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Jimena Fritz, Héctor Lamadrid-Figueroa, Gustavo Angeles, Alejandra Montoya, Dilys Walker
BACKGROUND: A significant proportion of newborn and maternal deaths can be prevented through simple and cost-effective strategies. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the PRONTO obstetric-emergency management training for improving evidence-based birth attendance practices among providers attending the training at 12 hospitals in three states of Mexico from 2010 to 2012, and to estimate dissemination of the training within the hospitals. METHODS: The average treatment on the treated effect of the PRONTO intervention for the probability of performing certain practices during birth attendance was estimated in a sample of 310 health providers...
June 15, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Yung-Kyun Noh, Masashi Sugiyama, Song Liu, Marthinus C du Plessis, Frank Chongwoo Park, Daniel D Lee
Nearest-neighbor estimators for the Kullback-Leiber (KL) divergence that are asymptotically unbiased have recently been proposed and demonstrated in a number of applications. However, with a small number of samples, nonparametric methods typically suffer from large estimation bias due to the nonlocality of information derived from nearest-neighbor statistics. In this letter, we show that this estimation bias can be mitigated by modifying the metric function, and we propose a novel method for learning a locally optimal Mahalanobis distance function from parametric generative models of the underlying density distributions...
June 14, 2018: Neural Computation
Jaehyun Shin, Yongmin Zhong, Denny Oetomo, Chengfan Gu
This paper presents a new nonlinear filtering method based on the Hunt-Crossley model for online nonlinear soft tissue characterization. This method overcomes the problem of performance degradation in the unscented Kalman filter due to contact model error. It adopts the concept of Mahalanobis distance to identify contact model error, and further incorporates a scaling factor in predicted state covariance to compensate identified model error. This scaling factor is determined according to the principle of innovation orthogonality to avoid the cumbersome computation of Jacobian matrix, where the random weighting concept is adopted to improve the estimation accuracy of innovation covariance...
May 21, 2018: Sensors
Rita De Sanctis, Alessandro Viganò, Alessandro Giuliani, Alessandro Gronchi, Antonino De Paoli, Pierina Navarria, Vittorio Quagliuolo, Armando Santoro, Alfredo Colosimo
The aim of this report is to unveil specific prognostic factors for retroperitoneal sarcoma (RPS) patients by univariate and multivariate statistical techniques. A phase I-II study on localized RPS treated with high-dose ifosfamide and radiotherapy followed by surgery (ISG-STS 0303 protocol) demonstrated that chemo/radiotherapy was safe and increased the 3-year relapse-free survival (RFS) with respect to historical controls. Of 70 patients, twenty-six developed local, 10 distant, and 5 combined relapse. Median disease-free interval (DFI) was 29...
2018: BioMed Research International
Félix Fanjul-Vélez, Laura Arévalo-Díaz, José L Arce-Diego
Optical diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) has great potential in the study, diagnosis, and discrimination of biological tissues. Discrimination is based on massive measurements that conform training sets. These sets are then used to classify tissues according to the biomedical application. Classification accuracy depends strongly on the training dataset, which typically comes from different samples of the same class, and from different points of the same sample. The variability of these measurements is not usually considered and is assumed to be purely random, although it could greatly influence the results...
May 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Marco Franzoi, Carmen L Manuelian, Luigi Rovigatti, Emanuela Donati, Massimo De Marchi
Milk filtration procedures are gaining relevance in the dairy industry because milk ultra- and nanofiltrates are used to increase milk processing efficiency, and as additives for products with improved nutraceutical properties. This study aimed to develop Fourier-transformed mid-infrared spectroscopy calibrations for ultra- and nanopermeate and retentate fractions of defatted and delactosated milk. A total of 154 samples from different milk fractions were collected and analyzed using reference methods to determine protein, solids-not-fat, glucose, and galactose content...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Matthew J Kerry
Statistical screening of self-report data is often advised to support the quality of analyzed responses - For example, reduction of insufficient effort responding (IER). One recently introduced index based on Mahalanobis's D for detecting outliers in cross-sectional designs replaces centered scores with difference scores between repeated-measure items: Termed person temporal consistency ( D 2 ptc ). Although the adapted D 2 ptc index demonstrated usefulness in simulation datasets, it has not been applied to empirical data...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Andre Krause, Yu Wu, Runtao Tian, Teris A van Beek
High-field NMR is an expensive and important quality control technique. In recent years, cheaper and simpler low-field NMR has become available as a new quality control technique. In this study, 60 MHz 1 H-NMR was compared with GC-MS and refractometry for the detection of adulteration of essential oils, taking patchouli essential oil as a test case. Patchouli essential oil is frequently adulterated, even today. In total, 75 genuine patchouli essential oils, 10 commercial patchouli essential oils, 10 other essential oils, 17 adulterants, and 1 patchouli essential oil, spiked at 20% with those adulterants, were measured...
