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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150938/regulation-of-calcification-in-human-aortic-smooth-muscle-cells-infected-with-high-glucose-treated-porphyromonas-gingivalis
#1
Te-Chuan Chen, Chien-Tsong Lin, Shao-Ju Chien, Shun-Fu Chang, Cheng-Nan Chen
Porphyromonas (P.) gingivalis infection leading to the periodontitis has been associated with the development of systemic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. However, the effect of a high concentration of glucose (HG) on the invasion efficiency of P. gingivalis and the consequent modulation of pathogenesis in vascular cells, especially in the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), remains unclear. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate whether treating P. gingivalis with HG could change its invasion capability and result in VSMC calcification and the underlying mechanism...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150502/hyperthermophilic-carbamate-kinase-stability-and-anabolic-in-vitro-activity-at-alkaline-ph
#2
James E Hennessy, Melissa J Latter, Somayeh Fazelinejad, Amy Philbrook, Daniel M Bartkus, Hye-Kyung Kim, Hideki Onagi, John G Oakeshott, Colin Scott, Apostolos Alissandratos, Christopher J Easton
Carbamate kinases catalyze the conversion of carbamate to carbamoyl phosphate, which is readily transformed into other compounds. Carbamate forms spontaneously from ammonia and carbon dioxide in aqueous solutions, so the kinases have potential for sequestrative utilization of the latter compounds. Here, we compare seven carbamate kinases from mesophilic, thermophilic and hyperthermophilic sources. In addition to the known enzymes from Enterococcus faecalis and Pyrococcus furiosus, the previously unreported enzymes from the hyperthermophiles Thermococcus sibiricus and Thermococcus barophilus, the thermophiles Fervidobacterium nodosum and Thermosipho melanesiensis, and the mesophile Clostridium tetani, were all expressed recombinantly, each in high yield...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150416/-bicarbonate-from-physiology-to-treatment-for-all-clinicians
#3
Julie Beaume, Antoine Braconnier, Thibault Dolley-Hitze, Jean-Philippe Bertocchio
Acid-base regulation is essential to maintain homeostasis in humans. Carbonic acid/bicarbonate (H2CO3/HCO3(-)) couple is the most predominant extracellular buffer to keep plasma pH within a physiological range. The ability to (re)generate such a buffer is a key milestone that necessitates to understand a precise physiology of both renal tubule and digestive tract. Here, we first reviewed renal and digestive cycles of bicarbonate in physiology. We also reviewed pathological findings where acid-base disequilibrium is involved and nutritional and/or alkali therapy could be necessary...
November 14, 2017: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149529/scalable-fabrication-of-highly-active-and-durable-membrane-electrodes-toward-water-oxidation
#4
Yu Li, Shuangming Chen, Dawei Xi, Yanan Bo, Ran Long, Chengming Wang, Li Song, Yujie Xiong
The electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is a highly important reaction that requires a relatively high overpotential and determines the rate of water splitting-a process for producing hydrogen. The overall OER performance is often largely limited by uncontrollable interface when active catalysts are loaded on conductive supports, for which polymer binders are widely used, but inevitably block species transportation channels. Here, a scalable fabrication approach to freestanding graphitized carbon nanofiber networks is reported, which provides abundant sites for in situ growing Fe/Ni catalysts with the improved interface...
November 17, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149346/novel-pathways-of-endocrine-disruption-through-pesticides-interference-with-human-mineralocorticoid-receptors
#5
Jianyun Zhang, Xin Huang, Hongling Liu, Weiping Liu, Jing Liu
Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is one member of the steroid receptor family. In addition to its important role in Na+/K+ homeostasis, MR is reported as a tumor-suppressor in carcinogenesis. So far, little was known about the ability of pesticides to interfere with MR. In this study, a total of 43 pesticides and/or metabolites were investigated for their potential effects on human MR. None of the tested pesticides exhibited MR agonistic potency, while 16 compounds showed antagonistic activities. Further investigations indicated that these 16 chemicals individually antagonized aldosterone-induced alkaline phosphatase expression in vascular smooth muscle cells and aldosterone-inhibited hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation at higher concentrations, and the mixture of these 16 pesticides at environmentally relevant concentrations significantly disrupted MR activity...
November 15, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148730/the-effect-of-different-treatment-technologies-on-the-fate-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-and-class-1-integrons-when-residual-municipal-wastewater-solids-are-applied-to-soil
#6
Tucker Burch, Michael J Sadowsky, Timothy M LaPara
Residual wastewater solids are a significant reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). While treatment technologies can reduce ARG levels in residual wastewater solids, the effects of these technologies on ARGs in soil during subsequent land-application are unknown. In this study we investigated the use of numerous treatment technologies (air drying, aerobic digestion, mesophilic anaerobic digestion, thermophilic anaerobic digestion, pasteurization, and alkaline stabilization) on the fate of ARGs and class 1 integrons in wastewater solids-amended soil microcosms...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148708/magnetron-sputtering-deposition-cu-onion-like-n-c-as-high-performance-electrocatalysts-for-oxygen-reduction-reaction
#7
Hongyang Shao, Xiaoming Zhang, Hao Huang, Kan Zhang, Menglong Wang, Cai Zhang, Yifan Yang, Mao Wen, Weitao Zheng
The idea of a core-shell structure can promote the utilization of nonprecious metallic catalysts by enhancing their activity and stability for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Developing a low-cost, high-efficiency, and high-reproducibility method for synthesizing core-shell-structured materials represents an urgent challenge. Here, we fabricate encapsulated Cu nanoparticles with nitrogen-doped onion-like graphite nanoshells (Cu@onion-like N-C) as an efficient ORR catalyst by magnetron sputtering, in which the graphite shells grow by an in situ self-assembly process activated by the surface-catalyzed behavior with Cu nanoparticles...
