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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634585/high-plasma-glucagon-levels-correlate-with-waist-to-hip-ratio-suprailiac-skinfold-thickness-and-deep-subcutaneous-abdominal-and-intraperitoneal-adipose-tissue-depots-in-nonobese-asian-indian-males-with-type-2-diabetes-in-north-india
#1
Shajith Anoop, Anoop Misra, Surya Prakash Bhatt, Seema Gulati, Harsh Mahajan, Gokulraj Prabakaran
We aimed to correlate plasma glucagon levels with anthropometric measures and abdominal adipose tissue depots. Nonobese males (n = 81; BMI < 25 kg/m(2)) with T2DM of less than one-year duration and nonobese males without diabetes (n = 30) were evaluated for the following: anthropometry (BMI, waist circumference, W-HR, and truncal skinfolds), whole-body DEXA (for body fat and fat-free mass), and MRI scan (for volumes of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAT) including superficial and deep, intra-abdominal visceral adipose tissue (including intraperitoneal adipose tissue (IPAT), retroperitoneal adipose tissue, liver span and fatty liver, and pancreatic volume))...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633046/macrophages-with-cellular-backpacks-for-targeted-drug-delivery-to-the-brain
#2
Natalia L Klyachko, Roberta Polak, Matthew J Haney, Yuling Zhao, Reginaldo J Gomes Neto, Michael C Hill, Alexander V Kabanov, Robert E Cohen, Michael F Rubner, Elena V Batrakova
Most potent therapeutics are unable to cross the blood-brain barrier following systemic administration, which necessitates the development of unconventional, clinically applicable drug delivery systems. With the given challenges, biologically active vehicles are crucial to accomplishing this task. We now report a new method for drug delivery that utilizes living cells as vehicles for drug carriage across the blood brain barrier. Cellular backpacks, 7-10 μm diameter polymer patches of a few hundred nanometers in thickness, are a potentially interesting approach, because they can act as drug depots that travel with the cell-carrier, without being phagocytized...
June 17, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630692/liver-fat-a-relevant-target-for-dietary-intervention-summary-of-a-unilever-workshop
#3
REVIEW
Harry P F Peters, Patrick Schrauwen, Petra Verhoef, Christopher D Byrne, David J Mela, Andreas F H Pfeiffer, Ulf Risérus, Frits R Rosendaal, Vera Schrauwen-Hinderling
Currently it is estimated that about 1 billion people globally have non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a condition in which liver fat exceeds 5 % of liver weight in the absence of significant alcohol intake. Due to the central role of the liver in metabolism, the prevalence of NAFLD is increasing in parallel with the prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance and other risk factors of metabolic diseases. However, the contribution of liver fat to the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and CVD, relative to other ectopic fat depots and to other risk markers, is unclear...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629984/the-contribution-of-the-in-vivo-fate-of-an-oil-depot-to-drug-absorption
#4
R W Kalicharan, C Oussoren, P Schot, E de Rijk, H Vromans
Sustained release of lipophilic compounds can be achieved with oil depots. These parenteral formulations are generally injected in the vastus lateralis and deltoid muscle. It is known that the absorption rate differs between these two muscles. The reason for this is not fully understood. The aim of the current study was to investigate the fate of an oil depot in different tissues to elucidate whether the disappearance rate of oil is the cause of observed differences in absorption rate. A study with healthy volunteers was conducted to determine 1...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629804/zero-order-controlled-release-delivery-of-cholecalciferol-from-injectable-biodegradable-microsphere-in-vitro-characterization-and-in-vivo-pharmacokinetic-studies
#5
Lalit Vora, Sita V G, Pradeep Vavia
Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres loaded with cholecalciferol (CL), more bioactive form of vitamin D was developed as an injectable controlled drug release system and was evaluated for its feasibility of once a month delivery. The CL loaded microspheres (CL-MS) were prepared by simple oil in water (O/W) emulsion-solvent evaporation technique incorporated with a stabilizer, Tocopherol Succinate (TS). Different formulation as well as process parameters were investigated namely concentration of emulsifier, concentration of stabilizer and drug: polymer mass ratios...
