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Cardiac Contractility Modulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895893/downregulation-of-long-non-coding-rna-h19-promotes-p19cl6-cells-proliferation-and-inhibits-apoptosis-during-late-stage-cardiac-differentiation-via-mir-19b-modulated-sox6
#1
Yu Han, Hongdang Xu, Jiangtao Cheng, Yanwei Zhang, Chuanyu Gao, Taibing Fan, Bangtian Peng, Bin Li, Lin Liu, Zhaoyun Cheng
BACKGROUND: Regulating cardiac differentiation to maintain normal heart development and function is very important. At present, biological functions of H19 in cardiac differentiation is not completely clear. METHODS: To explore the functional effect of H19 during cardiac differentiation. Expression levels of early cardiac-specific markers Nkx-2.5 and GATA4, cardiac contractile protein genes α-MHC and MLC-2v were determined by qRT-PCR and western lot. The levels of lncRNA H19 and miR-19b were detected by qRT-PCR...
2016: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886226/functional-improvement-and-regression-of-medial-hypertrophy-in-the-remodeled-pulmonary-artery-after-correction-of-systemic-left-to-right-shunt
#2
Chih-Hsin Hsu, Jun-Neng Roan, Jyh-Hong Chen, Chen-Fuh Lam
The presence of systemic left-to-right shunt and increased pulmonary blood flow can result in right heart failure and pulmonary arteriopathy. Correction of left-to-right shunt has been shown to improve cardiac function and physical performance. However, the cardiopulmonary remodeling processes following cessation of left-to-right shunt have yet to be reported. In this experimental study, excessive pulmonary flow was restored through ligation of the aortocaval fistula in rats with flow-induced pulmonary hypertension...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880847/activation-of-both-the-calpain-and-ubiquitin-proteasome-systems-contributes-to-septic-cardiomyopathy-through-dystrophin-loss-disruption-and-mtor-inhibition
#3
Ana Caroline Silva Freitas, Maria Jose Figueiredo, Erica Carolina Campos, Danilo Figueiredo Soave, Simone Gusmao Ramos, Herbert B Tanowitz, Mara Rúbia N Celes
Cardiac dysfunction caused by the impairment of myocardial contractility has been recognized as an important factor contributing to the high mortality in sepsis. Calpain activation in the heart takes place in response to increased intracellular calcium influx resulting in proteolysis of structural and contractile proteins with subsequent myocardial dysfunction. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that increased levels of calpain in the septic heart leads to disruption of structural and contractile proteins and that administration of calpain inhibitor-1 (N-acetyl-leucinyl-leucinyl-norleucinal (ALLN)) after sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture prevents cardiac protein degradation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867086/diazoxide-prevents-reactive-oxygen-species-and-mitochondrial-damage-leading-to-anti-hypertrophic-effects
#4
Aline M Lucas, Francisco R Caldas, Amanda P da Silva, Maximiano M Ventura, Iago M Leite, Ana B Filgueiras, Claúdio G L Silva, Alicia J Kowaltowski, Heberty T Facundo
Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is characterized by wall thickening or chamber enlargement of the heart in response to pressure or volume overload, respectively. This condition will, initially, improve the organ contractile function, but if sustained will render dysfunctional mitochondria and oxidative stress. Mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K(+) channels (mitoKATP) modulate the redox status of the cell and protect against several cardiac insults. Here, we tested the hypothesis that mitoKATP opening (using diazoxide) will avoid isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy in vivo by decreasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial Ca(2+)-induced swelling...
November 17, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845246/palmitate-promotes-inflammatory-responses-and-cellular-senescence-in-cardiac-fibroblasts
#5
Marina Sokolova, Leif Erik Vinge, Katrine Alfsnes, Maria Belland Olsen, Lars Eide, Ole Jørgen Kaasbøll, Håvard Attramadal, May-Kristin Torp, Linn E Fosshaug, Azita Rashidi, Egil Lien, Alexandra Vanessa Finsen, Øystein Sandanger, Pål Aukrust, Trine Ranheim, Arne Yndestad
Palmitate triggers inflammatory responses in several cell types, but its effects on cardiac fibroblasts are at present unknown. The aims of the study were to (1) assess the potential of palmitate to promote inflammatory signaling in cardiac fibroblasts through TLR4 and the NLRP3 inflammasome and (2) characterize the cellular phenotype of cardiac fibroblasts exposed to palmitate. We examined whether palmitate induces inflammatory responses in cardiac fibroblasts from WT, NLRP3(-/-) and ASC(-/-)mice (C57BL/6 background)...