April 24, 2018: Planta Medica
Marco Del Giudice
In a previous paper (Del Giudice, 2017 [Heterogeneity coefficients for Mahalanobis' D as a multivariate effect size. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 52, 216-221]), I proposed two heterogeneity coefficients for Mahalanobis' D based on the Gini coefficient, labeled H and EPV. In this addendum I discuss the limitations of the original approach and note that the proposed indices may overestimate heterogeneity under certain conditions. I then describe two revised indices H2 and EPV2 , and illustrate the difference between the original and revised indices with some real-world data sets...
April 23, 2018: Multivariate Behavioral Research
Hideo Nose, Junji Shiraishi
We aimed to develop a computerized method for the detection of radiopaque markers, such as R and L in chest and abdomen radiography by using the generalized Hough transform and the template matching. To develop the computerized method, we used 200 chest and abdomen images in our institution as training cases. First, two template images for R and L markers were created with the same exposure condition as a chest X-ray. Following various image processing, such as edge detection, thinning and Hough transformed, a look-up table that consisted of distance and direction pairs was built for the generalized Hough transform...
2018: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
Hua Tao, Pinjing He, Zhishan Wang, Wenjie Sun
In this study, there were 54 municipal solid waste (MSW) moving-grate incineration power plants investigated in China. The flue gas emission data of CO, NOx , SO2 , HCl, and particles were collected as monthly means directly from the plants for 12 consecutive months from 2011 to 2012, as well as the annual cumulative consumption data of activated carbon, CaO/Ca(OH)2 , and #0 diesel. Eventually, 37 out of the 54 plants were evaluated on the overall performance using the Mahalanobis distance. As a result, there were 31 total outliers (potential errors or risks in the operation) detected from the flue gas emission data in 9 out of 37 plants...
April 15, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Laura E Farrell, Daniel M Levy, Therese Donovan, Ruth Mickey, Alan Howard, Jennifer Vashon, Mark Freeman, Kim Royar, C William Kilpatrick
Landscape connectivity is integral to the persistence of metapopulations of wide ranging carnivores and other terrestrial species. The objectives of this research were to investigate the landscape characteristics essential to use of areas by lynx and bobcats in northern New England, map a habitat availability model for each species, and explore connectivity across areas of the region likely to experience future development pressure. A Mahalanobis distance analysis was conducted on location data collected between 2005 and 2010 from 16 bobcats in western Vermont and 31 lynx in northern Maine to determine which variables were most consistent across all locations for each species using three scales based on average 1) local (15 minute) movement, 2) linear distance between daily locations, and 3) female home range size...
2018: PloS One
Jiajia Shan, Junbo Zhao, Lifen Liu, Yituo Zhang, Xue Wang, Fengchang Wu
Hyperspectral imaging technology has been investigated as a possible way to detect microplastics contamination in soil directly and efficiently in this study. Hyperspectral images with wavelength range between 400 and 1000 nm were obtained from soil samples containing different materials including microplastics, fresh leaves, wilted leaves, rocks and dry branches. Supervised classification algorithms such as support vector machine (SVM), mahalanobis distance (MD) and maximum likelihood (ML) algorithms were used to identify microplastics from the other materials in hyperspectral images...
July 2018: Environmental Pollution
Brigid K Killelea, Jessica B Long, Weixiong Dang, Sarah S Mougalian, Suzanne B Evans, Cary P Gross, Shi-Yi Wang
PURPOSE: To examine the associations between sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and complications among older patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). METHODS: We identified women from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare dataset aged 67-94 years diagnosed during 1998-2011 with DCIS who underwent BCS as initial treatment. We assessed incidence of complications, including lymphedema, wound infection, seroma, or pain, within 9 months of diagnosis...