June 16, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629569/in-depth-analysis-of-interreader-agreement-and-accuracy-in-categorical-assessment-of-brown-adipose-tissue-in-18-fdg-pet-ct
#6
Anton S Becker, Caroline Zellweger, Khoschy Schawkat, Sanja Bogdanovic, Valerie Doan Phi van, Hannes W Nagel, Christian Wolfrum, Irene A Burger
PURPOSE: To evaluate the interreader agreement of a three-tier craniocaudal grading system for brown fat activation and investigate the accuracy of the distinction between the three grades. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After IRB approval, 340 cases were retrospectively selected from patients undergoing (18)FDG-PET/CT between 2007 and 2015 at our institution, with 85 cases in each grade and 85 controls with no active brown fat. Three readers evaluated all cases independently...
June 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627435/establishing-the-lipid-droplet-proteome-mechanisms-of-lipid-droplet-protein-targeting-and-degradation
#7
REVIEW
Kirill Bersuker, James A Olzmann
Lipid droplets (LDs) are ubiquitous, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived organelles that mediate the sequestration of neutral lipids (e.g. triacylglycerol and sterol esters), providing a dynamic cellular storage depot for rapid lipid mobilization in response to increased cellular demands. LDs have a unique ultrastructure, consisting of a core of neutral lipids encircled by a phospholipid monolayer that is decorated with integral and peripheral proteins. The LD proteome contains numerous lipid metabolic enzymes, regulatory scaffold proteins, proteins involved in LD clustering and fusion, and other proteins of unknown function...
June 13, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625910/a-high-fat-diet-enhances-the-sensitivity-of-chick-adipose-tissue-to-the-effects-of-centrally-injected-neuropeptide-y-on-gene-expression-of-adipogenesis-associated-factors
#8
Guoqing Wang, Carli A Williams, Betty R McConn, Mark A Cline, Elizabeth R Gilbert
The purpose of this study was to determine how dietary macronutrient composition and exogenous neuropeptide Y (NPY) affect mRNA abundance of factors associated with lipid metabolism in chick adipose tissue. Chicks were fed one of three isocaloric (3000kcal metabolizable energy (ME)/kg) diets after hatch: high carbohydrate (HC; control), high fat (HF; 30% of ME from soybean oil) or high protein (HP; 25% crude protein). On day 4 post-hatch, vehicle or 0.2nmol of NPY was injected intracerebroventricularly and abdominal and subcutaneous fat depots collected 1h later...
June 15, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624865/bone-marrow-fat-contributes-to-insulin-sensitivity-and-adiponectin-secretion-in-premenopausal-women
#9
Federica Ermetici, Silvia Briganti, Alessandra Delnevo, Paola Cannaò, Giovanni Di Leo, Stefano Benedini, Ileana Terruzzi, Francesco Sardanelli, Livio Luzi
PURPOSE: Bone marrow fat is a functionally distinct adipose tissue that may contribute to systemic metabolism. This study aimed at evaluating a possible association between bone marrow fat and insulin sensitivity indices. METHODS: Fifty obese (n = 23) and non-obese (n = 27) premenopausal women underwent proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure vertebral bone marrow fat content and unsaturation index at L4 level. Abdominal visceral, subcutaneous fat, and epicardial fat were also measured using magnetic resonance imaging...
June 17, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624262/dibenzazepine-loaded-nanoparticles-induce-local-browning-of-white-adipose-tissue-to-counteract-obesity
#10
Chunhui Jiang, Mario Alberto Cano-Vega, Feng Yue, Liangju Kuang, Naagarajan Narayanan, Gozde Uzunalli, Madeline P Merkel, Shihuan Kuang, Meng Deng
Inhibition of Notch signaling via systemic drug administration triggers conversion of white adipocytes into beige adipocytes (browning) and reduces adiposity. However, translation of this discovery into clinical practice is challenged by potential off-target side effects and lack of control over the location and temporal extent of beige adipocyte biogenesis. Here, we demonstrate an alternative approach to stimulate browning using nanoparticles (NPs) composed of FDA-approved poly(lactide-co-glycolide) that enable sustained local release of a Notch inhibitor (dibenzazepine, DBZ)...
