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Vitamin B6

Jeffrey Cummings, Philip Scheltens, Ian McKeith, Rafael Blesa, John E Harrison, Paulo H F Bertolucci, Kenneth Rockwood, David Wilkinson, Wouter Wijker, David A Bennett, Raj C Shah
BACKGROUND: Souvenaid® (uridine monophosphate, docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, choline, phospholipids, folic acid, vitamins B12, B6, C, and E, and selenium), was developed to support the formation and function of neuronal membranes. OBJECTIVE: To determine effect sizes observed in clinical trials of Souvenaid and to calculate the number needed to treat to show benefit or harm. METHODS: Data from all three reported randomized controlled trials of Souvenaid in Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia (Souvenir I, Souvenir II, and S-Connect) and an open-label extension study were included in analyses of effect size for cognitive, functional, and behavioral outcomes...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Simmi Kharb, D Aggarwal, J Bala, S Nanda
BACKGROUND: Folate, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 are required for homocysteine metabolism and their deficiency can result in increased homocysteine concentration. Homocysteine concentrations have been found to be increased in late pregnancy toward nonpregnant values. OBJECTIVE: To study folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine levels in cord blood and maternal blood in preeclampsia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred fifty pregnant women attending Out Patient Department of Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology were recruited for the study...
October 10, 2016: Current Hypertension Reviews
Valentina A Andreeva, Valérie Deschamps, Benoît Salanave, Katia Castetbon, Charlotte Verdot, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot, Serge Hercberg
Despite some advantages over traditional methods, Web-based studies elicit concerns about generalizability. To address this issue, we compared dietary intakes between an electronic (e-) cohort study and a nationally representative survey. We studied 49,443 French volunteers aged 18-74 years recruited during 2009-2010 in the NutriNet-Santé Study, a general population-based e-cohort study. The Etude Nationale Nutrition Santé (ENNS; 2006-2007), a cross-sectional study with a nationally representative sample of 2,754 French adults aged 18-74 years, served as the reference data set...
October 15, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
Shweta Sharma, Ashwni Kumar Verma, Jyotsana Singh, B Venkatesh Teja, Naresh Mittapelly, Gitu Pandey, Sandeep Urandur, Ravi Shukla, Rituraj Konwar, Prabhat Ranjan Mishra
This study reports the development of Vitamin B6 (VitB6) modified pH sensitive charge reversal nanoparticles for efficient intracellular delivery of Doxorubicin (DOX). Herein, VitB6 was conjugated to stearic acid and the nanoparticles of the lipid were formulated by solvent injection method (DOX-B6-SA-NP). Due to the pKa (5.6) of VitB6, DOX-B6-SA-NP showed positive charge and enhanced release of DOX at pH 5. Confocal microscopy illustrated that DOX-B6-SA-NP treatment keep higher DOX accumulation inside the cells that conventional pH insensitive lipid nanoparticles (DOX-SA-NP)...
October 14, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Henrika Wickström, Johan O Nyman, Mathias Indola, Heidi Sundelin, Leif Kronberg, Maren Preis, Jukka Rantanen, Niklas Sandler
Printing technologies were recently introduced to the pharmaceutical field for manufacturing of drug delivery systems. Printing allows on demand manufacturing of flexible pharmaceutical doses in a personalized manner, which is critical for a successful and safe treatment of patient populations with specific needs, such as children and the elderly, and patients facing multimorbidity. Printing of pharmaceuticals as technique generates new demands on the quality control procedures. For example, rapid quality control is needed as the printing can be done on demand and at the point of care...
October 13, 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
Peipei Zhang, Kohsuke Tsuchiya, Takeshi Kinoshita, Hiroko Kushiyama, Sofya Suidasari, Mizuki Hatakeyama, Hisanori Imura, Norihisa Kato, Takashi Suda
Vitamin B6 includes six water-soluble vitamers: pyridoxal (PL), pyridoxamine (PM), pyridoxine (PN), and their phosphorylated forms. Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) is an important cofactor for many metabolic enzymes. Several lines of evidence demonstrate that blood levels of PLP are significantly lower in patients with inflammation than in control subjects, and that vitamin B6 has anti-inflammatory effects, with therapeutic potential for a variety of inflammatory diseases. Although one of our group (NK) previously demonstrated that PL inhibits the NF-κB pathway, the molecular mechanism by which vitamin B6 suppresses inflammation is not well understood...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Amy O'Donnell, Catherine McParlin, Stephen C Robson, Fiona Beyer, Eoin Moloney, Andrew Bryant, Jennifer Bradley, Colin Muirhead, Catherine Nelson-Piercy, Dorothy Newbury-Birch, Justine Norman, Emma Simpson, Brian Swallow, Laura Yates, Luke Vale
BACKGROUND: Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) affects up to 85% of all women during pregnancy, but for the majority self-management suffices. For the remainder, symptoms are more severe and the most severe form of NVP - hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) - affects 0.3-1.0% of pregnant women. There is no widely accepted point at which NVP becomes HG. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the relative clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of treatments for NVP and HG...
