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Seu Ping Guiraud, Ivan Montoliu, Laeticia Da Silva, Loïc Dayon, Antonio Núñez Galindo, John Corthésy, Martin Kussmann, Francois-Pierre Martin
The methionine cycle is a key pathway contributing to the regulation of human health, with well-established involvement in cardiovascular diseases and cognitive function. Changes in one-carbon cycle metabolites have also been associated with mild cognitive decline, vascular dementia, and Alzheimer's disease. Today, there is no single analytical method to monitor both metabolites and co-factors of the methionine cycle. To address this limitation, we here report for the first time a new method for the simultaneous quantitation of 17 metabolites in the methionine cycle, which are homocysteic acid, taurine, serine, cysteine, glycine, homocysteine, riboflavin, methionine, pyridoxine, cystathionine, pyridoxamine, S-adenosylhomocysteine, S-adenosylmethionine, betaine, choline, dimethylglycine, and 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid...
October 18, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Peipei Zhang, Kohsuke Tsuchiya, Takeshi Kinoshita, Hiroko Kushiyama, Sofya Suidasari, Mizuki Hatakeyama, Hisanori Imura, Norihisa Kato, Takashi Suda
Vitamin B6 includes six water-soluble vitamers: pyridoxal (PL), pyridoxamine (PM), pyridoxine (PN), and their phosphorylated forms. Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) is an important cofactor for many metabolic enzymes. Several lines of evidence demonstrate that blood levels of PLP are significantly lower in patients with inflammation than in control subjects, and that vitamin B6 has anti-inflammatory effects, with therapeutic potential for a variety of inflammatory diseases. Although one of our group (NK) previously demonstrated that PL inhibits the NF-κB pathway, the molecular mechanism by which vitamin B6 suppresses inflammation is not well understood...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Amy O'Donnell, Catherine McParlin, Stephen C Robson, Fiona Beyer, Eoin Moloney, Andrew Bryant, Jennifer Bradley, Colin Muirhead, Catherine Nelson-Piercy, Dorothy Newbury-Birch, Justine Norman, Emma Simpson, Brian Swallow, Laura Yates, Luke Vale
BACKGROUND: Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) affects up to 85% of all women during pregnancy, but for the majority self-management suffices. For the remainder, symptoms are more severe and the most severe form of NVP - hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) - affects 0.3-1.0% of pregnant women. There is no widely accepted point at which NVP becomes HG. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the relative clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of treatments for NVP and HG...
October 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Jeum Kyu Hong, Hyeon Ji Kim, Heesoo Jung, Hye Ji Yang, Do Hoon Kim, Chang Hyun Sung, Chang-Jin Park, Seog Won Chang
Bacterial wilt and grey mould in tomato plants are economically destructive bacterial and fungal diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and Botrytis cinerea, respectively. Various approaches including chemical and biological controls have been attempted to arrest the tomato diseases so far. In this study, in vitro growths of bacterial R. solanacearum and fungal B. cinerea were evaluated using four different vitamins including thiamine (vitamin B1), niacin (vitamin B3), pyridoxine (vitamin B6), and menadione (vitamin K3)...
October 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
Gro-Ingunn Hemre, Erik-Jan Lock, Pål Asgeir Olsvik, Kristin Hamre, Marit Espe, Bente Elisabeth Torstensen, Joana Silva, Ann-Cecilie Hansen, Rune Waagbø, Johan S Johansen, Monica Sanden, Nini H Sissener
Aiming to re-evaluate current recommendations for nutrient supplementations when Atlantic salmon are fed diets based on plant ingredients, two regression experiments, with parr and post-smolt, were conducted. A control diet was included to evaluate if ingredients supplied sufficient nutrients without any added nutrient package (NP). The nutrient package consisted of vitamins B, C, E, minerals, cholesterol, methionine, taurine and histidine. This paper focus on B-vitamins. In parr, growth, health and welfare parameters responded on NP additions, but this was not observed in the seawater stage...
2016: PeerJ
Catherine McParlin, Amy O'Donnell, Stephen C Robson, Fiona Beyer, Eoin Moloney, Andrew Bryant, Jennifer Bradley, Colin R Muirhead, Catherine Nelson-Piercy, Dorothy Newbury-Birch, Justine Norman, Caroline Shaw, Emma Simpson, Brian Swallow, Laura Yates, Luke Vale
Importance: Nausea and vomiting affects approximately 85% of pregnant women. The most severe form, hyperemesis gravidarum, affects up to 3% of women and can have significant adverse physical and psychological sequelae. Objective: To summarize current evidence on effective treatments for nausea and vomiting in pregnancy and hyperemesis gravidarum. Evidence Review: Databases were searched to June 8, 2016. Relevant websites and bibliographies were also searched...
