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Mahalanobis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218396/morphological-variation-among-late-holocene-mexicans-implications-for-discussions-about-the-human-occupation-of-the-americas
#1
Brianne Herrera, Daniel Peart, Nicole Hernandez, Kate Spradley, Mark Hubbe
OBJECTIVES: Cranial morphology has previously been used to estimate phylogenetic relationships among populations, and has been an important tool in the reconstruction of ancient human dispersals across the planet. In the Americas, previous morphological studies support a scenario of people entering the Americas and dispersing from North America into South America through Meso America, making the Mexican territory the natural funnel through which biological diversity entered South America...
February 20, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209493/quantitative-analysis-of-fetal-facial-morphology-using-3d-ultrasound-and-statistical-shape-modelling-a-feasibility-study
#2
Andrea Dall'Asta, Silvia Schievano, Jan L Bruse, Gowrishankar Paramasivam, Christine Tita Kaihura, David Dunaway, Christoph C Lees
BACKGROUND: The antenatal detection of facial dysmorphism using three-dimensional ultrasound may raise the suspicion of an underlying genetic conditions but infrequently leads to a definitive antenatal diagnosis. Despite advances in array and non invasive prenatal testing, not all genetic conditions can be ascertained from such testing. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of quantitative assessment of fetal face features using prenatal three-dimensional ultrasound volumes and statistical shape modelling...
February 13, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188591/shell-fluctuating-asymmetry-in-the-sea-dwelling-benthic-bivalve-mytilus-galloprovincialis-lamarck-1819-as-morphological-markers-to-detect-environmental-chemical-contamination
#3
Massimiliano Scalici, Lorenzo Traversetti, Federica Spani, Valentina Malafoglia, Monica Colamartino, Tiziana Persichini, Simone Cappello, Giuseppe Mancini, Giulia Guerriero, Marco Colasanti
Investigations on asymmetries showed that deviations from perfect bilateral symmetry are interpreted as environmental changes inducing developmental instability. Since morphological abnormalities increase with pollution, deformations may be considered indicators of the organism exposition to pollution. Therefore, the onset of asymmetry in otherwise normally symmetrical traits has been used as a measure of some stresses as well. In this context, we studied how marine pollution affects the valve morphological alterations in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis...
February 10, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160691/subject-specific-abnormal-region-detection-in-traumatic-brain-injury-using-sparse-model-selection-on-high-dimensional-diffusion-data
#4
Matineh Shaker, Deniz Erdogmus, Jennifer Dy, Sylvain Bouix
We present a method to estimate a multivariate Gaussian distribution of diffusion tensor features in a set of brain regions based on a small sample of healthy individuals, and use this distribution to identify imaging abnormalities in subjects with mild traumatic brain injury. The multivariate model receives apriori knowledge in the form of a neighborhood graph imposed on the precision matrix, which models brain region interactions, and an additional L1 sparsity constraint. The model is then estimated using the graphical LASSO algorithm and the Mahalanobis distance of healthy and TBI subjects to the distribution mean is used to evaluate the discriminatory power of the model...
January 24, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138427/multivariate-characterization-of-white-matter-heterogeneity-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#5
D C Dean, N Lange, B G Travers, M B Prigge, N Matsunami, K A Kellett, A Freeman, K L Kane, N Adluru, D P M Tromp, D J Destiche, D Samsin, B A Zielinski, P T Fletcher, J S Anderson, A L Froehlich, M F Leppert, E D Bigler, J E Lainhart, A L Alexander
The complexity and heterogeneity of neuroimaging findings in individuals with autism spectrum disorder has suggested that many of the underlying alterations are subtle and involve many brain regions and networks. The ability to account for multivariate brain features and identify neuroimaging measures that can be used to characterize individual variation have thus become increasingly important for interpreting and understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of autism. In the present study, we utilize the Mahalanobis distance, a multidimensional counterpart of the Euclidean distance, as an informative index to characterize individual brain variation and deviation in autism...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110719/examining-palpebral-conjunctiva-for-anemia-assessment-with-image-processing-methods
#6
Yi-Ming Chen, Shaou-Gang Miaou, Hongyu Bian
Examining the hemoglobin level of blood is an important way to achieve the diagnosis of anemia, but it requires blood drawing and blood test. Examining the color distribution of palpebral conjunctiva is a standard procedure of anemia diagnosis, which requires no blood test. However, since color perception is not always consistent among different people, we attempt to imitate the way of physical examination of palpebral conjunctiva to detect anemia, so that computers can identify anemia patients automatically in a consolidated manner for a screening process...
December 2016: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103780/a-random-forest-induced-distance-based-measure-of-physiological-dysregulation
#7
Ghalib Ayodeji Bello, Gerard Dumancas
Aging involves gradual, multisystemic physiological dysregulation and over time, this degenerative process increases an individual's risk for multiple age-related comorbidities. The ability to quantify age-related physiological dysregulation can provide key insights into the biological mechanisms underlying the aging process and facilitate the development of clinical interventions. Recent studies have introduced and validated a measure of physiological dysregulation based on statistical distance. This measure quantifies the extent of physiological dysregulation in an individual by measuring how much the individual's biomarker profile deviates from the expected average...
