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Alex Schudel, Lauren F Sestito, Susan N Thomas
Nitric oxide (NO) is a therapeutic implicated for the treatment of diseases affecting lymphatic tissues, which range from infectious and cardiovascular diseases to cancer. Existing technologies available for NO therapy, however, provide poor bioactivity within lymphatic tissues. In this work, we address this technology gap with a NO encapsulation and delivery strategy leveraging the formation of S-nitrosothiols on lymphatic-targeting Pluronic-stabilized, poly(propylene sulfide)-core nanoparticles (SNO-NP). We evaluated in vivo the lymphatic versus systemic delivery of NO resulting from intradermal administration of SNO-NP benchmarked against a commonly used, commercially available small molecule S-nitrosothiol NO donor, examined signs of toxicity systemically as well as localized to the site of injection, and investigated SNO effects on lymphatic transport and NP uptake by LN-resident cells...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Marzena Rydygier, Marcin Jastrzab, Dawid Krzempek, Tomasz Nowak, Leszek Grzanka, Piotr Bednarczyk, Liliana Stolarczyk
Proton radiotherapy requires precise knowledge of the volumetric dose distribution. In proton beam delivery systems, based on narrow pencil beams, a contribution from small doses in low-intensity regions, consisting mainly of scattered protons, may have not negligible influence on total dose delivered to patient. Insufficient information about dose profile can cause underestimation of dose and potential delivery of inflated dose during hadrontherapy treatment. Presented work aims to verify applicability of diamond detectors, produced by Chemical Vapor Deposition method, for therapeutic proton beam profilometry at large fields...
January 17, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Catherine L Nevin, Evan Formosa, Yohei Maki, Brad Matushewski, Timothy R H Regnault, Bryan S Richardson
We determined the impact of moderate maternal nutrient restriction (MNR) in guinea pigs with fetal growth restriction (FGR) on offspring body and organ weights, hypothesizing that FGR-MNR animals will show catch-up growth, but with organ-specific differences. Guinea pig sows were fed ad libitum (Control) or 70% of the control diet from 4 week`s pre-conception, switching to 90% at mid-pregnancy (MNR). Control newborns >95g (appropriate for gestational age or AGA, N=37) and MNR newborns <85g (FGR, N=37) were monitored until neonatal (~25 days) or adult (~110 days) necropsy...
January 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Sankha Mukherjee, Avinav Banwait, Sean Grixti, Nikhil A Koratkar, Chandra Veer Singh
Single layer Rhenium disulfide (ReS2) is a unique material with distinctive, anisotropic electronic, mechanical and optical properties and has the potential to be used as an anode in alkali metal ion batteries. In this work, first principles calculations were performed to systematically evaluate the potential of monolayer pristine and defective ReS2 as anodes in lithium (Li) and sodium (Na)-ion batteries. Our calculations suggest that there are several potential adsorption sites for Li and Na on pristine ReS2, owing to its low-symmetry structure...
January 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Cipriano Rangel, Joaquin Espinosa-Garcia
Within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation a full-dimensional analytical potential energy surface, PES-2017, was developed for the gas-phase hydrogen abstraction reaction between the chlorine atom and ethane, which is a nine body system. This surface presents a valence-bond/molecular mechanics functional form dependent on 60 parameters and is fitted to high-level ab initio calculations. This reaction presents little exothermicity, -2.30 kcal mol-1, with a low height barrier, 2.44 kcal mol-1, and intermediate complexes in the entrance and exit channels...
January 19, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Sunny Gupta, Sharmila N Shirodkar, Daniel Kaplan, Venkataraman Swaminathan, Boris I Yakobson
Optical spectroscopy (OS) techniques are often coupled with first-principles density functional theoretical (DFT) calculations for determining the precise influence of defects on the electronic and structural properties of two dimensional (2D) TMDs. Such calculations are carried out presuming there is little or no effect of vibrational transitions on the observed electronic spectrum. However, if the effect of change in vibrational energy [Franck Condon (FC) shift] associated with such a transition is large, it could possibly lead to a different origin for the observed peak...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Shipeng Chen, Baohao Zhang, Nanxiang Zhang, Fengsheng Ge, Bao Zhang, Xiaoji Wang, Jian Song
Formation of supramolecular ionic liquid gels (ionogels) induced by low-molecular mass gelators (LMMGs) is an efficient strategy to confine ionic liquids and the negligible influence of LMMGs on the electrochemical properties of ionic liquids makes ionogels ideal quasi-solid electrochemical materials. Furthermore, the stimuli-responsive and self-healing characters of the supramolecular gel can be utilized for the potential development of smart electrochemical materials. However, the poor mechanical properties of supramolecular ionogel reported so far limit their practical applications...
