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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107748/tracing-the-sources-and-cycling-of-phosphorus-in-river-sediments-using-oxygen-isotopes-methodological-adaptations-and-first-results-from-a-case-study-in-france
#1
Chiara Pistocchi, Federica Tamburini, Gerard Gruau, André Ferhi, Dominique Trevisan, Jean-Marcel Dorioz
An essential aspect of eutrophication studies is to trace the ultimate origin of phosphate ions (P-PO4) associated with the solid phase of river sediments, as certain processes can make these ions available for algae. However, this is not a straightforward task because of the diversity of allochthonous and autochthonous sources that can supply P-PO4 to river sediments as well as the existence of in-stream processes that can change the speciation of these inputs and obscure the original sources. Here, we present the results of a study designed to explore the potentials, limitations and conditions for the use of the oxygen isotope composition of phosphate (δ(18)Op) extracted from river sediments for this type of tracing...
December 26, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105880/nursing-home-care-quality-a-cluster-analysis
#2
Vigdis Abrahamsen Grøndahl, Liv Berit Fagerli
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore potential differences in how nursing home residents rate care quality and to explore cluster characteristics. Design/methodology/approach A cross-sectional design was used, with one questionnaire including questions from quality from patients' perspective and Big Five personality traits, together with questions related to socio-demographic aspects and health condition. Residents ( n=103) from four Norwegian nursing homes participated (74.1 per cent response rate)...
February 13, 2017: International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104385/an-evidence-based-approach-to-surgical-teaching-in-ophthalmology
#3
Alice C Lorch, Carolyn E Kloek
An apprenticeship model has traditionally been used in procedural and surgical teaching. As the pressures of work hours and patient outcome monitoring increase, surgical teachers need a more flexible plan for teaching procedural skills. We attempt to delineate a program of pre-, intra-, and post- procedural teaching that can be used in the field of ophthalmology to maximize a resident's skill acquisition in a constructive learning environment.We review the literature on surgical teaching from within ophthalmology as well as other surgical fields and combine this with teaching experience in an ophthalmic surgical training program to produce a collection of procedural teaching guidelines...
January 16, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103729/strategies-to-promote-resilience-empathy-and-well-being-in-the-health-professions-insights-from-the-2015-centile-conference
#4
Aviad Haramati, Sian Cotton, Jamie S Padmore, Hedy S Wald, Peggy A Weissinger
The high prevalence of physician burnout is of great concern and may begin with observed declines in empathy and increases in stress and burnout in medical and health professions students. While underlying causes have been described, there is less certainty on how to create effective interventions in curricula and workplace. In October 2015, The Center for Innovation and Leadership in Education (CENTILE) at Georgetown University, together with MedStar Health, Georgetown's clinical partner, and six academic institutions sponsored a conference in Washington, DC...
January 20, 2017: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103295/prevalence-and-trends-of-hiv-syphilis-and-hcv-in-migrant-and-resident-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-shandong-china-results-from-a-serial-cross-sectional-study
#5
Jun Hu, Xu Gu, Xiaorun Tao, Yaosheng Qian, Giridhara R Babu, Guoyong Wang, Meizhen Liao, Larry Han, Dianmin Kang, Weiming Tang
BACKGROUND: Migrant men who have sex with men (MSM) have a higher predisposition for HIV transmission. We aimed to determine and compare the prevalence and trends of HIV, Syphilis, and HCV between migrant and resident MSM in Shandong, China. METHODS: A serial cross-sectional study was conducted in eight cities in Shandong, China from 2010 to 2014. The surveys collected information on demographics, HIV-related knowledge, and HIV-related behaviors including the serologic status of HIV, syphilis, and HCV...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103063/delivering-on-the-promise-of-smoke-free-public-housing
#6
Douglas E Levy, Inez F Adams, Gary Adamkiewicz
On November 30, 2016, the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) published a final rule mandating that public housing authorities it supports prohibit all smoking on their residential premises, including within residents' apartments. The primary rationale for this action was to protect nonsmoking residents from the harms of tobacco smoke exposure. Although the harms of secondhand smoke are clear and the potential for reducing nonsmoking residents' exposure is real, it will be no simple matter to successfully implement the policy requirements set down by HUD...
January 19, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102960/nine-degrees-of-freedom-flexmap-for-a-cone-beam-computed-tomography-imaging-device-with-independently-movable-source-and-detector
#7
Peter Keuschnigg, Daniel Kellner, Karl Fritscher, Andrea Zechner, Ulrich Mayer, Philipp Huber, Felix Sedlmayer, Heinz Deutschmann, Philipp Steininger
PURPOSE: Couch-mounted cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging devices with independently rotatable x-ray source and flat-panel detector arms for acquisitions of arbitrary regions of interest (ROI) have recently been introduced in image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). This work analyzes mechanical limitations and gravity-induced effects influencing the geometric accuracy of images acquired with arbitrary angular constellations of source and detector in nonisocentric trajectories, which is considered essential for IGRT...