October 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Fabrizio Galimberti, Natasha Atanaskova Mesinkovska
Certain vitamin and mineral deficiencies may be recognized by their cutaneous signs. This case-based article reviews deficiencies of zinc and vitamins A, B2, B3, B6, and C, discussing their consequences and skin findings.
October 2016: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
Jeum Kyu Hong, Hyeon Ji Kim, Heesoo Jung, Hye Ji Yang, Do Hoon Kim, Chang Hyun Sung, Chang-Jin Park, Seog Won Chang
Bacterial wilt and grey mould in tomato plants are economically destructive bacterial and fungal diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and Botrytis cinerea, respectively. Various approaches including chemical and biological controls have been attempted to arrest the tomato diseases so far. In this study, in vitro growths of bacterial R. solanacearum and fungal B. cinerea were evaluated using four different vitamins including thiamine (vitamin B1), niacin (vitamin B3), pyridoxine (vitamin B6), and menadione (vitamin K3)...
October 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
Ingun Ulstein, Thomas Bøhmer
Evidence supports an association between vitamin deficiencies and cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). If vitamin deficiencies are causative for AD development, they should be detectable during very early stages of AD. Here we investigated nutritional factors among home-living patients diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild dementia due to AD, compared to healthy controls. Our study included 73 patients with AD (25 with MCI, 48 with dementia) and 63 cognitively intact age-matched controls...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Catherine McParlin, Amy O'Donnell, Stephen C Robson, Fiona Beyer, Eoin Moloney, Andrew Bryant, Jennifer Bradley, Colin R Muirhead, Catherine Nelson-Piercy, Dorothy Newbury-Birch, Justine Norman, Caroline Shaw, Emma Simpson, Brian Swallow, Laura Yates, Luke Vale
Importance: Nausea and vomiting affects approximately 85% of pregnant women. The most severe form, hyperemesis gravidarum, affects up to 3% of women and can have significant adverse physical and psychological sequelae. Objective: To summarize current evidence on effective treatments for nausea and vomiting in pregnancy and hyperemesis gravidarum. Evidence Review: Databases were searched to June 8, 2016. Relevant websites and bibliographies were also searched...
October 4, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Hansaem Choe, Ji-Yun Hwang, Jin A Yun, Ji-Myung Kim, Tae-Jin Song, Namsoo Chang, Yong-Jae Kim, Yuri Kim
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to examine relationships between dietary habits and intakes of antioxidants and B vitamins and the risk of ischemic stroke, and to compare dietary factors according to the presence of cerebral artery atherosclerosis and stroke subtypes. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 147 patients and 144 control subjects were recruited consecutively in the metropolitan area of Seoul, Korea. Sixty participants each in the case and control groups were included in analyses after 1:1 frequency matching...
October 2016: Nutrition Research and Practice
Erina Kitagawa, Tatsuya Yamamoto, Mayuko Fujishita, Yuki Ota, Kohei Yamamoto, Tomoyuki Nakagawa, Takashi Hayakawa
We investigated the efficacy of supplementing the diet with choline or betaine in ameliorating lipid accumulation induced by vitamin B6 (B6) deficiency in rat liver. Male Wistar rats were fed a control, B6-deficient, choline-supplemented (2, 4, or 6 g choline bitartrate/kg diet) B6-deficient diet or betaine-supplemented (1, 2, or 4 g betaine anhydrous/kg diet) B6-deficient diet for 35 d; all diets contained 9 g L-methionine (Met)/kg diet. Choline or betaine supplementation attenuated liver lipid deposition and restored plasma lipid profiles to control levels...
