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Thavasyappan Thambi, V H Giang Phan, Doo Sung Lee
Stimuli-sensitive injectable polymeric hydrogels are one of the promising delivery vehicles for the controlled release of bioactive agents. In aqueous solutions, these polymers are able to switch sol-to-gel transitions in response to various stimuli including pH, temperature, light, enzyme and magnetic field. Therapeutic agents, including chemotherapeutic agents, protein drugs or cells, are easily mixed with the low-viscous polymer solution at room temperature. Therapeutic-agents-containing solutions are readily injected into target sites through syringe or catheter, which could form hydrogel depot and serve as bioactive molecules release carriers...
October 18, 2016: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Samine Sahbai, Florin-Andrei Taran, Francesco Fiz, Annette Staebler, Sven Becker, Erich Solomayer, Diethelm Wallwiener, Christian la Fougère, Sara Brucker, Helmut Dittmann
PURPOSE: Scintigraphic mapping of sentinel lymph node (SLN) is increasingly performed in patients with endometrial carcinoma although its routine clinical use is still under investigation. The purpose of this study was to compare preoperative SLN detection by means of SPECT/CT using pericervical (PC) versus hysteroscopic peritumoral (PT) injection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred forty consecutive patients with endometrial carcinoma who underwent surgery and preoperative SLN SPECT/CT with Tc-nanocolloid were included...
October 5, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Kara M Whitaker, Andrew O Odegaard, David R Jacobs, Stephen Sidney, Mark A Pereira
PURPOSE: We examined whether sedentary lifestyle habits and physical activity level are associated with abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT), and liver attenuation, independently of each other and potential confounders. METHODS: Analysis of 3,010 African American and Caucasian men and women, aged 42-59 years, from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study who completed multiple-slice abdominal computed tomography (CT) in 2010-2011...
October 3, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Martina Hahn, Sibylle C Roll
A 50-year-old male patient with comorbid human immunodeficiency virus developed a relapse of bipolar disorder after a switch from oral aripiprazole 10 mg/day to intramuscular aripiprazole depot 200 mg every 28 days plus oral aripiprazole 5 mg/day. The patient was concomitantly taking lopinavir, saquinavir, ritonavir, silybum marianum extract, and omeprazole. Only 1 week after the switch, the patient developed mood swings, irritability, depressive mood, and lack of drive. The oral aripiprazole was increased again to stabilize the patient...
December 2016: Drug Saf Case Rep
Guillermo C Rivera-Gonzalez, Brett A Shook, Johanna Andrae, Brandon Holtrup, Katherine Bollag, Christer Betsholtz, Matthew S Rodeheffer, Valerie Horsley
Tissue growth and maintenance requires stem cell populations that self-renew, proliferate, and differentiate. Maintenance of white adipose tissue (WAT) requires the proliferation and differentiation of adipocyte stem cells (ASCs) to form postmitotic, lipid-filled mature adipocytes. Here we use the dynamic adipogenic program that occurs during hair growth to uncover an unrecognized regulator of ASC self-renewal and proliferation, PDGFA, which activates AKT signaling to drive and maintain the adipogenic program in the skin...
October 1, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
Jong-Wook Seo, Dong-Yun Lee, Byung-Koo Yoon, DooSeok Choi
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Young age is a possible risk factor of endometriosis recurrence after surgery. However, the efficacy of postoperative medical treatment has not been well addressed in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether postoperative medical treatment is as effective in adolescents as it is in adults in the prevention of endometrioma recurrence. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study SETTING: Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. PARTICIPANTS: This study included 176 reproductive-aged women who underwent conservative laparoscopic surgery for pathology-confirmed endometrioma...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
Chelsea Hepler, Rana K Gupta
The rising incidence of obesity and associated metabolic diseases has increased the urgency in understanding all aspects of adipose tissue biology. This includes the function of adipocytes, how adipose tissue expands in obesity, and how expanded adipose tissues in adults can impact physiology. Here, we highlight the growing appreciation for the importance of de novo adipocyte differentiation to adipose tissue expansion in adult humans and animals. We detail recent efforts to identify adipose precursor populations that contribute to the physiological postnatal recruitment of white, brown, and beige adipocytes in mice, and summarize new data that reveal the complexity of adipose tissue development in vivo...
