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Joanna Bukowska, Trivia Frazier, Stanley Smith, Theodore Brown, Robert Bender, Michelle McCarthy, Xiying Wu, Bruce A Bunnell, Jeffrey M Gimble
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review explores how the relationships between bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) adipogenesis with advancing age, obesity, and/or bone diseases (osteopenia or osteoporosis) contribute to mechanisms underlying musculoskeletal pathophysiology. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have re-defined adipose tissue as a dynamic, vital organ with functions extending beyond its historic identity restricted solely to that of an energy reservoir or sink. "State of the art" methodologies provide novel insights into the developmental origin, physiology, and function of different adipose tissue depots...
April 18, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Janice Siu Chong Wong, Wai Kit Chu, Benjamin Fuk-Loi Li, Chi-Pui Pang, Kelvin Kam-Lung Chong
BACKGROUND: Thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) causes inflammatory fibroproliferation of periocular connective tissues. We compared adipose tissue-derived stem/stromal cells (ADSCs) from three adipose depots of each patient with TAO on mesenchymal, myofibrogenic, adipogenic properties and associated hyaluronan (HA) synthesis. METHODS: ADSCs were generated from periocular (eyelid, orbital) and subcutaneous (abdominal) adipose tissues of three patients with TAO...
April 17, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Muhammad Haroon, Muddassar Ahmad, Muhammad Nouman Baig, Olivia Mason, John Rice, Oliver FitzGerald
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of corticosteroids in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and inflammatory back pain has not been studied to date. In this controlled trial, we aimed to investigate the comparative performance of corticosteroids in patients with active axial-PsA (AxPsA) versus those with active ankylosing spondylitis (AS). METHODS: Patients with AxPsA and AS (naïve to biologic therapies), who not only had clinically active disease, but also had bone marrow oedema on magnetic resonance imaging of the sacroiliac joints, were recruited...
April 17, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Vaneska Melhado-Kimura, Gisele Almeida Batista, Aglécio Luiz de Souza, Priscilla de Nazaré Silva Dos Santos, Sarah Monte Alegre, Elizabeth João Pavin, Luis Bahamondes, Arlete Fernandes
OBJECTIVE: The literature lacks data on the use of the gold-standard hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (HEC) technique for the evaluation of insulin resistance (IR) in depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) users. This study assessed carbohydrate metabolism in non-obese users of DMPA using the HEC technique. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective, non-randomized, comparative study conducted at the Family Planning Clinic/Metabolic Unit, University of Campinas, Brazil. Forty-eight women aged 18-39 years underwent HEC: 30 initiating use of DMPA and 18 initiating use of a copper intrauterine device (IUD)...
April 14, 2018: Contraception
Yu-Jung Lin, Chun-Chieh Chen, Nai-Wen Chi, Trang Nguyen, Hung-Yun Lu, Dang Nguyen, Po-Liang Lai, Hsing-Wen Sung
Treatment with exogenous nitric oxide (NO) donors is regarded as being effective against osteoporosis. However, NO has a short half-life, limiting its clinical usefulness. To overcome this limitation, an injectable microparticle (MP) system is developed that consists of phase-change materials capric acid (CA) and octadecane, and encapsulates a NO donor. The therapeutic efficacy of the MPs is evaluated in ovariectomized (OVX) rats with osteoporosis. Upon subcutaneous administration, the MPs undergo a phase transition, leaching out the NO donor and generating NO bubbles that are instantly covered by a layer of tightly packed CA surfactant molecules, forming micellar depots...
April 17, 2018: Advanced Materials
James L Ross, Peter F Andersen
The Kalman filter is an efficient data assimilation tool to refine an estimate of a state variable using measured data and the variable's correlations in space and/or time. The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) (Evensen, 2004, 2009) is a Kalman filter variant that employs Monte Carlo analysis to define the correlations that help to refine the updated state. While use of EnKF in hydrology is somewhat limited, it has been successfully applied in other fields of engineering (e.g. oil reservoir modeling, weather forecasting)...
April 17, 2018: Ground Water
Dong-Seok Lee, Sook-Jin Kim, Go-Wun Choi, Yong-Bok Lee, Hea-Young Cho
This study developed the pharmacokinetic (PK)-pharmacodynamic (PD) model of the testosterone-suppressive effect of leuprolide for evaluation of the sustained release (SR) depot and leuprolide solution in rats with or without prostate cancer. Six groups of rats were divided by the routes of administration (intravenous and subcutaneous injection) and kinds of formulation (vehicle, leuprolide solution, and SR depot). The PK profile after subcutaneous injection of leuprolide solution could be well-described by the one-compartment model...