October 4, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Valentina Bušić, Maja Katalinić, Goran Šinko, Zrinka Kovarik, Dajana Gašo-Sokač
Organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents (sarin, tabun VX and soman) inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC by binding to its active site while preventing neurotransmission in the cholinergic synapses. The protection and treatment of this kind of poisoning are still a challenge as we are yet to discover an antidote that would be effective in all cases of poisoning. To aid the search for more efficient antidotes, we evaluated the ability of nine pyridoxal oxime derivatives, prepared by a novel synthetic pathway, to reactivate recombinant human AChE and the related purified human plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE, EC 3...
September 29, 2016: Toxicology Letters
Edwin T Moran
The small intestinal mucosa acts to recover nutrients from the lumen while providing a barrier against potential hazards. Its unstirred water layer (USWL) at the lumen interface involves membrane associated mucin linearly protruding from underlying microvilli that entangles secretory mucin released from local goblet cells. Both mucin sources are dominated by repetitive O-glycosylated areas dependant on threonine, serine, glycine, and proline. Secretory mucin differs from membrane attached mucin by further employing multiple cystines that interconnect these areas into a net-like molecular sieve...
September 24, 2016: Poultry Science
Eva Nováková, Václav Hypša, Petr Nguyen, Filip Husník, Alistair C Darby
Candidatus Arsenophonus lipopteni (Enterobacteriaceae, Gammaproteobacteria) is an obligate intracellular symbiont of the blood feeding deer ked, Lipoptena cervi (Diptera: Hippoboscidae). The bacteria reside in specialized cells derived from host gut epithelia (bacteriocytes) forming a compact symbiotic organ (bacteriome). Compared to the closely related complex symbiotic system in the sheep ked, involving four bacterial species, Lipoptena cervi appears to maintain its symbiosis exclusively with Ca. Arsenophonus lipopteni...
2016: Standards in Genomic Sciences
Dorota Wirkus, Aleksandra Jakubus, Radosław Owczuk, Piotr Stepnowski, Monika Paszkiewicz
Continous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is particularly recommended for septic shock patients in intensive care units. The CRRT technique used most frequently is high volume continuous veno-venous haemofiltration. It provides a high rate of clearance of uremic toxins and inflammatory cytokines. However, it should also be taken into account that substances important for homeostasis may be concurrently unintentionally removed. Accordingly, water-soluble vitamins can be removed during continuous renal replacement therapy, and the estimate of the loss is critical to ensure appropriate supplementation...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Takashi Kuwahara, Shinya Kaneda, Kazuyuki Shimono
BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that Candida albicans requires multivitamins (MVs) or lipid to increase rapidly in parenteral nutrition (PN) solutions. In this study, in detail, the effects of vitamins on the growth of C. albicans in PN solutions without lipid were investigated. METHODS: In the 1st experiment, a commercial PN solution without lipid was supplemented with water-soluble vitamins (SVs: vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12 and C, folic acid, nicotinamide, biotin and panthenol), water-insoluble vitamins (IVs: vitamins A, D, E and K) or both (MVs)...
2016: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Graham C Robinson, Markus Kaufmann, Céline Roux, Teresa B Fitzpatrick
Vitamin B6 is indispensible for all organisms, notably as the coenzyme form pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Plants make the compound de novo using a relatively simple pathway comprising pyridoxine synthase (PDX1) and pyridoxine glutaminase (PDX2). PDX1 is remarkable given its multifaceted synthetic ability to carry out isomerization, imine formation, ammonia addition, aldol-type condensation, cyclization, and aromatization, all in the absence of coenzymes or recruitment of specialized domains. Two active sites (P1 and P2) facilitate the plethora of reactions, but it is not known how the two are coordinated and, moreover, if intermediates are tunneled between active sites...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
James Henry Obol, Denis Anywar Arony, Ronald Wanyama, Kenneth Luryama Moi, Bongomin Bodo, Patrick Olwedo Odong, Michael Odida
INTRODUCTION: Nodding syndrome was first reported in Uganda in 2003 among internally displaced populations. Risk factors for the syndrome remain unknown. We therefore explored vitamin B6 deficiency and resulting high 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) levels as risk factor for nodding syndrome in Northern Uganda. METHODS: Case-control study conducted in Gulu and Amuru districts. Cases were children/young adults with nodding syndrome. Healthy children/young adults were recruited as controls from same community as cases...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
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