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Els Ducheyne, Nhu Nguyen Tran Minh, Nabil Haddad, Ward Bryssinckx, Evans Buliva, Frédéric Simard, Mamunur Rahman Malik, Johannes Charlier, Valérie De Waele, Osama Mahmoud, Muhammad Mukhtar, Ali Bouattour, Abdulhafid Hussain, Guy Hendrickx, David Roiz
BACKGROUND: Aedes-borne diseases as dengue, zika, chikungunya and yellow fever are an emerging problem worldwide, being transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Lack of up to date information about the distribution of Aedes species hampers surveillance and control. Global databases have been compiled but these did not capture data in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR), and any models built using these datasets fail to identify highly suitable areas where one or both species may occur...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
Lucia Valverde-Som, Cristina Ruiz-Samblás, Francisco P Rodríguez-García, Luis Cuadros-Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: Virgin olive oil is the only food product whose sensory analysis is regulated in order to classify it in different quality categories. Though, to harmonize the results of the sensorial method, is crucial the use of standards or reference materials. The stability of sensory reference materials is required to carry out a suitable control of them in order to confirm that their specific target values are kept on an ongoing basis. Currently, such stability is monitored by mean of sensory analysis and the sensory panels are in the paradoxical situation of controlling the standards which are devoted to control the panels...
February 9, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Bingbing Gao, Gaoge Hu, Shesheng Gao, Yongmin Zhong, Chengfan Gu
This paper presents a new optimal data fusion methodology based on the adaptive fading unscented Kalman filter for multi-sensor nonlinear stochastic systems. This methodology has a two-level fusion structure: at the bottom level, an adaptive fading unscented Kalman filter based on the Mahalanobis distance is developed and serves as local filters to improve the adaptability and robustness of local state estimations against process-modeling error; at the top level, an unscented transformation-based multi-sensor optimal data fusion for the case of N local filters is established according to the principle of linear minimum variance to calculate globally optimal state estimation by fusion of local estimations...
February 6, 2018: Sensors
Jing-Wen Hao, Nai-Dong Chen, Cun-Wu Chen, Fu-Cheng Zhu, De-Liang Qiao, Yong-Jun Zang, Jun Dai, Xiang-Wen Song, Han Chen
A rapid, green, low cost and nondestructive attenuated total reflection near infrared (ATR NIR) method was developed to quantify the total polysaccharide and the main monosaccharides mannose and glucose in Dendrobium huoshanense. Total 100 D. huoshanense samples from different places were analyzed using ATR NIR method. Potential outlying samples were initially removed from the collected NIR data using the PCA-Mahalanobis distance method. Spectral data preprocessing was studied in the construction of a partial least squares (PLS) model and six different signal pretreatment methods, including multiplicative scattering correction (MSC), standard normal transformation (SNV), first and second derivatives, the combination of MSC with the first derivative, and the combination of SNV with the first derivative, were compared...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Xiuhan Guo, Rui Cai, Shisheng Wang, Bo Tang, Yueqing Li, Weijie Zhao
Sea cucumber is the major tonic seafood worldwide, and geographical origin traceability is an important part of its quality and safety control. In this work, a non-destructive method for origin traceability of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) from northern China Sea and East China Sea using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and multivariate analysis methods was proposed. Total fat contents of 189 fresh sea cucumber samples were determined and partial least-squares (PLS) regression was used to establish the quantitative NIRS model...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Yuan Long, Bin Li, Huan Liu
As antibiotic residue becomes more and more serious all over the world, a rapid and effective detection method is needed to evaluate the antibiotic residue in feed matrices to ensure food safety for consumers. In this study, three different kinds of fluoroquinolones (norfloxacin, enrofloxacin, and ofloxacin) in feed matrices were analyzed using terahertz (THz) spectroscopy, respectively. Meanwhile, pure fluoroquinolones and pure feed matrices were also measured in the same way. Then, the absorption spectra of all of the samples were extracted in the transmission mode...
