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Mahalanobis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222855/non-euclidean-phasor-analysis-for-quantification-of-oxidative-stress-in-ex-vivo-human-skin-exposed-to-sun-filters-using-fluorescence-lifetime-imaging-microscopy
#1
Sam Osseiran, Elisabeth M Roider, Hequn Wang, Yusuke Suita, Michael Murphy, David E Fisher, Conor L Evans
Chemical sun filters are commonly used as active ingredients in sunscreens due to their efficient absorption of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Yet, it is known that these compounds can photochemically react with UV light and generate reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress in vitro, though this has yet to be validated in vivo. One label-free approach to probe oxidative stress is to measure and compare the relative endogenous fluorescence generated by cellular coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides and flavin adenine dinucleotides...
December 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216406/high-throughput-h295r-steroidogenesis-assay-utility-as-an-alternative-and-a-statistical-approach-to-characterize-effects-on-steroidogenesis
#2
Derik E Haggard, Agnes L Karmaus, Matthew T Martin, Richard S Judson, R Woodrow Setzer, Katie Paul Friedman
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) have used the human adrenocarcinoma (H295R) cell-based assay to predict chemical perturbation of androgen and estrogen production. Recently, a high-throughput H295R (HT-H295R) assay was developed as part of the ToxCast program that includes measurement of 11 hormones, including progestagens, corticosteroids, androgens, and estrogens. To date, 2012 chemicals have been screened at one concentration; of these, 656 chemicals have been screened in concentration-response...
December 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174701/tadpoles-fed-supplemented-diet-with-probiotic-bacterium-isolated-from-the-intestinal-tract-of-bullfrog-lithobates-catesbeianus-haematology-cell-activity-and-electron-microscopy
#3
S A Pereira, G T Jerônimo, N C Marchiori, H M Oliveira, G F A Jesus, E C Schmidt, Z L Bouzon, F N Vieira, M L Martins, J L P Mouriño
The aim of this study is to select and isolate autochthonous bacteria with probiotic potential for use in a supplemented diet for bullfrog tadpoles, Lithobates catesbeianus. A total of 20 strains of lactic acid bacteria were isolated. Nine out of these were used in the following in vitro assays: antagonism against pathogenic bacteria (ANT), antimicrobial activity from extracellular compounds (MIC), tolerance to bile salts (TBS), pH reduction, protease production, sensitivity to antimicrobial tetracycline, cell viability, growth rate and doubling time...
November 23, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162339/acute-kidney-injury-and-risk-of-incident-heart-failure-among-us-veterans
#4
Nisha Bansal, Michael E Matheny, Robert A Greevy, Svetlana K Eden, Amy M Perkins, Sharidan K Parr, James Fly, Khaled Abdel-Kader, Jonathan Himmelfarb, Adriana M Hung, Theodore Speroff, T Alp Ikizler, Edward D Siew
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common and associated with poor outcomes. Heart failure is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease among patients with chronic kidney disease. The relationship between AKI and heart failure remains unknown and may identify a novel mechanistic link between kidney and cardiovascular disease. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: We studied a national cohort of 300,868 hospitalized US veterans (2004-2011) without a history of heart failure...
November 18, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132388/a-composite-robotic-based-measure-of-upper-limb-proprioception
#5
Jeffrey M Kenzie, Jennifer A Semrau, Michael D Hill, Stephen H Scott, Sean P Dukelow
BACKGROUND: Proprioception is the sense of the position and movement of our limbs, and is vital for executing coordinated movements. Proprioceptive disorders are common following stroke, but clinical tests for measuring impairments in proprioception are simple ordinal scales that are unreliable and relatively crude. We developed and validated specific kinematic parameters to quantify proprioception and compared two common metrics, Euclidean and Mahalanobis distances, to combine these parameters into an overall summary score of proprioception...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126201/using-mahalanobis-distance-to-evaluate-recovery-in-acute-stroke
#6
Hannah Tehan, Kate Witteveen, G Anne Tolan, Gerald Tehan, Graeme J Senior
Objective: In the weeks immediately following a stroke, impairments across multiple cognitive domains are pervasive yet there is little literature that explores cognitive recovery during this period. This paper evaluates the use of Mahalanobis distance as a means of statistically evaluating cognitive change at the individual level. Method: A small battery of standardized neuropsychological tests was administered on five or six occasions across a 2-week period to the participants recovering from a stroke and a non-stroke control group...
