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Marco Del Giudice
In a previous paper (Del Giudice, 2017 [Heterogeneity coefficients for Mahalanobis' D as a multivariate effect size. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 52, 216-221]), I proposed two heterogeneity coefficients for Mahalanobis' D based on the Gini coefficient, labeled H and EPV. In this addendum I discuss the limitations of the original approach and note that the proposed indices may overestimate heterogeneity under certain conditions. I then describe two revised indices H2 and EPV2 , and illustrate the difference between the original and revised indices with some real-world data sets...
April 23, 2018: Multivariate Behavioral Research
Hideo Nose, Junji Shiraishi
We aimed to develop a computerized method for the detection of radiopaque markers, such as R and L in chest and abdomen radiography by using the generalized Hough transform and the template matching. To develop the computerized method, we used 200 chest and abdomen images in our institution as training cases. First, two template images for R and L markers were created with the same exposure condition as a chest X-ray. Following various image processing, such as edge detection, thinning and Hough transformed, a look-up table that consisted of distance and direction pairs was built for the generalized Hough transform...
2018: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
Hua Tao, Pinjing He, Zhishan Wang, Wenjie Sun
In this study, there were 54 municipal solid waste (MSW) moving-grate incineration power plants investigated in China. The flue gas emission data of CO, NOx , SO2 , HCl, and particles were collected as monthly means directly from the plants for 12 consecutive months from 2011 to 2012, as well as the annual cumulative consumption data of activated carbon, CaO/Ca(OH)2 , and #0 diesel. Eventually, 37 out of the 54 plants were evaluated on the overall performance using the Mahalanobis distance. As a result, there were 31 total outliers (potential errors or risks in the operation) detected from the flue gas emission data in 9 out of 37 plants...
April 15, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Laura E Farrell, Daniel M Levy, Therese Donovan, Ruth Mickey, Alan Howard, Jennifer Vashon, Mark Freeman, Kim Royar, C William Kilpatrick
Landscape connectivity is integral to the persistence of metapopulations of wide ranging carnivores and other terrestrial species. The objectives of this research were to investigate the landscape characteristics essential to use of areas by lynx and bobcats in northern New England, map a habitat availability model for each species, and explore connectivity across areas of the region likely to experience future development pressure. A Mahalanobis distance analysis was conducted on location data collected between 2005 and 2010 from 16 bobcats in western Vermont and 31 lynx in northern Maine to determine which variables were most consistent across all locations for each species using three scales based on average 1) local (15 minute) movement, 2) linear distance between daily locations, and 3) female home range size...
2018: PloS One
Jiajia Shan, Junbo Zhao, Lifen Liu, Yituo Zhang, Xue Wang, Fengchang Wu
Hyperspectral imaging technology has been investigated as a possible way to detect microplastics contamination in soil directly and efficiently in this study. Hyperspectral images with wavelength range between 400 and 1000 nm were obtained from soil samples containing different materials including microplastics, fresh leaves, wilted leaves, rocks and dry branches. Supervised classification algorithms such as support vector machine (SVM), mahalanobis distance (MD) and maximum likelihood (ML) algorithms were used to identify microplastics from the other materials in hyperspectral images...
March 16, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Brigid K Killelea, Jessica B Long, Weixiong Dang, Sarah S Mougalian, Suzanne B Evans, Cary P Gross, Shi-Yi Wang
PURPOSE: To examine the associations between sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and complications among older patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). METHODS: We identified women from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare dataset aged 67-94 years diagnosed during 1998-2011 with DCIS who underwent BCS as initial treatment. We assessed incidence of complications, including lymphedema, wound infection, seroma, or pain, within 9 months of diagnosis...
