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Mahalanobis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910790/exploring-geographical-differentiation-of-the-hoelen-medicinal-mushroom-wolfiporia-extensa-agaricomycetes-using-fourier-transform-infrared-spectroscopy-combined-with-multivariate-analysis
#1
Yan Li, Ji Zhang, Yanli Zhao, Honggao Liu, Yuanzhong Wang, Hang Jin
In this study the geographical differentiation of dried sclerotia of the medicinal mushroom Wolfiporia extensa, obtained from different regions in Yunnan Province, China, was explored using Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy coupled with multivariate data analysis. The FT-IR spectra of 97 samples were obtained for wave numbers ranging from 4000 to 400 cm-1. Then, the fingerprint region of 1800-600 cm-1 of the FT-IR spectrum, rather than the full spectrum, was analyzed. Different pretreatments were applied on the spectra, and a discriminant analysis model based on the Mahalanobis distance was developed to select an optimal pretreatment combination...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903315/gait-and-posture-discrimination-in-sheep-using-a-tri-axial-accelerometer
#2
M Radeski, V Ilieski
Temporo-spatial observation of the leg could provide important information about the general condition of an animal, especially for those such as sheep and other free-ranging farm animals that can be difficult to access. Tri-axial accelerometers are capable of collecting vast amounts of data for locomotion and posture observations; however, interpretation and optimization of these data records remain a challenge. The aim of the present study was to introduce an optimized method for gait (walking, trotting and galloping) and posture (standing and lying) discrimination, using the acceleration values recorded by a tri-axial accelerometer mounted on the hind leg of sheep...
December 1, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886344/genetic-diversity-among-coffee-tree-progenies-big-coffee-vl-based-on-growth-traits-and-production
#3
J A Silva, S P Carvalho, A T Bruzi, R J Guimarães, L L Oliveira, L C Simões
In a coffee plantation of a coffee 'Acaiá' cultivar (Coffea arabica), on the Midwest of Minas Gerais in Capitólio city, a different kind of coffee tree was found (1989), possibly due to a mutation. It presented larger leaves and grains than those of conventional coffee trees and was named as "Big Coffee VL." The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic diversity of Big Coffee VL progenies cultivated at Universidade Federal de Lavras, by evaluating growth and production traits, based on genetic distances and clusters...
November 21, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836429/functional-and-effective-brain-connectivity-for-discrimination-between-alzheimer-s-patients-and-healthy-individuals-a-study-on-resting-state-eeg-rhythms
#4
Katarzyna J Blinowska, Franciszek Rakowski, Maciej Kaminski, Fabrizio De Vico Fallani, Claudio Del Percio, Roberta Lizio, Claudio Babiloni
OBJECTIVE: This exploratory study provided a proof of concept of a new procedure using multivariate electroencephalographic (EEG) topographic markers of cortical connectivity to discriminate normal elderly (Nold) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) individuals. METHOD: The new procedure was tested on an existing database formed by resting state eyes-closed EEG data (19 exploring electrodes of 10-20 system referenced to linked-ear reference electrodes) recorded in 42 AD patients with dementia (age: 65...
October 22, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833814/regional-variation-in-fire-weather-controls-the-reported-occurrence-of-scottish-wildfires
#5
G Matt Davies, Colin J Legg
Fire is widely used as a traditional habitat management tool in Scotland, but wildfires pose a significant and growing threat. The financial costs of fighting wildfires are significant and severe wildfires can have substantial environmental impacts. Due to the intermittent occurrence of severe fire seasons, Scotland, and the UK as a whole, remain somewhat unprepared. Scotland currently lacks any form of Fire Danger Rating system that could inform managers and the Fire and Rescue Services (FRS) of periods when there is a risk of increased of fire activity...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827335/landmark-and-outline-based-geometric-morphometrics-analysis-of-three-stomoxys-flies-diptera-muscidae
#6
Tanasak Changbunjong, Suchada Sumruayphol, Thekhawet Weluwanarak, Jiraporn Ruangsittichai, Jean-Pierre Dujardin
Adult flies of the genus Stomoxys Geoffroy, 1762 (Diptera: Muscidae), especially S. pullus Austen, 1909, S. uruma Shinonaga et Kano, 1966 and S. indicus Picard, 1908, are morphologically similar and sometimes difficult to distinguish when using external morphological characteristics. These species may act as vectors and/or potential vectors of many pathogens (virus, bacteria and protozoa). Their correct identification is important to target the vectors involved in the transmission of the pathogens and also helps in the fly control program...
October 24, 2016: Folia Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782088/experimental-study-on-damage-detection-in-timber-specimens-based-on-an-electromechanical-impedance-technique-and-rmsd-based-mahalanobis-distance
#7
Dansheng Wang, Qinghua Wang, Hao Wang, Hongping Zhu
In the electromechanical impedance (EMI) method, the PZT patch performs the functions of both sensor and exciter. Due to the high frequency actuation and non-model based characteristics, the EMI method can be utilized to detect incipient structural damage. In recent years EMI techniques have been widely applied to monitor the health status of concrete and steel materials, however, studies on application to timber are limited. This paper will explore the feasibility of using the EMI technique for damage detection in timber specimens...
