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Mahalanobis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466436/three-dimensional-geometric-morphometric-analysis-reveals-ethnic-dimorphism-in-the-shape-of-the-femur
#1
Etienne Cavaignac, Ke Li, Marie Faruch, Frederic Savall, Philippe Chiron, W Huang, Norbert Telmon
BACKGROUND: Ethnic dimorphism in the distal femur has never been studied in a three-dimensional analysis focused on shape instead of size. Yet, this dimorphism has direct implications in orthopedic surgery and in anthropology. The goal of this study was to show that differences in distal femur shape related to ethnic dimorphism could be identified, visualized, and quantified using 3D geometric morphometric analysis. METHODS: CT scans of the distal femur were taken from 482 patients who were free of any bone-related pathology: 240 patients were European (E) and 242 were Asian (A)...
December 2017: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458360/comparison-of-dissolution-similarity-assessment-methods-for-products-with-large-variations-f2-statistics-and-model-independent-multivariate-confidence-region-procedure-for-dissolution-profiles-of-multiple-oral-products
#2
Hiroyuki Yoshida, Hiroko Shibata, Ken-Ichi Izutsu, Yukihiro Goda
The current Japanese Ministry of Health Labour and Welfare (MHLW)'s Guideline for Bioequivalence Studies of Generic Products uses averaged dissolution rates for the assessment of dissolution similarity between test and reference formulations. This study clarifies how the application of model-independent multivariate confidence region procedure (Method B), described in the European Medical Agency and U.S. Food and Drug Administration guidelines, affects similarity outcomes obtained empirically from dissolution profiles with large variations in individual dissolution rates...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391812/an-enhancement-method-for-color-retinal-images-based-on-image-formation-model
#3
Li Xiong, Huiqi Li, Liang Xu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The good quality of color retinal image is essential for doctors to make a reliable diagnose in clinics. Due to major reasons like acquisition process and retinal diseases, most retinal images can show poor illuminance, blur and low contrast, further impeding the process of identifying the underlying retinal condition. METHODS: Image formation model of scattering is proposed to enhance color retinal images in this paper. Two parameters of this model, background illuminance and transmission map, are estimated based on extracted background and foreground...
May 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381796/correlation-between-the-efficacy-of-lamotrigine-and-the-serum-lamotrigine-level-during-the-remission-phase-of-acute-bipolar-ii-depression-a-naturalistic-and-unblinded-prospective-pilot-study
#4
Akiyoshi Kikkawa, Yoshihisa Kitamura, Tetsuya Aiba, Koichi Hiraki, Toshiaki Sendo
Lamotrigine has acute antidepressant effects in patients with bipolar disorder. However, there is little information regarding appropriate serum levels of lamotrigine and the time until remission after the start of lamotrigine therapy in patients with bipolar II depression. This was a naturalistic and unblinded prospective pilot study. Twelve patients' depressive symptoms were evaluated using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) at the start of treatment and at the time of remission, and blood samples were obtained at the time of remission...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375379/three-dimensional-integral-imaging-and-object-detection-using-long-wave-infrared-imaging
#5
Satoru Komatsu, Adam Markman, Abhijit Mahalanobis, Kenny Chen, Bahram Javidi
We propose a passive three-dimensional (3D) imaging technique based on integral imaging using a long-wave infrared (LWIR) camera. 3D imaging can improve visualization and detection of objects in adverse environments, such as low light levels and the presence of partial occlusions, along with depth estimation by reconstructing the scene at the plane of the object. This is achieved by capturing multiple two-dimensional images, known as elemental images (EI), of a scene with each image having a unique perspective of the 3D objects...
March 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374500/fueguian-crania-and-the-circum-pacific-rim-variation
#6
D Turbon, C Arenas, C M Cuadras
OBJECTIVES: The Fueguians are descendants of the first settlers of America, a 'relict' isolated geographically for 10,000 years. We compared their cranial variation with other Americans, and samples from Asia and Australia to know whether the modern extinct Fueguians can be considered Paleoamericans or not. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Herein we study 176 Fuego-Patagonian skulls, the largest cranial sample to be studied, refined and well documented, using CVA, and the D(2) of Mahalanobis...
April 4, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366027/detecting-destabilizing-wheelchair-conditions-for-maintaining-seated-posture
#7
Anna Crawford, Kiley Armstrong, Kenneth Loparo, Musa Audu, Ronald Triolo
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to detect and classify potentially destabilizing conditions encountered by manual wheelchair users with spinal cord injuries (SCI) to dynamically increase stability and prevent falls. METHODS: A volunteer with motor complete T11 paraplegia repeatedly propelled his manual wheelchair over level ground and simulated destabilizing conditions including sudden stops, bumps and rough terrain. Wireless inertial measurement units attached to the wheelchair frame and his sternum recorded associated accelerations and angular velocities...
