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Brain networks

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684751/shedding-new-light-on-disorders-of-consciousness-diagnosis-the-dynamic-functional-connectivity
#1
Antonino Naro, Alessia Bramanti, Antonino Leo, Alberto Cacciola, Alfredo Manuli, Placido Bramanti, Rocco S Calabrò
It has been proposed that awareness may depend on the highly-dynamic functional connectivity of large-scale cortico-thalamo-cortical networks. We investigated how brain connectivity changes over time in the resting state in a group of patients with chronic disorders of consciousness (DoC). To this end, we assessed dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) in the resting state by analyzing the time-dependent EEG phase synchronization in five frequency bands (δ, θ, α, β, and γ). Patients in Minimally Conscious State (MCS) showed changes in DFC matrices and topography over time (mainly in the γ range), which were significantly different from those observed in patients with Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (UWS)...
April 4, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684465/an-asymptotic-theory-for-cross-correlation-between-auto-correlated-sequences-and-its-application-on-neuroimaging-data
#2
Yunyi Zhou, Chenyang Tao, Wenlian Lu, Jianfeng Feng
BACKGROUND: Functional connectivity is among the most important tools to study brain. The correlation coefficient, between time series of different brain areas, is the most popular method to quantify functional connectivity. Correlation coefficient in practical use assumes the data to be temporally independent. However, the time series data of brain can manifest significant temporal auto-correlation. NEW METHOD: A widely applicable method is proposed for correcting temporal auto-correlation...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684403/white-matter-pathways-and-social-cognition
#3
REVIEW
Yin Wang, Athanasia Metoki, Kylie H Alm, Ingrid R Olson
There is a growing consensus that social cognition and behavior emerge from interactions across distributed regions of the "social brain". Researchers have traditionally focused their attention on functional response properties of these gray matter networks and neglected the vital role of white matter connections in establishing such networks and their functions. In this article, we conduct a comprehensive review of prior research on structural connectivity in social neuroscience and highlight the importance of this literature in clarifying brain mechanisms of social cognition...
April 20, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684009/switchable-slow-cellular-conductances-determine-robustness-and-tunability-of-network-states
#4
Guillaume Drion, Julie Dethier, Alessio Franci, Rodolphe Sepulchre
Neuronal information processing is regulated by fast and localized fluctuations of brain states. Brain states reliably switch between distinct spatiotemporal signatures at a network scale even though they are composed of heterogeneous and variable rhythms at a cellular scale. We investigated the mechanisms of this network control in a conductance-based population model that reliably switches between active and oscillatory mean-fields. Robust control of the mean-field properties relies critically on a switchable negative intrinsic conductance at the cellular level...
April 23, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683806/role-of-network-science-in-the-study-of-anesthetic-state-transitions
#5
UnCheol Lee, George A Mashour
The heterogeneity of molecular mechanisms, target neural circuits, and neurophysiologic effects of general anesthetics makes it difficult to develop a reliable and drug-invariant index of general anesthesia. No single brain region or mechanism has been identified as the neural correlate of consciousness, suggesting that consciousness might emerge through complex interactions of spatially and temporally distributed brain functions. The goal of this review article is to introduce the basic concepts of networks and explain why the application of network science to general anesthesia could be a pathway to discover a fundamental mechanism of anesthetic-induced unconsciousness...
April 23, 2018: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683371/hippocampal-related-memory-network-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-structural-connectivity-analysis
#6
Sara Llufriu, Maria A Rocca, Elisabetta Pagani, Gianna C Riccitelli, Elisabeth Solana, Bruno Colombo, Mariaemma Rodegher, Andrea Falini, Giancarlo Comi, Massimo Filippi
BACKGROUND: We used graph theoretical analysis to quantify structural connectivity of the hippocampal-related episodic memory network and its association with memory performance in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. METHODS: Brain diffusion and T1-weighted sequences were obtained from 71 MS patients and 50 healthy controls (HCs). A total of 30 gray matter regions (selected a priori) were used as seeds to perform probabilistic tractography and create connectivity matrices...
April 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682858/natural-biological-variation-of-white-matter-microstructure-is-accentuated-in-huntington-s-disease
#7
Sarah Gregory, Helen Crawford, Kiran Seunarine, Blair Leavitt, Alexandra Durr, Raymund A C Roos, Rachael I Scahill, Sarah J Tabrizi, Geraint Rees, Douglas Langbehn, Michael Orth
Huntington's disease (HD) is a monogenic neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG-repeat expansion in the Huntingtin gene. Presence of this expansion signifies certainty of disease onset, but only partly explains age at which onset occurs. Genome-wide association studies have shown that naturally occurring genetic variability influences HD pathogenesis and disease onset. Investigating the influence of biological traits in the normal population, such as variability in white matter properties, on HD pathogenesis could provide a complementary approach to understanding disease modification...
