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James Reneau, Matthew Goldblatt, Jon Gould, Tammy Kindel, Andrew Kastenmeier, Rana Higgins, L Rosemary Rengel, Katherine Schoyer, Roland James, Brittaney Obi, Andrea Moosreiner, Kay Nicholson, Daisy Sahoo, Srividya Kidambi
Circulating adiponectin levels are lower in individuals with increased BMI and central adiposity. However, they are paradoxically higher in those with peripheral adiposity. We hypothesized that adiponectin secretion from central and peripheral adipose tissue depots may be associated with adiposity levels and its distribution. A total of 55 subjects (69% women) undergoing elective abdominal surgery (mean age: 53 ± 13 years) were recruited. Health history, anthropometrics, and cardiovascular disease risk factor measurements were obtained...
2018: PloS One
Wei-Lin Wan, Yu-Jung Lin, Po-Chien Shih, Yu-Ru Bow, Qinghua Cui, Yen Chang, Wei-Tso Chia, Hsing-Wen Sung
Inflammation is involved in many human pathologies, including osteoarthritis (OA). Hydrogen (H2) is known to have anti-inflammatory effects; however, the bioavailability of directly administered H2 gas is typically poor. Herein, a local delivery system that can provide a high therapeutic concentration of gaseous H2 at inflamed tissues is proposed. The delivery system comprises poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles that contain magnesium powder (Mg@PLGA MPs). Mg@PLGA MPs that are intra-muscularly injected close to the OA knee in a mouse model can act as an in situ depot that can evolve gaseous H2 continuously, mediated by the cycle of passivation/activation of Mg in body fluids, at a concentration that exceeds its therapeutic threshold...
June 20, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Francesc Villarroya, Rubén Cereijo, Aleix Gavaldà-Navarro, Joan Villarroya, Marta Giralt
Many of the comorbidities of obesity, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases are related to the low-grade chronic inflammation of white adipose tissue. Under white adipocyte stress, local infiltration of immune cells and enhanced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines together reduce metabolic flexibility and lead to insulin resistance in obesity. Whereas white adipocytes act in energy storage, brown and beige adipocytes specialize in energy expenditure. Brown and beige activity protects against obesity and associated metabolic disorders, such as hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
Negar Seyed, Nathan C Peters, Sima Rafati
Leishmaniasis is a health-threatening vector-borne disease in almost 90 different countries. While a prophylactic human vaccine is not yet available, the fact that recovery from leishmaniasis establishes lifelong immunity against secondary infection suggests that a vaccine is attainable. In the past, deliberate infection with virulent parasites, termed Leishmanization, was used as a live-vaccine against cutaneous leishmaniasis and effectively protected against vector-transmitted disease in endemic areas. However, the practice was discontinued due to major complications including non-healing skin lesions, exacerbation of skin diseases, and the potential impact of immunosuppression...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Kristian Svendsen, Petter Borchgrevink, Olav Magnus Fredheim, Svetlana Skurtveit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Moritz Vollrath, Julia Engert, Gerhard Winter
The aim of this work is a better understanding of solid lipid extrusion (SLE) for protein depot production using a lab-scale twin-screw (tsc) extruder. In this context, little is known about the relationship of process parameters such as extrusion temperature, screw speed, or formulation on implant characteristics. It is difficult to attribute release characteristics to only one parameter, since the release will always be influenced by a combination of parameters. In this study, we describe the use of an online pressure measurement tool which allows to characterize pressure profiles during an extrusion run...
