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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736454/early-late-or-never-when-does-parental-education-impact-child-outcomes
#1
Matt Dickson, Paul Gregg, Harriet Robinson
We estimate the causal effect of parents' education on their children's education and examine the timing of the impact. We identify the causal effect by exploiting the exogenous shift in (parents') education levels induced by the 1972 minimum school leaving age reform in England. Increasing parental education has a positive causal effect on children's outcomes that is evident in preschool assessments at age 4 and continues to be visible up to and including high-stakes examinations taken at age 16. Children of parents affected by the reform attain results around 0...
October 2016: Economic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736393/traditional-healers-faith-healers-and-medical-practitioners-the-contribution-of-medical-pluralism-to-bottlenecks-along-the-cascade-of-care-for-hiv-aids-in-eastern-and-southern-africa
#2
Mosa Moshabela, Dominic Bukenya, Gabriel Darong, Joyce Wamoyi, Estelle McLean, Morten Skovdal, William Ddaaki, Kenneth Ondeng'e, Oliver Bonnington, Janet Seeley, Victoria Hosegood, Alison Wringe
OBJECTIVES: There are concerns that medical pluralism may delay patients' progression through the HIV cascade-of-care. However, the pathways of impact through which medical pluralism influence the care of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in African settings remain unclear. We sought to establish the manifestation of medical pluralism among PLHIV, and explore mechanisms through which medical pluralism contributes bottlenecks along the HIV care cascade. METHODS: We conducted a multicountry exploratory qualitative study in seven health and demographic surveillance sites in six eastern and southern African countries: Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa...
July 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735592/the-prevalence-and-service-utilisation-associated-with-mental-and-substance-use-disorders-in-lao-people-s-democratic-republic-findings-from-a-cross-sectional-survey
#3
F Charlson, S Diminic, C Choulamany, D Santomauro, S Raja, H Whiteford
AIMS: An epidemiological survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of the mental and substance use disorders and ascertain patterns of mental health services utilisation in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) with the aim of evaluating existing gaps and opportunities in the provision of mental health services. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional, household survey of adults living within Vientiane Capital province, Lao PDR. We collected data on participant demographics, mental and physical health status, family history of mental illness and exposure to potential risk factors...
July 24, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732237/decentralization-of-health-care-systems-and-health-outcomes-evidence-from-a-natural-experiment
#4
Dolores Jiménez-Rubio, Pilar García-Gómez
While many countries worldwide are shifting responsibilities for their health systems to local levels of government, there is to date insufficient evidence about the potential impact of these policy reforms. We estimate the impact of decentralization of the health services on infant and neonatal mortality using a natural experiment: the devolution of health care decision making powers to Spanish regions. The devolution was implemented gradually and asymmetrically over a twenty-year period (1981-2002). The order in which the regions were decentralized was driven by political factors and hence can be considered exogenous to health outcomes...
July 1, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731555/who-does-nutrition-prevention-work-in-queensland-an-investigation-of-structural-and-political-workforce-reforms
#5
Helen Anna Vidgen, Meg Adam, Danielle Gallegos
AIM: This study aimed (i) to determine the change in the number of government-funded nutrition positions following structural and political reforms and (ii) to describe the remaining workforce available to do nutrition prevention work, including student placements, in Queensland. METHODS: Positions funded by the Queensland government were counted using departmental human resource data and compared with data collected 4 years earlier. Positions not funded by the government were identified using formal professional networks and governance group lists...
February 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729742/can-principals-promote-teacher-development-as-evaluators-a-case-study-of-principals-views-and-experiences
#6
Matthew A Kraft, Allison Gilmour
PURPOSE: New teacher evaluation systems have expanded the role of principals as instructional leaders, but little is known about principals' ability to promote teacher development through the evaluation process. We conducted a case study of principals' perspectives on evaluation and their experiences implementing observation and feedback cycles to better understand whether principals feel as though they are able to promote teacher development as evaluators. RESEARCH METHODS: We conducted interviews with a stratified random sample of 24 principals in an urban district that recently implemented major reforms to its teacher evaluation system...