April 1, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365924/spatial-analysis-of-bovine-tuberculosis-in-the-state-of-mexico-mexico
#8
Adrian Zaragoza Bastida, Marivel Herna Ndez Tellez, Lilia Patricia Bustamante Montes, Jaime Nicola S Jaramillo Paniagua, Mari A Eugenia Jaimes Beni Tes, Germa N Eduardo Mendoza Barrera, Ninfa Rami Rez-Dura N
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic infectious disease that affects both domestic animals and wildlife. Veterinary epidemiology studies evaluate bTB using geographic information systems (GIS), which can characterise the spatial and temporal distribution of diseases and identify the geographic areas and animal populations at risk of contracting a disease. The present study used space‑time permutation scan statistic to identify the spatial and temporal distribution of bTB from 2005 to 2010 in the State of Mexico with the goal of creating a similarity model using Mahalanobis Distance to identify areas suitable for bTB occurrence...
March 31, 2017: Veterinaria Italiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363007/genetic-divergence-in-the-common-bean-phaseolus-vulgaris-l-in-the-cerrado-pantanal-ecotone
#9
F A da Silva, A M Corrêa, P E Teodoro, K V Lopes, C C G Corrêa
Evaluating genetic diversity among genotypes is important for providing parameters for the identification of superior genotypes, because the choice of parents that form segregating populations is crucial. Our objectives were to i) evaluate agronomic performance; ii) compare clustering methods; iii) ascertain the relative contributions of the variables evaluated; and iv) identify the most promising hybrids to produce superior segregating populations. The trial was conducted in 2015 at the State University of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil...
March 30, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362984/multivariate-statistics-applied-to-the-reaction-of-common-bean-plants-to-parasitism-by-meloidogyne-javanica
#10
L N S Santos, P D S Cabral, G A R Neves, F R Alves, M B Teixeira, F N Cunha, N F Silva
The availability of common bean cultivars tolerant to Meloidogyne javanica is limited in Brazil. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the reactions of 33 common bean genotypes (23 landrace, 8 commercial, 1 susceptible standard and 1 resistant standard) to M. javanica, employing multivariate statistics to discriminate the reaction of the genotypes. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using a completely randomized design with seven replicates. The seeds were sown in 1-L pots containing autoclaved soil and sand in a 1:1 ratio (v:v)...
March 16, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346884/automatic-measurement-of-melanoma-depth-of-invasion-in-skin-histopathological-images
#11
Hongming Xu, Richard Berendt, Naresh Jha, Mrinal Mandal
Measurement of melanoma depth of invasion (DoI) in skin tissues is of great significance in grading the severity of skin disease and planning patient's treatment. However, accurate and automatic measurement of melanocytic tumor depth is a challenging problem mainly due to the difficulty of skin granular identification and melanoma detection. In this paper, we propose a technique for measuring melanoma DoI in microscopic images digitized from MART1 (i.e., meleanoma-associated antigen recognized by T cells) stained skin histopathological sections...
March 10, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321503/a-hybrid-libs-raman-system-combined-with-chemometrics-an-efficient-tool-for-plastic-identification-and-sorting
#12
K M Muhammed Shameem, Khoobaram S Choudhari, Aseefhali Bankapur, Suresh D Kulkarni, V K Unnikrishnan, Sajan D George, V B Kartha, C Santhosh
Classification of plastics is of great importance in the recycling industry as the littering of plastic wastes increases day by day as a result of its extensive use. In this paper, we demonstrate the efficacy of a combined laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)-Raman system for the rapid identification and classification of post-consumer plastics. The atomic information and molecular information of polyethylene terephthalate, polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene were studied using plasma emission spectra and scattered signal obtained in the LIBS and Raman technique, respectively...
March 20, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291609/a-comparative-study-of-fire-weather-indices-in-a-semiarid-south-eastern-europe-region-case-of-study-murcia-spain
#13
Julio Pérez-Sánchez, Javier Senent-Aparicio, José María Díaz-Palmero, Juan de Dios Cabezas-Cerezo
Forest fires are an important distortion in forest ecosystems, linked to their development and whose effects proceed beyond the destruction of ecosystems and material properties, especially in semiarid regions. Prevention of forest fires has to lean on indices based on available parameters that quantify fire risk ignition and spreading. The present study was conducted to compare four fire weather indices in a semiarid region of 11,314km(2) located in southern Spain, characterised as being part of the most damaged area by fire in the Iberian Peninsula...
