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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433947/maximum-likelihood-estimation-of-cardiac-fiber-bundle-orientation-from-arbitrarily-spaced-diffusion-weighted-images
#1
Andreas Nagler, Cristóbal Bertoglio, Christian T Stoeck, Sebastian Kozerke, Wolfgang A Wall
We propose an estimation scheme for local fiber bundle direction in the left ventricle directly from gray values of arbitrarily spaced cardiac diffusion weighted images (DWI). The approach is based on a parametric and space-dependent mathematical representation of the myocardial fiber bundle orientation and hence the diffusion tensor (DT) for the ventricular geometry. By solving a nonlinear inverse problem derived from a maximum likelihood estimator, the degrees of freedom of the fiber and DT model can be estimated from the measured gray values of the DWIs...
April 4, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433929/pollution-characteristics-and-human-health-risks-of-potentially-eco-toxic-elements-ptes-in-road-dust-from-metropolitan-area-of-hefei-china
#2
Muhammad Ubaid Ali, Guijian Liu, Balal Yousaf, Qumber Abbas, Habib Ullah, Mehr Ahmed Mujtaba Munir, Biao Fu
This study aims to investigate the pollution characteristics of road dust and their associated health risks of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) to humans using array-based risk assessment models described by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in a metropolitan area of Hefei, China. Geoaccumulation index (Igeo) was used to describe pollution characteristics of roadside dust in urban, periurban and industrial areas. Results indicate that industrial roadside dust was contaminated with Fe, Ni, Cu, Ti, V, Pb, Ba, Sb, Cr, Sn, Pb, As and Ga showing Igeo value (log2 (x)) between Igeo class 3 to 4...
April 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433391/mechanisms-of-anterior-posterior-stability-of-the-knee-joint-under-load-bearing
#3
Ryan J Reynolds, Peter S Walker, John Buza
The anterior-posterior (AP) stability of the knee is an important aspect of functional performance. Studies have shown that the stability increases when compressive loads are applied, as indicated by reduced laxity, but the mechanism has not been fully explained. A test rig was designed which applied combinations of AP shear and compressive forces, and measured the AP displacements relative to the neutral position. Five knees were evaluated at compressive loads of 0, 250, 500, and 750N, with the knee at 15° flexion...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433060/enhanced-photoresponsive-polyethyleneimine-citric-acid-co-carbonized-dots-for-facile-and-selective-sensing-and-intracellular-imaging-of-cobalt-ions-at-physiologic-ph
#4
Wen-Sheng Zou, Qing-Chun Zhao, Jun Zhang, Xiao-Ming Chen, Xiu-Fang Wang, Lin Zhao, Shao-Hua Chen, Ya-Qin Wang
Whether as an important biological element or as a radioactive source/medicine, the monitoring of trace levels of cobalt ions (Co) has become a non-negligible factor for human health and green environment. Current technologies for the detection of Co are cost-expensive and time-consuming, and require cumbersome sample pretreatment process. Herein a novel sensing platform has been developed for Co detection based on the quenching of the enhanced fluorescence signal of polyamine functionalized C-dots. Amine groups at the surface of the C-dots can capture Zn(2+)/Cd(2+) to form coordination compound, which can inhibit the photoinduced electron transfer pathways of C-dots and then induce the fluorescence enhancement of the C-dots by ∼80% margin...
June 1, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433055/pyrenyl-carbon-nanostructures-for-ultrasensitive-measurements-of-formaldehyde-in-urine
#5
Gayan Premaratne, Sabrina Farias, Sadagopan Krishnan
Measurement of ultra-low (e.g., parts-per-billion) levels of small-molecule markers in body fluids (e.g., serum, urine, saliva) involves a considerable challenge in view of designing assay strategies with sensitivity and selectivity. Herein we report for the first time an amperometric nano-bioelectrode design that uniquely combines 1-pyrenebutyric acid units pi-pi stacked with carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes on the surface of gold screen printed electrodes for covalent attachment of NAD(+) dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FDH)...
