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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913230/effects-of-combined-oral-contraceptives-depot-medroxyprogesterone-acetate-and-the-levonorgestrel-releasing-intrauterine-system-on-the-vaginal-microbiome
#1
J Paul Brooks, David J Edwards, Diana L Blithe, Jennifer M Fettweis, Myrna G Serrano, Nihar U Sheth, Jerome F Strauss, Gregory A Buck, Kimberly K Jefferson
OBJECTIVES: Prior studies suggest that the composition of the vaginal microbiome may positively or negatively affect susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections (STI) and bacterial vaginosis (BV). Some female hormonal contraceptive methods also appear to positively or negatively influence STI transmission and BV. Therefore changes in the vaginal microbiome that are associated with different contraceptive methods may explain, in part, effects on STI transmission and BV. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a retrospective study of 16S rRNA gene survey data of vaginal samples from a subset of participants from the Human Vaginal Microbiome Project at Virginia Commonwealth University...
November 29, 2016: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909980/omalizumab-in-severe-refractory-vernal-keratoconjunctivitis-in-children-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
Serge Doan, Flore Amat, Eric Gabison, Sarah Saf, Isabelle Cochereau, Jocelyne Just
INTRODUCTION: Vernal keratoconjunctivis (VKC) is a severe form of pediatric ocular allergy, characterized by acute and chronic corneoconjunctival inflammation that may lead to visual sequelae. Although topical immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclosporine are usually effective, some severe forms may be refractory and require prolonged steroid therapy. Very few papers report the use of omalizumab in VKC in the literature. In the present study, we describe our clinical experience with omalizumab in severe VKC children...
December 1, 2016: Ophthalmology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905610/dendritic-polyglycerol-and-n-isopropylacrylamide-based-thermoresponsive-nanogels-as-smart-carriers-for-controlled-delivery-of-drugs-through-the-hair-follicle
#3
Fitsum Feleke Sahle, Michael Giulbudagian, Julian Bergueiro, Jürgen Lademann, Marcelo Calderón
Nanoparticles with a size of several hundred nanometers can effectively penetrate into the hair follicles and may serve as depots for controlled drug delivery. However, they can neither overcome the hair follicle barrier to reach the viable cells nor release the loaded drug adequately. On the other hand, small drug molecules cannot penetrate deep into the hair follicles. Thus, the most efficient way for drug delivery through the follicular route is to employ nanoparticles that can release the drug close to the target structure upon exposure to some external or internal stimuli...
December 1, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905068/inhibition-of-mevalonate-pathway-and-synthesis-of-the-storage-lipids-in-human-liver-derived-and-non-liver-cell-lines-by-lippia-alba-essential-oils
#4
Sandra Montero-Villegas, Mónica Polo, Marianela Galle, Boris Rodenak-Kladniew, María Castro, Ana Ves-Losada, Rosana Crespo, Margarita García de Bravo
The essential oils (EOs) of Lippia alba, an herb extensively used as a folk medicine in Latin America, are today promoted as an effective means of eliminating problems caused by hyperlipemia. We hypothesized that L.alba EOs inhibited cholesterol and triacylglycerols synthesis and decreased the intracellular depots of those lipids (lipid droplets), mechanisms involving the induction of a hypolipidemic response. Our aim was, therefore, to evaluate the hypolipogenic capability of the EOs of four L. alba chemotypes on liver-derived (HepG2) and non-liver (A549) human cell lines and to identify the potential biochemical targets of those chemotypes, particularly within the mevalonate pathway (MP)...
November 30, 2016: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901520/depot-antipsychotics-where-do-we-stand
#5
Ahsan Y Khan, Salman Salaria, Muhammad Ovais, George D Ide
BACKGROUND: Nonadherence to medication is a major problem for patients with schizophrenia. To counter this problem, pharmaceutical companies began developing depot antipsychotics. Although there are currently 5 first-generation and 6 second-generation depot antipsychotics available worldwide, many physicians are still reluctant to use this category of drug initially. This review provides the latest information about the use of depot antipsychotics in schizophrenia treatment as well as several studies in support of depot antipsychotic use as first-line treatment for patients with schizophrenia...