November 8, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114438/assessment-of-fine-scale-resource-selection-and-spatially-explicit-habitat-suitability-modelling-for-a-re-introduced-tiger-panthera-tigris-population-in-central-india
#7
Mriganka Shekhar Sarkar, Ramesh Krishnamurthy, Jeyaraj A Johnson, Subharanjan Sen, Goutam Kumar Saha
Background: Large carnivores influence ecosystem functions at various scales. Thus, their local extinction is not only a species-specific conservation concern, but also reflects on the overall habitat quality and ecosystem value. Species-habitat relationships at fine scale reflect the individuals' ability to procure resources and negotiate intraspecific competition. Such fine scale habitat choices are more pronounced in large carnivores such as tiger (Panthera tigris), which exhibits competitive exclusion in habitat and mate selection strategies...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110294/chemometric-methods-to-quantify-1d-and-2d-nmr-spectral-differences-among-similar-protein-therapeutics
#8
Kang Chen, Junyong Park, Feng Li, Sharadrao M Patil, David A Keire
NMR spectroscopy is an emerging analytical tool for measuring complex drug product qualities, e.g., protein higher order structure (HOS) or heparin chemical composition. Most drug NMR spectra have been visually analyzed; however, NMR spectra are inherently quantitative and multivariate and thus suitable for chemometric analysis. Therefore, quantitative measurements derived from chemometric comparisons between spectra could be a key step in establishing acceptance criteria for a new generic drug or a new batch after manufacture change...
November 6, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090737/investigating-cranial-morphological-variation-of-early-human-skeletal-remains-from-chile-a-3d-geometric-morphometric-approach
#9
Susan C Kuzminsky, Omar Reyes Báez, Bernardo Arriaza, César Méndez, Vivien G Standen, Manuel San Román, Iván Muñoz, Ángel Durán Herrera, Mark Hubbe
OBJECTIVES: Archaeological and genetic research has demonstrated that the Pacific Coast was a key route in the early colonization of South America. Research examining South American skeletons >8000 cal BP has revealed differences in cranial morphology between early and late Holocene populations, which may reflect distinct migration events and/or populations. However, genetic, cultural, and some skeletal data contradict this model. Given these discrepancies, this study examines ∼9000 years of prehistory to test the hypothesis that Early skeletons have a distinct cranial morphology from later skeletons...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081898/mahalanobis-distance-for-class-averaging-of-cryo-em-images
#10
Tejal Bhamre, Zhizhen Zhao, Amit Singer
Single particle reconstruction (SPR) from cryo-electron microscopy (EM) is a technique in which the 3D structure of a molecule needs to be determined from its contrast transfer function (CTF) affected, noisy 2D projection images taken at unknown viewing directions. One of the main challenges in cryo-EM is the typically low signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the acquired images. 2D classification of images, followed by class averaging, improves the SNR of the resulting averages, and is used for selecting particles from micrographs and for inspecting the particle images...
April 2017: Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: from Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064416/a-novel-unsupervised-segmentation-quality-evaluation-method-for-remote-sensing-images
#11
Han Gao, Yunwei Tang, Linhai Jing, Hui Li, Haifeng Ding
The segmentation of a high spatial resolution remote sensing image is a critical step in geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA). Evaluating the performance of segmentation without ground truth data, i.e., unsupervised evaluation, is important for the comparison of segmentation algorithms and the automatic selection of optimal parameters. This unsupervised strategy currently faces several challenges in practice, such as difficulties in designing effective indicators and limitations of the spectral values in the feature representation...
October 24, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060752/content-based-retrieval-for-lung-nodule-diagnosis-using-learned-distance-metric
#12
Guohui Wei, He Ma, Wei Qian, Hongyang Jiang, Xinzhuo Zhao
Similarity metric of the lung nodules can be useful in differentiating between benign and malignant lung nodule lesions on computed tomography (CT). Unlike previous computerized schemes, which focus on the features extracting, we concentrate on similarity metric of the lung nodules. In this study, we first assemble a lung nodule dataset which is from LIDC-IDRI lung CT images. This dataset includes 746 lung nodules in which 375 domain radiologists identified malignant nodules and 371 domain radiologists-identified benign nodules...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045063/evaluating-manufacturing-process-profile-comparability-with-multivariate-equivalence-testing-case-study-of-cell-culture-small-scale-model-transfer
#13
Yang Cao, Daniel Obeng, Guodong Hui, Luting Xue, Yukun Ren, Xianjie Yu, Fei Wang, Chad Atwell
This paper studies the Generalized Mahalanobis Distance (GMD) approach proposed by Hoffelder(1) which measures the dissimilarity of two multivariate Gaussian distributions with arbitrary covariance matrices and unequal sample sizes. This investigation demonstrated that, with appropriate adjustment, the GMD approach can achieve the targeted nominal Type I error and provide sufficient power for testing equivalence between two profile populations. The adjusted GMD approach was applied to examine the equivalence of harvest profiles between a 12L small scale model and 2000L manufacturing scale in a transfer study performed at Sanofi Speciality Care Framingham Biologics...