June 1, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432989/the-effect-of-natural-ventilation-strategy-on-indoor-air-quality-in-schools
#6
Luca Stabile, Marco Dell'Isola, Aldo Russi, Angelamaria Massimo, Giorgio Buonanno
In order to reduce children's exposure to pollutants in classrooms a proper ventilation strategy need to be adopted. Such strategy is even more important in naturally ventilated schools where the air exchange rate is only based on the manual airing of classrooms. The present work aimed to evaluate the effect of the manual airing strategy on indoor air quality in Italian classrooms. For this aim, schools located in the Central Italy were investigated. Indoor air quality was studied in terms of CO2, particle number and PM concentrations and compared to corresponding outdoor levels...
April 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432864/plutonium-in-the-atmosphere-a-global-perspective
#7
REVIEW
P Thakur, H Khaing, S Salminen-Paatero
A number of potential source terms have contributed plutonium isotopes to the atmosphere. The atmospheric nuclear weapon tests conducted between 1945 and 1980 and the re-entry of the burned SNAP-9A satellite in 1964, respectively. It is generally believed that current levels of plutonium in the stratosphere are negligible and compared with the levels generally found at surface-level air. In this study, the time trend analysis and long-term behavior of plutonium isotopes ((239+240)Pu and (238)Pu) in the atmosphere were assessed using historical data collected by various national and international monitoring networks since 1960s...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432456/deregulated-bcl-2-family-proteins-impact-on-repair-of-dna-double-strand-breaks-and-are-targets-to-overcome-radioresistance-in-lung-cancer
#8
Sarah A Wieczorek, Frank Breitenbuecher, Aashish Soni, Katja Paul-Konietzko, Sophie Ziegler, Ali Sak, George Iliakis, Martin Schuler
PURPOSE: DNA damage-induced cell death is a major effector mechanism of radiotherapy. Aberrant expression of anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family proteins is frequently observed in lung cancers. Against this background, we studied radioresistance mediated by BCL-2 family proteins at the mechanistic level and its potential as target for radiochemotherapy. METHODS: Lung cancer models stably expressing BCL-xL or MCL-1 were irradiated to study cell death, clonogenic survival, and DNA repair kinetics in vitro, and growth suppression of established tumors in vivo...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432057/imaging-and-modeling-of-acute-pressure-induced-changes-of-collagen-and-elastin-microarchitectures-in-pig-and-human-resistance-arteries
#9
Maria Bloksgaard, Thomas M Leurgans, Bart Spronck, Maarten Hg Heusinkveld, Bjarne Thorsted, Kristoffer Rosenstand, Inger Nissen, Ulla Melchior Hansen, Jonathan R Brewer, Luis A Bagatolli, Lars M Rasmussen, Akhmadjon Irmukhamedov, Koen D Reesink, Jo G R De Mey
The impact of disease related changes in the extracellular matrix (ECM) on the mechanical properties of human resistance arteries largely remains to be established. Resistance arteries from both pig and human parietal pericardium (PRA) display a different ECM microarchitecture compared to frequently used rodent mesenteric arteries. We hypothesized that the biaxial mechanics of PRA mirror pressure induced changes in the ECM microarchitecture. This was tested using isolated pig PRA as model system, integrating vital imaging, pressure myography and mathematical modeling...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431555/reduction-of-pulmonary-toxicity-of-metal-oxide-nanoparticles-by-phosphonate-based-surface-passivation
#10
Xiaoming Cai, Anson Lee, Zhaoxia Ji, Cynthia Huang, Chong Hyun Chang, Xiang Wang, Yu-Pei Liao, Tian Xia, Ruibin Li
BACKGROUND: The wide application of engineered nanoparticles has induced increasing exposure to humans and environment, which led to substantial concerns on their biosafety. Some metal oxides (MOx) have shown severe toxicity in cells and animals, thus safe designs of MOx with reduced hazard potential are desired. Currently, there is a lack of a simple yet effective safe design approach for the toxic MOx. In this study, we determined the key physicochemical properties of MOx that lead to cytotoxicity and explored a safe design approach for toxic MOx by modifying their hazard properties...