October 12, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
David M Taylor, Anna Sparshatt, Maria O'Hagan, Olubanke Dzahini
Our aim was to determine factors relating to continuation with treatment with paliperidone palmitate long-acting injection (PP) in a 2 year, non-interventional, observational study of the use of PP in consecutive patients treated in a secondary care environment. We followed-up 300 consecutive patients; 24 (8%) were lost to follow-up (7 deceased and 17 left the care of the trust). Overall, 107 patients of the remaining 276 who were not lost to follow-up (38.7%) completed 2 years' continuous treatment. A further 21 (7...
October 12, 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Yong Chen, Ruping Pan, Alexander Pfeifer
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules consisting of approximately 20 to 22 nucleotides. They play a very important role in the regulation of gene expression. miRNAs can be found in different species and a variety of organs and tissues including adipose tissue. There are two types of adipose tissue in mammals: White adipose tissue (WAT) is the largest energy storage, whereas brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy to maintain body temperature. BAT was first identified in hibernating animals and newborns as a defense against cold...
October 11, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Dulcia W N Tan, Soo Ghim Lim, Tina T Wong, Subbu S Venkatraman
Currently, infections following cataract surgery are not as effectively managed with antibiotic eye drops, which suffer from poor bioavailability of drug and low patient compliance. The ideal solution, which can help to overcome the issue of drug wastage and poor bioavailabilty, as well as the need for frequent applications (patient inconvenience), is a drug-eluting intraocular lens (IOL). We describe a novel approach to such a drug-eluting lens by using a peripheral IOL attachment as a drug depot to deliver antibiotics, Levofloxacin (LFX) or Moxifloxacin (MFX)...
2016: PloS One
Justin Darcy, Samuel McFadden, Yimin Fang, Joshua A Huber, Chi Zhang, Liou Y Sun, Andrzej Bartke
Ames dwarf mice (Prop1(df/df)) are long-lived due to a loss of function mutation resulting in deficiency of growth hormone (GH), thyroid-stimulating hormone and prolactin. Along with a marked extension of longevity, Ames dwarf mice have improved energy metabolism as measured by an increase in their oxygen consumption (VO2) and heat production, as well as a decrease in their respiratory quotient (RQ). Along with alterations in energy metabolism, Ames dwarf mice have a lower core body temperature (Tco). Moreover, Ames dwarf mice have functionally altered epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) that improves, rather than impairs, their insulin sensitivity due to a shift from pro- to anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion...
October 14, 2016: Endocrinology
Bernardo Sousa-Pinto, Laura Gonçalves, Adriana R Rodrigues, Inês Tomada, Henrique Almeida, Delminda Neves, Alexandra M Gouveia
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity, influencing the release of inflammation mediators and promoting remodeling and collagen deposition in the adipose tissue (AT). In this context, this work aims to elucidate whether TGF-β and Smad-dependent or Smad-independent signaling pathways contribute to regional differentiation of AT in high-fat diet (HFD) and energy-restricted (ER) rat models. For this, TGF-β, TGF-β receptors I and II, PAI-1 and GLUT4 mRNA levels were quantified by real-time PCR, and western blotting assays allowed the semiquantification of TGF-β and proteins from Smad3, ERK1/2 and Akt signaling pathways in subcutaneous and visceral (epididymal, retroperitoneal and mesenteric) fat depots from control, HFD and ER-treated rats...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Mar Ruperto, Guillermina Barril, Francisco J Sánchez-Muniz
Abdominal fat has been recognized as the most hormonally active tissue secreting a variety of adipocytokines and, therefore, potentially contributing to inflammation. The conicity index (Cindex) has been considered a valuable indicator of central obesity. This study aims to relate plasma concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) with Cindex values in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Cross-sectional study in 45 HD patients (55.6 % men; DM 20 %; mean age, 68...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Garrett L Metcalf, Scott R McClure, Jesse M Hostetter, Rudy F Martinez, Chong Wang
Use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) found in the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of equine adipose tissue has promising applications for regenerative therapies. The most commonly used source of equine adipose tissue is the subcutaneous tailhead. The objective of this study was to compare 3 adipose depot sites in horses and determine the viability and cellular yield, capillary density, gene expression for selected markers, and colony-forming unit fibroblasts (CFU-Fs) in adipose tissue taken from these sites...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
A Goto, Y Moriya, T Mandai, T Wakabayashi, T Tsukamoto, Y Tagawa, T Kondo, S Asahi
The non-clinical pharmacokinetics (PK) of TAK-357, a highly lipophilic (clogP>6) potential agent for the amelioration of Alzheimer's disease, was investigated in rats and dogs. A long half-life (t1/2) in plasma was observed in animals and a low total body clearance with high distribution volume was consistent with the long t1/2. The absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) studies using radiolabeled TAK-357 revealed that the total radioactivity was highly distributed to the adipose tissues and sustained with high concentration for over 4 weeks after oral administration...