June 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Ryo Ogawa, Jun Nishikawa, Eizaburo Hideura, Atsushi Goto, Yurika Koto, Shunsuke Ito, Madoka Unno, Yuko Yamaoka, Ryo Kawasato, Shinichi Hashimoto, Takeshi Okamoto, Hiroyuki Ogihara, Yoshihiko Hamamoto, Isao Sakaida
PURPOSE: The utility of chromoendoscopy for early gastric cancer (GC) was determined by machine learning using data of color differences. METHODS: Eighteen histopathologically confirmed early GC lesions were examined. We prepared images from white light endoscopy (WL), indigo carmine (Indigo), and acetic acid-indigo carmine chromoendoscopy (AIM). A border between cancerous and non-cancerous areas on endoscopic images was established from post-treatment pathological findings, and 2000 pixels with equivalent luminance values were randomly extracted from each image of cancerous and non-cancerous areas...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
Chen Jiang, Shu-Bi Zhang
As an optimal estimation method, the Kalman filter is the most frequently-used data fusion strategy in the field of dynamic navigation and positioning. Nevertheless, the abnormal model errors seriously degrade performance of the conventional Kalman filter. The adaptive Kalman filter was put forward to control the influences of model errors. However, the adaptive Kalman filter based on the predicted residuals (innovation vector) requires reliable observation information, and its performance is significantly affected by outliers in the measurements...
February 26, 2018: Sensors
Guillermo Robles, José Manuel Fresno, Juan Manuel Martínez-Tarifa, Jorge Alfredo Ardila-Rey, Emilio Parrado-Hernández
The measurement of partial discharge (PD) signals in the radio frequency (RF) range has gained popularity among utilities and specialized monitoring companies in recent years. Unfortunately, in most of the occasions the data are hidden by noise and coupled interferences that hinder their interpretation and renders them useless especially in acquisition systems in the ultra high frequency (UHF) band where the signals of interest are weak. This paper is focused on a method that uses a selective spectral signal characterization to feature each signal, type of partial discharge or interferences/noise, with the power contained in the most representative frequency bands...
March 1, 2018: Sensors
Tyagi Ramakrishnan, Christina-Anne Lahiff, Kyle B Reed
Physical changes such as leg length discrepancy, the addition of a mass at the distal end of the leg, the use of a prosthetic, and stroke frequently result in an asymmetric gait. This paper presents a metric that can potentially serve as a benchmark to categorize and differentiate between multiple asymmetric bipedal gaits. The combined gait asymmetry metric (CGAM) is based on modified Mahalanobis distances, and it utilizes the asymmetries of gait parameters obtained from motion capture and force data recorded during human walking...
2018: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
Ke Li, Etienne Cavaignac, Wei Xu, Qiang Cheng, Nobert Telmon, Wei Huang
PURPOSE: Morphologic data of the knee is very important in the design of total knee prostheses. Generally, the designs of the total knee prostheses are based on the knee anatomy of Caucasian population. Moreover, in forensic medicine, a person's age and sex might be estimated by the shape of their knees. The aim of this study is to utilize three-dimensional morphometric analysis of the knee in Chinese population to reveal sexual dimorphism and age-related differences. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sexually dimorphic differences and age-related differences of the distal femur were studied by using geometric morphometric analysis of ten osteometric landmarks on three-dimensional reconstructions of 259 knees in Chinese population...
February 20, 2018: International Orthopaedics
Els Ducheyne, Nhu Nguyen Tran Minh, Nabil Haddad, Ward Bryssinckx, Evans Buliva, Frédéric Simard, Mamunur Rahman Malik, Johannes Charlier, Valérie De Waele, Osama Mahmoud, Muhammad Mukhtar, Ali Bouattour, Abdulhafid Hussain, Guy Hendrickx, David Roiz
BACKGROUND: Aedes-borne diseases as dengue, zika, chikungunya and yellow fever are an emerging problem worldwide, being transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Lack of up to date information about the distribution of Aedes species hampers surveillance and control. Global databases have been compiled but these did not capture data in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR), and any models built using these datasets fail to identify highly suitable areas where one or both species may occur...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
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