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Mahalanobis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071796/influence-of-package-visual-cues-of-sweeteners-on-the-sensory-emotional-profiles-of-their-products
#1
Wisdom Wardy, Pitchayapat Chonpracha, Napapan Chokumnoyporn, Sujinda Sriwattana, Witoon Prinyawiwatkul, Wannita Jirangrat
Substantial evidence suggests influence of color, physical state, and other extrinsic features on consumer perception and acceptability of food products. In this study, 560 subjects evaluated liking and emotional responses associated with 5 sweeteners (sucralose, stevia, saccharin, aspartame, and sucrose) under 2 eliciting conditions: control (brand name only) and informed (brand name/packet image), to assess impact of the packet color. For a given condition, 5 identical tea samples each labeled with a sweetener type were rated for sweetness and overall liking (9-point) and emotions (5-point)...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048540/we-de-201-04-cross-validation-of-knowledge-based-treatment-planning-for-prostate-ldr-brachytherapy-using-principle-component-analysis
#2
J Roper, B Ghavidel, V Chanyavanich, K Godette, E Schreibmann
PURPOSE: To validate a knowledge-based algorithm for prostate LDR brachytherapy treatment planning. METHODS: A dataset of 100 cases was compiled from an active prostate seed implant service. Cases were randomized into 10 subsets. For each subset, the 90 remaining library cases were registered to a common reference frame and then characterized on a point by point basis using principle component analysis (PCA). Each test case was converted to PCA vectors using the same process and compared with each library case using a Mahalanobis distance to evaluate similarity...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047741/th-cd-206-04-learning-relevance-criterion-for-multi-atlas-based-image-segmentation
#3
T Zhao, D Ruan
PURPOSE: It is important to effectively identify the subset of relevant training atlases in learning based segmentation. Since segmentation based geometry relevance between atlases and the target is inaccessible due to the unknown target segmentation, image feature based relevance criteria have to be used instead. This study aims to learn an image based criterion that best reflects the underlying geometry agreement. METHODS: We learn the image-based relevance criterion in the form of a Mahalanobis distance on linearly transformed image feature, which is specialized to image intensity in this work, and optimize such linear transformation...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032345/zygomatic-bone-shape-in-intentional-cranial-deformations-a-model-for-the-study-of-the-interactions-between-skull-growth-and-facial-morphology
#4
S Ketoff, F Girinon, S Schlager, M Friess, T Schouman, P Rouch, R H Khonsari
Intentional cranial deformations (ICD) were obtained by exerting external mechanical constraints on the skull vault during the first years of life to permanently modify head shape. The repercussions of ICD on the face are not well described in the midfacial region. Here we assessed the shape of the zygomatic bone in different types of ICDs. We considered 14 non-deformed skulls, 19 skulls with antero-posterior deformation, nine skulls with circumferential deformation and seven skulls with Toulouse deformation...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010114/heterogeneity-coefficients-for-mahalanobis-d-as-a-multivariate-effect-size
#5
Marco Del Giudice
The Mahalanobis distance D is the multivariate generalization of Cohen's d and can be used as a standardized effect size for multivariate differences between groups. An important issue in the interpretation of D is heterogeneity, that is, the extent to which contributions to the overall effect size are concentrated in a small subset of variables rather than evenly distributed across the whole set. Here I present two heterogeneity coefficients for D based on the Gini coefficient, a well-known index of inequality among values of a distribution...
December 23, 2016: Multivariate Behavioral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007582/kmen-analyzing-noisy-and-bidirectional-transcriptional-pathway-responses-in-single-subjects
#6
Qike Li, A Grant Schissler, Vincent Gardeux, Joanne Berghout, Ikbel Achour, Colleen Kenost, Haiquan Li, Hao Helen Zhang, Yves A Lussier
MOTIVATION: Understanding dynamic, patient-level transcriptomic response to therapy is an important step forward for precision medicine. However, conventional transcriptome analysis aims to discover cohort-level change, lacking the capacity to unveil patient-specific response to therapy. To address this gap, we previously developed two N-of-1-pathways methods, Wilcoxon and Mahalanobis distance, to detect unidirectionally responsive transcripts within a pathway using a pair of samples from a single subject...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994965/harvest-year-effects-on-apulian-evoos-evaluated-by-1-h-nmr-based-metabolomics
#7
Chiara R Girelli, Laura Del Coco, Paride Papadia, Sandra A De Pascali, Francesco P Fanizzi
Nine hundred extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) were extracted from individual olive trees of four olive cultivars (Coratina, Cima di Mola, Ogliarola, Peranzana), originating from the provinces of Bari and Foggia (Apulia region, Southern Italy) and collected during two consecutive harvesting seasons (2013/14 and 2014/15). Following genetic identification of individual olive trees, a detailed Apulian EVOO NMR database was built using 900 oils samples obtained from 900 cultivar certified single trees. A study on the olive oil lipid profile was carried out by statistical multivariate analysis (Principal Component Analysis, PCA, Partial Least-Squares Discriminant Analysis, PLS-DA, Orthogonal Partial Least-Squares Discriminant Analysis, OPLS-DA)...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910790/exploring-geographical-differentiation-of-the-hoelen-medicinal-mushroom-wolfiporia-extensa-agaricomycetes-using-fourier-transform-infrared-spectroscopy-combined-with-multivariate-analysis