January 17, 2017: Current Aging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071796/influence-of-package-visual-cues-of-sweeteners-on-the-sensory-emotional-profiles-of-their-products
#8
Wisdom Wardy, Pitchayapat Chonpracha, Napapan Chokumnoyporn, Sujinda Sriwattana, Witoon Prinyawiwatkul, Wannita Jirangrat
Substantial evidence suggests influence of color, physical state, and other extrinsic features on consumer perception and acceptability of food products. In this study, 560 subjects evaluated liking and emotional responses associated with 5 sweeteners (sucralose, stevia, saccharin, aspartame, and sucrose) under 2 eliciting conditions: control (brand name only) and informed (brand name/packet image), to assess impact of the packet color. For a given condition, 5 identical tea samples each labeled with a sweetener type were rated for sweetness and overall liking (9-point) and emotions (5-point)...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048540/we-de-201-04-cross-validation-of-knowledge-based-treatment-planning-for-prostate-ldr-brachytherapy-using-principle-component-analysis
#9
J Roper, B Ghavidel, V Chanyavanich, K Godette, E Schreibmann
PURPOSE: To validate a knowledge-based algorithm for prostate LDR brachytherapy treatment planning. METHODS: A dataset of 100 cases was compiled from an active prostate seed implant service. Cases were randomized into 10 subsets. For each subset, the 90 remaining library cases were registered to a common reference frame and then characterized on a point by point basis using principle component analysis (PCA). Each test case was converted to PCA vectors using the same process and compared with each library case using a Mahalanobis distance to evaluate similarity...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047741/th-cd-206-04-learning-relevance-criterion-for-multi-atlas-based-image-segmentation
#10
T Zhao, D Ruan
PURPOSE: It is important to effectively identify the subset of relevant training atlases in learning based segmentation. Since segmentation based geometry relevance between atlases and the target is inaccessible due to the unknown target segmentation, image feature based relevance criteria have to be used instead. This study aims to learn an image based criterion that best reflects the underlying geometry agreement. METHODS: We learn the image-based relevance criterion in the form of a Mahalanobis distance on linearly transformed image feature, which is specialized to image intensity in this work, and optimize such linear transformation...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032345/zygomatic-bone-shape-in-intentional-cranial-deformations-a-model-for-the-study-of-the-interactions-between-skull-growth-and-facial-morphology
#11
S Ketoff, F Girinon, S Schlager, M Friess, T Schouman, P Rouch, R H Khonsari
Intentional cranial deformations (ICD) were obtained by exerting external mechanical constraints on the skull vault during the first years of life to permanently modify head shape. The repercussions of ICD on the face are not well described in the midfacial region. Here we assessed the shape of the zygomatic bone in different types of ICDs. We considered 14 non-deformed skulls, 19 skulls with antero-posterior deformation, nine skulls with circumferential deformation and seven skulls with Toulouse deformation...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010114/heterogeneity-coefficients-for-mahalanobis-d-as-a-multivariate-effect-size
#12
Marco Del Giudice
The Mahalanobis distance D is the multivariate generalization of Cohen's d and can be used as a standardized effect size for multivariate differences between groups. An important issue in the interpretation of D is heterogeneity, that is, the extent to which contributions to the overall effect size are concentrated in a small subset of variables rather than evenly distributed across the whole set. Here I present two heterogeneity coefficients for D based on the Gini coefficient, a well-known index of inequality among values of a distribution...
