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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244265/herpes-zoster-and-dementia-a-nationwide-population-based-cohort-study
#1
Vincent Chin-Hung Chen, Shu-I Wu, Kuo-You Huang, Yao-Hsu Yang, Ting-Yu Kuo, Hsin-Yi Liang, Kuan-Lun Huang, Michael Gossop
OBJECTIVE: Some infectious diseases have been found to be associated with cognitive impairment and dementia. However, the relationship between herpes zoster and dementia has received little attention. This study aimed to investigate this association as well as associations of antiviral treatments for herpes zoster and incident dementia using a large national sample. METHODS: Cases were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database with a new diagnosis of herpes zoster (ICD-9-CM code: 053) between 1997 and 2013...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243539/the-influence-of-neighbor-effect-and-urbanization-toward-organ-donation-in-thailand
#2
Kua Wongboonsin, Pavitra Jindahra, Surat Teerakapibal
INTRODUCTION: Toward population wellness, an extreme scarcity of organ supply is proven to be an enormous hindrance. Preferences toward organ donation are vital to raise the organ donation rate. Notably, the area people live in can address the social influence on individual preference toward organ donation. RESEARCH QUESTIONS: This article studies the impact of the neighbor effect on organ donation decisions, addressing the social influence of urbanization on preferences...
January 1, 2017: Progress in Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243254/graduating-otolaryngology-resident-preparedness-for-fellowship-as-assessed-by-fellowship-faculty
#3
Julie Highland, Cristina Cabrera-Muffly
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of this study was to evaluate fellowship program directors' perceptions of incoming clinical fellows' preparedness for subspecialty training and to thereby identify strengths and shortcomings in otolaryngology training programs' ability to prepare residents for fellowship. STUDY DESIGN: Validated e-mail survey. METHODS: Two hundred eleven otolaryngology subspecialty fellowship program directors and faculty directly involved with training fellows were contacted...
December 15, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242840/the-mid-childhood-and-adolescent-antecedents-of-women-s-external-locus-of-control-orientation
#4
Jean Golding, Steven Gregory, Yasmin Iles-Caven, Stephen Nowicki
Background: External locus of control orientation (ELOC) is a powerful predictor of adverse consequences in regard to health, educational attainment, inter-personal relationships and well-being. Although many cross-sectional studies have been carried out, relatively little is known about antecedent factors influencing the development of ELOC. Methods: Over 12,000 pregnant women who enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) in south-west England, had completed a brief version of the Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External LOC scale, together with detailed questions concerning their own parents and childhood...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242837/the-human-gut-microbial-metabolome-modulates-fungal-growth-via-the-tor-signaling-pathway
#5
Carlos García, Faiza Tebbji, Michelle Daigneault, Ning-Ning Liu, Julia R Köhler, Emma Allen-Vercoe, Adnane Sellam
Candida albicans is well known as a major human fungal pathogen, but it is also a permanent resident of healthy gastrointestinal tracts. Recent studies have shown that the human gut microbial metabolome represents an interesting source of bioactive molecules with a significant degree of chemical diversity. Some of these bioactive molecules may have useful antivirulence activities. For instance, intestinal bacterial species belonging to the Lachnospiraceae family were found to secrete molecules that attenuate Salmonella pathogenicity and repress the expression of virulence genes...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242825/hydraulic-fracturing-and-infant-health-new-evidence-from-pennsylvania
#6
Janet Currie, Michael Greenstone, Katherine Meckel
The development of hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") is considered the biggest change to the global energy production system in the last half-century. However, several communities have banned fracking because of unresolved concerns about the impact of this process on human health. To evaluate the potential health impacts of fracking, we analyzed records of more than 1.1 million births in Pennsylvania from 2004 to 2013, comparing infants born to mothers living at different distances from active fracking sites and those born both before and after fracking was initiated at each site...
December 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240534/non-pharmacological-approaches-to-pain-management-in-residential-aged-care-a-pre-post-test-study
#7
Julie M Ellis, Yvonne Wells, June Su Ming Ong
OBJECTIVES: The project aimed to evaluate a pain management program (PMP) using non-pharmacological approaches at five residential aged care facilities (RACFs) in Australia. METHODS: The PMP involved a physiotherapist implementing four sessions per week of treatments (massage therapy, TENS, exercises and stretching, or combinations of these). Ninety-five participants were recruited (average age, 83 years; SD = 7.6; 38% men, 62% women; 56% with dementia). Sessions lasted approximately 10 minutes, and residents' levels of pain were recorded using a 5-point scale before and after each treatment...