April 21, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431351/role-of-membrane-fouling-substances-on-the-rejection-of-n-nitrosamines-by-reverse-osmosis
#11
Takahiro Fujioka, Hitoshi Kodamatani, Hidenobu Aizawa, Stephen Gray, Kenneth P Ishida, Long D Nghiem
The impact of fouling substances on the rejection of four N-nitrosamines by a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane was evaluated by characterizing individual organic fractions in a secondary wastewater effluent and deploying a novel high-performance liquid chromatography-photochemical reaction-chemiluminescence (HPLC-PR-CL) analytical technique. The HPLC-PR-CL analytical technique allowed for a systematic examination of the correlation between the fouling level and the permeation of N-nitrosamines in the secondary wastewater effluent and synthetic wastewaters through an RO membrane...
April 3, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431327/dendrimer-conjugated-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-as-stimuli-responsive-drug-carriers-for-thermally-activated-chemotherapy-of-cancer
#12
Saumya Nigam, Dhirendra Bahadur
In recent years, functional nanomaterials have found an appreciable place in the understanding and treatment of cancer. This work demonstrates the fabrication and characterization of a new class of cationic, biocompatible, peptide dendrimers, which were then used for stabilizing and functionalizing magnetite nanoparticles for combinatorial therapy of cancer. The synthesized peptide dendrimers have an edge over the widely used PAMAM dendrimers due to better biocompatibility and negligible cytotoxicity of their degradation products...
April 13, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430955/measurement-of-platelet-counts-and-volume-using-magnesium-sulfate-as-an-anticoagulant-%C3%A2-comparison-of-impedance-and-light-scatter-technology
#13
Steffen Mannuß, Peter Kohlschein, Katrin Dreißiger, Peter Schuff-Werner
Objectives: Magnesium sulfate (MgSO 4 ) was recently reported as an alternative in vitro anticoagulant in pseudo-thrombocytopenia. Its suitability as an anticoagulant for the determination of reliable platelet parameters is the subject of this study. Methods: Platelet count and mean platelet volume were measured in blood samples anticoagulated with EDTA and MgSO 4 and compared. The platelet parameters were determined by impedance (XE 5000 [Sysmex, Norderstedt, Germany]; DxH 800 [Beckman-Coulter, Krefeld, Germany]) and laser light-scatter technology (Advia 120 [Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Eschborn, Germany])...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430411/2-methylimidazole-derived-ni-co-layered-double-hydroxide-nanosheets-as-high-rate-capability-and-high-energy-density-storage-material-in-hybrid-supercapacitors
#14
Teng Wang, Shengli Zhang, Xingbin Yan, Miaoqiang Lyu, Lianzhou Wang, John M Bell, Hongxia Wang
A new method based on one-step solvothermal reaction is demonstrated to synthesize ultrathin Ni-Co layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheets which grow directly on a flexible carbon fiber cloth (NiCo-LDH/CFC). Through using 2-methylimidazole as complex and methanol as solvent, the as-prepared NiCo-LDH/CFC shows a (003) facet preferential growth and an expanded interlayer spacing structure, resulting in a unique 3D porous nanostructure with the thickness of nanosheets around 5-7 nm that shows high energy storage performance...
April 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430358/regulation-of-axon-arborization-pattern-in-the-developing-chick-ciliary-ganglion-possible-involvement-of-caspase-3
#15
Hidetaka Katow, Teppei Kanaya, Tomohisa Ogawa, Ryo Egawa, Hiromu Yawo
During a certain critical period in the development of the central and peripheral nervous systems, axonal branches and synapses are massively reorganized to form mature connections. In this process, neurons search their appropriate targets, expanding and/or retracting their axons. Recent work suggested that the caspase superfamily regulates the axon morphology. Here, we tested the hypothesis that caspase 3, which is one of the major executioners in apoptotic cell death, is involved in regulating the axon arborization...