November 12, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844333/cardiac-autonomic-innervation
#6
Hina K Jamali, Fahad Waqar, Myron C Gerson
The autonomic nervous system plays a key role in regulating changes in the cardiovascular system and its adaptation to various human body functions. The sympathetic arm of the autonomic nervous system is associated with the fight and flight response, while the parasympathetic division is responsible for the restorative effects on heart rate, blood pressure, and contractility. Disorders involving these two divisions can lead to, and are seen as, a manifestation of most common cardiovascular disorders. Over the last few decades, extensive research has been performed establishing imaging techniques to quantify the autonomic dysfunction associated with various cardiovascular disorders...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837311/17%C3%AE-estradiol-induced-interaction-of-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-and-human-atrial-essential-myosin-light-chain-modulates-cardiac-contractile-function
#7
Karolin Duft, Miriam Schanz, Hang Pham, Ahmed Abdelwahab, Cindy Schriever, Georgios Kararigas, Elke Dworatzek, Mercy M Davidson, Vera Regitz-Zagrosek, Ingo Morano, Shokoufeh Mahmoodzadeh
Chronic increased workload of the human heart causes ventricular hypertrophy, re-expression of the atrial essential myosin light chain (hALC-1), and improved contractile function. Although hALC-1 is an important positive inotropic regulator of the human heart, little is known about its regulation. Therefore, we investigated the role of the sex hormone 17β-estradiol (E2) on hALC-1 gene expression, the underlying molecular mechanisms, and the impact of this regulatory process on cardiac contractile function...
January 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825850/the-role-of-%C3%AE-smooth-muscle-actin-in-fibroblast-mediated-matrix-contraction-and-remodeling
#8
Arti V Shinde, Claudio Humeres, Nikolaos G Frangogiannis
Cardiac myofibroblasts play an important role in myocardial remodeling. Although α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression is the hallmark of mature myofibroblasts, its role in regulating fibroblast function remains poorly understood. We explore the effects of the matrix environment in modulating cardiac fibroblast phenotype, and we investigate the role of α-SMA in fibroblast function using loss- and gain-of-function approaches. In murine myocardial infarction, infiltration of the infarct border zone with abundant α-SMA-positive myofibroblasts was associated with scar contraction...
November 4, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825670/left-atrial-volume-and-function-in-dogs-with-naturally-occurring-myxomatous-mitral-valve-disease
#9
M Höllmer, J L Willesen, A Tolver, J Koch
OBJECTIVE: Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) induces progressive left atrial (LA) enlargement. The LA modulates left ventricular filling and performance through its reservoir, conduit, and contractile function. Assessment of LA size and function may provide valuable information on the level of cardiac compensation. Left atrial function in dogs with naturally occurring MMVD remains largely unexplored. The objective of this study was to evaluate LA volume and function in dogs with naturally occurring MMVD...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Cardiology: the Official Journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805004/mir-19b-regulates-ventricular-action-potential-duration-in-zebrafish
#10
Alexander Benz, Mandy Kossack, Dominik Auth, Claudia Seyler, Edgar Zitron, Lonny Juergensen, Hugo A Katus, David Hassel
Sudden cardiac death due to ventricular arrhythmias often caused by action potential duration (APD) prolongation is a common mode of death in heart failure (HF). microRNAs, noncoding RNAs that fine tune gene expression, are frequently dysregulated during HF, suggesting a potential involvement in the electrical remodeling process accompanying HF progression. Here, we identified miR-19b as an important regulator of heart function. Zebrafish lacking miR-19b developed severe bradycardia and reduced cardiac contractility...
