laryngoscope
Fadlalla G Elfadaly, Paul H Garthwaite, John R Crawford
Mahalanobis distance may be used as a measure of the disparity between an individual's profile of scores and the average profile of a population of controls. The degree to which the individual's profile is unusual can then be equated to the proportion of the population who would have a larger Mahalanobis distance than the individual. Several estimators of this proportion are examined. These include plug-in maximum likelihood estimators, medians, the posterior mean from a Bayesian probability matching prior, an estimator derived from a Taylor expansion, and two forms of polynomial approximation, one based on Bernstein polynomial and one on a quadrature method...
July 2016: Computational Statistics & Data Analysis
Bin Cai, Zhiqi Song, Yanhong Tong, Qingxin Tang, Talgar Shaymurat, Yichun Liu
Despite tremendous potential and urgent demand in high-response low-cost gas identification, the development of gas identification based on a metal oxide semiconductor nanowire/nanobelt remains limited by fabrication complexity and redundant signals. Researchers have shown a multisensor-array strategy with "one key to one lock" configuration. Here, we describe a new strategy to create high-response room-temperature gas identification by employing gas as dielectric. This enables gas discrimination down to the part per billion (ppb) level only based on one pristine single nanobelt transistor, with the excellent average Mahalanobis distance (MD) as high as 35 at the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) space...
2016: Sensors
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