January 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101739/inhalation-dose-due-to-radon-thoron-and-progenies-in-dwellings-of-a-hill-station
#8
R Sivakumar
The general public spends a major portion of their time in an indoor environment and hence receives a considerable amount of radiation. Knowledge about indoor radiation is important in order to arrive at the actual effective dose received by residents. The indoor radon, thoron, and progeny concentrations observed in the present study were found to vary with seasons of a given year. The highest and lowest indoor average radon, thoron, and progeny levels were observed during winter and summer seasons, respectively...
February 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099326/implementation-of-a-needs-based-online-feedback-tool-for-anesthesia-residents-with-subsequent-mapping-of-the-feedback-to-the-acgme-milestones
#9
Pedro Tanaka, Sylvia Bereknyei Merrell, Kim Walker, Jennifer Zocca, Lena Scotto, Alyssa L Bogetz, Alex Macario
BACKGROUND: Optimizing feedback that residents receive from faculty is important for learning. The goals of this study were to (1) conduct focus groups of anesthesia residents to define what constitutes optimal feedback; (2) develop, test, and implement a web-based feedback tool; and (3) then map the contents of the written comments collected on the feedback tool to the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) anesthesiology milestones. METHODS: All 72 anesthesia residents in the program were invited to participate in 1 of 5 focus groups scheduled over a 2-month period...
February 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099046/death-notification-someone-needs-to-call-the-family
#10
Rachel Ombres, Lauren Montemorano, Daniel Becker
BACKGROUND: The death notification process can affect family grief and bereavement. It can also affect the well-being of involved physicians. There is no standardized process for making death notification phone calls. We assumed that residents are likely to be unprepared before and troubled after. OBJECTIVE: We investigated current death notification practices to develop an evidence-based template for standardizing this process. DESIGN: We used results of a literature review and open-ended interviews with faculty, residents, and widows to develop a survey regarding resident training and experience in death notification by phone...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096744/measuring-the-health-literacy-of-the-upper-midwest
#11
Caitlin J Bakker, Jonathan B Koffel, Nicole R Theis-Mahon
OBJECTIVES: Health literacy-the ability to obtain, process, and understand basic health information-is a major determinant of an individual's overall health and health care utilization. In this project, the authors examined predictors of health literacy levels, including numeracy and graphic literacy, among an adult population in the Upper Midwest. METHODS: The research was conducted at the Minnesota State Fair. Three previously validated scales were used to assess health literacy: Newest Vital Sign, the General Health Numeracy Test, and questions from Galesic and Garcia-Retamero's Graph Literacy Scale...
January 2017: Journal of the Medical Library Association: JMLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096661/patient-knowledge-on-reporting-adverse-drug-reactions-in-poland
#12
Anna Staniszewska, Marta Dąbrowska-Bender, Dominik Olejniczak, Aneta Duda-Zalewska, Magdalena Bujalska-Zadrożny
AIM: The aim of the study was to assess patient knowledge on reporting of adverse drug reactions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study was conducted among 200 patients. The study was based on an original survey composed of 15 single- and multiple-choice questions. The study involved individuals who have experienced adverse reactions as well as individuals who have never experienced any adverse reactions; people over the age of 18; literate; residing in Mazowieckie Voivodeship, who have not been diagnosed with any disease that could compromise their logical thinking skills...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096392/continual-renewal-and-replication-of-persistent-leishmania-major-parasites-in-concomitantly-immune-hosts
#13
Michael A Mandell, Stephen M Beverley
In most natural infections or after recovery, small numbers of Leishmania parasites remain indefinitely in the host. Persistent parasites play a vital role in protective immunity against disease pathology upon reinfection through the process of concomitant immunity, as well as in transmission and reactivation, yet are poorly understood. A key question is whether persistent parasites undergo replication, and we devised several approaches to probe the small numbers in persistent infections. We find two populations of persistent Leishmania major: one rapidly replicating, similar to parasites in acute infections, and another showing little evidence of replication...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095791/a-person-centred-and-thriving-promoting-intervention-in-nursing-homes-study-protocol-for-the-u-age-nursing-home-multi-centre-non-equivalent-controlled-group-before-after-trial
#14
David Edvardsson, Karin Sjögren, Qarin Lood, Ådel Bergland, Marit Kirkevold, Per-Olof Sandman
BACKGROUND: The literature suggests that person-centred care can contribute to quality of life and wellbeing of nursing home residents, relatives and staff. However, there is sparse research evidence on how person-centred care can be operationalised and implemented in practice, and the extent to which it may promote wellbeing and satisfaction. Therefore, the U-Age nursing home study was initiated to deepen the understanding of how to integrate person-centred care into daily practice and to explore the effects and meanings of this...