November 2016: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900853/an-injectable-click-cross-linked-small-intestinal-submucosa-drug-depot-for-the-treatment-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#6
Kyungsook Kim, Ji Hoon Park, Seung Hun Park, Hye Yun Lee, Jae Ho Kim, Moon Suk Kim
Here, a click-cross-linked small intestine submucosa (SIS) drug depot is described for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To the best of the knowledge, there have been no studies related to the intra-articular injection of methotrexate (Met)-loaded click-cross-linkable SIS (Met-loaded Cx-SIS) for RA treatment. As the key objective of this work, injectable formulations of tetrazine-modified SIS (TE-SIS) and transcyclooctene-modified SIS (TC-SIS) are employed as drug depots. Within a few seconds, the simple mixing of equal amounts of TE-SIS and TC-SIS suspensions forms a gelatinous click-cross-linked SIS (Cx-SIS) drug depot in vitro and in vivo...
November 30, 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900258/adipocyte-specific-hypoxia-inducible-gene-2-promotes-fat-deposition-and-diet-induced-insulin-resistance
#7
Marina T DiStefano, Rachel J Roth Flach, Ozlem Senol-Cosar, Laura V Danai, Joseph V Virbasius, Sarah M Nicoloro, Juerg Straubhaar, Sezin Dagdeviren, Martin Wabitsch, Olga T Gupta, Jason K Kim, Michael P Czech
OBJECTIVE: Adipose tissue relies on lipid droplet (LD) proteins in its role as a lipid-storing endocrine organ that controls whole body metabolism. Hypoxia-inducible Gene 2 (Hig2) is a recently identified LD-associated protein in hepatocytes that promotes hepatic lipid storage, but its role in the adipocyte had not been investigated. Here we tested the hypothesis that Hig2 localization to LDs in adipocytes promotes adipose tissue lipid deposition and systemic glucose homeostasis. METHOD: White and brown adipocyte-deficient (Hig2(fl/fl) × Adiponection cre+) and selective brown/beige adipocyte-deficient (Hig2(fl/fl) × Ucp1 cre+) mice were generated to investigate the role of Hig2 in adipose depots...
December 2016: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891164/a-low-carbohydrate-high-fat-diet-decreases-lean-mass-and-impairs-cardiac-function-in-pair-fed-female-c57bl-6j-mice
#8
Jessica Nilsson, Madelene Ericsson, Masoumeh Motamedi Joibari, Fredrick Anderson, Leif Carlsson, Stefan K Nilsson, Anna Sjödin, Jonas Burén
BACKGROUND: Excess body fat is a major health issue and a risk factor for the development of numerous chronic diseases. Low-carbohydrate diets like the Atkins Diet are popular for rapid weight loss, but the long-term consequences remain the subject of debate. The Scandinavian low-carbohydrate high-fat (LCHF) diet, which has been popular in Scandinavian countries for about a decade, has very low carbohydrate content (~5 E %) but is rich in fat and includes a high proportion of saturated fatty acids...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888253/thermo-sensitive-hydrogel-plga-peg-plga-as-a-vaccine-delivery-system-for-intramuscular-immunization
#9
Xiaoyan Wang, Yu Zhang, Wei Xue, Hong Wang, Xiaozhong Qiu, Zonghua Liu
In this work, we explored the potential of thermo-sensitive PLGA-PEG-PLGA with sol-gel transition temperature around 32℃ as an intramuscular vaccine delivery system by using ovalbumin as a model antigen. First, in vitro release test showed that the PLGA-PEG-PLGA-deriving hydrogels could release ovalbumin in vitro in a more sustainable way. From fluorescence living imaging, 50-200 mg/mL of PLGA-PEG-PLGA formulations could release antigen in a sustainable manner in vivo, suggesting that the PLGA-PEG-PLGA hydrogel worked as an antigen-depot...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886018/radiofrequency-activated-pmma-augmentation-through-cannulated-pedicle-screws-a-cadaver-study-to-determine-the-biomechanical-benefits-in-the-osteoporotic-spine
#10
T Karius, C Deborre, D C Wirtz, C Burger, A Prescher, A Fölsch, K Kabir, R Pflugmacher, H Goost
INTRODUCTION: PMMA-augmentation of pedicle screws strengthens the bone-screw-interface reducing cut-out risk. Injection of fluid cement bears a higher risk of extravasation, with difficulty of application because of inconsistent viscosity and limited injection time. OBJECTIVE: To test a new method of cement augmentation of pedicle screws using radiofrequency-activated PMMA, which is suspected to be easier to apply and have less extravasations. METHODS: Twenty-seven fresh-frozen human cadaver lumbar spines were divided into 18 osteoporotic (BMD ≤ 0...