March 7, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Ryo Ogawa, Jun Nishikawa, Eizaburo Hideura, Atsushi Goto, Yurika Koto, Shunsuke Ito, Madoka Unno, Yuko Yamaoka, Ryo Kawasato, Shinichi Hashimoto, Takeshi Okamoto, Hiroyuki Ogihara, Yoshihiko Hamamoto, Isao Sakaida
PURPOSE: The utility of chromoendoscopy for early gastric cancer (GC) was determined by machine learning using data of color differences. METHODS: Eighteen histopathologically confirmed early GC lesions were examined. We prepared images from white light endoscopy (WL), indigo carmine (Indigo), and acetic acid-indigo carmine chromoendoscopy (AIM). A border between cancerous and non-cancerous areas on endoscopic images was established from post-treatment pathological findings, and 2000 pixels with equivalent luminance values were randomly extracted from each image of cancerous and non-cancerous areas...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
Chen Jiang, Shu-Bi Zhang
As an optimal estimation method, the Kalman filter is the most frequently-used data fusion strategy in the field of dynamic navigation and positioning. Nevertheless, the abnormal model errors seriously degrade performance of the conventional Kalman filter. The adaptive Kalman filter was put forward to control the influences of model errors. However, the adaptive Kalman filter based on the predicted residuals (innovation vector) requires reliable observation information, and its performance is significantly affected by outliers in the measurements...
February 26, 2018: Sensors
Guillermo Robles, José Manuel Fresno, Juan Manuel Martínez-Tarifa, Jorge Alfredo Ardila-Rey, Emilio Parrado-Hernández
The measurement of partial discharge (PD) signals in the radio frequency (RF) range has gained popularity among utilities and specialized monitoring companies in recent years. Unfortunately, in most of the occasions the data are hidden by noise and coupled interferences that hinder their interpretation and renders them useless especially in acquisition systems in the ultra high frequency (UHF) band where the signals of interest are weak. This paper is focused on a method that uses a selective spectral signal characterization to feature each signal, type of partial discharge or interferences/noise, with the power contained in the most representative frequency bands...
March 1, 2018: Sensors
Tyagi Ramakrishnan, Christina-Anne Lahiff, Kyle B Reed
Physical changes such as leg length discrepancy, the addition of a mass at the distal end of the leg, the use of a prosthetic, and stroke frequently result in an asymmetric gait. This paper presents a metric that can potentially serve as a benchmark to categorize and differentiate between multiple asymmetric bipedal gaits. The combined gait asymmetry metric (CGAM) is based on modified Mahalanobis distances, and it utilizes the asymmetries of gait parameters obtained from motion capture and force data recorded during human walking...
2018: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
Ke Li, Etienne Cavaignac, Wei Xu, Qiang Cheng, Nobert Telmon, Wei Huang
PURPOSE: Morphologic data of the knee is very important in the design of total knee prostheses. Generally, the designs of the total knee prostheses are based on the knee anatomy of Caucasian population. Moreover, in forensic medicine, a person's age and sex might be estimated by the shape of their knees. The aim of this study is to utilize three-dimensional morphometric analysis of the knee in Chinese population to reveal sexual dimorphism and age-related differences. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sexually dimorphic differences and age-related differences of the distal femur were studied by using geometric morphometric analysis of ten osteometric landmarks on three-dimensional reconstructions of 259 knees in Chinese population...
February 20, 2018: International Orthopaedics
Els Ducheyne, Nhu Nguyen Tran Minh, Nabil Haddad, Ward Bryssinckx, Evans Buliva, Frédéric Simard, Mamunur Rahman Malik, Johannes Charlier, Valérie De Waele, Osama Mahmoud, Muhammad Mukhtar, Ali Bouattour, Abdulhafid Hussain, Guy Hendrickx, David Roiz
BACKGROUND: Aedes-borne diseases as dengue, zika, chikungunya and yellow fever are an emerging problem worldwide, being transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Lack of up to date information about the distribution of Aedes species hampers surveillance and control. Global databases have been compiled but these did not capture data in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR), and any models built using these datasets fail to identify highly suitable areas where one or both species may occur...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
Lucia Valverde-Som, Cristina Ruiz-Samblás, Francisco P Rodríguez-García, Luis Cuadros-Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: Virgin olive oil is the only food product whose sensory analysis is regulated in order to classify it in different quality categories. Though, to harmonize the results of the sensorial method, is crucial the use of standards or reference materials. The stability of sensory reference materials is required to carry out a suitable control of them in order to confirm that their specific target values are kept on an ongoing basis. Currently, such stability is monitored by mean of sensory analysis and the sensory panels are in the paradoxical situation of controlling the standards which are devoted to control the panels...