October 11, 2016: Drug Research
Kazuaki Kajimoto, Erina Suemitsu, Yusuke Sato, Yu Sakurai, Hideyoshi Harashima
Lipin1, a bifunctional protein, regulates fatty acid utilization in the triglyceride biosynthesis pathway. In the current study, using a liver-specific in vivo short interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery system, we examined the pathological and physiological roles of hepatic Lipin1 in the development of insulin resistance and the maintenance of systemic energy homeostasis. Liver-specific silencing of Lipin1 expression was achieved by the systemic administration of siRNA against Lpin1 mRNA (siLpin1)-loaded lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) to wild type mice at 3-4 d intervals for 25 d...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Patricia Pérez-Matute, José G Pichel, María Iñiguez, Emma Recio-Fernández, Laura Pérez-Martínez, Raquel Torrens, José Ramón Blanco, José Antonio Oteo
BACKGROUND: Any strategy designed to decrease the macrophage content in adipose tissue (AT) is of great value as a way to decrease inflammation in this fat depot and also as a way to prevent or treat obesity and associated disorders. Maraviroc (MVC), a CCR5 antagonist approved for the treatment of HIV-infected patients, has beneficial effects on metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of MVC on AT macrophage recruitment in a mouse model of obesity. The plausible underlying mechanisms of action were also investigated...
October 11, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
Jianfeng Zhang, Ben Muirhead, Megan Dodd, Lina Liu, Fei Xu, Nicole Mangiacotte, Todd Hoare, Heather Sheardown
Hydrogels have been widely explored for biomedical applications, with injectable hydrogels being of particular interest for their ability to precisely deliver drugs and cells to targets. Although these hydrogels have demonstrated satisfactory properties in many cases, challenges still remain for commercialization. In this paper, we describe a simple injectable hydrogel based on poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and a vitamin E (Ve) methacrylate copolymer prepared via simple free radical polymerization and delivered in a solution of low molecular weight PEG and Ve as the solvent instead of water...
October 10, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Vijay Sundaram, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Stephen Gent
Lignocellulosic feedstocks corn stover, prairie cord grass, and switchgrass were subjected to ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX™) pretreatment and densified using extrusion pelleting and ComPAKco densification technique. The effects of AFEX™ pretreatment and densification were studied on the fast pyrolysis product yields. Feedstocks were milled in a hammer mill using three different screen sizes (2, 4, and 8 mm) and were subjected to AFEX™ pretreatment. The untreated and AFEX™-pretreated feedstocks were moisture adjusted at three levels (5, 10, and 15 % wb) and were extruded using a lab-scale single screw extruder...
October 8, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
John Kasinathan, Gillian Sharp, Anthony Barker
OBJECTIVES: Olanzapine is a well established treatment for schizophrenia. The olanzapine pamoate depot (long-acting injectable) formulation improves compliance and clinical trials have shown it to be effective. However, there are no previously published reports evaluating olanzapine depot in violent patients with schizophrenia in the community. We evaluated the clinical efficacy of olanzapine depot, its effect on violence, hospitalization and incarceration in community patients with schizophrenia and prior history of serious violence...
October 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
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