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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913990/sirukumab-a-potential-treatment-for-mood-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Aileen J Zhou, Yena Lee, Giacomo Salvadore, Benjamin Hsu, Trehani M Fonseka, Sidney H Kennedy, Roger S McIntyre
Convergent evidence indicates that abnormalities in the innate immune system may be pertinent to the pathogenesis, phenomenology, and possible treatment of several mental disorders. In keeping with this view, the targeting of interleukin-6 with the human monoclonal antibody sirukumab may represent a possible treatment and disease modification approach, for adults with brain-based disorders (e.g., major depressive disorder). A PubMed/Medline database search was performed using the following search terms: sirukumab; anti-IL-6; IL-6; major depressive disorder; inflammation...
December 2, 2016: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913431/pro-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-probdnf-mediated-p75ntr-activation-promotes-depolarizing-actions-of-gaba-and-increases-susceptibility-to-epileptic-seizures
#2
Baptiste Riffault, Nazim Kourdougli, Camille Dumon, Nadine Ferrand, Emmanuelle Buhler, Fabienne Schaller, Caroline Chambon, Claudio Rivera, Jean-Luc Gaiarsa, Christophe Porcher
The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is synthesized as a precursor, namely proBDNF, which can be processed into mature BDNF (mBDNF). Evidences suggest that proBDNF signaling through p75(NTR) may account for the emergence of neurological disorders. These findings support the view that the relative availability of mBDNF and proBDNF forms is an important mechanism underlying brain circuit formation and cognitive functions. Here we describe novel insights into the proBDNF/p75(NTR) mechanisms and function in vivo in modulating neuronal circuit and synaptic plasticity during the first postnatal weeks in rats...
December 1, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913430/cortical-circuit-for-binding-object-identity-and-location-during-multiple-object-tracking
#3
Lauri Nummenmaa, Lauri Oksama, Erico Glerean, Jukka Hyönä
Sustained multifocal attention for moving targets requires binding object identities with their locations. The brain mechanisms of identity-location binding during attentive tracking have remained unresolved. In 2 functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments, we measured participants' hemodynamic activity during attentive tracking of multiple objects with equivalent (multiple-object tracking) versus distinct (multiple identity tracking, MIT) identities. Task load was manipulated parametrically. Both tasks activated large frontoparietal circuits...
December 1, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913404/default-mode-network-connectivity-traumatic-brain-injury-and-post-traumatic-amnesia
#4
Erin D Bigler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913387/using-multivariate-base-rates-to-interpret-low-scores-on-an-abbreviated-battery-of-the-delis-kaplan-executive-function-system
#5
Justin E Karr, Mauricio A Garcia-Barrera, James A Holdnack, Grant L Iverson
OBJECTIVE: Executive function consists of multiple cognitive processes that operate as an interactive system to produce volitional goal-oriented behavior, governed in large part by frontal microstructural and physiological networks. Identification of deficits in executive function in those with neurological or psychiatric conditions can be difficult because the normal variation in executive function test scores, in healthy adults when multiple tests are used, is largely unknown. This study addresses that gap in the literature by examining the prevalence of low scores on a brief battery of executive function tests...
December 1, 2016: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913359/network-unfolding-map-by-vertex-edge-dynamics-modeling
#6
Filipe Alves Neto Verri, Paulo Roberto Urio, Liang Zhao
The emergence of collective dynamics in neural networks is a mechanism of the animal and human brain for information processing. In this paper, we develop a computational technique using distributed processing elements in a complex network, which are called particles, to solve semisupervised learning problems. Three actions govern the particles' dynamics: generation, walking, and absorption. Labeled vertices generate new particles that compete against rival particles for edge domination. Active particles randomly walk in the network until they are absorbed by either a rival vertex or an edge currently dominated by rival particles...
