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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820427/a-review-of-the-neuropsychological-dimensions-of-tourette-syndrome
#1
REVIEW
Simon Morand-Beaulieu, Julie B Leclerc, Philippe Valois, Marc E Lavoie, Kieron P O'Connor, Bruno Gauthier
Neurocognitive functioning in Tourette syndrome (TS) has been the subject of intensive research in the past 30 years. A variety of impairments, presumably related to frontal and frontostriatal dysfunctions, have been observed. These impairments were found in various domains, such as attention, memory, executive functions, language, motor and visuomotor functions, among others. In line with contemporary research, other neurocognitive domains have recently been explored in TS, bringing evidence of altered social reasoning, for instance...
August 18, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816636/the-distress-thermometer-predicts-subjective-but-not-objective-cognitive-complaints-six-months-after-treatment-initiation-in-cancer-patients-receiving-a-curative-cancer-treatment
#2
Michelle Lycke, Tessa Lefebvre, Lies Pottel, Hans Pottel, Lore Ketelaars, Karin Stellamans, Koen Van Eygen, Philippe Vergauwe, Patrick Werbrouck, Laurence Goethals, Patricia Schofield, Tom Boterberg, Philip R Debruyne
OBJECTIVES: Research has indicated that cancer-related cognitive impairments (CRCI) may be influenced by psychosocial factors such as distress, worry and fatigue. Therefore, we aimed to validate the distress thermometer (DT) as a screening tool to detect CRCI six months post treatment initiation in a group of general cancer patients. METHODS: Patients(18 years, n 125) with a histologically confirmed diagnosis of a solid cancer or haematological malignancy, scheduled for a curative treatment, were evaluated at baseline (T0) and six months post-treatment initiation (T1) for CRCI by a neuropsychological assessment including patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs)...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Psychosocial Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814843/effects-of-hearing-loss-on-speech-recognition-under-distracting-conditions-and-working-memory-in-the-elderly
#3
Wondo Na, Gibbeum Kim, Gungu Kim, Woojae Han, Jinsook Kim
PURPOSE: The current study aimed to evaluate hearing-related changes in terms of speech-in-noise processing, fast-rate speech processing, and working memory; and to identify which of these three factors is significantly affected by age-related hearing loss. METHODS: One hundred subjects aged 65-84 years participated in the study. They were classified into four groups ranging from normal hearing to moderate-to-severe hearing loss. All the participants were tested for speech perception in quiet and noisy conditions and for speech perception with time alteration in quiet conditions...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814466/interaction-of-induced-anxiety-and-verbal-working-memory-influence-of-trait-anxiety
#4
Nilam Patel, Catherine Stoodley, Daniel S Pine, Christian Grillon, Monique Ernst
This study examines the influence of trait anxiety on working memory (WM) in safety and threat. Interactions between experimentally induced anxiety and WM performance (on different cognitive loads) have been reported in healthy, nonanxious subjects. Differences in trait anxiety may moderate these interactions. Accordingly, these interactions may be potentiated by high trait anxiety (HTA), or show a resilient pattern that protects cognitive performance. HTA and low trait anxiety (LTA) were defined by a median split of scores on the trait component of the state-trait anxiety inventory...
September 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814464/on-the-transition-from-reconsolidation-to-extinction-of-contextual-fear-memories
#5
Lindsey F Cassini, Charlotte R Flavell, Olavo B Amaral, Jonathan L C Lee
Retrieval of an associative memory can lead to different phenomena. Brief reexposure sessions tend to trigger reconsolidation, whereas more extended ones trigger extinction. In appetitive and fear cued Pavlovian memories, an intermediate "null point" period has been observed where neither process seems to be engaged. Here we investigated whether this phenomenon extends to contextual fear memory. Adult rats were subjected to a contextual fear conditioning paradigm, reexposed to the context 2 d later for 3, 5, 10, 20, or 30 min, with immediate injections of MK-801 or saline following reexposure, and tested on the following day...