#8
Yan Li, Ji Zhang, Yanli Zhao, Honggao Liu, Yuanzhong Wang, Hang Jin
In this study the geographical differentiation of dried sclerotia of the medicinal mushroom Wolfiporia extensa, obtained from different regions in Yunnan Province, China, was explored using Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy coupled with multivariate data analysis. The FT-IR spectra of 97 samples were obtained for wave numbers ranging from 4000 to 400 cm-1. Then, the fingerprint region of 1800-600 cm-1 of the FT-IR spectrum, rather than the full spectrum, was analyzed. Different pretreatments were applied on the spectra, and a discriminant analysis model based on the Mahalanobis distance was developed to select an optimal pretreatment combination...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903315/gait-and-posture-discrimination-in-sheep-using-a-tri-axial-accelerometer
#9
M Radeski, V Ilieski
Temporo-spatial observation of the leg could provide important information about the general condition of an animal, especially for those such as sheep and other free-ranging farm animals that can be difficult to access. Tri-axial accelerometers are capable of collecting vast amounts of data for locomotion and posture observations; however, interpretation and optimization of these data records remain a challenge. The aim of the present study was to introduce an optimized method for gait (walking, trotting and galloping) and posture (standing and lying) discrimination, using the acceleration values recorded by a tri-axial accelerometer mounted on the hind leg of sheep...
December 1, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886344/genetic-diversity-among-coffee-tree-progenies-big-coffee-vl-based-on-growth-traits-and-production
#10
J A Silva, S P Carvalho, A T Bruzi, R J Guimarães, L L Oliveira, L C Simões
In a coffee plantation of a coffee 'Acaiá' cultivar (Coffea arabica), on the Midwest of Minas Gerais in Capitólio city, a different kind of coffee tree was found (1989), possibly due to a mutation. It presented larger leaves and grains than those of conventional coffee trees and was named as "Big Coffee VL." The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic diversity of Big Coffee VL progenies cultivated at Universidade Federal de Lavras, by evaluating growth and production traits, based on genetic distances and clusters...
November 21, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836429/functional-and-effective-brain-connectivity-for-discrimination-between-alzheimer-s-patients-and-healthy-individuals-a-study-on-resting-state-eeg-rhythms
#11
Katarzyna J Blinowska, Franciszek Rakowski, Maciej Kaminski, Fabrizio De Vico Fallani, Claudio Del Percio, Roberta Lizio, Claudio Babiloni
OBJECTIVE: This exploratory study provided a proof of concept of a new procedure using multivariate electroencephalographic (EEG) topographic markers of cortical connectivity to discriminate normal elderly (Nold) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) individuals. METHOD: The new procedure was tested on an existing database formed by resting state eyes-closed EEG data (19 exploring electrodes of 10-20 system referenced to linked-ear reference electrodes) recorded in 42 AD patients with dementia (age: 65...
October 22, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833814/regional-variation-in-fire-weather-controls-the-reported-occurrence-of-scottish-wildfires
#12
G Matt Davies, Colin J Legg
Fire is widely used as a traditional habitat management tool in Scotland, but wildfires pose a significant and growing threat. The financial costs of fighting wildfires are significant and severe wildfires can have substantial environmental impacts. Due to the intermittent occurrence of severe fire seasons, Scotland, and the UK as a whole, remain somewhat unprepared. Scotland currently lacks any form of Fire Danger Rating system that could inform managers and the Fire and Rescue Services (FRS) of periods when there is a risk of increased of fire activity...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827335/landmark-and-outline-based-geometric-morphometrics-analysis-of-three-stomoxys-flies-diptera-muscidae
#13
Tanasak Changbunjong, Suchada Sumruayphol, Thekhawet Weluwanarak, Jiraporn Ruangsittichai, Jean-Pierre Dujardin
Adult flies of the genus Stomoxys Geoffroy, 1762 (Diptera: Muscidae), especially S. pullus Austen, 1909, S. uruma Shinonaga et Kano, 1966 and S. indicus Picard, 1908, are morphologically similar and sometimes difficult to distinguish when using external morphological characteristics. These species may act as vectors and/or potential vectors of many pathogens (virus, bacteria and protozoa). Their correct identification is important to target the vectors involved in the transmission of the pathogens and also helps in the fly control program...
October 24, 2016: Folia Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782088/experimental-study-on-damage-detection-in-timber-specimens-based-on-an-electromechanical-impedance-technique-and-rmsd-based-mahalanobis-distance
#14
Dansheng Wang, Qinghua Wang, Hao Wang, Hongping Zhu
In the electromechanical impedance (EMI) method, the PZT patch performs the functions of both sensor and exciter. Due to the high frequency actuation and non-model based characteristics, the EMI method can be utilized to detect incipient structural damage. In recent years EMI techniques have been widely applied to monitor the health status of concrete and steel materials, however, studies on application to timber are limited. This paper will explore the feasibility of using the EMI technique for damage detection in timber specimens...