October 22, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774101/evaluation-of-the-diagnostic-ability-of-optical-enhancement-system-in-early-gastric-cancer-demarcation
#8
Misato Nagao, Jun Nishikawa, Ryo Ogawa, Sho Sasaki, Munetaka Nakamura, Junichi Nishimura, Atsushi Goto, Shinichi Hashimoto, Takeshi Okamoto, Masato Suenaga, Yoshihiko Hamamoto, Isao Sakaida
This study aimed to evaluate the utility of optical enhancement (OE) in early gastric cancer demarcation. Twenty lesions of early gastric cancer were examined by PENTAX endoscopy system with OE-1 and OE-2 functions. The areas of tumor demarcation identified by 12 evaluators (6 novice and 6 experienced) were compared to the corresponding correct areas determined by postoperative histopathology findings. The misdiagnosed scores that were the sums of false-positive and false-negative areas were compared. Color of one hundred pixels from the inside of the cancerous area and the outside of the cancerous area was expressed as three-dimensional RGB component vectors...
2016: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689949/robust-factor-selection-in-early-cell-culture-process-development-for-the-production-of-a-biosimilar-monoclonal-antibody
#9
Michael Sokolov, Jonathan Ritscher, Nicola MacKinnon, Jean-Marc Bielser, David Brühlmann, Dominik Rothenhäusler, Gian Thanei, Miroslav Soos, Matthieu Stettler, Jonathan Souquet, Hervé Broly, Massimo Morbidelli, Alessandro Butté
This work presents a multivariate methodology combining Principal Component Analysis, the Mahalanobis distance and Decision Trees for the selection of process factors and their levels in early process development of generic molecules. It is applied to a high throughput study testing more than 200 conditions for the production of a biosimilar monoclonal antibody at microliter scale. The methodology provides the most important selection criteria for the process design in order to improve product quality towards the quality attributes of the originator molecule...
September 30, 2016: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687156/measuring-the-representational-space-of-music-with-fmri-a-case-study-with-sting
#10
Daniel J Levitin, Scott T Grafton
Functional brain imaging has revealed much about the neuroanatomical substrates of higher cognition, including music, language, learning, and memory. The technique lends itself to studying of groups of individuals. In contrast, the nature of expert performance is typically studied through the examination of exceptional individuals using behavioral case studies and retrospective biography. Here, we combined fMRI and the study of an individual who is a world-class expert musician and composer in order to better understand the neural underpinnings of his music perception and cognition, in particular, his mental representations for music...
August 12, 2016: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681225/genetic-divergence-in-eucalyptus-camaldulensis-progenies-in-the-savanna-biome-in-mato-grosso-brazil
#11
Reginaldo Brito da Costa, Jeane Cabral da Silva, Leandro Skowronski, Michel Constantino, Hemerson Pistori, Jannaína Velasques da Costa Pinto
Assessing the parental genetic differences and their subsequent prediction of progeny performance is an important first step to assure the efficiency of any breeding program. In this study, we estimate the genetic divergence in Eucalyptus camaldulensis based on the morphological traits of 132 progenies grown in a savanna biome. Thus, a field experiment was performed using a randomized block design and five replications to compare divergences in total height, commercial height, diameter at breast height, stem form and survival rate at 48 months...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648235/top-down-network-analysis-characterizes-hidden-termite-termite-interactions
#12
Colin Campbell, Laura Russo, Alessandra Marins, Og DeSouza, Karsten Schönrogge, David Mortensen, John Tooker, Réka Albert, Katriona Shea
The analysis of ecological networks is generally bottom-up, where networks are established by observing interactions between individuals. Emergent network properties have been indicated to reflect the dominant mode of interactions in communities that might be mutualistic (e.g., pollination) or antagonistic (e.g., host-parasitoid communities). Many ecological communities, however, comprise species interactions that are difficult to observe directly. Here, we propose that a comparison of the emergent properties from detail-rich reference communities with known modes of interaction can inform our understanding of detail-sparse focal communities...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637934/automatic-differential-diagnosis-of-melanocytic-skin-tumors-using-ultrasound-data
#13
Kristina Andrėkutė, Gintarė Linkevičiūtė, Renaldas Raišutis, Skaidra Valiukevičienė, Jurgita Makštienė
We describe a novel automatic diagnostic system based on quantitative analysis of ultrasound data for differential diagnosis of melanocytic skin tumors. The proposed method has been tested on 160 ultrasound data sets (80 of malignant melanoma and 80 of benign melanocytic nevi). Acoustical, textural and shape features have been evaluated for each segmented lesion. Using parameters selected according to Mahalanobis distance and linear support vector machine classifier, we are able to differentiate malignant melanoma from benign melanocytic skin tumors with 82...