April 15, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
E A Belousova, M L Filipenko, N E Kushlinskii
Circular RNA are a family of covalently closed circular RNA molecules, formed from pre-mRNA of coding genes by means of splicing (canonical and alternative noncanonical splicing). Maturation of circular RNA is regulated by cis- and trans-elements. Complete list of biological functions of these RNA is not yet compiled; however, their capacity to interact with specific microRNA and play a role of a depot attracts the greatest interest. This property makes circular RNA active regulatory transcription factors. Circular RNA have many advantages over their linear analogs: synthesis of these molecules is conservative, they are universal, characterized by clearly determined specificity, and are resistant to exonucleases...
April 16, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
C Frieke Kuper, Jolanda van Bilsen, Marcel V W Wijnands
The thoracic cavities receive increasing attention in toxicology, because inhaled fibers and (nano)particles can reach these cavities and challenge the local lymphoid tissues. The thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities are controlled by the serosal immune system with its special, loosely organized lymphoid clusters, namely the fat-associated lymphoid clusters (FALCs) and milky spots, which together can be denoted as serosa-associated lymphoid clusters (SALCs). These clusters house numerous innate lymphoid cells, namely the B1 and ILC2 populations...
April 10, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Hiep Khong, Annika Volmari, Meenu Sharma, Zhimin Dai, Chinonye S Imo, Yared Hailemichael, Manisha Singh, Derek T Moore, Zhilan Xiao, Xue-Fei Huang, Thomas D Horvath, David H Hawke, Willem W Overwijk
Despite remarkable progresses in vaccinology, therapeutic cancer vaccines have not achieved their full potential. We previously showed that an excessively long duration of Ag presentation critically reduced the quantity and quality of vaccination-induced T cell responses and subsequent antitumor efficacy. In this study, using a murine model and tumor cell lines, we studied l-tyrosine amino acid-based microparticles as a peptide vaccine adjuvant with a short-term Ag depot function for the induction of tumor-specific T cells...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Harilal Patel, Prakash Patel, Nirav Modi, Pinakin Patel, Yogesh Wagh, Alex George, Nirmal Desai, Nuggehally R Srinivas
1. Development of prodrug of paliperidone (9-hydroxyrisperidone) long-acting intramuscular injection has enabled delivery over 4-week time period with improved compliance. 2. Key aim of work was to establish a reliable preclinical model which may potentially serve as a screening tool for judging the pharmacokinetics of paliperidone formulation(s) prior to human clinical work. 3. Sparse sampling composite study was used in rats, (Wistar/Sprague-Dawley (n = 10)). A serial blood sampling study design was used in rabbits (n = 4)...
April 12, 2018: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
E Depreester, J De Koster, M Van Poucke, M Hostens, W Van den Broeck, L Peelman, G A Contreras, G Opsomer
The aim of this study was to determine the number of adipose tissue macrophages (ATM) and the mRNA expression of adipokines [adiponectin (ADIPOQ), leptin (LEP), interleukin 6 (IL6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and interleukin 10 (IL10)] in different adipose depots from cows with a variable body condition score (BCS) at the end of the dry period. We hypothesized that the number of ATM and the expression of these adipokines depend on adipocyte size and the anatomical location of the adipose depot. Subcutaneous, omental, mesenteric, perirenal, and intrapelvic adipose tissue samples were taken immediately after euthanasia of 10 Holstein Friesian dairy cows (upcoming parity 2 to 5, age 3...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Natália da Silva Lima, Cíntia Rabelo E Paiva Caria, Alessandra Gambero, Marcelo Lima Ribeiro
PURPOSE: Maternal obesity can program the offspring, increasing the risk of overweight and obesity in adult life. Guarana (Paullinia cupana) is a Brazilian plant that has weight-reducing effects. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of Guarana on metabolic and inflammatory parameters in mice programmed by maternal obesity. METHODS: Swiss female mice were divided into two groups: control and high fat (HF), who received a standard diet or a high-fat diet (HFD), respectively, for 8 weeks prior to mating, gestation, and lactation...
April 6, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Chunming Ding, Yen Ching Lim, Sook Yoong Chia, Arcinas Camille Esther Walet, Shaohai Xu, Kinyui Alice Lo, Yanling Zhao, Dewen Zhu, Zhihui Shan, Qingfeng Chen, Melvin Khee-Shing Leow, Dan Xu, Lei Sun
Obesity has emerged as an alarming health crisis due to its association with metabolic risk factors such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Recent work has demonstrated the multifaceted roles of lncRNAs in regulating mouse adipose development, but their implication in human adipocytes remains largely unknown. Here we present a catalog of 3149 adipose active lncRNAs, of which 909 are specifically detected in brown adipose tissue (BAT) by performing deep RNA-seq on adult subcutaneous, omental white adipose tissue and fetal BATs...