October 16, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035333/water-quality-sensing-and-spatio-temporal-monitoring-structure-with-autocorrelation-kernel-methods
#14
Iván P Vizcaíno, Enrique V Carrera, Sergio Muñoz-Romero, Luis H Cumbal, José Luis Rojo-Álvarez
Pollution on water resources is usually analyzed with monitoring campaigns, which consist of programmed sampling, measurement, and recording of the most representative water quality parameters. These campaign measurements yields a non-uniform spatio-temporal sampled data structure to characterize complex dynamics phenomena. In this work, we propose an enhanced statistical interpolation method to provide water quality managers with statistically interpolated representations of spatial-temporal dynamics. Specifically, our proposal makes efficient use of the a priori available information of the quality parameter measurements through Support Vector Regression (SVR) based on Mercer's kernels...
October 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034407/novel-mahalanobis-based-feature-selection-improves-one-class-classification-of-early-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#15
Ricardo de Lima Thomaz, Pedro Cunha Carneiro, João Eliton Bonin, Túlio Augusto Alves Macedo, Ana Claudia Patrocinio, Alcimar Barbosa Soares
Detection of early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is responsible for increasing survival rates in up to 40%. One-class classifiers can be used for modeling early HCC in multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), but demand the specific knowledge pertaining to the set of features that best describes the target class. Although the literature outlines several features for characterizing liver lesions, it is unclear which is most relevant for describing early HCC. In this paper, we introduce an unconstrained GA feature selection algorithm based on a multi-objective Mahalanobis fitness function to improve the classification performance for early HCC...
October 16, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023058/morphometric-characteristics-of-asian-catfish-hemibagrus-wyckii-bleeker-1858-bagridae-from-the-riau-province-of-indonesia
#16
Netti Aryani, Saberina Hasibuan, Ainul Mardiah, Hafrijal Syandri
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Asian Catfish (Hemibagrus wyckii) is an important fish having both food and a high price in the market. These species are categorized as a carnivorous freshwater finfish native in Indonesia and is vulnerable to endangered status. This study was carried out to identify the morphometric characteristics of Hemibagrus wyckii (H. wyckii) from the Koto Panjang Reservoir, Kampar Kanan and Kampar Kiri rivers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five fish were collected from each sampling site...
2017: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981671/climate-shapes-the-geographic-distribution-of-the-blowfly-sarconesia-chlorogaster-diptera-calliphoridae-an-environmental-niche-modeling-approach
#17
Melise Cristine Lecheta, Rodrigo César Corrêa, Mauricio Osvaldo Moura
For all species, abiotic factors directly affect performance, survival and reproduction, and consequently, their geographic distribution. Species distribution models (SDMs) are important tools to predict the influence of abiotic factors in species distributions and has been more applied over the years. However, these models can be built under different algorithms and using different methods to select environmental predictors, which can lead to different results. Five different algorithms and two sets of environmental predictors were compared to predict the geographic distribution of the blowfly Sarconesia chlorogaster (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae)...
October 1, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981453/detecting-steps-walking-at-very-low-speeds-combining-outlier-detection-transition-matrices-and-autoencoders-from-acceleration-patterns
#18
Mario Muñoz-Organero, Ramona Ruiz-Blázquez
In this paper, we develop and validate a new algorithm to detect steps while walking at speeds between 30 and 40 steps per minute based on the data sensed from a single tri-axial accelerometer. The algorithm concatenates three consecutive phases. First, an outlier detection is performed on the sensed data based on the Mahalanobis distance to pre-detect candidate points in the acceleration time series that may contain a ground contact segment of data while walking. Second, the acceleration segment around the pre-detected point is used to calculate the transition matrix in order to capture the time dependencies...
October 5, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973780/diversity-among-elephant-grass-genotypes-using-bayesian-multi-trait-model
#19
D A Rossi, R F Daher, T C Barbé, R S N Lima, A F Costa, L P Ribeiro, P E Teodoro, L L Bhering
Elephant grass is a perennial tropical grass with great potential for energy generation from biomass. The objective of this study was to estimate the genetic diversity among elephant grass accessions based on morpho-agronomic and biomass quality traits and to identify promising genotypes for obtaining hybrids with high energetic biomass production capacity. The experiment was installed at experimental area of the State Agricultural College Antônio Sarlo, in Campos dos Goytacazes. Fifty-two elephant grass genotypes were evaluated in a randomized block design with two replicates...
September 27, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973743/intraspecific-variability-of-popcorn-s7-lines-for-phosphorus-efficiency-in-the-soil
#20
I F S Gerhardt, A T Amaral Júnior, L J M Guimarães, I A Schwantes, A Santos, S H Kamphorst, V J Lima, F M Poblete, G O Myers
The expansion of agriculture, coupled with the need for sustainable cropping, is one of the greatest challenges of the scientific community working on the generation of new cultivars adapted to abiotic stress conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variability of popcorn lines as to responsiveness and efficiency in phosphorus use, as a first step towards the implementation of a breeding program interested in the practice of sustainable agriculture. Twenty-five popcorn lines were evaluated in two locations with different phosphorus levels in the soil, using a randomized block design...
September 27, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
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