November 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793636/extracellular-matrix-downregulation-in-the-drosophila-heart-preserves-contractile-function-and-improves-lifespan
#11
Ayla O Sessions, Gaurav Kaushik, Sarah Parker, Koen Raedschelders, Rolf Bodmer, Jennifer E Van Eyk, Adam J Engler
Aging is associated with extensive remodeling of the heart, including basement membrane (BM) components that surround cardiomyocytes. Remodeling is thought to impair cardiac mechanotransduction, but the contribution of specific BM components to age-related lateral communication between cardiomyocytes is unclear. Using a genetically tractable, rapidly aging model with sufficient cardiac genetic homology and morphology, e.g. Drosophila melanogaster, we observed differential regulation of BM collagens between laboratory strains, correlating with changes in muscle physiology leading to cardiac dysfunction...
October 25, 2016: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789290/ablation-of-biglycan-attenuates-cardiac-hypertrophy-and-fibrosis-after-left-ventricular-pressure-overload
#12
Nadine Beetz, Carolin Rommel, Tilman Schnick, Elena Neumann, Achim Lother, Elsa Beatriz Monroy-Ordonez, Martin Zeeb, Sebastian Preissl, Ralf Gilsbach, Ariane Melchior-Becker, Bartosz Rylski, Monika Stoll, Liliana Schaefer, Friedhelm Beyersdorf, Brigitte Stiller, Lutz Hein
AIMS: Biglycan, a small leucine-rich proteoglycan, has been shown to play an important role in stabilizing fibrotic scars after experimental myocardial infarction. However, the role of biglycan in the development and regression of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and fibrosis during cardiac pressure overload and unloading remains elusive. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess the effect of biglycan on cardiac remodeling in a mouse model of left ventricular pressure overload and unloading...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769999/cardiomyopathy-related-mutation-a30v-in-mouse-cardiac-troponin-t-divergently-alters-the-magnitude-of-stretch-activation-in-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-myosin-heavy-chain-fibers
#13
Alexis V Mickelson, Sampath K Gollapudi, Murali Chandra
The present study investigated the functional consequences of the human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) mutation, A28V, in cardiac troponin T (TnT). The A28V mutation is located within the N-terminus of TnT, a region known to be important for full activation of cardiac thin filaments. The functional consequences of the A28V mutation in TnT remain unknown. Given how α- and β-myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms differently alter the effect of the N-terminus of TnT, we hypothesized that the A28V-induced effects would be differently modulated by α- and β-MHC isoforms...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757084/dilated-cardiomyopathy-mutation-r134w-in-mouse-cardiac-troponin-t-induces-greater-contractile-deficits-against-%C3%AE-myosin-heavy-chain-than-against-%C3%AE-myosin-heavy-chain
#14
Sampath K Gollapudi, Murali Chandra
Many studies have demonstrated that depressed myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity is common to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in humans. However, it remains unclear whether a single determinant-such as myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity-is sufficient to characterize all cases of DCM because the severity of disease varies widely with a given mutation. Because dynamic features dominate in the heart muscle, alterations in dynamic contractile parameters may offer better insight on the molecular mechanisms that underlie disparate effects of DCM mutations on cardiac phenotypes...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693579/the-oxoglutarate-receptor-1-oxgr1-modulates-pressure-overload-induced-cardiac-hypertrophy-in-mice
#15
Ameh Omede, Min Zi, Sukhpal Prehar, Arfa Maqsood, Nicholas Stafford, Mamas Mamas, Elizabeth Cartwright, Delvac Oceandy
The G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) family of proteins play essential roles in the heart, including in the regulation of cardiac hypertrophy. One member of this family, the oxoglutarate receptor 1 (OXGR1), may have a crucial role in the heart because it acts as a receptor for α-ketoglutarate, a metabolite that is elevated in heart failure patients. OXGR1 is expressed in the heart but its precise function during cardiac pathophysiological process is unknown. Here we used both in vivo and in vitro approaches to investigate the role of OXGR1 in cardiac hypertrophy...