June 15, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Hsuan-Ju Chen, Tsubasa Ihara, Hidetugu Yoshioka, Erina Itoyama, Shoko Kitamura, Hiroshi Nagase, Hiroaki Murakami, Yoichiro Hoshino, Masaru Murakami, Shozo Tomonaga, Tohru Matsui, Masayuki Funaba
Brown/beige adipocytes dissipate energy as heat. We previously showed that brown/beige adipocytes are present in white adipose tissue (WAT) of fattening cattle. The present study examined the effect of vitamin A restriction on mRNA expression of brown/beige adipocyte-related genes. In Japan, fattening cattle are conventionally fed a vitamin A-restricted diet to improve beef marbling. Twelve Japanese Black steers aged 10 months were fed control feed (n=6) or vitamin A-restricted feed (n=6) for 20 months. Subcutaneous WAT (scWAT) and mesenteric WAT (mesWAT) were collected, and mRNA expression levels of molecules related to function of brown/beige adipocytes (Ucp1, Cidea, Dio2, Cox7a and Cox8b) as well as transcriptional regulators related to brown/beige adipogenesis (Zfp516, Nfia, Prdm16, and Pgc-1α) were evaluated...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Jon Merlin, Masaaki Sato, Ling Yeong Chia, Richard Fahey, Mohsen Pakzad, Cameron J Nowell, Roger J Summers, Tore Bengtsson, Bronwyn A Evans, Dana S Hutchinson
The recruitment of brite (or beige) adipocytes has been advocated as a means to combat obesity, due to their ability to phenotypically resemble brown adipocytes (BA). Lineage studies indicate that brite adipocytes are formed by differentiation of precursor cells or by direct conversion of existing white adipocytes, depending on the adipose depot examined. We have systematically compared the gene expression profile and a functional output (oxygen consumption) in mouse adipocytes cultured from two contrasting depots, namely interscapular brown adipose tissue, and inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT), following treatment with a known browning agent, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ) activator rosiglitazone...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Ursula A White, Mark D Fitch, Robbie A Beyl, Marc K Hellerstein, Eric Ravussin
The storage of lipids as triglycerides (TG) and the de novo synthesis (lipogenesis) of fatty acids from non-lipid precursors (DNL) are important functions of adipose tissue (AT) that influence whole body metabolism. Yet, few studies have reported in vivo estimates of adipose lipid kinetics in humans. Fifty-two women with obesity (27 African-Americans; 25 Caucasians; 29.7 ± 5.5 years; BMI 32.2 ± 2.8 kg/m2 ; 44.3 ± 4.0% body fat) were enrolled in the study. In vivo synthesis (or replacement) of triglycerides (fTG ) and the synthesis of the fatty acid palmitate (measure of adipose de novo lipogenesis (fDNL )) were assessed using an 8-week incorporation of deuterium (2 H) into lipids (glycerol and palmitate moieties of TGs) in subcutaneous abdominal (scABD) and femoral (scFEM) AT...
June 17, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
María Paula Gastiazoro, Marlise Guerrero Schimpf, Milena Durando, Gisela Paola Lazzarino, María Florencia Andreoli, Oliver Zierau, Enrique Hugo Luque, Jorge Guillermo Ramos, Jorgelina Varayoud
Our aim was to evaluate whether chronic administration of CAF affects the uterus and induces the morphological and molecular changes associated with endometrial hyperplasia. Female Wistar rats exposed to CAF from weaning for 20 weeks displayed increased energy intake, body weight and fat depots, but did not develop metabolic syndrome. The adult uteri showed an increase in glandular volume fraction and stromal area. The epithelial proliferation rate and protein expression of oestrogen receptor alpha (ERα) were also increased...
June 14, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Jan Nedergaard, Yanling Wang, Barbara Cannon
In mice living under normal animal house conditions, the brown adipocytes in classical brown adipose tissue depots are already essentially fully differentiated: UCP1 mRNA and UCP1 protein levels are practically saturated. This means that any further recruitment - in response to cold exposure or any other browning agent - does not result in significant augmentation of these parameters. This may easily be construed to indicate that classical brown adipose tissue cannot be further recruited. However, this is far from the case: the capacity for further recruitment instead lies in the ability of the tissue to increase the number of brown-fat cells, a remarkable and highly controlled physiological recruitment process...