June 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615704/the-early-metabolomic-response-of-adipose-tissue-during-acute-cold-exposure-in-mice
#11
Xiyuan Lu, Ashley Solmonson, Alessia Lodi, Sara M Nowinski, Enrique Sentandreu, Christopher L Riley, Edward M Mills, Stefano Tiziani
To maintain core body temperature in cold conditions, mammals activate a complex multi-organ metabolic response for heat production. White adipose tissue (WAT) primarily functions as an energy reservoir, while brown adipose tissue (BAT) is activated during cold exposure to generate heat from nutrients. Both BAT and WAT undergo specific metabolic changes during acute cold exposure. Here, we use an untargeted metabolomics approach to characterize the initial metabolic response to cold exposure in multiple adipose tissue depots in mice...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611394/identification-of-the-ectoenzyme-cd38-as-a-marker-of-committed-preadipocytes
#12
A Carrière, Y Jeanson, J-A Côté, C Dromard, A Galinier, S Menzel, C Barreau, S Dupuis-Coronas, E Arnaud, A Girousse, V Cuminetti, J Paupert, B Cousin, C Sengenes, F Koch-Nolte, A Tchernof, L Casteilla
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Characterization of the adipocyte cellular lineage is required for a better understanding of white adipose tissue homeostasis and expansion. While several studies have focused on the phenotype of the most immature adipocyte progenitors, very few tools exist to identify committed cells. In haematopoiesis, the CD38 ectoenzyme is largely used to delineate various stages of stem cell lineage commitment. We hypothesize that this marker could be used to identify committed preadipocytes...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611004/an-in-situ-forming-phospholipid-based-phase-transition-gel-prolongs-the-duration-of-local-anesthesia-for-ropivacaine-with-minimal-toxicity
#13
Hanmei Li, Tao Liu, Yuxuan Zhu, Qiang Fu, Wanxia Wu, Jie Deng, Li Lan, Sanjun Shi
An injectable, phospholipid-based phase transition gel (PPTG) has been developed for prolonging the release of ropivacaine (RO) for local anesthesia. PPTG was prepared by mixing phospholipids, medium-chain triglyceride and ethanol. Prior to injection, the PPTG is in a sol state with low viscosity. After subcutaneous injection, the PPTG rapidly forms a gel in situ, which acts as a drug release depot as verified by in vitro release profiles and in vivo pharmacokinetics. Administering RO-PPTG to rats led to a significantly smaller initial burst release than administering RO solution or RO base suspension...
June 10, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608140/on-the-road-to-development-of-an-in-vitro-permeation-test-ivpt-model-to-compare-heat-effects-on-transdermal-delivery-systems-exploratory-studies-with-nicotine-and-fentanyl
#14
Soo Hyeon Shin, Priyanka Ghosh, Bryan Newman, Dana C Hammell, Sam G Raney, Hazem E Hassan, Audra L Stinchcomb
PURPOSE: At elevated temperatures, the rate of drug release and skin permeation from transdermal delivery systems (TDS) may be higher than at a normal skin temperature. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of heat on the transdermal delivery of two model drugs, nicotine and fentanyl, from matrix-type TDSs with different formulations, using in vitro permeation tests (IVPT). METHODS: IVPT experiments using pig skin were performed on two nicotine and three fentanyl TDSs...
June 12, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605708/the-sulfur-depot-in-the-rhizosphere-of-a-common-wetland-plant-juncus-effusus-can-support-long-term-dynamics-of-inorganic-sulfur-transformations
#15
Arndt Wiessner, Peter Kuschk, Phuong Minh Nguyen, Jochen A Müller
The sulfur cycle in the rhizosphere of constructed wetlands is frequently interlaced with transformations of carbon and nitrogen. Knowledge about the manifold sulfur transformations may thus aid in improving treatment performance of constructed wetlands. In this study, two laboratory-scale constructed wetland models (planted fixed bed reactors; PFR1 and PFR2) were used to investigate inorganic sulfur transformations at various total loads of sulfate and organic carbon. Sulfate, sulfide and elemental sulfur were the most abundant sulfur compounds detected, thus providing evidence for the simultaneous occurrence of dissimilatory sulfate reduction and sulfide oxidation...