October 28, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677924/selective-activation-of-vascular-kv-7-4-kv-7-5-k-channels-by-fasudil-contributes-to-its-vasorelaxant-effect
#16
Xuan Zhang, Hailong An, Junwei Li, Yuanyuan Zhang, Yang Liu, Zhanfeng Jia, Wei Zhang, Li Chu, Hailin Zhang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Kv 7 (Kv 7.1-7.5) channels play an important role in the regulation of neuronal excitability and the cardiac action potential. Growing evidence suggests Kv 7.4/Kv 7.5 channels play a crucial role in regulating vascular smooth muscle contractility. Most of the reported Kv 7 openers have shown poor selectivity across these five subtypes. In this study, fasudil - a drug used for cerebral vasospasm - has been found to be a selective opener of Kv 7.4/Kv 7.5 channels...
December 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676325/the-effect-of-chronic-activation-of-the-novel-endocannabinoid-receptor-gpr18-on-myocardial-function-and-blood-pressure-in-conscious-rats
#17
Asmaa I Matouk, Ashraf Taye, Mohamed A El-Moselhy, Gehan H Heeba, Abdel A Abdel-Rahman
While acute activation of the novel endocannabinoid receptor GPR18 causes hypotension, there are no reports on GPR18 expression in the heart or its chronic modulation of cardiovascular function. In this study, after demonstrating GPR18 expression in the heart, we show that chronic (2 weeks) GPR18 activation with its agonist abnormal cannabidiol (abn-cbd; 100 µg/kg/day; i.p) produced hypotension, suppressed the cardiac sympathetic dominance, and improved left ventricular (LV) function (increased the contractility index dp/dtmax, and reduced LV end diastolic pressure, LVEDP) in conscious rats...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633326/the-chromogranin-a-derived-sympathomimetic-serpinin-depresses-myocardial-performance-in-teleost-and-amphibian-hearts
#18
S Imbrogno, R Mazza, C Pugliese, M Filice, T Angelone, Y P Loh, B Tota, M C Cerra
Chromogranin A (CgA) is an acidic protein co-stored with catecholamines, hormones and neuropeptides in the secretory granules of endocrine, neuronal and other cell types (including cardiomyocytes). Proteolytic cleavage in the C terminus of CgA generates a 2.9kDa peptide named serpinin (Serp; Ala26Leu) that can be modified at its N terminus to form a pyroglutamate residue (pGlu-Serp). In the rat heart, both peptides increase contractility and relaxation through a β-adrenergic-like action mechanism. Accordingly, Serp and pGlu-Serp were proposed as novel myocardial sympatho-adrenergic modulators in mammals...
January 1, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618302/lebetin-2-a-snake-venom-derived-natriuretic-peptide-attenuates-acute-myocardial-ischemic-injury-through-the-modulation-of-mitochondrial-permeability-transition-pore-at-the-time-of-reperfusion
#19
Bochra Tourki, Philippe Matéo, Jessica Morand, Mohamed Elayeb, Diane Godin-Ribuot, Naziha Marrakchi, Elise Belaidi, Erij Messadi
Cardiac ischemia is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. It is now well established that natriuretic peptides can attenuate the development of irreversible ischemic injury during myocardial infarction. Lebetin 2 (L2) is a new discovered peptide isolated from Macrovipera lebetina venom with structural similarity to B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP). Our objectives were to define the acute cardioprotective actions of L2 in isolated Langendorff-perfused rat hearts after regional or global ischemia-reperfusion (IR)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612781/tuning-the-conductivity-and-inner-structure-of-electrospun-fibers-to-promote-cardiomyocyte-elongation-and-synchronous-beating
#20
Yaowen Liu, Jinfu Lu, Guisen Xu, Jiaojun Wei, Zhibin Zhang, Xiaohong Li
The key to addressing the challenges facing cardiac tissue engineering is the integration of physical, chemical, and electrical cues into scaffolds. Aligned and conductive scaffolds have been fabricated as synthetic microenvironments to improve the function of cardiomyocytes. However, up to now, the influence of conductive capability and inner structure of fibrous scaffolds have not been determined on the cardiomyocyte morphologies and beating patterns. In the current study, highly aligned fibers were fabricated with loaded up to 6% of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to modulate the electrical conductivity, while blend and coaxial electrospinning were utilized to create a bulk distribution of CNTs in fiber matrices and a spatial embedment in fiber cores, respectively...
December 1, 2016: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
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