January 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Michael J Harwood, Maurice R Yeadon, Mark A King
In order to get bounce and movement seam bowlers need to bowl the ball "into" the pitch. Standard deliveries by elite players are typically projected at around 7° below horizontal. In contrast, young players currently often need to release the ball almost horizontally in an effort to get the ball to bounce close enough to the batter. We anticipated that shortening the pitch could be a simple way to help young bowlers to release the ball at a better angle and with more consistency. Twenty county or best in club age group under 10 and under 11 seam bowlers were analysed bowling indoors on two different pitch lengths...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Josep Sardanyés, Tomás Alarcón
Tumor cell populations are highly heterogeneous. Such heterogeneity, both at genotypic and phenotypic levels, is a key feature during tumorigenesis. How to investigate the impact of this heterogeneity in the dynamics of tumors cells becomes an important issue. Here we explore a stochastic model describing the competition dynamics between a pool of heterogeneous cancer cells with distinct phenotypes and healthy cells. This model is used to explore the role of demographic fluctuations on the transitions involving tumor clearance...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
N Hallmann, G Camoin, A Eisenhauer, A Botella, G A Milne, C Vella, E Samankassou, V Pothin, P Dussouillez, J Fleury, J Fietzke
Mid- to late-Holocene sea-level records from low-latitude regions serve as an important baseline of natural variability in sea level and global ice volume prior to the Anthropocene. Here, we reconstruct a high-resolution sea-level curve encompassing the last 6000 years based on a comprehensive study of coral microatolls, which are sensitive low-tide recorders. Our curve is based on microatolls from several islands in a single region and comprises a total of 82 sea-level index points. Assuming thermosteric contributions are negligible on millennial time scales, our results constrain global ice melting to be 1...
January 18, 2018: Nature Communications
Li Cai, Lingling Hu, Huahong Shi, Junwei Ye, Yunfei Zhang, Hyunjung Kim
The aggregation of nanoplastics (NPs) is a key issue in understanding the dynamic nature of NPs in the environment. The aggregation of NPs under various environmental conditions has not yet been studied. We investigated the influences of inorganic ions and natural organic matter (NOM) on polystyrene (PS) NPs aggregation in solutions. Results showed that PS NPs remained stable in wide ionic strength solutions of NaCl (1-100 mM) and CaCl2 (0.1-15 mM), and only in low ionic strength FeCl3 solutions (0.01 mM)...
January 12, 2018: Chemosphere
E Beauvier, S Bodea, A Pocheau
We investigate the dependence on the vortex structure of the propagation of fronts in stirred flows. For this, we consider a regular set of vortices whose structure is changed by varying both their boundary conditions and their aspect ratios. These configurations are investigated experimentally in autocatalytic solutions stirred by electroconvective flows and numerically from kinematic simulations based on the determination of the dominant Fourier mode of the vortex stream function in each of them. For free lateral boundary conditions, i...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
B Liao, G Dong, Y Ma, J L Gao
A nonlinear Schrödinger equation for the propagation of two-dimensional surface gravity waves on linear shear currents in finite water depth is derived. In the derivation, linear shear currents are assumed to be a linear combination of depth-uniform currents and constant vorticity. Therefore, the equation includes the combined effects of depth-uniform currents and constant vorticity. Next, using the equation, the properties of the modulational instability of gravity waves on linear shear currents are investigated...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
Bartłomiej Dybiec, Ewa Gudowska-Nowak, Igor M Sokolov
We investigate the distribution of potential and kinetic energy in stationary states of the linearly damped stochastic oscillator driven by Lévy noises. In the long time limit distributions of kinetic and potential energies of the oscillator follow the power-law asymptotics and do not fulfill the equipartition theorem. The partition of the mechanical energy is controlled by the damping coefficient. In the limit of vanishing damping a stochastic analog of the equipartition theorem can be proposed, namely, the statistical properties of potential and kinetic energies attain distributions characterized by the same widths...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