September 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802897/the-different-effects-of-lithium-and-tamoxifen-on-memory-formation-and-the-levels-of-neurotrophic-factors-in-the-brain-of-male-and-female-rats
#6
Samira S Valvassori, Cenita Borges, Roger B Varela, Daniela V Bavaresco, Guilherme Bianchini, Edemilson Mariot, Camila O Arent, Wilson R Resende, Josiane Budni, João Quevedo
Lithium (Li) is a mood-stabilizing drug used in the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD). Recently, preclinical studies have demonstrated the potential of tamoxifen (TMX) in the treatment of acute episodes of BD. However, the prolonged use of TMX for mood disorders treatment is controversial. In this study, we evaluated the effects of TMX or Li on cognitive behavior, as well as the levels of neurotrophic factors in the brain of male and female rats. Male and female Wistar rats received administrations of water (control group), TMX or Li via gavage for a period of 28 days; the rats were then subjected to the open-field test (to evaluate spontaneous locomotion), and the novel object recognition and step-down inhibitory avoidance tests (to evaluate cognition)...
August 9, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802628/physical-activity-domains-and-cognitive-function-over-three-years-in-older-adults-with-subjective-memory-complaints-secondary-analysis-from-the-mapt-trial
#7
Philipe de Souto Barreto, Sandrine Andrieu, Yves Rolland, Bruno Vellas
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine the associations of physical activity (PA) domains (i.e., PA in leisure-time (LTPA), for housework (HPA), or for gardening (GPA)) with cognitive function in older adults with subjective memory complaints (no-dementia) and to investigate if those associations were dependent on the status of apolipoprotein E allele 4 (APOE4), omega-3 levels and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). DESIGN: Observational prospective secondary analysis using longitudinal data from a randomized controlled trial...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801245/episodic-future-thinking-and-future-based-decision-making-in-a-case-of-retrograde-amnesia
#8
Flavia De Luca, Francesca Benuzzi, Elena Bertossi, Davide Braghittoni, Giuseppe di Pellegrino, Elisa Ciaramelli
We investigated episodic future thinking (EFT) and future-based cognition and decision-making in patient SG, who developed a dense retrograde amnesia following hypoxia due to a cardiac arrest. Despite intact general cognitive and executive functioning, SG was unable to remember events from his entire lifetime. He had, however, relatively spared anterograde memory and general semantic knowledge. Voxel-based morphometry detected a reduction of gray matter in the thalamus, cerebellum and fusiform gyrus bilaterally, and, at a reduced threshold, in several regions of the autobiographical memory network, including the hippocampi...
August 9, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799862/disrupted-topologic-efficiency-of-white-matter-structural-connectome-in-individuals-with-subjective-cognitive-decline
#9
Ni Shu, Xiaoni Wang, Qiuhui Bi, Tengda Zhao, Ying Han
Purpose To determine whether individuals with subjective cognitive decline (SCD), which is defined by memory complaints with normal performance at objective neuropsychologic examinations, exhibit disruptions of white matter (WM) connectivity and topologic alterations of the brain structural connectome. Materials and Methods Diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance imaging and graph theory approaches were used to investigate the topologic organization of the brain structural connectome in 36 participants with SCD (21 women: mean age, 62...
August 11, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798682/a-novel-virtual-reality-based-training-protocol-for-the-enhancement-of-the-mental-frame-syncing-in-individuals-with-alzheimer-s-disease-a-development-of-concept-trial
#10
Silvia Serino, Elisa Pedroli, Cosimo Tuena, Gianluca De Leo, Marco Stramba-Badiale, Karine Goulene, Noemi G Mariotti, Giuseppe Riva
A growing body of evidence suggests that people with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) show compromised spatial abilities. In addition, there exists from the earliest stages of AD a specific impairment in "mental frame syncing," which is the ability to synchronize an allocentric viewpoint-independent representation (including object-to-object information) with an egocentric one by computing the bearing of each relevant "object" in the environment in relation to the stored heading in space (i.e., information about our viewpoint contained in the allocentric viewpoint-dependent representation)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797640/a-comprehensive-literature-review-of-chronic-pain-and-memory
#11
REVIEW
Stéphanie Mazza, Maud Frot, Amandine E Rey
Chronic pain patients often complain of their "poor memory" and numerous studies objectively confirmed such difficulties in reporting working memory (WM) and long-term memory (LTM) dysfunctions. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the literature on memory impairment in chronic pain (CP) patients. Twenty-four observational studies evaluating WM or/and LTM in a chronic pain group and a control group were included in this review. Results showed that studies consistently reported a moderate decline, in both WM and LTM performances in CP patients...