June 13, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Stefano Pucci, Fedra Ciccarelli, Tiziana De Pasquale, Ilenia Illuminati, Simona D'Alò
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 13, 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Maheswary Muniandy, Vidya Velagapudi, Antti Hakkarainen, Jesper Lundbom, Nina Lundbom, Aila Rissanen, Jaakko Kaprio, Kirsi H Pietiläinen, Miina Ollikainen
BACKGROUND: Obesity is related to a myriad of cardiometabolic outcomes, each of which may have a specific metabolomic signature and a genetic basis. We identified plasma metabolites associating with different cardiometabolic risk factors (adiposity, cholesterol, insulin resistance, and inflammation) in monozygotic (MZ) twins. Additionally, we assessed if metabolite profiling can identify subgroups differing by cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS: We quantified 111 plasma metabolites (Acquity UPLC-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry), and measured blood lipids, HOMA index, CRP, and adiposity (BMI, %bodyfat by DEXA, fat distribution by MRI) in 40 MZ twin pairs (mean BMI 27...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Shiki Takamura
Tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM cells) are a population of immune cells that reside in the lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs without recirculation through the blood. These important cells occupy and utilize unique anatomical and physiological niches that are distinct from those for other memory T cell populations, such as central memory T cells in the secondary lymphoid organs and effector memory T cells that circulate through the tissues. CD8+ TRM cells typically localize in the epithelial layers of barrier tissues where they are optimally positioned to act as sentinels to trigger antigen-specific protection against reinfection...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Riethorst Danny, Brouwers Joachim, Motmans Jens, Augustijns Patrick
Intestinal permeability assessment is an important aspect of drug development, which strongly depends on the solvent system used in the intestinal donor compartment. For this purpose, human intestinal fluids (HIF) can be considered as the golden standard. A recent study demonstrated a reduced apparent permeation across rat intestinal tissue from fed versus fasted state HIF for 9 out of 16 compounds tested. Commercially available fed and fasted state simulated fluids (FeSSIF and FaSSIF) reproduced this food effect for only 3 out of 16 compounds...
June 11, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Zhe Wu, Jiang Tan, Yujing Chi, Feng Zhang, Jun Xu, Yang Song, Xu Cong, Na Wu, Yulan Liu
Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is related to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the role of mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT), part of the VAT, in NAFLD is unclear. In the present study, we monitored the liver and four depots of the VAT in high fat diet (HFD) feeding mice at multiple time points (4, 8, and 12 weeks). The MAT had become inflamed by the 8th week of HFD feeding, earlier than other depots of VAT. Furthermore, MAT removal after 8 weeks of HFD resulted in more severe steatosis and more foci of inflammation infiltration, as well as higher NAFLD activity scores...
June 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Isabel Viola Wagner, Lena Sahlin, Iuliia Savchuk, Nora Klöting, Konstantin Svechnikov, Olle Söder
OBJECTIVE: Obesity in females is often associated with metabolic complications and hyperandrogenism, but the sources of androgens are not completely understood. Therefore, this study investigated whether adipose tissue could be a source of androgens promoting hyperandrogenism development in obese female rats. METHODS: Gene expression of steroidogenic enzymes and testosterone levels were determined in periovarian and inguinal adipose tissue and in the supernatant of cultured preadipocytes and adipocytes...
June 14, 2018: Obesity
Geneviève Marcelin, Karine Clément
Obesity can be defined as the adaptive response of organism facing chronic nutrient overflow. In this context, the adipose tissue (AT) can expand, through increased adipocyte size and number, to function as the main energy-storing organ. However, over the course of obesity progression, the AT undergo continual remodeling, evolving into pathological alterations. It is now clear that pro-inflammatory cell accumulation favors local AT injury. More recently, we and others described excess levels of extracellular matrix (ECM) and fibrosis in AT depots from obese individuals...
May 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Christopher L Schlett, Roberto Lorbeer, Carolyn Arndt, Sigrid Auweter, Jürgen Machann, Holger Hetterich, Birgit Linkohr, Wolfgang Rathmann, Annette Peters, Fabian Bamberg
OBJECTIVES: Local, abdominal fat depots may be related to alterations in cardiac function and morphology due to a metabolic linkage. Thus, we aimed to determine their association with subtle cardiac changes and the potential interaction with hyperglycemic metabolic states. METHODS: Subjects from the general population and without history of cardiovascular disease were drawn from the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg FF4 cohort and underwent 3 T cardiac and body MRI...
June 12, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Kathleen M Gavin, Timothy M Sullivan, Wendy M Kohrt, Susan M Majka, Dwight J Klemm
Sex differences in body fat distribution and menopause-associated shifts in regional adiposity suggest that sex hormones play an important role in regulating the differentiation and distribution of adipocytes, but the underlying mechanisms have not been fully explained. The aim of this study was to determine whether ovarian hormone status influences the production and distribution of adipocytes in adipose tissue arising from bone marrow-derived cells. Nine- to ten-week-old ovariectomized (OVX), surgery naïve (WT), and estrogen receptor alpha knockout (αERKO) mice underwent bone marrow transplantation from luciferase or green fluorescent protein expressing donors...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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