February 9, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Bingbing Gao, Gaoge Hu, Shesheng Gao, Yongmin Zhong, Chengfan Gu
This paper presents a new optimal data fusion methodology based on the adaptive fading unscented Kalman filter for multi-sensor nonlinear stochastic systems. This methodology has a two-level fusion structure: at the bottom level, an adaptive fading unscented Kalman filter based on the Mahalanobis distance is developed and serves as local filters to improve the adaptability and robustness of local state estimations against process-modeling error; at the top level, an unscented transformation-based multi-sensor optimal data fusion for the case of N local filters is established according to the principle of linear minimum variance to calculate globally optimal state estimation by fusion of local estimations...
February 6, 2018: Sensors
Jing-Wen Hao, Nai-Dong Chen, Cun-Wu Chen, Fu-Cheng Zhu, De-Liang Qiao, Yong-Jun Zang, Jun Dai, Xiang-Wen Song, Han Chen
A rapid, green, low cost and nondestructive attenuated total reflection near infrared (ATR NIR) method was developed to quantify the total polysaccharide and the main monosaccharides mannose and glucose in Dendrobium huoshanense. Total 100 D. huoshanense samples from different places were analyzed using ATR NIR method. Potential outlying samples were initially removed from the collected NIR data using the PCA-Mahalanobis distance method. Spectral data preprocessing was studied in the construction of a partial least squares (PLS) model and six different signal pretreatment methods, including multiplicative scattering correction (MSC), standard normal transformation (SNV), first and second derivatives, the combination of MSC with the first derivative, and the combination of SNV with the first derivative, were compared...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Xiuhan Guo, Rui Cai, Shisheng Wang, Bo Tang, Yueqing Li, Weijie Zhao
Sea cucumber is the major tonic seafood worldwide, and geographical origin traceability is an important part of its quality and safety control. In this work, a non-destructive method for origin traceability of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) from northern China Sea and East China Sea using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and multivariate analysis methods was proposed. Total fat contents of 189 fresh sea cucumber samples were determined and partial least-squares (PLS) regression was used to establish the quantitative NIRS model...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Yuan Long, Bin Li, Huan Liu
As antibiotic residue becomes more and more serious all over the world, a rapid and effective detection method is needed to evaluate the antibiotic residue in feed matrices to ensure food safety for consumers. In this study, three different kinds of fluoroquinolones (norfloxacin, enrofloxacin, and ofloxacin) in feed matrices were analyzed using terahertz (THz) spectroscopy, respectively. Meanwhile, pure fluoroquinolones and pure feed matrices were also measured in the same way. Then, the absorption spectra of all of the samples were extracted in the transmission mode...
January 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Yufei Lin, Zengling Yang, Hao Liang, Shouxue Li, Xia Fan, Zhiming Xiao
Antibiotic mycelial residues (AMRs) added to animal feeds easily lead to drug resistance that affects human health and environment. However, there is a lack of effective detection methods, especially a fast and convenient detection technology, to distinguish AMRs from other components in animal feeds. To develop effective detection methods, two types of global Mahalanobis distance (GH) algorithms based on near-infrared microscopy (NIRM) imaging are proposed. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using NIRM imaging to identify AMRs in soybean meals...
February 1, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Zheng-Xin Wang, Dan-Dan Li, Hong-Hao Zheng
In China's industrialization process, the effective regulation of energy and environment can promote the positive externality of energy consumption while reducing negative externality, which is an important means for realizing the sustainable development of an economic society. The study puts forward an improved technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution based on entropy weight and Mahalanobis distance (briefly referred as E-M-TOPSIS). The performance of the approach was verified to be satisfactory...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Hendrik Heers, Josef Maximilian Gut, Axel Hegele, Rainer Hofmann, Tobias Boeselt, Akira Hattesohl, Andreas Rembert Koczulla
BACKGROUND/AIM: Cystoscopy, the standard diagnostic for bladder tumors, is uncomfortable, invasive, and expensive. The available urine-based marker systems all lack accuracy. Measuring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from urine is a promising alternative. This pilot study evaluates the feasibility of discriminating bladder cancer patients' urine from healthy controls with an electronic nose. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Headspace measurements of urine samples of 30 patients with confirmed transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) and 30 healthy controls were performed with Cyranose 320 calculating Mahalanobis distance and linear discriminant analysis...
February 2018: Anticancer Research
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