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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054038/epileptic-headache-a-rare-form-of-painful-seizure
#1
REVIEW
Carlo Cianchetti, Filippo Dainese, Maria Giuseppina Ledda, Giuliano Avanzini
PURPOSE: To describe the concept, features and mechanisms of epileptic headache (EH). METHODS: Analysis of all published articles concerning EH and related subjects. RESULTS: There are more than 30 published case studies of patients with headache as the only manifestation of a seizure, a condition that has been variously called "EH", "ictal epileptic headache", "hemicrania epileptica", "cephalic pain seizure". It is necessary to differentiate EH from "migralepsy" and "ictal non-epileptic headache"...
October 13, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053865/beta-burst-dynamics-in-parkinson-s-disease-off-and-on-dopaminergic-medication
#2
Gerd Tinkhauser, Alek Pogosyan, Huiling Tan, Damian M Herz, Andrea A Kühn, Peter Brown
Exaggerated basal ganglia beta activity (13-35 Hz) is commonly found in patients with Parkinson's disease and can be suppressed by dopaminergic medication, with the degree of suppression being correlated with the improvement in motor symptoms. Importantly, beta activity is not continuously elevated, but fluctuates to give beta bursts. The percentage number of longer beta bursts in a given interval is positively correlated with clinical impairment in Parkinson's disease patients. Here we determine whether the characteristics of beta bursts are dependent on dopaminergic state...
October 10, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053835/abnormal-intrinsic-brain-functional-network-dynamics-in-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Jinhee Kim, Marion Criaud, Sang Soo Cho, María Díez-Cirarda, Alexander Mihaescu, Sarah Coakeley, Christine Ghadery, Mikaeel Valli, Mark F Jacobs, Sylvain Houle, Antonio P Strafella
Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by nigrostriatal dopamine depletion. Previous studies measuring spontaneous brain activity using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging have reported abnormal changes in broadly distributed whole-brain networks. Although resting state functional connectivity, estimating temporal correlations between brain regions, is measured with the assumption that intrinsic fluctuations throughout the scan are stable, dynamic changes of functional connectivity have recently been suggested to reflect aspects of functional capacity of neural systems, and thus may serve as biomarkers of disease...
October 5, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053778/influence-of-cerebrovascular-disease-on-brain-networks-in-prodromal-and-clinical-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Joanna Su Xian Chong, Siwei Liu, Yng Miin Loke, Saima Hilal, Mohammad Kamran Ikram, Xin Xu, Boon Yeow Tan, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Christopher Li-Hsian Chen, Juan Zhou
Network-sensitive neuroimaging methods have been used to characterize large-scale brain network degeneration in Alzheimer's disease and its prodrome. However, few studies have investigated the combined effect of Alzheimer's disease and cerebrovascular disease on brain network degeneration. Our study sought to examine the intrinsic functional connectivity and structural covariance network changes in 235 prodromal and clinical Alzheimer's disease patients with and without cerebrovascular disease. We focused particularly on two higher-order cognitive networks-the default mode network and the executive control network...
September 19, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053773/less-is-more-neural-mechanisms-underlying-anomia-treatment-in-chronic-aphasic-patients
#5
Davide Nardo, Rachel Holland, Alexander P Leff, Cathy J Price, Jennifer T Crinion
Previous research with aphasic patients has shown that picture naming can be facilitated by concurrent phonemic cueing [e.g. initial phoneme(s) of the word that the patient is trying to retrieve], both as an immediate word retrieval technique, and when practiced repeatedly over time as a long-term anomia treatment. Here, to investigate the neural mechanisms supporting word retrieval, we adopted-for the first time-a functional magnetic resonance imaging task using the same naming procedure as it occurs during the anomia treatment process...
September 27, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053770/tourette-syndrome-a-disorder-of-the-social-decision-making-network
#6
Roger L Albin
Tourette syndrome is a common neurodevelopmental disorder defined by characteristic involuntary movements, tics, with both motor and phonic components. Tourette syndrome is usually conceptualized as a basal ganglia disorder, with an emphasis on striatal dysfunction. While considerable evidence is consistent with these concepts, imaging data suggest diffuse functional and structural abnormalities in Tourette syndrome brain. Tourette syndrome exhibits features that are difficult to explain solely based on basal ganglia circuit dysfunctions...