November 17, 2017: Clinical Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239294/demographics-interests-and-quality-of-life-of-canadian-neurosurgery-residents
#8
Christian Iorio-Morin, Syed Uzair Ahmed, Mark Bigder, Ayoub Dakson, Cameron Elliott, Daipayan Guha, Michelle Kameda-Smith, Pascal Lavergne, Serge Makarenko, Michael S Taccone, Michael K Tso, Bill Wang, Alexander Winkler-Schwartz, David Fortin
BACKGROUND: Neurosurgical residents face a unique combination of challenges, including long duty hours, technically challenging cases, and uncertain employment prospects. We sought to assess the demographics, interests, career goals, self-rated happiness, and overall well-being of Canadian neurosurgery residents. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was developed and sent through the Canadian Neurosurgery Research Collaborative to every resident enrolled in a Canadian neurosurgery program as of April 1, 2016...
December 14, 2017: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237648/parasitic-stool-testing-in-newly-arrived-refugees-in-calgary-alta
#9
Giselle DeVetten, Meghan Dirksen, Robert Weaver, Tanvir Turin Chowdhury, Michael William Aucoin
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and rates of stool testing compliance, as well as associated patient characteristics, among newly arrived refugees at the Mosaic Refugee Health Clinic in Calgary, Alta. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SETTING: Primary care clinic for refugee patients. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1390 new refugee patients at the clinic from May 1, 2011, to June 30, 2013. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Stool ova and parasite test completion and proportion of positive test results...
December 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236277/clouds-of-different-colors-a-prospective-look-at-head-and-neck-surgical-resident-call-experience
#10
Jonathan Melzer
Graduate medical education programs typically set up call under the assumption that residents will have similar experiences. The terms black cloud and white cloud have frequently been used to describe residents with more difficult (black) or less difficult (white) call experiences. This study followed residents in the department of head and neck surgery during call to determine whether certain residents have a significantly different call experience than the norm. It is a prospective observational study conducted over 16 months in a tertiary care center with a resident training program in otolaryngology...
December 2017: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235909/the-role-of-balint-group-training-in-the-professional-and-personal-development-of-family-medicine-residents
#11
Marty Player, John R Freedy, Vanessa Diaz, Clive Brock, Alexander Chessman, Carolyn Thiedke, Alan Johnson
This paper presents a study based on the participation of PGY2 and PGY3 family medicine residents in Balint seminars that occurred twice monthly for 24 months. Balint groups were cofacilitated by leader pairs experienced with the Balint method. Prior to residency graduation, 18 of 19 eligible resident physicians (94.5%) completed 30- to 60-min semistructured interviews conducted by a research assistant. Resident physicians were told that these individual interviews concerned "…how we teach communication in residency...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235393/needs-of-people-with-advanced-dementia-in-their-final-phase-of-life-a-multi-perspective-qualitative-study-in-nursing-homes
#12
Holger Schmidt, Yvonne Eisenmann, Heidrun Golla, Raymond Voltz, Klaus Maria Perrar
BACKGROUND: People with advanced dementia present an important target group for palliative care. They suffer a range of symptoms, and their verbal communication abilities are highly restricted. At present, little is known about their needs in the final phase of life. AIM: To identify the needs of people with advanced dementia in their final phase of life and to explore the aspects relevant to first recognize and then meet these needs. DESIGN: Multi-perspective qualitative study using grounded theory methodology conducting group discussions, individual interviews, and participant observation...
December 1, 2017: Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234524/viral-hepatitis-endemicity-and-trends-among-an-asymptomatic-adult-population-in-ho-a-5-year-retrospective-study-at-the-ho-municipal-hospital-ghana
#13
Sylvester Yao Lokpo, James Osei-Yeboah, Gameli Kwame Norgbe, Patrick Kwasi Owiafe, Felix Ayroe, Francis Abeku Ussher, Mavis Popuelle Dakorah, John Gameli Deku, Nana Yaw Barimah Manaphraim, Emmanuel Akomanin Asiamah, Tibemponi Ntoni, Prince Senyo Kwasi Nyamadi, Edward Yiadom Boakye, Roseline Avorkliyah
Background: Using prospective blood donors as a proxy, this study was aimed at estimating the burden and five-year (2012-2016) trend of viral hepatitis (HBV and HCV) infection among asymptomatic adult population in Ho. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was done on secondary data extracted from the hospital archives comprising 4,180 prospective blood donors from January 2012 to December 2016. Demographic variables included age and sex, as well as place of residence...