August 7, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797312/self-perceived-difficulties-in-everyday-function-precede-cognitive-decline-among-older-adults-in-the-active-study
#12
Sarah Tomaszewski Farias, Tania Giovannetti, Brennan R Payne, Michael Marsiske, George W Rebok, K Warner Schaie, Kelsey R Thomas, Sherry L Willis, Joseph M Dzierzewski, Frederick Unverzagt, Alden L Gross
OBJECTIVES: Careful characterization of how functional decline co-evolves with cognitive decline in older adults has yet to be well described. Most models of neurodegenerative disease postulate that cognitive decline predates and potentially leads to declines in everyday functional abilities; however, there is mounting evidence that subtle decline in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) may be detectable in older individuals who are still cognitively normal. METHODS: The present study examines how the relationship between change in cognition and change in IADLs are best characterized among older adults who participated in the ACTIVE trial...
August 11, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793933/can-cognitive-assessment-really-discriminate-early-stages-of-alzheimer-s-and-behavioural-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-at-initial-clinical-presentation
#13
Sophia Reul, Hubertus Lohmann, Heinz Wiendl, Thomas Duning, Andreas Johnen
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychological testing is considered crucial for differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). In-depth neuropsychological assessment revealed specific dysfunctions in the two dementia syndromes. However, a significant overlap of cognitive impairments exists in early disease stages. We questioned whether a standard neuropsychological assessment at initial clinical presentation can delineate patients with AD versus bvFTD...
August 9, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793258/crucial-roles-for-sirt2-and-ampa-receptor-acetylation-in-synaptic-plasticity-and-memory
#14
Guan Wang, Shaomin Li, James Gilbert, Howard J Gritton, Zemin Wang, Zhangyuan Li, Xue Han, Dennis J Selkoe, Heng-Ye Man
AMPA receptors (AMPARs) mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission and are crucial for synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. However, the molecular control of AMPAR stability and its neurophysiological significance remain unclear. Here, we report that AMPARs are subject to lysine acetylation at their C termini. Acetylation reduces AMPAR internalization and degradation, leading to increased cell-surface localization and prolonged receptor half-life. Through competition for the same lysine residues, acetylation intensity is inversely related to the levels of AMPAR ubiquitination...
August 8, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792528/microstructural-analyses-of-the-posterior-cerebellar-lobules-in-relapsing-onset-multiple-sclerosis-and-their-implication-in-cognitive-impairment
#15
Amandine Moroso, Aurélie Ruet, Delphine Lamargue-Hamel, Fanny Munsch, Mathilde Deloire, Pierrick Coupé, Julie Charré-Morin, Aurore Saubusse, Jean-Christophe Ouallet, Vincent Planche, Thomas Tourdias, Vincent Dousset, Bruno Brochet
BACKGROUND: The posterior cerebellar lobules seem to be the anatomical substrate of cognitive cerebellar processes, but their microstructural alterations in multiple sclerosis (MS) remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: To correlate diffusion metrics in lobules VI to VIIIb in persons with clinically isolated syndrome (PwCIS) and in cognitively impaired persons with MS (CIPwMS) with their cognitive performances. METHODS: Sixty-nine patients (37 PwCIS, 32 CIPwMS) and 36 matched healthy subjects (HS) underwent 3T magnetic resonance imaging, including 3D T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792155/altered-functional-connectivity-of-the-default-mode-network-in-low-empathy-subjects
#16
Seung Jun Kim, Sung Eun Kim, Hyo Eun Kim, Kiwan Han, Bumseok Jeong, Jae Jin Kim, Kee Namkoong, Ji Woong Kim
Empathy is the ability to identify with or make a vicariously experience of another person's feelings or thoughts based on memory and/or self-referential mental simulation. The default mode network in particular is related to self-referential empathy. In order to elucidate the possible neural mechanisms underlying empathy, we investigated the functional connectivity of the default mode network in subjects from a general population. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired from 19 low-empathy subjects and 18 medium-empathy subjects...