November 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148623/dual-roles-of-protein-as-a-template-and-a-sulfur-provider-a-general-approach-to-metal-sulfides-for-efficient-photothermal-therapy-of-cancer
#8
Jianping Sheng, Liqiang Wang, Yajing Han, Wansong Chen, Hong Liu, Min Zhang, Liu Deng, You-Nian Liu
Fabrication of clinically translatable nanoparticles (NPs) as photothermal therapy (PTT) agents against cancer is becoming increasingly desirable, but still challenging, especially in facile and controllable synthesis of biocompatible NPs with high photothermal efficiency. A new strategy which uses protein as both a template and a sulfur provider is proposed for facile, cost-effective, and large-scale construction of biocompatible metal sulfide NPs with controlled structure and high photothermal efficiency...
November 17, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148143/leaf-cell-membrane-stability-based-mechanisms-of-zinc-nutrient-in-mitigation-of-salinity-stress-in-rice
#9
Abdullah Tufail, Hong Li, Asif Naeem, Tingxian Li
Excess salts affect about 955 million ha of total arable lands worldwide and 49% of agricultural lands are Zn deficient. Soil salinity and zinc deficiency can intensify plant abiotic stress. The mechanisms by which Zn nutrients can mitigate salinity effects on plant functions are not well understood. We conducted an experiment to determine the zinc and salinity effects on rice plant retention of Zn, macronutrient potassium (K) and salt ion Na, chlorophyll formation, leaf cell membrane stability and grain yield, and to examine the mechanisms of zinc nutrition in mitigating salinity stress on plant physiological and nutritional aspects...
November 16, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147970/effect-of-different-salinities-on-gene-expression-and-activity-of-digestive-enzymes-in-the-thick-lipped-grey-mullet-chelon-labrosus
#10
REVIEW
I M Pujante, F J Moyano, J A Martos-Sitcha, J M Mancera, G Martínez-Rodríguez
The effects of different environmental salinities (0, 12, 40, and 55 ppt) on pepsinogen 2 (pga2), trypsinogen 2 (try2), chymotrypsinogen (ctr), and pancreatic alpha-amylase (amy2a) gene expression, and on the total activities of their corresponding enzymes, were assessed in Chelon labrosus juveniles, after their corresponding full-complementary DNA sequences were cloned. Furthermore, the quantitative effect of different salinities on the hydrolysis of feed protein by fish digestive enzymes was evaluated using an in vitro system...
November 17, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147721/osteomimicry-how-the-seed-grows-in-the-soil
#11
REVIEW
Nadia Rucci, Anna Teti
Metastasis is defined as a very inefficient process, since less than 0.01% of cancer cells injected into the circulation will engraft in a distant organ, where they must acquire the ability to survive and proliferate inside a "foreign" environment. In bone metastases, the interaction with the host organ is much more favoured if tumour cells gain "osteomimicry", that is the ability to resemble a resident bone cell (i.e. the osteoblast), thus intruding in the physiology of the bone. This is accomplished by the expression of osteoblast markers (e...
November 16, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146960/assessing-species-biomass-contributions-in-microbial-communities-via-metaproteomics
#12
Manuel Kleiner, Erin Thorson, Christine E Sharp, Xiaoli Dong, Dan Liu, Carmen Li, Marc Strous
Microbial community structure can be analyzed by quantifying cell numbers or by quantifying biomass for individual populations. Methods for quantifying cell numbers are already available (e.g., fluorescence in situ hybridization, 16-S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing), yet high-throughput methods for assessing community structure in terms of biomass are lacking. Here we present metaproteomics-based methods for assessing microbial community structure using protein abundance as a measure for biomass contributions of individual populations...
November 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146445/interplay-between-daily-rhythmic-serum-mediated-bacterial-killing-activity-and-immune-defence-factors-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#13
Carlo C Lazado, Manuel Gesto, Lone Madsen, Alfred Jokumsen
Circadian rhythm is emerging as an important regulator of immune functions. However, there is a paucity of information on the influence of this biological phenomenon in the antimicrobial factors in teleost fish. This study investigated the dynamics and interplay of serum-mediated bacterial killing activity and immune defence factors throughout the light:dark (LD) cycle in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The juvenile fish came from two different emergence time fractions (i.e., late and early) that were believed to exhibit behavioural and physiological differences...