January 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Yufei Lin, Zengling Yang, Hao Liang, Shouxue Li, Xia Fan, Zhiming Xiao
Antibiotic mycelial residues (AMRs) added to animal feeds easily lead to drug resistance that affects human health and environment. However, there is a lack of effective detection methods, especially a fast and convenient detection technology, to distinguish AMRs from other components in animal feeds. To develop effective detection methods, two types of global Mahalanobis distance (GH) algorithms based on near-infrared microscopy (NIRM) imaging are proposed. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using NIRM imaging to identify AMRs in soybean meals...
February 1, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Zheng-Xin Wang, Dan-Dan Li, Hong-Hao Zheng
In China's industrialization process, the effective regulation of energy and environment can promote the positive externality of energy consumption while reducing negative externality, which is an important means for realizing the sustainable development of an economic society. The study puts forward an improved technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution based on entropy weight and Mahalanobis distance (briefly referred as E-M-TOPSIS). The performance of the approach was verified to be satisfactory...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Hendrik Heers, Josef Maximilian Gut, Axel Hegele, Rainer Hofmann, Tobias Boeselt, Akira Hattesohl, Andreas Rembert Koczulla
BACKGROUND/AIM: Cystoscopy, the standard diagnostic for bladder tumors, is uncomfortable, invasive, and expensive. The available urine-based marker systems all lack accuracy. Measuring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from urine is a promising alternative. This pilot study evaluates the feasibility of discriminating bladder cancer patients' urine from healthy controls with an electronic nose. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Headspace measurements of urine samples of 30 patients with confirmed transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) and 30 healthy controls were performed with Cyranose 320 calculating Mahalanobis distance and linear discriminant analysis...
February 2018: Anticancer Research
Maria V Sainz de Cea, Robert M Nishikawa, Yongyi Yang
In computer-aided detection or diagnosis of clustered microcalcications (MCs) in mammograms, the performance often suffers from not only the presence of false positives (FPs) among the detected individual MCs but also large variability in detection accuracy among different cases. To address this issue, we investigate a locally adaptive decision scheme in MC detection by exploiting the noise characteristics in a lesion area. Instead of developing a new MC detector, we propose a decision scheme on how to best decide whether a detected object is an MC or not in the detector output...
January 24, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
John H Relethford, Fred H Smith
OBJECTIVES: Ancient DNA analysis has shown that present-day humans of Eurasian ancestry are more similar to Neandertals than are present-day humans of sub-Saharan African ancestry, reflecting interbreeding after modern humans first left Africa. We use craniometric data to test the hypothesis that the crania of recent modern humans show the same pattern. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We computed Mahalanobis squared distances between a published Neandertal centroid based on 37 craniometric traits and each of 2,413 recent modern humans from the Howells global data set (N = 373 sub-Saharan Africans, N = 2,040 individuals of Eurasian descent)...
January 22, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Wei Wang, Hao Wang, Chen Zhang, Yang Gao
Learning an appropriate distance metric plays a substantial role in the success of many learning machines. Conventional metric learning algorithms have limited utility when the training and test samples are drawn from related but different domains (i.e., source domain and target domain). In this letter, we propose two novel metric learning algorithms for domain adaptation in an information-theoretic setting, allowing for discriminating power transfer and standard learning machine propagation across two domains...
January 17, 2018: Neural Computation
Bharat Lal Meena, Pankaj Singh, Amar Nath Sah, Kiran Pandey, Asha Agarwal, Chayanika Pantola, Asima Pradhan
An in-house fabricated portable device has been tested to detect cervical precancer through the intrinsic fluorescence from human cervix of the whole uterus in a clinical setting. A previously validated technique based on simultaneously acquired polarized fluorescence and polarized elastic scattering spectra from a turbid medium is used to extract the intrinsic fluorescence. Using a diode laser at 405 nm, intrinsic fluorescence of flavin adenine dinucleotide, which is the dominant fluorophore and other contributing fluorophores in the epithelium of cervical tissue, has been extracted...