August 22, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053724/accounting-for-the-complex-hierarchical-topology-of-eeg-phase-based-functional-connectivity-in-network-binarisation
#7
Keith Smith, Daniel Abásolo, Javier Escudero
Research into binary network analysis of brain function faces a methodological challenge in selecting an appropriate threshold to binarise edge weights. For EEG phase-based functional connectivity, we test the hypothesis that such binarisation should take into account the complex hierarchical structure found in functional connectivity. We explore the density range suitable for such structure and provide a comparison of state-of-the-art binarisation techniques, the recently proposed Cluster-Span Threshold (CST), minimum spanning trees, efficiency-cost optimisation and union of shortest path graphs, with arbitrary proportional thresholds and weighted networks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053447/multimodal-mr-synthesis-via-modality-invariant-latent-representation
#8
Agisilaos Chartsias, Thomas Joyce, Mario Valerio Giuffrida, Sotirios A Tsaftaris
We propose a multi-input multi-output fully convolutional neural network model for MRI synthesis. The model is robust to missing data, as it benefits from, but does not require, additional input modalities. The model is trained end-to-end, and learns to embed all input modalities into a shared modalityinvariant latent space. These latent representations are then combined into a single fused representation, which is transformed into the target output modality with a learnt decoder. We avoid the need for curriculum learning by exploiting the fact that the various input modalities are highly correlated...
October 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052616/pregenual-anterior-cingulate-dysfunction-associated-with-depression-in-ocd-an-integrated-multimodal-fmri-1-h-mrs-study
#9
Reza Tadayonnejad, Rangaprakash Deshpande, Olusola Ajilore, Teena Moody, Francesca Morfini, Ronald Ly, Joseph O'Neill, Jamie D Feusner
Depression is a commonly-occurring symptom in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and is associated with worse functional impairment, poorer quality of life, and poorer treatment response. Understanding the underlying neurochemical and connectivity-based brain mechanisms of this important symptom domain in OCD is necessary for development of novel, more globally effective treatments. To investigate biopsychological mechanisms of comorbid depression in OCD, we examined effective connectivity and neurochemical signatures in the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC), a structure known to be involved in both OCD and depression...
October 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052613/dynorphin-counteracts-orexin-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-thalamus-cellular-and-behavioral-evidence
#10
Alessandra Matzeu, Marsida Kallupi, Olivier George, Paul Schweitzer, Rémi Martin-Fardon
The orexin (Orx) system plays a critical role in drug addiction and reward-related behaviors. The dynorphin (Dyn) system promotes depressive-like behavior and plays a key role in the aversive effects of stress. Orx and Dyn are co-released and have opposing functions in reward and motivation in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Previous studies suggested that OrxA transmission in the posterior paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (pPVT) participates in cocaine-seeking behavior. This study determined whether Orx and Dyn interact in the pPVT...
October 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051843/alterations-in-micro-rna-messenger-rna-mirna-mrna-coupled-signaling-networks-in-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease-ad-hippocampal-ca1
#11
V Jaber, Y Zhao, W J Lukiw
RNA sequencing, DNA microfluidic array, LED-Northern, Western immunoassay and bioinformatics analysis have uncovered a small family of up-regulated human brain enriched microRNAs (miRNAs) and down-regulated messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in short post-mortem interval (PMI) sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. At the mRNA level, a large majority of the expression of human brain genes found to be down-regulated in sporadic AD appears to be a consequence of an up-regulation of a specific group of NF-kB-inducible microRNAs (miRNAs)...
April 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinsonism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051842/is-there-a-premotor-phase-of-essential-tremor
#12
REVIEW
Abhishek Lenka, Julian Benito-León, Elan D Louis
BACKGROUND: Essential tremor (ET) is the most common tremor disorder. In addition to its hallmark feature, kinetic tremor of the upper limbs, patients may have a number of non-motor symptoms and signs (NMS). Several lines of evidence suggest that ET is a neurodegenerative disorder and certain NMS may antedate the onset of tremor. This article comprehensively reviews the evidence for the existence of a "premotor phase" of ET, and discusses plausible biological explanations and implications...
2017: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051730/dynamical-graph-theory-networks-methods-for-the-analysis-of-sparse-functional-connectivity-networks-and-for-determining-pinning-observability-in-brain-networks
#13
Anke Meyer-Bäse, Rodney G Roberts, Ignacio A Illan, Uwe Meyer-Bäse, Marc Lobbes, Andreas Stadlbauer, Katja Pinker-Domenig
Neuroimaging in combination with graph theory has been successful in analyzing the functional connectome. However almost all analysis are performed based on static graph theory. The derived quantitative graph measures can only describe a snap shot of the disease over time. Neurodegenerative disease evolution is poorly understood and treatment strategies are consequently only of limited efficiency. Fusing modern dynamic graph network theory techniques and modeling strategies at different time scales with pinning observability of complex brain networks will lay the foundation for a transformational paradigm in neurodegnerative diseases research regarding disease evolution at the patient level, treatment response evaluation and revealing some central mechanism in a network that drives alterations in these diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050910/default-mode-network-connectivity-of-fear-and-anxiety-related-cue-and-context-conditioning
#14
Francesca Zidda, Jamila Andoh, Sebastian Pohlack, Tobias Winkelmann, Ramona Dinu-Biringer, Juliana Cavalli, Michaela Ruttorf, Frauke Nees, Herta Flor
Classical fear conditioning is an important mechanism to adequately respond and adapt to environmental threats and has been related to the development of fear and anxiety. Both cue and context conditioning have been studied but little is known about their relation to relevant resting state networks. The default mode network (DMN) has been reported to be involved in affective learning and described as facilitating a state of readiness in responding to environmental changes. We examined resting state brain connectivity patterns of the default mode network (DMN) in 119 healthy volunteers...