September 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790908/multi-kernel-learning-with-dartel-improves-combined-mri-pet-classification-of-alzheimer-s-disease-in-aibl-data-group-and-individual-analyses
#17
Vahab Youssofzadeh, Bernadette McGuinness, Liam P Maguire, KongFatt Wong-Lin
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) are neuroimaging modalities typically used for evaluating brain changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Due to their complementary nature, their combination can provide more accurate AD diagnosis or prognosis. In this work, we apply a multi-modal imaging machine-learning framework to enhance AD classification and prediction of diagnosis of subject-matched gray matter MRI and Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-PET data related to 58 AD, 108 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 120 healthy elderly (HE) subjects from the Australian imaging, biomarkers and lifestyle (AIBL) dataset...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782411/on-road-assessment-of-fitness-to-drive-in-persons-with-ms-with-cognitive-impairment-a-prospective-study
#18
Sarah A Morrow, Sherrilene Classen, Miriam Monahan, Tim Danter, Robert Taylor, Sarah Krasniuk, Heather Rosehart, Wenqing He
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is common in multiple sclerosis (MS). In other populations, cognitive impairment is known to affect fitness-to-drive. Few studies have focused on fitness-to-drive in MS and no studies have solely focused on the influence of cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVE: To assess fitness-to-drive in persons with MS with cognitive impairment and low physical disability. METHODS: Persons with MS, aged 18-59 years with EDSS ⩽ 4...
August 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777058/causal-evidence-from-humans-for-the-role-of-mediodorsal-nucleus-of-the-thalamus-in-working-memory
#19
Jari Peräkylä, Lihua Sun, Kai Lehtimäki, Jukka Peltola, Juha Öhman, Timo Möttönen, Keith H Ogawa, Kaisa M Hartikainen
The mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD) with its extensive connections to the lateral pFC has been implicated in human working memory and executive functions. However, this understanding is based solely on indirect evidence from human lesion and imaging studies and animal studies. Direct, causal evidence from humans is missing. To obtain direct evidence for MD's role in humans, we studied patients treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS) for refractory epilepsy. This treatment is thought to prevent the generalization of a seizure by disrupting the functioning of the patient's anterior nuclei of the thalamus (ANT) with high-frequency electric stimulation...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774351/cross-disorder-cognitive-impairments-in-youth-referred-for-neuropsychiatric-evaluation
#20
Alysa E Doyle, Pieter J Vuijk, Nathan D Doty, Lauren M McGrath, Brian L Willoughby, Ellen H O'Donnell, H Kent Wilson, Mary K Colvin, Deanna C Toner, Kelsey E Hudson, Jessica E Blais, Hillary L Ditmars, Stephen V Faraone, Larry J Seidman, Ellen B Braaten
OBJECTIVES: Studies suggest that impairments in some of the same domains of cognition occur in different neuropsychiatric conditions, including those known to share genetic liability. Yet, direct, multi-disorder cognitive comparisons are limited, and it remains unclear whether overlapping deficits are due to comorbidity. We aimed to extend the literature by examining cognition across different neuropsychiatric conditions and addressing comorbidity. METHODS: Subjects were 486 youth consecutively referred for neuropsychiatric evaluation and enrolled in the Longitudinal Study of Genetic Influences on Cognition...
August 4, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
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