November 29, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913167/gamma-band-directional-interactions-between-basal-forebrain-and-visual-cortex-during-wake-and-sleep-states
#7
Jayakrishnan Nair, Arndt-Lukas Klaassen, Jordan Poirot, Alexei Vyssotski, Björn Rasch, Gregor Rainer
The basal forebrain (BF) is an important regulator of cortical excitability and responsivity to sensory stimuli, and plays a major role in wake-sleep regulation. While the impact of BF on cortical EEG or LFP signals has been extensively documented, surprisingly little is known about LFP activity within BF. Based on bilateral recordings from rats in their home cage, we describe endogenous LFP oscillations in the BF during quiet wakefulness, rapid eye movement (REM) and slow wave sleep (SWS) states. Using coherence and Granger causality methods, we characterize directional influences between BF and visual cortex (VC) during each of these states...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912160/successful-group-psychotherapy-of-depression-in-adolescents-alters-fronto-limbic-resting-state-connectivity
#8
J Straub, C D Metzger, P L Plener, M G Koelch, G Groen, B Abler
BACKGROUND: Current resting state imaging findings support suggestions that the neural signature of depression and therefore also its therapy should be conceptualized as a network disorder rather than a dysfunction of specific brain regions. In this study, we compared neural connectivity of adolescent patients with depression (PAT) and matched healthy controls (HC) and analysed pre-to-post changes of seed-based network connectivities in PAT after participation in a cognitive behavioral group psychotherapy (CBT)...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911805/functional-split-brain-in-a-driving-listening-paradigm
#9
Shuntaro Sasai, Melanie Boly, Armand Mensen, Giulio Tononi
We often engage in two concurrent but unrelated activities, such as driving on a quiet road while listening to the radio. When we do so, does our brain split into functionally distinct entities? To address this question, we imaged brain activity with fMRI in experienced drivers engaged in a driving simulator while listening either to global positioning system instructions (integrated task) or to a radio show (split task). We found that, compared with the integrated task, the split task was characterized by reduced multivariate functional connectivity between the driving and listening networks...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911747/new-developments-in-understanding-the-complexity-of-human-speech-production
#10
Kristina Simonyan, Hermann Ackermann, Edward F Chang, Jeremy D Greenlee
Speech is one of the most unique features of human communication. Our ability to articulate our thoughts by means of speech production depends critically on the integrity of the motor cortex. Long thought to be a low-order brain region, exciting work in the past years is overturning this notion. Here, we highlight some of major experimental advances in speech motor control research and discuss the emerging findings about the complexity of speech motocortical organization and its large-scale networks. This review summarizes the talks presented at a symposium at the Annual Meeting of the Society of Neuroscience; it does not represent a comprehensive review of contemporary literature in the broader field of speech motor control...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911416/the-indirect-neuron-astrocyte-coculture-assay-an-in-vitro-set-up-for-the-detailed-investigation-of-neuron-glia-interactions
#11
Christine Gottschling, Egor Dzyubenko, Maren Geissler, Andreas Faissner
Proper neuronal development and function is the prerequisite of the developing and the adult brain. However, the mechanisms underlying the highly controlled formation and maintenance of complex neuronal networks are not completely understood thus far. The open questions concerning neurons in health and disease are diverse and reaching from understanding the basic development to investigating human related pathologies, e.g., Alzheimer's disease and Schizophrenia. The most detailed analysis of neurons can be performed in vitro...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911308/the-effects-of-gene-mutations-on%C3%A2-default%C3%A2-mode-network-in%C3%A2-familial%C3%A2-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Xiaozhen Li, Eric Westman, Steinunn Thordardottir, Anne Kinhult Ståhlbom, Ove Almkvist, Kaj Blennow, Lars-Olof Wahlund, Caroline Graff
Familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) mutations have very high penetrance but age at onset and rate of disease progression differ. Neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examinations in mutation carriers (MCs) may provide an opportunity to identify early biomarkers that can be used to track disease progression from presymptomatic to the dementia stages of disease. The default mode network (DMN) is a resting state neuronal network composed of regions known to associate with amyloid deposition in AD. We hypothesized that functional connectivity in the DMN might change at pre-clinical stages in FAD MCs and correlate with changes in CSF biomarkers as a consequence of AD brain pathology...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911303/amylin-treatment-reduces-neuroinflammation-and-ameliorates-abnormal-patterns-of-gene-expression-in%C3%A2-the-cerebral-cortex-of-an-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-model
#13
Erming Wang, Haihao Zhu, Xiaofan Wang, Adam Gower, Max Wallack, Jan Krzysztof Blusztajn, Neil Kowall, Wei Qiao Qiu
Our recent study has demonstrated that peripheral amylin treatment reduces the amyloid pathology in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse models, and improves their learning and memory. We hypothesized that the beneficial effects of amylin for AD was beyond reducing the amyloids in the brain, and have now directly tested the actions of amylin on other aspects of AD pathogenesis, especially neuroinflammation. A 10-week course of peripheral amylin treatment significantly reduced levels of cerebral inflammation markers, Cd68 and Iba1, in amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911289/the-brain-s-structural-connectome-mediates-the-relationship-between-regional-neuroimaging-biomarkers-in%C3%A2-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Sneha Pandya, Amy Kuceyeski, Ashish Raj
Alzheimer's disease (AD), one of the most common causes of dementia in adults, is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder exhibiting well-defined neuropathological hallmarks. It is known that disease pathology involves misfolded amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau proteins, and exhibits a relatively stereotyped progression over decades. The relationship between AD neuropathological hallmarks (Aβ, hypometabolism, and tau proteins) and imaging biomarkers (MRI, AV-45/FDG-PET) is not fully understood. In addition, biomarker pathologies are oftentimes discordant, wherein it may show varying levels of abnormality across brain regions...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911020/changes-in-resting-state-connectivity-in-musicians-with-embouchure-dystonia
#15
Bernhard Haslinger, Jonas Noé, Eckart Altenmüller, Valentin Riedl, Claus Zimmer, Tobias Mantel, Christian Dresel
OBJECTIVE: Embouchure dystonia is a highly disabling task-specific dystonia in professional brass musicians leading to spasms of perioral muscles while playing the instrument. As they are asymptomatic at rest, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in these patients can reveal changes in functional connectivity within and between brain networks independent from dystonic symptoms. METHODS: We therefore compared embouchure dystonia patients to healthy musicians with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in combination with independent component analyses...