October 4, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Maha Abdel-Monem Hegazy, Ahmed Salah Fayed, Nada Sayed Abdel Wahab
New, simple, highly sensitive, precise, and accurate gradient reversed-phase chromatographic methods were developed using HPLC and ultra-HPLC (UPLC) systems for the determination of five components, namely thiamine, pyridoxine, cyanocobalamin, benfotiamine, and diclofenac in tablets and capsules. The methods were compared for their efficiency in the separation and determination of these five compounds using two different C18 columns (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm; and 100 × 4.6 mm, 2.6 μm) for HPLC and UPLC, respectively...
October 1, 2016: Journal of AOAC International
Miguel Oliveira Santos, Ruth Geraldes, Isabel Conceição
Classic homocystinuria is one of the most common causes of hereditary hyperhomocysteinemia. It is an autosomal recessive and multisystemic disorder due to cystathionine β-synthase deficiency. We described a case of an 18-year-old Portuguese man with an ischaemic stroke, who was subsequently diagnosed with classic homocystinuria [Thr191Met (c.572C>T) CBS mutation] associated with a sensorimotor neuropathy. The patient had a good clinical and metabolic response to pyridoxine plus methionine-restricted diet after 12 months of treatment...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Himadri Saha, Asim Kumar Pal, Narottam Prasad Sahu, Ratan Kumar Saha
A 60-day experiment was carried out to delineate the role of dietary pyridoxine (DP) in Labeo rohita fingerlings in modulating immunity and prevention of fungal infection. Two hundred and seventy fingerlings were randomly distributed into three treatments in triplicates. Three iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous purified diets were prepared with graded levels of pyridoxine. Three experimental groups were C (0.0% DP), T1 (0.01% DP) and T2 (0.02% DP). The role of dietary pyridoxine in modulating immunity and prevention of fungal infection was assessed by haemato-immunological parameters like erythrocyte counts (EC), leucocyte counts (LC), haemoglobulin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), nitro-blue tetrazolium (NBT), phagocytic activity, albumin, globulin, total plasma protein, albumin/globulin and by challenge study with Saprolegnia parasitica, where relative percentage survival (RPS) were recorded...
September 23, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
I Z Rakhmatullin, L F Galiullina, A A Balandina, M R Garipov, A D Strelnik, A S Galiullina, Y G Shtyrlin, V V Klochkov
The conformational properties of three pyridoxine derivatives were studied by (1) H dynamic NMR spectroscopy. Conformational exchange caused by a rotation of 2-nytrophenyl group around one single C-C bond, of 2,4-dinitrophenyl substituent around two single C-O bonds, and twist-twist transformations of the seven-membered ketal cycle was observed by NMR experiments at low temperatures. Meanwhile, the conformational exchange of the acetal ring remains fast in the NMR timescale even at 198 K. The energy barriers for all observed conformational exchange processes were determined by the lineshape analysis of dynamic NMR spectra...
September 23, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
Eva Nováková, Václav Hypša, Petr Nguyen, Filip Husník, Alistair C Darby
Candidatus Arsenophonus lipopteni (Enterobacteriaceae, Gammaproteobacteria) is an obligate intracellular symbiont of the blood feeding deer ked, Lipoptena cervi (Diptera: Hippoboscidae). The bacteria reside in specialized cells derived from host gut epithelia (bacteriocytes) forming a compact symbiotic organ (bacteriome). Compared to the closely related complex symbiotic system in the sheep ked, involving four bacterial species, Lipoptena cervi appears to maintain its symbiosis exclusively with Ca. Arsenophonus lipopteni...
2016: Standards in Genomic Sciences
Dorota Wirkus, Aleksandra Jakubus, Radosław Owczuk, Piotr Stepnowski, Monika Paszkiewicz
Continous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is particularly recommended for septic shock patients in intensive care units. The CRRT technique used most frequently is high volume continuous veno-venous haemofiltration. It provides a high rate of clearance of uremic toxins and inflammatory cytokines. However, it should also be taken into account that substances important for homeostasis may be concurrently unintentionally removed. Accordingly, water-soluble vitamins can be removed during continuous renal replacement therapy, and the estimate of the loss is critical to ensure appropriate supplementation...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Selvakumar Palanisamy, Balamurugan Thirumalraj, Shen-Ming Chen, Yi-Ting Wang, Vijayalakshmi Velusamy, Sayee Kannan Ramaraj
We report a novel and sensitive amperometric sensor for chlorpromazine (CPZ) based on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and polydopamine (PDA) composite modified glassy carbon electrode. The RGO@PDA composite was prepared by electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO) with PDA. The RGO@PDA composite modified electrode shows an excellent electro-oxidation behavior to CPZ when compared with other modified electrodes such as GO, RGO and GO@PDA. Amperometric i-t method was used for the determination of CPZ. Amperometry result shows that the RGO@PDA composite detects CPZ in a linear range from 0...