April 22, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682852/novel-in-silico-multivariate-mapping-of-intrinsic-and-anticorrelated-connectivity-to-neurocognitive-functional-maps-supports-the-maturational-hypothesis-of-adhd
#8
Nina de Lacy, Ian Kodish, Srinivas Rachakonda, Vince D Calhoun
From childhood to adolescence, strengthened coupling in frontal, striatal and parieto-temporal regions associated with cognitive control, and increased anticorrelation between task-positive and task-negative circuits, subserve the reshaping of behavior. ADHD is a common condition peaking in adolescence and regressing in adulthood, with a wide variety of cognitive control deficits. Alternate hypotheses of ADHD emphasize lagging circuitry refinement versus categorical differences in network function. However, quantifying the individual circuit contributions to behavioral findings, and relative roles of maturational versus categorical effects, is challenging in vivo or in meta-analyses using task-based paradigms within the same pipeline, given the multiplicity of neurobehavioral functions implicated...
April 22, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682603/feedforward-inhibition-allows-input-summation-to-vary-in-recurrent-cortical-networks
#9
Mark H Histed
Brain computations depend on how neurons transform inputs to spike outputs. Here, to understand input-output transformations in cortical networks, we recorded spiking responses from visual cortex (V1) of awake mice of either sex while pairing sensory stimuli with optogenetic perturbation of excitatory and parvalbumin-positive inhibitory neurons. We found that V1 neurons' average responses were primarily additive (linear). We used a recurrent cortical network model to determine whether these data, as well as past observations of nonlinearity, could be described by a common circuit architecture...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682095/brain-responses-underlying-anthropomorphism-agency-and-social-attribution-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#10
Carla J Ammons, Constance F Doss, David Bala, Rajesh K Kana
Background: Theory of Mind (ToM), the ability to attribute mental states to oneself and others, is frequently impaired in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and may result from altered activation of social brain regions. Conversely, Typically Developing (TD) individuals overextend ToM and show a strong tendency to anthropomorphize and interpret biological motion in the environment. Less is known about how the degree of anthropomorphism influences intentional attribution and engagement of the social brain in ASD...
2018: Open Neuroimaging Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682074/language-mapping-in-awake-surgery-report-of-two-cases-with-review-of-language-networks
#11
Liang Hooi Lim, Zamzuri Idris, Faruque Reza, Wan Mohd Nazaruddin Wan Hassan, Laila Abd Mukmin, Jafri Malin Abdullah
The role of language in communication plays a crucial role in human development and function. In patients who have a surgical lesion at the functional language areas, surgery should be intricately planned to avoid incurring further morbidity. This normally requires extensive functional and anatomical mappings of the brain to identify regions that are involved in language processing and production. In our case report, regions of the brain that are important for language functions were studied before surgery by employing (a) extraoperative methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging, transmagnetic stimulation, and magnetoencephalography; (b) during the surgery by utilizing intraoperative awake surgical methods such as an intraoperative electrical stimulation; and (c) a two-stage surgery, in which electrical stimulation and first mapping are made thoroughly in the ward before second remapping during surgery...
April 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681926/photoperiod-induced-neuroplasticity-in-the-circadian-system
#12
REVIEW
Alessandra Porcu, Malini Riddle, Davide Dulcis, David K Welsh
Seasonal changes in light exposure have profound effects on behavioral and physiological functions in many species, including effects on mood and cognitive function in humans. The mammalian brain's master circadian clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), transmits information about external light conditions to other brain regions, including some implicated in mood and cognition. Although the detailed mechanisms are not yet known, the SCN undergoes highly plastic changes at the cellular and network levels under different light conditions...