December 2016: Educational Administration Quarterly: EAQ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728808/wolves-in-sheep-s-clothing-is-non-profit-status-used-to-signal-quality
#7
Daniel B Jones, Carol Propper, Sarah Smith
Why do many firms in the healthcare sector adopt non-profit status? One argument is that non-profit status serves as a signal of quality when consumers are not well informed. A testable implication is that an increase in consumer information may lead to a reduction in the number of non-profits in a market. We test this idea empirically by exploiting an exogenous increase in consumer information in the US nursing home industry. We find that the information shock led to a reduction in the share of non-profit homes, driven by a combination of home closure and sector switching...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728807/the-impact-of-team-based-primary-care-on-health-care-services-utilization-and-costs-quebec-s-family-medicine-groups
#8
Erin Strumpf, Mehdi Ammi, Mamadou Diop, Julie Fiset-Laniel, Pierre Tousignant
We investigate the effects on health care costs and utilization of team-based primary care delivery: Quebec's Family Medicine Groups (FMGs). FMGs include extended hours, patient enrolment and multidisciplinary teams, but they maintain the same remuneration scheme (fee-for-service) as outside FMGs. In contrast to previous studies, we examine the impacts of organizational changes in primary care settings in the absence of changes to provider payment and outside integrated care systems. We built a panel of administrative data of the population of elderly and chronically ill patients, characterizing all individuals as FMG enrollees or not...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728550/exploring-status-and-determinants-of-prenatal-and-postnatal-visits-in-western-china-in-the-background-of-the-new-health-system-reform
#9
Xiaojing Fan, Zhongliang Zhou, Shaonong Dang, Yongjian Xu, Jianmin Gao, Zhiying Zhou, Min Su, Dan Wang, Gang Chen
BACKGROUND: Prenatal and postnatal visits are two effective interventions for protection and promotion of maternal health by reducing maternal mortality and improving the quality of birth. There is limited nationally representative data regarding the changes of prenatal and postnatal visits since the latest health system reform initiated in 2009 in Shaanxi, China. The aim of this study was to explore the current status and determinants of prenatal and postnatal visits in the background of new health system reform...
July 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728524/what-s-at-stake-in-u-s-health-reform-a-guide-to-the-affordable-care-act-and-value-based-care
#10
Betty A Rambur
The U.S. presidential election of 2016 accentuated the divided perspectives on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, commonly known as Obamacare. The perspectives included a pledge from then candidate Donald J. Trump to "repeal and replace on day one"; Republican congressional leaders' more temperate suggestions in the first weeks of the Trump administration to "repair" the Affordable Care Act (ACA); and President Trump's February 5, 2017 statement-16 days after inauguration-that a Republican replacement for the ACA may not be ready until late 2017 or 2018...
January 1, 2017: Policy, Politics & Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728347/pros-and-cons-of-health-transformation-program-in-iran-evidence-from-financial-outcomes-at-household-level
#11
Enayatollah Homaie Rad, Vahid Yazdi-Feyzabadi, Shahrokh Yousefzadeh-Chabok, Abolhasan Afkar, Ahmad Naghibzadeh Tahami
Purpose: Health transformation program (HTP) is one of the recent reforms in health system of Iran implemented in early 2014. Improving the equity of payments and reducing out of pocket (OOP) and catastrophic health expenditures (CHE) were some of the program's important goals. In this study these goals were evaluated using a before-after analysis. Methods: Household income and expenditures data of Guilan province were gathered for years 2013-2015. OOP payments for outpatient, inpatient and drug services were calculated and the results were compared using propensity score matching technique after adjustment of confounding variables...
July 18, 2017: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727714/3d-morphometric-analysis-of-normal-sacroiliac-joints-a-new-classification-of-surface-shape-variation-and-the-potential-implications-in-pain-syndromes
#12
Mary Kristen Jesse, Christopher Kleck, Adam Williams, Brian Petersen, Deborah Glueck, Kimberly Lind, Vikas Patel
BACKGROUND: Normal sacroiliac (SI) joints vary widely in shape, and it is unclear whether SI joint morphology plays a role in the development of pain. To answer this question, we used 3D-CT surface rendering to image healthy study participants and used the resulting images to develop a classification system for SI joint morphology. In a case-control study comparing health research participants to patients with SI pain, we assessed whether the classification of SI joint morphology was associated with pain...
July 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726551/extracellular-matrix-and-integrin-expression-profiles-in-fuchs-endothelial-corneal-dystrophy-cells-and-tissue-model
#13
Benjamin Goyer, Mathieu Thériault, Sébastien P Gendron, Isabelle Brunette, Patrick J Rochette, Stéphanie Proulx
Primary corneal endothelial cell cultures and 3D engineered tissue models were used to study the aberrant deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) in a vision impairing pathology known as Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD). Corneal endothelial cells (CEC) were isolated from excised Descemet membranes of patients with end-stage FECD. CEC isolated from healthy corneas served as controls. Microarray gene profiling was performed on post-confluent cultures of healthy and FECD cells. Protein expression analyses were conducted on tissue models that were engineered by seeding an endothelium on previously devitalized human stromal carriers...