2017: Hepatitis Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233481/road-traffic-noise-and-determinants-of-saliva-cortisol-levels-among-adolescents
#14
Alva Wallas, Charlotta Eriksson, Olena Gruzieva, Tomas Lind, Andrei Pyko, Mattias Sjöström, Mikael Ögren, Göran Pershagen
OBJECTIVES: The understanding of determinants for saliva cortisol levels in adolescents is limited. This study investigated the role of road traffic noise exposure, noise annoyance and various other factors for saliva cortisol levels. METHODS: We collected morning and evening saliva samples from 1751 adolescents from the BAMSE birth cohort based in Stockholm County. Façade noise levels from road traffic were estimated at the residences of the study subjects and repeated questionnaires and medical examinations provided extensive information on various exposures and conditions, including annoyance to noise from different sources...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232632/inactivation-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-and-salmonella-deposited-on-gloves-in-a-liquid-state-and-subjected-to-drying-conditions
#15
Marilyn C Erickson, Jye-Yin Liao, Cathy C Webb, Mussie Y Habteselassie, Jennifer L Cannon
Gloves are worn by workers harvesting ready-to-eat produce as a deterrent for contaminating the produce with enteric pathogens that may reside on their hands. As fields are not sterile environments, the probability for gloves to become contaminated still exists and therefore it is critical to understand the conditions that affect the survival of pathogens on gloves. Both Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella deposited on glove surfaces in a liquid state survived longer when the pathogen had been suspended in lettuce sap than when suspended in water...
November 29, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230308/subjective-well-being-among-young-people-in-five-eastern-european-countries
#16
M S C Lim, C Cappa, G C Patton
Background: Subjective well-being incorporates elements of life satisfaction, happiness and optimism. It is increasingly relevant in the assessment of population health and economic development. There are strong continuities in well-being from youth into later life. Despite its significance, few global surveys capture subjective well-being. This paper describes patterns of well-being among young people in five Eastern European countries [Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Serbia and Ukraine] and investigates association between demographic factors and well-being...
2017: Global Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229660/rationale-and-design-of-geneius-a-prospective-observational-study-on-the-genetic-and-environmental-determinants-of-body-mass-index-evolution-in-canadian-undergraduate-students
#17
Rita E Morassut, Christine Langlois, Akram Alyass, Adeola F Ishola, Fereshteh T Yazdi, Alexandra J Mayhew, Hudson Reddon, James MacKillop, Marie Pigeyre, David Meyre
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a global epidemic and is a risk factor for developing other comorbidities. Young adulthood is a critical period for body weight change and establishing healthy lifestyle behaviours. The 'Freshman 15' suggests that undergraduate students gain 15 lbs (6.8 kg) during their first year of university, although evidence estimates a more modest weight gain of approximately 3-5 lbs (1.4-2.3 kg). Previous studies have only investigated weight change in the first year and do not study potential risk factors...
December 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229199/microbiota-and-aging-a-review-and-commentary
#18
REVIEW
Carmen García-Peña, Teresa Álvarez-Cisneros, Ricardo Quiroz-Baez, Robert P Friedland
Although there is a consensus that the dominant species that make up the adult microbiota remains unchanged in elderly people, it has been reported that there are significant alterations in the proportion and composition of the different taxa, leading to reduced microbiota diversity, as well as an increase of enteropathogens that may lead to chronic inflammation. The ageing of mucosal immune and motor systems also contributes to these changes. As the individual ages, there is a loss in the number of Peyer's patches, an altered local capacity of T and B cell functions as well as chronic macrophage activation...
December 8, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229159/socioeconomic-factors-as-predictors-of-organ-donation
#19
Malay B Shah, Valery Vilchez, Adam Goble, Michael F Daily, Jonathan C Berger, Roberto Gedaly, Derek A DuBay
BACKGROUND: Despite numerous initiatives to increase solid organs for transplant, the gap between donors and recipients widens. There is little in the literature identifying socioeconomic predictors for donation. We evaluate the correlation between socioeconomic factors and familial authorization for donation. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of adult potential donor referrals between 2007 and 2012 to our organ procurement organization (OPO) was performed. Potential donor information was obtained from the OPO database, death certificates, and the US Census Report...
January 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228877/homogenization-techniques-for-population-dynamics-in-strongly-heterogeneous-landscapes
#20
Brian P Yurk, Christina A Cobbold
An important problem in spatial ecology is to understand how population-scale patterns emerge from individual-level birth, death, and movement processes. These processes, which depend on local landscape characteristics, vary spatially and may exhibit sharp transitions through behavioural responses to habitat edges, leading to discontinuous population densities. Such systems can be modelled using reaction-diffusion equations with interface conditions that capture local behaviour at patch boundaries. In this work we develop a novel homogenization technique to approximate the large-scale dynamics of the system...
December 2018: Journal of Biological Dynamics
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