October 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050909/bold-fmri-in-the-mouse-auditory-pathway
#15
Guilherme Blazquez Freches, Cristina Chavarrias, Noam Shemesh
The auditory pathway is widely distributed throughout the brain, and is perhaps one of the most interesting networks in the context of neuroplasticity. Accurate mapping of neural activity in the entire pathway, preferably noninvasively, and with high resolution, could be instrumental for understanding such longitudinal processes. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has clear advantages for such characterizations, as it is noninvasive, provides relatively high spatial resolution and lends itself for repetitive studies, albeit relying on an indirect neurovascular coupling to deliver its information...
October 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050849/neuronal-and-behavioral-effects-of-multi-day-brain-stimulation-and-memory-training
#16
Daria Antonenko, Nadine Külzow, Angelica Sousa, Kristin Prehn, Ulrike Grittner, Agnes Flöel
Strategies for memory enhancement, especially for the older population, are of great scientific and public interest. Here, we aimed at investigating neuronal and behavioral effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) paired with memory training. Young and older adults were trained on an object-location-memory task on 3 consecutive days with either anodal or sham tDCS. Recall performance was assessed immediately after training, 1 day and 1 month later, as well as performance on trained function and transfer task...
September 28, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050641/white-matter-pathways-in-persistent-developmental-stuttering-lessons-from-tractography
#17
Vered Kronfeld-Duenias, Oren Civier, Ofer Amir, Ruth Ezrati-Vinacour, Michal Ben-Shachar
PURPOSE: Fluent speech production relies on the coordinated processing of multiple brain regions. This highlights the role of neural pathways that connect distinct brain regions in producing fluent speech. Here, we aim to investigate the role of the white matter pathways in persistent developmental stuttering (PDS), where speech fluency is disrupted. METHODS: We use diffusion weighted imaging and tractography to compare the white matter properties between adults who do and do not stutter...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050394/cortical-neurons-and-networks-are-dormant-but-fully-responsive-during-isoelectric-brain-state
#18
Tristan Altwegg-Boussac, Adrien E Schramm, Jimena Ballestero, Fanny Grosselin, Mario Chavez, Sarah Lecas, Michel Baulac, Lionel Naccache, Sophie Demeret, Vincent Navarro, Séverine Mahon, Stéphane Charpier
A continuous isoelectric electroencephalogram reflects an interruption of endogenously-generated activity in cortical networks and systematically results in a complete dissolution of conscious processes. This electro-cerebral inactivity occurs during various brain disorders, including hypothermia, drug intoxication, long-lasting anoxia and brain trauma. It can also be induced in a therapeutic context, following the administration of high doses of barbiturate-derived compounds, to interrupt a hyper-refractory status epilepticus...
September 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050387/temporal-lobe-networks-supporting-the-comprehension-of-spoken-words
#19
Leonardo Bonilha, Argye E Hillis, Gregory Hickok, Dirk B den Ouden, Chris Rorden, Julius Fridriksson
Auditory word comprehension is a cognitive process that involves the transformation of auditory signals into abstract concepts. Traditional lesion-based studies of stroke survivors with aphasia have suggested that neocortical regions adjacent to auditory cortex are primarily responsible for word comprehension. However, recent primary progressive aphasia and normal neurophysiological studies have challenged this concept, suggesting that the left temporal pole is crucial for word comprehension. Due to its vasculature, the temporal pole is not commonly completely lesioned in stroke survivors and this heterogeneity may have prevented its identification in lesion-based studies of auditory comprehension...
September 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049853/nutrient-driven-o-glcnac-in-proteostasis-and-neurodegeneration
#20
REVIEW
Ilhan Akan, Stephanie Olivier-Van Stichelen, Michelle R Bond, John A Hanover
Proteostasis is essential in the mammalian brain where post-mitotic cells must function for decades to maintain synaptic contacts and memory. The brain is dependent on glucose and other metabolites for proper function and is spared from metabolic deficits even during starvation. In this review, we outline how the nutrient sensitive nucleocytoplasmic posttranslational modification O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) regulates protein homeostasis. The O-GlcNAc modification is highly abundant in the mammalian brain, and has been linked to proteopathies, including neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
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