December 2, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910222/cyclic-vomiting-syndrome-is-characterized-by-altered-functional-brain-connectivity-of-the-insular-cortex-a-cross-comparison-with-migraine-and-healthy-adults
#16
D-M Ellingsen, R G Garcia, J Lee, R L Lin, J Kim, A H Thurler, S Castel, L Dimisko, B R Rosen, N Hadjikhani, B Kuo, V Napadow
Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome (CVS) has been linked to episodic migraine, yet little is known about the precise brain-based mechanisms underpinning CVS, and whether these associated conditions share similar pathophysiology. We investigated the functional integrity of salience (SLN) and sensorimotor (SMN) intrinsic connectivity networks in CVS, migraine and healthy controls using brain functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. CVS, relative to both migraine and controls, showed increased SLN connectivity to middle/posterior insula, a key brain region for nausea and viscerosensory processing...
December 1, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909828/the-dopamine-related-polymorphisms-bdnf-comt-drd2-drd3-and-drd4-are-not-linked-with-changes-in-csf-dopamine-levels-and-frequency-of-hiv-infection
#17
Anne Horn, C Scheller, S du Plessis, R Burger, G Arendt, J Joska, S Sopper, C M Maschke, M Obermann, I W Husstedt, J Hain, P Riederer, E Koutsilieri
We showed previously that higher levels in CSF dopamine in HIV patients are associated with the presence of the dopamine transporter (DAT) 10/10-repeat allele which was also detected more frequently in HIV-infected individuals compared to uninfected subjects. In the current study, we investigated further whether other genetic dopamine (DA)-related polymorphisms may be related with changes in CSF DA levels and frequency of HIV infection in HIV-infected subjects. Specifically, we studied genetic polymorphisms of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, catechol-O-methyltransferase, and dopamine receptors DRD2, DRD3, and DRD4 genetic polymorphisms in uninfected and HIV-infected people in two different ethnical groups, a German cohort (Caucasian, 72 individuals with HIV infection and 22 individuals without HIV infection) and a South African cohort (Xhosan, 54 individuals with HIV infection and 19 individuals without HIV infection)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909422/the-role-of-medial-frontal-cortex-in-action-anticipation-in-professional-badminton-players
#18
Huan Xu, Pin Wang, Zhuo'er Ye, Xin Di, Guiping Xu, Lei Mo, Huiyan Lin, Hengyi Rao, Hua Jin
Some studies show that the medial frontal cortex is associated with more skilled action anticipation, while similar findings are not observed in some other studies, possibly due to the stimuli employed and the participants used as the control group. In addition, no studies have investigated whether there is any functional connectivity between the medial frontal cortex and other brain regions in more skilled action anticipation. Therefore, the present study aimed to re-investigate how the medial frontal cortex is involved in more skilled action anticipation by circumventing the limitations of previous research and to investigate that the medial frontal cortex functionally connected with other brain regions involved in action processing in more skilled action anticipation...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909421/metacognition-and-perspective-taking-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-mini-review
#19
REVIEW
Elodie Bertrand, Jesus Landeira-Fernandez, Daniel C Mograbi
Metacognition refers to the monitoring and regulation of cognitive processes and its impairment can lead to a lack of self-awareness of deficits, or anosognosia. In the context of different neurological and psychiatric disorders (e.g., traumatic brain injury, dementia, and schizophrenia), studies have shown that patients who present impairments in metacognitive abilities may be able to recognize such difficulties in others and in themselves when exposed to material in a third-person perspective. Considering that metacognitive impairments are an important characteristic of dementia, especially in Alzheimer's Disease (AD), studies of the relationship between metacognition and perspective-taking may be relevant to improve the quality of life of people with dementia...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909410/mechanosensitive-molecular-networks-involved-in-transducing-resistance-exercise-signals-into-muscle-protein-accretion
#20
REVIEW
Emil Rindom, Kristian Vissing
Loss of skeletal muscle myofibrillar protein with disease and/or inactivity can severely deteriorate muscle strength and function. Strategies to counteract wasting of muscle myofibrillar protein are therefore desirable and invite for considerations on the potential superiority of specific modes of resistance exercise and/or the adequacy of low load resistance exercise regimens as well as underlying mechanisms. In this regard, delineation of the potentially mechanosensitive molecular mechanisms underlying muscle protein synthesis (MPS), may contribute to an understanding on how differentiated resistance exercise can transduce a mechanical signal into stimulation of muscle accretion...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
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