October 22, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774101/evaluation-of-the-diagnostic-ability-of-optical-enhancement-system-in-early-gastric-cancer-demarcation
#15
Misato Nagao, Jun Nishikawa, Ryo Ogawa, Sho Sasaki, Munetaka Nakamura, Junichi Nishimura, Atsushi Goto, Shinichi Hashimoto, Takeshi Okamoto, Masato Suenaga, Yoshihiko Hamamoto, Isao Sakaida
This study aimed to evaluate the utility of optical enhancement (OE) in early gastric cancer demarcation. Twenty lesions of early gastric cancer were examined by PENTAX endoscopy system with OE-1 and OE-2 functions. The areas of tumor demarcation identified by 12 evaluators (6 novice and 6 experienced) were compared to the corresponding correct areas determined by postoperative histopathology findings. The misdiagnosed scores that were the sums of false-positive and false-negative areas were compared. Color of one hundred pixels from the inside of the cancerous area and the outside of the cancerous area was expressed as three-dimensional RGB component vectors...
2016: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689949/robust-factor-selection-in-early-cell-culture-process-development-for-the-production-of-a-biosimilar-monoclonal-antibody
#16
Michael Sokolov, Jonathan Ritscher, Nicola MacKinnon, Jean-Marc Bielser, David Brühlmann, Dominik Rothenhäusler, Gian Thanei, Miroslav Soos, Matthieu Stettler, Jonathan Souquet, Hervé Broly, Massimo Morbidelli, Alessandro Butté
This work presents a multivariate methodology combining Principal Component Analysis, the Mahalanobis distance and Decision Trees for the selection of process factors and their levels in early process development of generic molecules. It is applied to a high throughput study testing more than 200 conditions for the production of a biosimilar monoclonal antibody at microliter scale. The methodology provides the most important selection criteria for the process design in order to improve product quality towards the quality attributes of the originator molecule...
September 30, 2016: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687156/measuring-the-representational-space-of-music-with-fmri-a-case-study-with-sting
#17
Daniel J Levitin, Scott T Grafton
Functional brain imaging has revealed much about the neuroanatomical substrates of higher cognition, including music, language, learning, and memory. The technique lends itself to studying of groups of individuals. In contrast, the nature of expert performance is typically studied through the examination of exceptional individuals using behavioral case studies and retrospective biography. Here, we combined fMRI and the study of an individual who is a world-class expert musician and composer in order to better understand the neural underpinnings of his music perception and cognition, in particular, his mental representations for music...
December 2016: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681225/genetic-divergence-in-eucalyptus-camaldulensis-progenies-in-the-savanna-biome-in-mato-grosso-brazil
#18
Reginaldo Brito da Costa, Jeane Cabral da Silva, Leandro Skowronski, Michel Constantino, Hemerson Pistori, Jannaína Velasques da Costa Pinto
Assessing the parental genetic differences and their subsequent prediction of progeny performance is an important first step to assure the efficiency of any breeding program. In this study, we estimate the genetic divergence in Eucalyptus camaldulensis based on the morphological traits of 132 progenies grown in a savanna biome. Thus, a field experiment was performed using a randomized block design and five replications to compare divergences in total height, commercial height, diameter at breast height, stem form and survival rate at 48 months...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648235/top-down-network-analysis-characterizes-hidden-termite-termite-interactions
#19
Colin Campbell, Laura Russo, Alessandra Marins, Og DeSouza, Karsten Schönrogge, David Mortensen, John Tooker, Réka Albert, Katriona Shea
The analysis of ecological networks is generally bottom-up, where networks are established by observing interactions between individuals. Emergent network properties have been indicated to reflect the dominant mode of interactions in communities that might be mutualistic (e.g., pollination) or antagonistic (e.g., host-parasitoid communities). Many ecological communities, however, comprise species interactions that are difficult to observe directly. Here, we propose that a comparison of the emergent properties from detail-rich reference communities with known modes of interaction can inform our understanding of detail-sparse focal communities...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637934/automatic-differential-diagnosis-of-melanocytic-skin-tumors-using-ultrasound-data
#20
Kristina Andrėkutė, Gintarė Linkevičiūtė, Renaldas Raišutis, Skaidra Valiukevičienė, Jurgita Makštienė
We describe a novel automatic diagnostic system based on quantitative analysis of ultrasound data for differential diagnosis of melanocytic skin tumors. The proposed method has been tested on 160 ultrasound data sets (80 of malignant melanoma and 80 of benign melanocytic nevi). Acoustical, textural and shape features have been evaluated for each segmented lesion. Using parameters selected according to Mahalanobis distance and linear support vector machine classifier, we are able to differentiate malignant melanoma from benign melanocytic skin tumors with 82...
December 2016: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
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