January 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Faith Ebhodaghe, Maxwell Kelvin Billah, Delphina Adabie-Gomez, Adam Yahaya
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify isolated population(s) of Glossina palpalis in Ghana using geometric morphometrics to evaluate variations in wing-shape and size between populations of the fly from three regions. RESULTS: Wing shape of G. palpalis tsetse flies from the Northern, Western and Eastern Regions varied significantly between each other. Populations from the Northern and Western Regions varied the most (Mahalanobis Distance = 54.20). The least variation was noticed between populations from the Western and Eastern Regions (MD = 1...
December 29, 2017: BMC Research Notes
Heather L Hulton VanTassel, Michael D Bell, John Rotenberry, Robert Johnson, Michael F Allen
Many species have already experienced distributional shifts due to changing environmental conditions, and analyzing past shifts can help us to understand the influence of environmental stressors on a species as well as to analyze the effectiveness of conservation strategies. We aimed to (1) quantify regional habitat associations of the California gnatcatcher (Polioptila californica); (2) describe changes in environmental variables and gnatcatcher distributions through time; (3) identify environmental drivers associated with habitat suitability changes; and (4) relate habitat suitability changes through time to habitat conservation plans...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Boby Mathew, Jens Léon, Mikko J Sillanpää
Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-heritability estimation is an important topic in several research fields, including animal, plant and human genetics, as well as in ecology. Linear mixed model estimation of SNP-heritability uses the structures of genomic relationships between individuals, which is constructed from genome-wide sets of SNP-markers that are generally weighted equally in their contributions. Proposed methods to handle dependence between SNPs include, "thinning" the marker set by linkage disequilibrium (LD)-pruning, the use of haplotype-tagging of SNPs, and LD-weighting of the SNP-contributions...
December 14, 2017: Heredity
Sam Osseiran, Elisabeth M Roider, Hequn Wang, Yusuke Suita, Michael Murphy, David E Fisher, Conor L Evans
Chemical sun filters are commonly used as active ingredients in sunscreens due to their efficient absorption of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Yet, it is known that these compounds can photochemically react with UV light and generate reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress in vitro, though this has yet to be validated in vivo. One label-free approach to probe oxidative stress is to measure and compare the relative endogenous fluorescence generated by cellular coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides and flavin adenine dinucleotides...
December 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Derik E Haggard, Agnes L Karmaus, Matthew T Martin, Richard S Judson, R Woodrow Setzer, Katie Paul Friedman
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) have used the human adrenocarcinoma (H295R) cell-based assay to predict chemical perturbation of androgen and estrogen production. Recently, a high-throughput H295R (HT-H295R) assay was developed as part of the ToxCast program that includes measurement of 11 hormones, including progestagens, corticosteroids, androgens, and estrogens. To date, 2012 chemicals have been screened at one concentration; of these, 656 chemicals have been screened in concentration-response...
December 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
S A Pereira, G T Jerônimo, N C Marchiori, H M Oliveira, G F A Jesus, E C Schmidt, Z L Bouzon, F N Vieira, M L Martins, J L P Mouriño
The aim of this study is to select and isolate autochthonous bacteria with probiotic potential for use in a supplemented diet for bullfrog tadpoles, Lithobates catesbeianus. A total of 20 strains of lactic acid bacteria were isolated. Nine out of these were used in the following in vitro assays: antagonism against pathogenic bacteria (ANT), antimicrobial activity from extracellular compounds (MIC), tolerance to bile salts (TBS), pH reduction, protease production, sensitivity to antimicrobial tetracycline, cell viability, growth rate and doubling time...
November 23, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Nisha Bansal, Michael E Matheny, Robert A Greevy, Svetlana K Eden, Amy M Perkins, Sharidan K Parr, James Fly, Khaled Abdel-Kader, Jonathan Himmelfarb, Adriana M Hung, Theodore Speroff, T Alp Ikizler, Edward D Siew
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common and associated with poor outcomes. Heart failure is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease among patients with chronic kidney disease. The relationship between AKI and heart failure remains unknown and may identify a novel mechanistic link between kidney and cardiovascular disease. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: We studied a national cohort of 300,868 hospitalized US veterans (2004-2011) without a history of heart failure...
November 18, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
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