June 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605180/a-hydrogel-microsphere-drug-delivery-system-that-supports-once-monthly-administration-of-a-glp-1-receptor-agonist
#16
Eric L Schneider, Brian R Hearn, Samuel J Pfaff, Ralph Reid, David G Parkes, Niels Vrang, Gary W Ashley, Daniel V Santi
We have developed a chemically-controlled very long-acting delivery system to support once-monthly administration of a peptidic GLP-1R agonist. Initially, the prototypical GLP-1R agonist exenatide was covalently attached to hydrogel microspheres by a self-cleaving β-eliminative linker; after subcutaneous injection in rats the peptide was slowly released into the systemic circulation. However, the short serum exenatide half-life suggested its degradation in the subcutaneous depot. We found that exenatide undergoes deamidation at Asn(28)with an in vitro and in vivo half-life of approximately two weeks...
June 12, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604328/the-status-of-vaccine-availability-and-associated-factors-in-tshwane-government-clinics
#17
Ntombenhle Judith Ngcobo, Mercy G Kamupira
BACKGROUND: Vaccines have greatly contributed to the control of vaccine-preventable diseases and to human development. Efforts by many countries to introduce new vaccines are a significant move towards achieving the sustainable development goal for health. However, effective vaccine supply chains that ensure an uninterrupted supply of vaccines are pivotal to attaining universal access to life-saving vaccines and sustainable development. The introduction of new vaccines puts a strain on supply chains; South Africa (SA) is no exception, as there are indications of vaccine stock-outs in clinics...
May 24, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599837/measurement-of-testosterone-and-cortisol-metabolites-and-luteinising-hormone-in-captive-southern-hairy-nosed-wombat-lasiorhinus-latifrons-urine
#18
Z Du, T Keeley, T Janssen, V Nicolson, S D Johnston
This study reports the validation and use of enzyme immunoassays (EIA) to measure changes in plasma and urinary luteinizing hormone, testosterone metabolites (UTM) and cortisol metabolites (UCM) in captive southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons). GnRH agonist and ACTH agonist challenges were conducted to validate urinary testosterone (male wombat only) and cortisol (male and female wombats) EIAs. Following intra-muscular injection of 8-12μg buserelin (n=4 males), there was a significant increase in both plasma (P<0...
June 17, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596551/automated-segmentation-of-human-cervical-supraclavicular-adipose-tissue-in-magnetic-resonance-images
#19
Elin Lundström, Robin Strand, Anders Forslund, Peter Bergsten, Daniel Weghuber, Håkan Ahlström, Joel Kullberg
Human brown adipose tissue (BAT), with a major site in the cervical-supraclavicular depot, is a promising anti-obesity target. This work presents an automated method for segmenting cervical-supraclavicular adipose tissue for enabling time-efficient and objective measurements in large cohort research studies of BAT. Fat fraction (FF) and R2(*) maps were reconstructed from water-fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 25 subjects. A multi-atlas approach, based on atlases from nine subjects, was chosen as automated segmentation strategy...
June 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595579/omental-adipose-tissue-is-a-more-suitable-source-of-canine-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#20
Francisca Bahamondes, Estefania Flores, Gino Cattaneo, Flavia Bruna, Paulette Conget
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are a promising therapeutic tool in veterinary medicine. Currently the subcutaneous adipose tissue is the leading source of MSCs in dogs. MSCs derived from distinct fat depots have shown dissimilarities in their accessibility and therapeutic potential. The aims of our work were to determine the suitability of omental adipose tissue as a source of MSCs, according to sampling success, cell yield and paracrine properties of isolated cells, and compared to subcutaneous adipose tissue...
June 8, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
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