November 18, 2016: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882331/ectopic-fat-deposition-on-insulin-sensitivity-correlation-of-hepatocellular-lipid-content-and-m-value
#11
Beverly S Hong, Ying Li, Shuiqing Lai, Juan Liu, Hongyu Guan, Weijian Ke, Xiaoying He, Yanbing Li
Purpose. This study aimed to explore the relationship among insulin sensitivity and ectopic fat depots in participants with different glucose status. Methods. Fifty-nine men and women were enrolled in this study: 29 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 17 with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and 13 with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). All participants underwent a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp to assess the insulin sensitivity index (M value) and magnetic resonance imaging to measure the hepatocellular lipid content (HCL), skeletal muscle fat content including intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) and extramyocellular lipid (EMCL) of tibialis anterior (ta), and soleus muscle (sol)...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879426/the-successful-concurrent-use-of-two-long-acting-depot-antipsychotics-in-a-patient-with-treatment-resistant-schizophrenia-and-history-of-serious-violence-a-case-report
#12
Anna Lenardon, Mona Ahmed, Katie-Lynn Harfield, Mrigendra Das
OBJECTIVE: This case report describes a forensic psychiatric patient presenting with treatment-resistant schizophrenia and serious interpersonal violence complicated by poor adherence to oral medication who was treated successfully with two concurrent long-acting depot antipsychotics. METHOD: Treatment response was measured for a 6-month period at 6-weekly intervals, post-initiation using the Positive and Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia with Excited Component score (PANSS-EC), Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI)...
November 22, 2016: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879248/high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-regulates-mmp3-to-modulate-depot-and-sex-dependent-adipose-expansion-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#13
Yuanyuan Wu, Mi-Jeong Lee, Yasuo Ido, Susan K Fried
Increased adipocyte size is hypothesized to signal the recruitment of adipose progenitor cells (APCs) to expand tissue storage capacity. To investigate depot- and sex-differences in adipose growth, male and female C57BL/6J mice (10-weeks-old) were challenged with high fat (HF) or low fat (LF) diets (D) for 14 weeks. The HFD increased gonadal (GON) depot weight by adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia in females, but hypertrophy alone in males. In both sexes, inguinal (ING) adipocytes were smaller than GON and depot expansion was due to hypertrophy...
November 22, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875933/comparison-between-protein-repulsions-by-diblock-pla-peo-and-albumin-nanocoatings-using-owls
#14
Laurent Leclercq, Michel Vert
A previous investigation suggested that a surface bearing a rinsing-resistant depot (nanocoating) of albumin is more protein-repulsive than the same surface physically pegylated by a poly(D,L-lactic acid)-poly(ethylene oxide) diblock copolymer. To complement the study, Optical Waveguide Lightmode Spectroscopy was used to compare the mass and the thickness of protein depots from different systems, namely albumin alone at different concentrations, a mixture of albumin + fibrinogen + γ-globulin at their physiological concentrations, and sheep serum...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874260/phototriggered-secretion-of-membrane-compartmentalized-bioactive-agents
#15
Robert M Hughes, Christina M Marvin, Zachary L Rodgers, Song Ding, Nathan P Oien, Weston J Smith, David S Lawrence
A strategy for the light-activated release of bioactive compounds (BODIPY, colchicine, paclitaxel, and methotrexate) from membrane-enclosed depots is described. We have found that membrane-permeable bioagents can be rendered membrane impermeable by covalent attachment to cobalamin (Cbl) through a photocleavable linker. These Cbl-bioagent conjugates are imprisoned within lipid-enclosed compartments in the dark, as exemplified by their retention in the interior of erythrocytes. Subsequent illumination drives the secretion of the bioactive species from red blood cells...