March 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268761/combined-gait-asymmetry-metric
#14
Tyagi Ramakrishnan, Haris Muratagic, Kyle B Reed
People with physical impairments often have asymmetric gait. To evaluate if their overall symmetry is improving during intervention, there needs to be a simple metric that can help classify gait patterns that includes multiple measures of gait asymmetry. The Combined Gait Asymmetry Metric presented here is based on the Mahalanobis distance of multiple step parameters. We tested able-bodied subjects with perturbations that involve a change in leg length, the addition of ankle weights, and a combination of both perturbations...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237395/network-connectivity-value
#15
Arnaud Dragicevic, Vincent Boulanger, Max Bruciamacchie, Sandrine Chauchard, Jean-Luc Dupouey, Anne Stenger
In order to unveil the value of network connectivity, we formalize the construction of ecological networks in forest environments as an optimal control dynamic graph-theoretic problem. The network is based on a set of bioreserves and patches linked by ecological corridors. The node dynamics, built upon the consensus protocol, form a time evolutive Mahalanobis distance weighted by the opportunity costs of timber production. We consider a case of complete graph, where the ecological network is fully connected, and a case of incomplete graph, where the ecological network is partially connected...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226949/combined-gait-asymmetry-metric
#16
Tyagi Ramakrishnan, Haris Muratagic, Kyle B Reed, Tyagi Ramakrishnan, Haris Muratagic, Kyle B Reed, Kyle B Reed, Tyagi Ramakrishnan, Haris Muratagic
People with physical impairments often have asymmetric gait. To evaluate if their overall symmetry is improving during intervention, there needs to be a simple metric that can help classify gait patterns that includes multiple measures of gait asymmetry. The Combined Gait Asymmetry Metric presented here is based on the Mahalanobis distance of multiple step parameters. We tested able-bodied subjects with perturbations that involve a change in leg length, the addition of ankle weights, and a combination of both perturbations...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218396/morphological-variation-among-late-holocene-mexicans-implications-for-discussions-about-the-human-occupation-of-the-americas
#17
Brianne Herrera, Daniel Peart, Nicole Hernandez, Kate Spradley, Mark Hubbe
OBJECTIVES: Cranial morphology has previously been used to estimate phylogenetic relationships among populations, and has been an important tool in the reconstruction of ancient human dispersals across the planet. In the Americas, previous morphological studies support a scenario of people entering the Americas and dispersing from North America into South America through Meso America, making the Mexican territory the natural funnel through which biological diversity entered South America...
May 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209493/quantitative-analysis-of-fetal-facial-morphology-using-3d%C3%A2-ultrasound-and-statistical-shape-modeling-a%C3%A2-feasibility%C3%A2-study
#18
Andrea Dall'Asta, Silvia Schievano, Jan L Bruse, Gowrishankar Paramasivam, Christine Tita Kaihura, David Dunaway, Christoph C Lees
BACKGROUND: The antenatal detection of facial dysmorphism using 3-dimensional ultrasound may raise the suspicion of an underlying genetic conditions but infrequently leads to a definitive antenatal diagnosis. Despite advances in array and noninvasive prenatal testing, not all genetic conditions can be ascertained from such testing. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of quantitative assessment of fetal face features using prenatal 3-dimensional ultrasound volumes and statistical shape modeling...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188591/shell-fluctuating-asymmetry-in-the-sea-dwelling-benthic-bivalve-mytilus-galloprovincialis-lamarck-1819-as-morphological-markers-to-detect-environmental-chemical-contamination
#19
Massimiliano Scalici, Lorenzo Traversetti, Federica Spani, Valentina Malafoglia, Monica Colamartino, Tiziana Persichini, Simone Cappello, Giuseppe Mancini, Giulia Guerriero, Marco Colasanti
Investigations on asymmetries showed that deviations from perfect bilateral symmetry are interpreted as environmental changes inducing developmental instability. Since morphological abnormalities increase with pollution, deformations may be considered indicators of the organism exposition to pollution. Therefore, the onset of asymmetry in otherwise normally symmetrical traits has been used as a measure of some stresses as well. In this context, we studied how marine pollution affects the valve morphological alterations in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis...
April 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160691/subject-specific-abnormal-region-detection-in-traumatic-brain-injury-using-sparse-model-selection-on-high-dimensional-diffusion-data
#20
Matineh Shaker, Deniz Erdogmus, Jennifer Dy, Sylvain Bouix
We present a method to estimate a multivariate Gaussian distribution of diffusion tensor features in a set of brain regions based on a small sample of healthy individuals, and use this distribution to identify imaging abnormalities in subjects with mild traumatic brain injury. The multivariate model receives apriori knowledge in the form of a neighborhood graph imposed on the precision matrix, which models brain region interactions, and an additional L1 sparsity constraint. The model is then estimated using the graphical LASSO algorithm and the Mahalanobis distance of healthy and TBI subjects to the distribution mean is used to evaluate the discriminatory power of the model...
April 2017: Medical Image Analysis
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