July 20, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725217/metagenomics-the-next-culture-independent-game-changer
#14
REVIEW
Jessica D Forbes, Natalie C Knox, Jennifer Ronholm, Franco Pagotto, Aleisha Reimer
A trend towards the abandonment of obtaining pure culture isolates in frontline laboratories is at a crossroads with the ability of public health agencies to perform their basic mandate of foodborne disease surveillance and response. The implementation of culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) including nucleic acid and antigen-based assays for acute gastroenteritis is leaving public health agencies without laboratory evidence to link clinical cases to each other and to food or environmental substances...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725147/shortage-of-psychotropic-medications-in-community-pharmacies-in-saudi-arabia-causes-and-solutions
#15
Yazed Sulaiman Al-Ruthia, Wael Mansy, Mohammad Barasin, Yazeed Mohammad Ghawaa, Mohammed AlSultan, Mohammad A Alsenaidy, Solaiman Alhawas, Sultan AlGhadeer
Background: Patients with mental disorders, such as depression and anxiety, who seek medical care in private psychiatric clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, have recently expressed concerns to doctors about difficulty in filling psychotropic medications, such as Amitriptyline and Aripiprazole, at retail community pharmacies. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a shortage of some commonly prescribed psychotropic medications in retail community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia, and if so, to explore the possible reasons behind the shortage of these medications...
July 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725023/surface-energy-driven-cubic-to-hexagonal-grain-growth-of-ge2sb2te5-thin-film
#16
Yonghui Zheng, Yan Cheng, Rong Huang, Ruijuan Qi, Feng Rao, Keyuan Ding, Weijun Yin, Sannian Song, Weili Liu, Zhitang Song, Songlin Feng
Phase change memory (PCM) is a promising nonvolatile memory to reform current commercial computing system. Inhibiting face-centered cubic (f-) to hexagonal (h-) phase transition of Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) thin film is essential for realizing high-density, high-speed, and low-power PCM. Although the atomic configurations of f- and h-lattices of GST alloy and the transition mechanisms have been extensively studied, the real transition process should be more complex than previous explanations, e.g. vacancy-ordering model for f-to-h transition...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724463/china-s-national-health-guiding-principles-a-perspective-worthy-of-healthcare-reform
#17
Ping Zhang, Yuan Liang
For countries faced with much talk but little action on healthcare reform, China's National Health Guiding Principles (CNHGP), with its 60-year history, may provide a new perspective. There are four values of CNHGP for healthcare reform. First, these principles provide an innovative strategic framework for healthcare reform with three levels, from 'One priority population' to 'Four approaches' and then to 'Two aims.' The second is the importance of mass/grassroots participation, which runs through all three levels of CNHGP...
July 20, 2017: Primary Health Care Research & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724446/economic-burden-of-malaria-inpatients-during-national-malaria-elimination-programme-estimation-of-hospitalization-cost-and-its-inter-province-variation
#18
Shangfeng Tang, Da Feng, Ruoxi Wang, Bishwajit Ghose, Tao Hu, Lu Ji, Tailai Wu, Hang Fu, Yueying Huang, Zhanchun Feng
BACKGROUND: Apart from its direct impact on public health and well-being, malaria had placed significant socioeconomic burden on both individuals and whole health systems. This study was conducted to investigate the hospitalization cost of malaria and explore the inter-province variation during the National Malaria Elimination Programme in China. METHODS: Information on medical expenditure for malaria treatment was extracted from inpatient medical records in Henan, Hainan and Guangxi Province...
July 19, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724129/association-of-cost-sharing-with-mental-health-care-use-involuntary-commitment-and-acute-care
#19
Bastian Ravesteijn, Eli B Schachar, Aartjan T F Beekman, Richard T J M Janssen, Patrick P T Jeurissen
Importance: A higher out-of-pocket price for mental health care may lead not only to cost savings but also to negative downstream consequences. Objective: To examine the association of higher patient cost sharing with mental health care use and downstream effects, such as involuntary commitment and acute mental health care use. Design, Setting, and Participants: This difference-in-differences study compared changes in mental health care use by adults, who experienced an increase in cost sharing, with changes in youths, who did not experience the increase and thus formed a control group...
July 19, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723810/let-s-get-real-about-health-care-reform
#20
Michael Karpf
In light of the ongoing debate about health care policy in the United States, including efforts to repeal and replace the Affordable Care Act, it will be critically important for the academic community to engage in the dialogue. Developing a viable approach to health care reform requires an understanding of the interaction and interdependence between choice, cost, and coverage in a competitive and functional market-based system. Some institutions have implemented models that indicate the feasibility of providing high-quality, efficient patient care while working within fixed budgets...
July 18, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
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