November 22, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865296/cardiovascular-disease-risk-associated-with-the-long-term-use-of-depot-medroxyprogesterone-acetate
#16
Huma Dilshad, Rabia Ismail Yousuf, Mohammad Harris Shoaib, Subia Jamil, Humera Khatoon
BACKGROUND: Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) contraception is widely used all over the world; however, it may lead to a decrease in high-density lipoproteins and an increase in low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and triglycerides. These changes in lipid profile have a direct effect on cardiovascular disease risk. This study has been conducted to investigate the relationship between DMPA use and lipid profile, and the effect of worsening of lipid profile on fasting blood glucose. The objective of the present study is to ascertain the effects of DMPA on lipid profiles and Castelli indices, and to estimate the risk of cardiovascular disease in the women using progesterone-only methods for contraception...
November 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862950/region-specific-effects-of-oestradiol-on-adipose-derived-stem-cell-differentiation-in-post-menopausal-women
#17
Kimberly A Cox-York, Christopher B Erickson, Rocio I Pereira, Daniel H Bessesen, Rachael E Van Pelt
The goal of this study was to determine the effect of acute transdermal 17β-oestradiol (E2 ) on the adipogenic potential of subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) in post-menopausal women. Post-menopausal women (n = 11; mean age 57 ± 4.5 years) were treated for 2 weeks, in a randomized, cross-over design, with transdermal E2 (0.15 mg) or placebo patches. Biopsies of abdominal (AB) and femoral (FEM) subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were obtained after each treatment and mature adipocytes were analysed for cell size and ASC for their capacity for proliferation (growth rate), differentiation (triglyceride accumulation) and susceptibility to tumour necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862896/homozygous-lipe-mutation-in-siblings-with-multiple-symmetric-lipomatosis-partial-lipodystrophy-and-myopathy
#18
Sagit Zolotov, Chao Xing, Riad Mahamid, Adel Shalata, Mohammed Sheikh-Ahmad, Abhimanyu Garg
Despite considerable progress in identifying causal genes for lipodystrophy syndromes, the molecular basis of some peculiar adipose tissue disorders remains obscure. In an Israeli-Arab pedigree with a novel autosomal recessive, multiple symmetric lipomatosis (MSL), partial lipodystrophy and myopathy, we conducted exome sequencing of two affected siblings to identify the disease-causing mutation. The 41-year-old female proband and her 36-year-old brother reported marked accumulation of subcutaneous fat in the face, neck, axillae, and trunk but loss of subcutaneous fat from the lower extremities and progressive distal symmetric myopathy during adulthood...
November 11, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859461/gene-expression-profiles-of-human-subcutaneous-and-visceral-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#19
Boyun Kim, Boram Lee, Mi-Kyung Kim, Seung Pyo Gong, Noh Hyun Park, Hyun Hoon Chung, Hee Seung Kim, Jae Hong No, Woong Yang Park, Ae Kyung Park, Jeong Mook Lim, Yong Sang Song
Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues show a different risk effect on metabolic disorders because they have distinct cellular properties. We isolated stem cells from the separate human adipose tissues to investigate that subcutaneous and visceral fat depots have metabolic differences. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) were characterized by immunophenotype and differentiation potentials into adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic lineages. Although subcutaneous and visceral ASCs (S-ASC and V-ASC) express same surface markers (CD31(-) , CD34(-) , CD45(-) , CD73(+) , CD90(+) , and CD105(+) ) and have differentiation potentials, S-ASCs had higher capacity to proliferate and to differentiate into adipogenic lineage than V-ASCs...
November 17, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858139/lactobacillus-plantarum-hac01-regulates-gut-microbiota-and-adipose-tissue-accumulation-in-a-diet-induced-obesity-murine-model
#20
Soyoung Park, Yosep Ji, Hoe-Yune Jung, Hyunjoon Park, Jihee Kang, Sang-Haeng Choi, Heuynkil Shin, Chang-Kee Hyun, Kyong-Tai Kim, Wilhelm H Holzapfel
The functional features of Lactobacillus plantarum HAC01 (HAC01), isolated from fermented Korean kimchi, were studied with regard to the fat mass, immunometabolic biomarkers and dysbiosis in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) murine model. L. rhamnosus GG (LGG) served as reference strain and a PBS-treated group as control. The administration of L. plantarum HAC01 resulted in reduction of the mesenteric adipose depot, the conjunctive tissue closely associated with the gastrointestinal tract, where lipid oxidative gene expression was upregulated compared to the control group...
November 17, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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