2016: Scientific Reports
Graham C Robinson, Markus Kaufmann, Céline Roux, Teresa B Fitzpatrick
Vitamin B6 is indispensible for all organisms, notably as the coenzyme form pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Plants make the compound de novo using a relatively simple pathway comprising pyridoxine synthase (PDX1) and pyridoxine glutaminase (PDX2). PDX1 is remarkable given its multifaceted synthetic ability to carry out isomerization, imine formation, ammonia addition, aldol-type condensation, cyclization, and aromatization, all in the absence of coenzymes or recruitment of specialized domains. Two active sites (P1 and P2) facilitate the plethora of reactions, but it is not known how the two are coordinated and, moreover, if intermediates are tunneled between active sites...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Chan Kyu Kim, Dong Hoon Han, Young Seok Ji, Min Sung Lee, Chang Wook Min, Seong Kyu Park, Se Hyung Kim, Jina Yun, Hyun Jeung Kim, Kyoung Ha Kim, Kyu Taek Lee, Jong Ho Won, Dae Sik Hong, Hee Kyung Kim
Angiogenesis occurs in response to tissue ischemia and wound healing, and contributes to the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases, such as benign and malignant neoplasia. Several studies have measured bone marrow microvessel density (MVD) in MDS patients and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients transformed from MDS, and MVD was higher in MDS patients than controls, but was lower than in AML patients. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is expressed in bone marrow blast cells, and an autocrine VEGF signaling mechanism has been established in MDS...
September 5, 2016: Leukemia Research
Rebecca J Sardell, Jessica N Cooke Bailey, Monique D Courtenay, Patrice Whitehead, Reneé A Laux, Larry D Adams, Jorge A Fortun, Milam A Brantley, Jaclyn L Kovach, Stephen G Schwartz, Anita Agarwal, William K Scott, Jonathan L Haines, Margaret A Pericak-Vance
PURPOSE: Demographic, environmental, and genetic risk factors for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) have been identified; however, a substantial portion of the variance in AMD disease risk and heritability remains unexplained. To identify AMD risk variants and generate hypotheses for future studies, we performed whole exome sequencing for 75 individuals whose phenotype was not well predicted by their genotype at known risk loci. We hypothesized that these phenotypically extreme individuals were more likely to carry rare risk or protective variants with large effect sizes...
2016: Molecular Vision
Izabella Agostinho Pena, Lygia Azevedo Marques, Ângelo B A Laranjeira, José A Yunes, Marcos N Eberlin, Alex MacKenzie, Paulo Arruda
Lysine is catabolized in mammals through the saccharopine and pipecolate pathways - the former is mainly hepatic and renal, and the latter is believed to play a role in the cerebral lysine oxidation. Both pathways lead to the formation of aminoadipic semialdehyde (AASA) that is then oxidized to aminoadipate (AAA) by antiquitin (ALDH7A1). Mutations in the ALDH7A1 gene result in the accumulation of AASA and its cyclic form, piperideine-6-carboxylate (P6C), which causes pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE). P6C reacts with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) causing its inactivation...
September 8, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Sigrid Kalle, Risto Tanner, Jürgen Arund, Ruth Tomson, Merike Luman, Ivo Fridolin
AIM: In this work we estimated the contribution of the fluorescence of 4-pyridoxic acid (4-PA) to the total fluorescence of spent dialysate with the aim of evaluating the on-line monitoring of removal of this vitamin B-6 metabolite from the blood of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). METHODS: Spectrofluorometric analysis of spent dialysate, collected from hemodialysis and hemodiafiltration sessions of 10 patients receiving regularly pyridoxine injections after dialysis treatment, was performed in the range of Ex/Em 220-500 nm...
2016: PloS One
Gabriela Macedo-Ojeda, Fabiola Márquez-Sandoval, Joan Fernández-Ballart, Barbara Vizmanos
The study of diet quality in a population provides information for the development of programs to improve nutritional status through better directed actions. The aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility and relative validity of a Mexican Diet Quality Index (ICDMx) for the assessment of the habitual diet of adults. The ICDMx was designed to assess the characteristics of a healthy diet using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ-Mx). Reproducibility was determined by comparing 2 ICDMx based on FFQs (one-year interval)...
2016: Nutrients
Phillip L Pearl
Vitamin-dependent epilepsies and multiple metabolic epilepsies are amenable to treatment that markedly improves the disease course. Knowledge of these amenably treatable severe pediatric epilepsies allows for early identification, testing, and treatment. These disorders present with various phenotypes, including early onset epileptic encephalopathy (refractory neonatal seizures, early myoclonic encephalopathy, and early infantile epileptic encephalopathy), infantile spasms, or mixed generalized seizure types in infancy, childhood, or even adolescence and adulthood...
May 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
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