April 6, 2018: Nature Communications
Rosa Dolz-Marco, Jay P Glover, Orly Gal-Or, Katie M Litts, Jeffrey D Messinger, Yuhua Zhang, Mariano Cozzi, Marco Pellegrini, K Bailey Freund, Giovanni Staurenghi, Christine A Curcio
PURPOSE: To survey Friedman lipid globules by high-resolution histologic examination and to compare with multimodal imaging of hyporeflective caverns in eyes with geographic atrophy (GA) secondary to age-related macular (AMD) and other retinal diseases. DESIGN: Histologic survey of donor eyes with and without AMD. Clinical case series with multimodal imaging analysis. PARTICIPANTS: Donor eyes (n = 139; 26 with early AMD, 13 with GA, 40 with nAMD, 52 with a healthy macula, and 8 with other or unknown characteristics) and 41 eyes of 28 participants with GA (n = 16), nAMD (n = 8), Stargardt disease (n = 4), cone dystrophy (n = 2), pachychoroid spectrum (n = 6), choroidal hemangioma (n = 1), and healthy eyes (n = 4)...
April 3, 2018: Ophthalmology
Gisela Paula González, Nebel Silvana Moscoso, Fernando Pablo Lago
Schizophrenia is considered a serious mental disorder that affects over 21 million people worldwide, and is associated with disability that frequently affects the patient's educational and working performance. In Argentina, two of the most widely used antipsychotics in the treatment of this disorder are haloperidol and risperidone. Both are provided free to patients without health coverage in public healthcare facilities. In this paper we seek to review the clinical and economic benefits of prescribing psychotropic therapies based on haloperidol (a first-generation antipsychotic that is part of the butyrophenone group of drugs) versus risperidone [an atypical or second-generation antipsychotic (neuroleptic) drug] in adult patients who have been diagnosed with schizophrenia...
October 23, 2017: PharmacoEconomics Open
Mathew Y Kyei, George O Klufio, Ali Ayamba, Sherif Mohammed
Objective: This study was aimed at identifying Ghanaian traditional medicines used for the management of prostate diseases and their constituents. Reviews of studies conducted on them are also presented. Methodology: This was a prospective study. Traditional Medicine samples from consecutive patients with either lower urinary symptoms (LUTS) presenting at the Urology Unit of the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH) in Accra from January 2015 to June 2016 and had a prior treatment with traditional medicines, had the samples retrieved...
September 2017: Ghana Medical Journal
Gaston A Rodriguez-Granillo, Exequiel Reynoso, Carlos Capunay, Jimena Carpio, Patricia Carrascosa
BACKGROUND: To explore the relationship between coronary and extra-coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden with total and regional fat depots among patients undergoing ECG-gated aortic computed tomography angiography (CTA). METHODS: The subjects of this study comprised a cohort of consecutive patients who underwent ECG-gated thoracoabdominal CTA. We assessed the number of coronary segments with plaques (segment-involvement score, SIS); and the extra-coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden, comprising the aorta and supra-aortic trunks, iliofemoral arteries, and visceral arteries (extra-coronary SS)...
June 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Mariaclaudia Meli, Manuela Caruso-Nicoletti, Milena La Spina, Luca Lo Nigro, Piera Samperi, Salvatore D'Amico, Francesco Bellia, Vito Miraglia, Maria Licciardello, Emanuela Cannata, Silvia Marino, Carla Cimino, Federica Puglisi, Laura Lo Valvo, Agnese Pezzulla, Giovanna Russo, Andrea Di Cataldo
BACKGROUND: Triptorelin, a gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue, can be administered to postpubertal female individuals with cancer who receive chemotherapy to obtain menstrual suppression and decrease the risk of hemorrhage caused by thrombocytopenia. Our goal was to assess whether triptorelin also has a protective role against the gonadotoxicity of chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective observational study includes all postmenarchal female patients who presented to our Unit from 2000 to 2015 and received chemotherapy for cancer...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Rafael M Costa, Karla B Neves, Rita C Tostes, Núbia S Lobato
Obesity is associated with increased risk of premature death, morbidity, and mortality from several cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including stroke, coronary heart disease (CHD), myocardial infarction, and congestive heart failure. However, this is not a straightforward relationship. Although several studies have substantiated that obesity confers an independent and additive risk of all-cause and cardiovascular death, there is significant variability in these associations, with some lean individuals developing diseases and others remaining healthy despite severe obesity, the so-called metabolically healthy obese...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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