2018: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681850/-tnfrsf12a-mediated-atherosclerosis-signaling-and-inflammatory-response-as-a-common-protection-mechanism-of-shuxuening-injection-against-both-myocardial-and-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injuries
#13
Ming Lyu, Ying Cui, Tiechan Zhao, Zhaochen Ning, Jie Ren, Xingpiao Jin, Guanwei Fan, Yan Zhu
Shuxuening injection (SXNI) is a widely prescribed herbal medicine of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGB) for cerebral and cardiovascular diseases in China. However, its curative effects on ischemic stroke and heart diseases and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Taking an integrated approach of RNA-seq and network pharmacology analysis, we compared transcriptome profiles of brain and heart ischemia reperfusion injury in C57BL/6J mice to identify common and differential target genes by SXNI. Models for myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (MIRI) by ligating left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) for 30 min ischemia and 24 h reperfusion and cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury (CIRI) by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 90 min ischemia and 24 h reperfusion were employed to identify the common mechanisms of SXNI on both cerebral and myocardial ischemia reperfusion...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681847/cholinergic-hypofunction-in-presbycusis-related-tinnitus-with-cognitive-function-impairment-emerging-hypotheses
#14
Qingwei Ruan, Zhuowei Yu, Weibin Zhang, Jian Ruan, Chunhui Liu, Ruxin Zhang
Presbycusis (age-related hearing loss) is a potential risk factor for tinnitus and cognitive deterioration, which result in poor life quality. Presbycusis-related tinnitus with cognitive impairment is a common phenotype in the elderly population. In these individuals, the central auditory system shows similar pathophysiological alterations as those observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), including cholinergic hypofunction, epileptiform-like network synchronization, chronic inflammation, and reduced GABAergic inhibition and neural plasticity...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681801/anatomy-based-networks-and-topology-alteration-in-seizure-related-cognitive-outcomes
#15
REVIEW
Qian Wu, Charlie W Zhao, Zhe Long, Bo Xiao, Li Feng
Epilepsy is a paroxysmal neurological disorder characterized by recurrent and unprovoked seizures affecting approximately 50 million people worldwide. Cognitive dysfunction induced by seizures is a severe comorbidity of epilepsy and epilepsy syndromes and reduces patients' quality of life. Seizures, along with accompanying histopathological and pathophysiological changes, are associated with cognitive comorbidities. Advances in imaging technology and computing allow anatomical and topological changes in neural networks to be visualized...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681617/gene-expression-profiles-reveal-key-genes-for-early-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-adamantinomatous-craniopharyngioma
#16
Jun Yang, Ziming Hou, Changjiang Wang, Hao Wang, Hongbing Zhang
Adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (ACP) is an aggressive brain tumor that occurs predominantly in the pediatric population. Conventional diagnosis method and standard therapy cannot treat ACPs effectively. In this paper, we aimed to identify key genes for ACP early diagnosis and treatment. Datasets GSE94349 and GSE68015 were obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus database. Consensus clustering was applied to discover the gene clusters in the expression data of GSE94349 and functional enrichment analysis was performed on gene set in each cluster...
April 23, 2018: Cancer Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681533/a-task-optimized-neural-network-replicates-human-auditory-behavior-predicts-brain-responses-and-reveals-a-cortical-processing-hierarchy
#17
Alexander J E Kell, Daniel L K Yamins, Erica N Shook, Sam V Norman-Haignere, Josh H McDermott
A core goal of auditory neuroscience is to build quantitative models that predict cortical responses to natural sounds. Reasoning that a complete model of auditory cortex must solve ecologically relevant tasks, we optimized hierarchical neural networks for speech and music recognition. The best-performing network contained separate music and speech pathways following early shared processing, potentially replicating human cortical organization. The network performed both tasks as well as humans and exhibited human-like errors despite not being optimized to do so, suggesting common constraints on network and human performance...
April 17, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680470/modelling-dynamic-changes-in-blood-flow-and-volume-in-the-cerebral-vasculature
#18
S J Payne, W K El-Bouri
The cerebral microvasculature plays a key role in the transport of blood and the delivery of nutrients to the cells that perform brain function. Although recent advances in experimental imaging techniques mean that its structure and function can be interrogated to very small length scales, allowing individual vessels to be mapped to a fraction of 1 μm, these techniques currently remain confined to animal models. In-vivo human data can only be obtained at a much coarser length scale, of order 1 mm, meaning that mathematical models of the microvasculature play a key role in interpreting flow and metabolism data...
April 19, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680421/mapping-the-changed-hubs-and-corresponding-functional-connectivity-in-idiopathic-restless-legs-syndrome
#19
Chunyan Liu, Jiaojian Wang, Yue Hou, Zhigang Qi, Li Wang, Shuqin Zhan, Rong Wang, Yuping Wang
OBJECTIVE: The hubs of the brain network play a key role in integrating and transferring information between different functional modules. However, whether the changed pattern in functional network hubs contributes to the onset of leg discomfort symptoms in restless legs syndrome (RLS) patients remains unclear. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and graph theory methods, we investigated whether alterations of hubs can be detected in RLS. METHODS: First, we constructed the whole-brain voxelwise functional connectivity and calculated a functional connectivity strength (FCS) map in each of 16 drug-naive idiopathic RLS patients and 26 gender- and age-matched healthy control (HC) subjects...
May 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679878/modeling-of-intracerebral-interictal-epileptic-discharges-evidence-for-network-interactions
#20
Stephan Meesters, Pauly Ossenblok, Albert Colon, Louis Wagner, Olaf Schijns, Paul Boon, Luc Florack, Andrea Fuster
OBJECTIVE: The interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs) occurring in stereotactic EEG (SEEG) recordings are in general abundant compared to ictal discharges, but difficult to interpret due to complex underlying network interactions. A framework is developed to model these network interactions. METHODS: To identify the synchronized neuronal activity underlying the IEDs, the variation in correlation over time of the SEEG signals is related to the occurrence of IEDs using the general linear model...
April 11, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
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