December 2016: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629552/an-interval-prototype-classifier-based-on-a-parameterized-distance-applied-to-breast-thermographic-images
#14
Marcus C Araújo, Renata M C R Souza, Rita C F Lima, Telmo M Silva Filho
Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of death in women. Because of this, thermographic images have received a refocus for diagnosing this cancer type. This work proposes an innovative approach to classify breast abnormalities (malignant, benignant and cyst), employing interval temperature data in order to detect breast cancer. The learning step takes into account the internal variation of the intervals when describing breast abnormalities and uses a way to map these intervals into a space where they can be more easily separated...
September 15, 2016: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626419/a-hybrid-algorithm-for-missing-data-imputation-and-its-application-to-electrical-data-loggers
#15
Concepción Crespo Turrado, Fernando Sánchez Lasheras, José Luis Calvo-Rollé, Andrés-José Piñón-Pazos, Manuel G Melero, Francisco Javier de Cos Juez
The storage of data is a key process in the study of electrical power networks related to the search for harmonics and the finding of a lack of balance among phases. The presence of missing data of any of the main electrical variables (phase-to-neutral voltage, phase-to-phase voltage, current in each phase and power factor) affects any time series study in a negative way that has to be addressed. When this occurs, missing data imputation algorithms are required. These algorithms are able to substitute the data that are missing for estimated values...
2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601374/pcadapt-an-r-package-to-perform-genome-scans-for-selection-based-on-principal-component-analysis
#16
Keurcien Luu, Eric Bazin, Michael G B Blum
The R package pcadapt performs genome scans to detect genes under selection based on population genomic data. It assumes that candidate markers are outliers with respect to how they are related to population structure. Because population structure is ascertained with principal component analysis, the package is fast and works with large-scale data. It can handle missing data and pooled sequencing data. By contrast to population-based approaches, the package handle admixed individuals and does not require grouping individuals into populations...
September 7, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591583/headspace-programmed-temperature-vaporizer-mass-spectrometry-and-pattern-recognition-techniques-for-the-analysis-of-volatiles-in-saliva-samples
#17
Ana Pérez Antón, Miguel Del Nogal Sánchez, Ángel Pedro Crisolino Pozas, José Luis Pérez Pavón, Bernardo Moreno Cordero
A rapid method for the analysis of volatiles in saliva samples is proposed. The method is based on direct coupling of three components: a headspace sampler (HS), a programmable temperature vaporizer (PTV) and a quadrupole mass spectrometer (qMS). Several applications in the biomedical field have been proposed with electronic noses based on different sensors. However, few contributions have been developed using a mass spectrometry-based electronic nose in this field up to date. Samples of 23 patients with some type of cancer and 32 healthy volunteers were analyzed with HS-PTV-MS and the profile signals obtained were subjected to pattern recognition techniques with the aim of studying the possibilities of the methodology to differentiate patients with cancer from healthy controls...
November 1, 2016: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571779/assessment-of-the-regulatory-methods-for-the-comparison-of-highly-variable-dissolution-profiles
#18
Victor Mangas-Sanjuan, Sarin Colon-Useche, Isabel Gonzalez-Alvarez, Marival Bermejo, Alfredo Garcia-Arieta
The objective is to compare the performance of dissolution-profile comparison methods when f 2 is inadequate due to high variability. The 90% confidence region of the Mahalanobis distance and the 90% bootstrap confidence interval (CI) of the f 2 similarity factor (f 2-bootstrap) were explored. A modification of the Mahalanobis distance (new D-Mahalanobis) in which those points >85% were not taken into account for calculation was also used. A population kinetic approach in NONMEM was used to simulate dissolution profiles with the first-order or Weibull kinetic models...
August 29, 2016: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531603/chemometric-and-trace-element-profiling-methodologies-for-authenticating-crossmatching-and-constraining-the-provenance-of-illicit-tobacco-products
#19
William Edryd Stephens
BACKGROUND: Illicit tobacco products have a disproportionately negative effect on public health. Counterfeits and cheap whites as well as legal brands smuggled from countries not adopting track and trace technologies will require novel forensic tools to aid the disruption of their supply chains. METHODS: Data sets of trace element concentrations in tobacco were obtained using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry on samples of legal and illicit products mainly from Europe...
August 16, 2016: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27505283/vocational-interests-in-the-united-states-sex-age-ethnicity-and-year-effects
#20
Michael L Morris
Vocational interests predict educational and career choices, job performance, and career success (Rounds & Su, 2014). Although sex differences in vocational interests have long been observed (Thorndike, 1911), an appropriate overall measure has been lacking from the literature. Using a cross-sectional sample of United States residents aged 14 to 63 who completed the Strong Interest Inventory assessment between 2005 and 2014 (N = 1,283,110), I examined sex, age, ethnicity, and year effects on work related interest levels using both multivariate and univariate effect size estimates of individual dimensions (Holland's Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional)...
October 2016: Journal of Counseling Psychology
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