April 21, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430228/quantum-dot-semiconductor-optical-amplifier-role-of-second-excited-state-on-ultrahigh-bit-rate-signal-processing
#16
Seyed Mohsen Izadyar, Mohammad Razaghi, Abdollah Hassanzadeh
In this paper, a theoretical model for a quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifier (QDSOA) is proposed. The dynamics of carriers in ground, excited, and continuum states and wetting layer are considered in this model. The effects of the second excited state (ES2) inclusion are investigated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, in the proposed QDSOA model. Moreover, the inhomogeneous broadening effect due to size distribution of dots, and the homogeneous broadening effect of a single dot in the gain spectrum by grouping of dots based on their optical resonant frequency, are included in the model...
April 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430148/a-rapid-magnetic-solid-phase-extraction-method-followed-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-analysis-for-the-determination-of-mycotoxins-in-cereals
#17
Giorgia La Barbera, Anna Laura Capriotti, Chiara Cavaliere, Patrizia Foglia, Carmela Maria Montone, Riccardo Zenezini Chiozzi, Aldo Laganà
Mycotoxins can contaminate various food commodities, including cereals. Moreover, mycotoxins of different classes can co-contaminate food, increasing human health risk. Several analytical methods have been published in the literature dealing with mycotoxins determination in cereals. Nevertheless, in the present work, the aim was to propose an easy and effective system for the extraction of six of the main mycotoxins from corn meal and durum wheat flour, i.e., the main four aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, and the mycoestrogen zearalenone...
April 21, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429589/inhibition-of-zero-drift-in-the-perovskite-based-photodetector-devices-via-pcbm-doping
#18
Yintao Liu, Renxu Jia, Yucheng Wang, Ziyang Hu, Yuming Zhang, Tiqiang Pang, Yuejin Zhu, Suzhen Luan
The zero drift can severely deteriorate the stability of light-dark current ratio, detectivity and responsivity of the photodetectors. In this paper, the effects of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) doped perovskite based photodetector device on the inhibition of zero drift under dark state are discusses. Two kinds of photodetectors (Au/CH3NH3PbIxCl3-x/Au and Au/CH3NH3PbIxCl3-x:PCBM/Au) are prepared, and the materials and photodetector devices are measured by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, ultra-violet absorption spectra, current-voltage and current-time...
April 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429509/co2-permeability-and-carbonic-anhydrase-activity-of-rat-cardiomyocytes
#19
Mariela Arias-Hidalgo, Samer Al-Samir, Natalie Weber, Cornelia Geers-Knörr, Gerolf Gros, Volker Endeward
AIM: We determine here the CO2 permeability (PCO2 ) of plasma membranes of cardiomyocytes. These cells were chosen because heart possesses the highest rate of O2 -consumption/CO2 -production in the body. METHODS: Cardiomyocytes were isolated from rat hearts using the Langendorff technique. Cardiomyocyte suspensions exhibited a vitality of 2-14% and were studied by the previously described mass spectrometric (18) O-exchange-technique deriving PCO2 . We show by mass spectrometry and by carbonic anhydrase (CA)-staining that non-vital cardiomyocytes are free of CA and thus do not contribute to the mass spectrometric signal, which is determined exclusively by the fully functional vital cardiomyocytes...
April 20, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429050/assessment-of-cr-ni-and-pb-pollution-in-rural-agricultural-soils-of-tonalite-trondjhemite-series-in-central-india
#20
Kriti Shukla, Bijendra Kumar, Rahul Agrawal, Kumari Priyanka, Madavi Venkatesh, Anshumali
Chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) contamination was investigated in wheat cultivated rain-fed and irrigated rural agricultural soils (n = 31) of Tonalite-Trondjhemite Series in Central India. The soil sampling was carried out by using stratified random sampling method. The mean concentrations of Cr, Ni and Pb were 54.8, 38.1 and 68.9 mg/kg, respectively. The average values of enrichment factor (EF), geoaccumulation index (I geo ) and contamination factor (CF) followed the order as: Pb > Ni > Cr...
April 20, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
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