December 23, 2016: Multivariate Behavioral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007582/kmen-analyzing-noisy-and-bidirectional-transcriptional-pathway-responses-in-single-subjects
#13
Qike Li, A Grant Schissler, Vincent Gardeux, Joanne Berghout, Ikbel Achour, Colleen Kenost, Haiquan Li, Hao Helen Zhang, Yves A Lussier
MOTIVATION: Understanding dynamic, patient-level transcriptomic response to therapy is an important step forward for precision medicine. However, conventional transcriptome analysis aims to discover cohort-level change, lacking the capacity to unveil patient-specific response to therapy. To address this gap, we previously developed two N-of-1-pathways methods, Wilcoxon and Mahalanobis distance, to detect unidirectionally responsive transcripts within a pathway using a pair of samples from a single subject...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994965/harvest-year-effects-on-apulian-evoos-evaluated-by-1-h-nmr-based-metabolomics
#14
Chiara R Girelli, Laura Del Coco, Paride Papadia, Sandra A De Pascali, Francesco P Fanizzi
Nine hundred extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) were extracted from individual olive trees of four olive cultivars (Coratina, Cima di Mola, Ogliarola, Peranzana), originating from the provinces of Bari and Foggia (Apulia region, Southern Italy) and collected during two consecutive harvesting seasons (2013/14 and 2014/15). Following genetic identification of individual olive trees, a detailed Apulian EVOO NMR database was built using 900 oils samples obtained from 900 cultivar certified single trees. A study on the olive oil lipid profile was carried out by statistical multivariate analysis (Principal Component Analysis, PCA, Partial Least-Squares Discriminant Analysis, PLS-DA, Orthogonal Partial Least-Squares Discriminant Analysis, OPLS-DA)...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910790/exploring-geographical-differentiation-of-the-hoelen-medicinal-mushroom-wolfiporia-extensa-agaricomycetes-using-fourier-transform-infrared-spectroscopy-combined-with-multivariate-analysis
#15
Yan Li, Ji Zhang, Yanli Zhao, Honggao Liu, Yuanzhong Wang, Hang Jin
In this study the geographical differentiation of dried sclerotia of the medicinal mushroom Wolfiporia extensa, obtained from different regions in Yunnan Province, China, was explored using Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy coupled with multivariate data analysis. The FT-IR spectra of 97 samples were obtained for wave numbers ranging from 4000 to 400 cm-1. Then, the fingerprint region of 1800-600 cm-1 of the FT-IR spectrum, rather than the full spectrum, was analyzed. Different pretreatments were applied on the spectra, and a discriminant analysis model based on the Mahalanobis distance was developed to select an optimal pretreatment combination...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903315/gait-and-posture-discrimination-in-sheep-using-a-tri-axial-accelerometer
#16
M Radeski, V Ilieski
Temporo-spatial observation of the leg could provide important information about the general condition of an animal, especially for those such as sheep and other free-ranging farm animals that can be difficult to access. Tri-axial accelerometers are capable of collecting vast amounts of data for locomotion and posture observations; however, interpretation and optimization of these data records remain a challenge. The aim of the present study was to introduce an optimized method for gait (walking, trotting and galloping) and posture (standing and lying) discrimination, using the acceleration values recorded by a tri-axial accelerometer mounted on the hind leg of sheep...
December 1, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886344/genetic-diversity-among-coffee-tree-progenies-big-coffee-vl-based-on-growth-traits-and-production
#17
J A Silva, S P Carvalho, A T Bruzi, R J Guimarães, L L Oliveira, L C Simões
In a coffee plantation of a coffee 'Acaiá' cultivar (Coffea arabica), on the Midwest of Minas Gerais in Capitólio city, a different kind of coffee tree was found (1989), possibly due to a mutation. It presented larger leaves and grains than those of conventional coffee trees and was named as "Big Coffee VL." The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic diversity of Big Coffee VL progenies cultivated at Universidade Federal de Lavras, by evaluating growth and production traits, based on genetic distances and clusters...
November 21, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836429/functional-and-effective-brain-connectivity-for-discrimination-between-alzheimer-s-patients-and-healthy-individuals-a-study-on-resting-state-eeg-rhythms
#18
Katarzyna J Blinowska, Franciszek Rakowski, Maciej Kaminski, Fabrizio De Vico Fallani, Claudio Del Percio, Roberta Lizio, Claudio Babiloni
OBJECTIVE: This exploratory study provided a proof of concept of a new procedure using multivariate electroencephalographic (EEG) topographic markers of cortical connectivity to discriminate normal elderly (Nold) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) individuals. METHOD: The new procedure was tested on an existing database formed by resting state eyes-closed EEG data (19 exploring electrodes of 10-20 system referenced to linked-ear reference electrodes) recorded in 42 AD patients with dementia (age: 65...
October 22, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833814/regional-variation-in-fire-weather-controls-the-reported-occurrence-of-scottish-wildfires
#19
G Matt Davies, Colin J Legg
Fire is widely used as a traditional habitat management tool in Scotland, but wildfires pose a significant and growing threat. The financial costs of fighting wildfires are significant and severe wildfires can have substantial environmental impacts. Due to the intermittent occurrence of severe fire seasons, Scotland, and the UK as a whole, remain somewhat unprepared. Scotland currently lacks any form of Fire Danger Rating system that could inform managers and the Fire and Rescue Services (FRS) of periods when there is a risk of increased of fire activity...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827335/landmark-and-outline-based-geometric-morphometrics-analysis-of-three-stomoxys-flies-diptera-muscidae
#20
Tanasak Changbunjong, Suchada Sumruayphol, Thekhawet Weluwanarak, Jiraporn Ruangsittichai, Jean-Pierre Dujardin
Adult flies of the genus Stomoxys Geoffroy, 1762 (Diptera: Muscidae), especially S. pullus Austen, 1909, S. uruma Shinonaga et Kano, 1966 and S. indicus Picard, 1908, are morphologically similar and sometimes difficult to distinguish when using external morphological characteristics. These species may act as vectors and/or potential vectors of many pathogens (virus, bacteria and protozoa). Their correct identification is important to target the vectors involved in the transmission of the pathogens and also helps in the fly control program...
October 24, 2016: Folia Parasitologica
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