Viktor Holubec, Artem Ryabov
We discuss the possibility of reaching the Carnot efficiency by heat engines (HEs) out of quasistatic conditions at nonzero power output. We focus on several models widely used to describe the performance of actual HEs. These models comprise quantum thermoelectric devices, linear irreversible HEs, minimally nonlinear irreversible HEs, HEs working in the regime of low-dissipation, overdamped stochastic HEs and an underdamped stochastic HE. Although some of these HEs can reach the Carnot efficiency at nonzero and even diverging power, the magnitude of this power is always negligible compared to the maximum power attainable in these systems...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
Xia Hong, Meghan Kohne, Mia Morrell, Haoran Wang, Eric R Weeks
Using experiments and simulations, we study the flow of soft particles through quasi-two-dimensional hoppers. The first experiment uses oil-in-water emulsion droplets in a thin sample chamber. Due to surfactants coating the droplets, they easily slide past each other, approximating soft frictionless disks. For these droplets, clogging at the hopper exit requires a narrow hopper opening only slightly larger than the droplet diameter. The second experiment uses soft hydrogel particles in a thin sample chamber, where we vary gravity by changing the tilt angle of the chamber...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
Ahmed Mouhli, Habib Ayeb, Tahar Othman, Jérôme Fresnais, Vincent Dupuis, Ian R Nemitz, Joel S Pendery, Charles Rosenblatt, Olivier Sandre, Emmanuelle Lacaze
A long time ago, Brochard and de Gennes predicted the possibility of significantly decreasing the critical magnetic field of the Fredericksz transition (the magnetic Fredericksz threshold) in a mixture of nematic liquid crystals and ferromagnetic particles, the so-called ferronematics. This phenomenon is rarely measured to be large, due to soft homeotropic anchoring induced at the nanoparticle surface. Here we present an optical study of the magnetic Fredericksz transition combined with a light scattering study of the classical nematic liquid crystal: the pentylcyanobiphenyl (5CB), doped with 6 nm diameter magnetic and nonmagnetic nanoparticles...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
Volodymyr M Lashkin
We derive the nonlinear equations that describe coupled drift waves and ion acoustic waves in a plasma. We show that when the coupling to ion acoustic waves is negligible, the reduced nonlinear equation is a generalization of the Hasegawa-Mima equation to the three-dimensional (3D) case. We find an exact analytical solution of this equation in the form of a 3D soliton drift wave (3D modon). By numerical simulations we study collisions between the modons and show that the collisions can be fully elastic.
September 2017: Physical Review. E
Marianne S Muhlebach, Bryan T Zorn, Charles R Esther, Joseph E Hatch, Conor P Murray, Lidija Turkovic, Sarath C Ranganathan, Richard C Boucher, Stephen M Stick, Matthew C Wolfgang
The cystic fibrosis (CF) lung microbiome has been studied in children and adults; however, little is known about its relationship to early disease progression. To better understand the relationship between the lung microbiome and early respiratory disease, we characterized the lower airways microbiome using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples obtained from clinically stable CF infants and preschoolers who underwent bronchoscopy and chest computed tomography (CT). Cross-sectional samples suggested a progression of the lower airways microbiome with age, beginning with relatively sterile airways in infancy...
January 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Arvind Palanisamy, Ramaswamy Kannappan, Zhiqiang Xu, Audrey Martino, Matthew B Friese, Justin D Boyd, Gregory Crosby, Deborah J Culley
Synthetic oxytocin (sOT) is widely used during labor, yet little is known about its effects on fetal brain development despite evidence that it reaches the fetal circulation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that sOT would affect early neurodevelopment by investigating its effects on neural progenitor cells (NPC) from embryonic day 14 rat pups. NPCs expressed the oxytocin receptor (OXTR), which was downregulated by 45% upon prolonged treatment with sOT. Next, we examined the effects of sOT on NPC death, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation using antibodies to NeuN (neurons), Olig2 (oligodendrocytes), and GFAP (astrocytes)...
2018: PloS One
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