January 17, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095309/microglia-under-psychosocial-stressors-along-the-aging-trajectory-consequences-on-neuronal-circuits-behavior-and-brain-diseases
#15
Li Tian, Chin Wai Hui, Kanchan Bisht, Yunlong Tan, Kaushik Sharma, Song Chen, Xiangyang Zhang, Marie-Eve Tremblay
Mounting evidence indicates the importance of microglia for proper brain development and function, as well as in complex stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders and cognitive decline along the aging trajectory. Considering that microglia are resident immune cells of the brain, a homeostatic maintenance of their effector functions that impact neuronal circuitry, such as phagocytosis and secretion of inflammatory factors, is critical to prevent the onset and progression of these pathological conditions. However, the molecular mechanisms by which microglial functions can be properly regulated under healthy and pathological conditions are still largely unknown...
January 14, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094072/survey-on-graduate-education-in-the-confederaci%C3%A3-n-americana-de-urolog%C3%A3-a-opinions-and-reality
#16
J C Angulo, H Dávila, R Vela
OBJECTIVE: Quality graduate medical training is a concern of Confederación Americana de Urología (CAU), the third largest urological society worldwide. It is important to analyse the diversity in the state training programmes and the feasibility and implications of conducting a common CAU programme. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A 20-item questionnaire was distributed to the directors of national societies who are members of the CAU concerning the graduate urological training in their institutions...
January 13, 2017: Actas Urologicas Españolas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093882/the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-farmed-mink-neovison-vison-maintains-a-diverse-mucosa-associated-microbiota-following-a-3-day-fasting-period
#17
Martin I Bahl, Anne S Hammer, Tove Clausen, Anabelle Jakobsen, Søren Skov, Lars Andresen
Although it is well documented that the gut microbiota plays an important role in health and disease in mammalian species, this area has been poorly studied among carnivorous animals, especially within the mustelidae family. The gastrointestinal tract of carnivores is characterized by its short length and fast transit time, as compared to omnivores and herbivores, which is due to the low level of inherent fermentation. Mink represents an example of this, which have a GI tract only four times the length of the body and a transit time of approximately 4-5 hr...
January 16, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093833/cracking-the-code-residents-interpretations-of-written-assessment-comments
#18
Shiphra Ginsburg, Cees Pm van der Vleuten, Kevin W Eva, Lorelei Lingard
CONTEXT: Interest is growing in the use of qualitative data for assessment. Written comments on residents' in-training evaluation reports (ITERs) can be reliably rank-ordered by faculty attendings, who are adept at interpreting these narratives. However, if residents do not interpret assessment comments in the same way, a valuable educational opportunity may be lost. OBJECTIVES: Our purpose was to explore residents' interpretations of written assessment comments using mixed methods...
January 16, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092752/optimising-uk-urban-road-verge-contributions-to-biodiversity-and-ecosystem-services-with-cost-effective-management
#19
REVIEW
Odhran S O'Sullivan, Alison R Holt, Philip H Warren, Karl L Evans
Urban road verges can contain significant biodiversity, contribute to structural connectivity between other urban greenspaces, and due to their proximity to road traffic are well placed to provide ecosystem services. Using the UK as a case study we review and critically evaluate a broad range of evidence to assess how this considerable potential can be enhanced despite financial, contractual and public opinion constraints. Reduced mowing frequency and other alterations would enhance biodiversity, aesthetics and pollination services, whilst delivering costs savings and potentially being publically acceptable...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091336/who-are-the-patients-that-default-tuberculosis-treatment-space-matters
#20
C Nunes, R Duarte, A M Veiga, B Taylor
The goals of this article are: (i) to understand how individual characteristics affect the likelihood of patients defaulting their pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) treatment regimens; (ii) to quantify the predictive capacity of these risk factors; and (iii) to quantify and map spatial variation in the risk of defaulting. We used logistic regression models and generalized additive models with a spatial component to determine the odds of default across continental Portugal. We focused on new PTB cases, diagnosed between 2000 and 2013, and included some individual information (sex, age, residence area, alcohol abuse, intravenous drug use, homelessness, HIV, imprisonment status)...
January 16, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
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