November 13, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146428/preparative-fractionation-of-dextrin-by-polyethylene-glycol-effects-of-initial-dextrin-concentration-and-ph
#14
Xiuting Hu, Yu Wang, Chengmei Liu, Zhengyu Jin, Yaoqi Tian
Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was further applied for fractionating dextrin prepared from cassava starch. The initial dextrin concentration and pH of the dextrin solutions were crucially considered in this study with the average molecular-weight dispersity (DMa) as the index. The results showed that the initial dextrin concentration significantly affected the mass fraction and the molecular weight distribution of each dextrin fraction obtained from gradient PEG precipitation. However, the initial dextrin concentration, which ranged from 0...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146351/impact-of-rapeseed-press-cake-on-maillard-reaction-in-a-cookie-model-system
#15
Antonio Dario Troise, Jonathan Desmond Wilkin, Alberto Fiore
Rapeseed press-cake (RPC) is a byproduct of rapeseed oil production, rich in proteins and fiber. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of cold pressed RPC, RPC fiber isolate and RPC alkaline extract on the formation of acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfufural (HMF) in cookies. Both compounds were influenced by the ingredients: the addition of RPC led to a significant dose-dependent increase of HMF in the cookies and to an increase of acrylamide up to 66.9%. On the contrary, acrylamide concentration was reduced down to 39...
March 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146255/haemophilus-parasuis-cpxra-two-component-system-confers-bacterial-tolerance-to-environmental-stresses-and-macrolide-resistance
#16
Qi Cao, Fenfen Feng, Huan Wang, Xiaojuan Xu, Huanchun Chen, Xuwang Cai, Xiangru Wang
Haemophilus parasuis is an opportunistic pathogen localized in the upper respiratory tracts of pigs, its infection begins from bacterial survival under complex conditions, like hyperosmosis, oxidative stress, phagocytosis, and sometimes antibiotics as well. The two-component signal transduction (TCST) system serves as a common stimulus-response mechanism that allows microbes to sense and respond to diverse environmental conditions via a series of phosphorylation reactions. In this study, we investigated the role of TCST system CpxRA in H...
January 2018: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146232/parathyroidectomy-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-impacts-of-different-techniques-on-the-biochemical-and-clinical-evolution-of-secondary-hyperparathyroidism
#17
Roxana de Fátima Camelo Albuquerque, Cinthia Esbrile Moraes Carbonara, Rita de Cássia T Martin, Luciene Machado Dos Reis, Climério Pereira do Nascimento, Sérgio Samir Arap, Rosa M A Moysés, Vanda Jorgetti, Fábio L M Montenegro, Rodrigo Bueno de Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Parathyroidectomy (PTx) decreases the mortality rate of refractory secondary hyperparathyroidism (rSHP) due to chronic kidney disease. A consensus regarding which techniques of PTx are associated with better outcomes is not available. The aims of this study are to evaluate the clinical and laboratory evolution of 49 hemodialysis patients with rSHP who underwent PTx using different techniques. METHODS: Patients underwent subtotal PTx (sub-PTx) or total PTx with autotransplantation (AT) of 45 (PTx-AT45) or 90 parathyroid fragments (PTx-AT90) and were followed for 12 months...
November 13, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146231/is-hungry-bone-syndrome-a-cause-of-postoperative-hypocalcemia-after-total-thyroidectomy-in-thyrotoxicosis-a-prospective-study-with-bone-mineral-density-correlation
#18
Poongkodi Karunakaran, Chandrasekaran Maharajan, Srinivasan Ramalingam, Suresh Venkatesh Rachmadugu
BACKGROUND: Hungry bone syndrome is a well-established cause of postoperative hypocalcemia in thyrotoxicosis. To date, the incidence of hungry bone syndrome after total thyroidectomy is unclear. This prospective study examined the incidence of postthyroidectomy hungry bone syndrome and its correlation with preoperative bone mineral density. METHODS: Forty thyrotoxic subjects (Group A; age: mean ± SD; 36.5 ± 9.8 years) and 40 euthyroid controls with benign thyroid nodules (Group B) undergoing total thyroidectomy were evaluated for preoperative bone mineral density and serum calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, alkaline phosphatase, and 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D serially...
November 14, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146110/exploring-molecular-mechanism-of-bone-forming-capacity-of-eurycoma-longifolia-evidence-of-enhanced-expression-of-bone-related-biomarkers
#19
Hnin Ei Thu, Isa Naina Mohamed, Zahid Hussain, Ahmad Nazrun Shuid
BACKGROUND: Among the numerous well-documented medicinal herbs, Eurycoma longifolia (EL) has gained remarkable recognition due to its promising efficacy of stimulating bone formation in androgen-deficient osteoporosis. Though numerous animal studies have explored the bone-forming capacity of EL, the exact mechanism was yet to be explored. OBJECTIVES: The present study was aimed to investigate the mechanism of bone-forming capacity of EL using MC3T3-E1 as an in vitro osteoblastic model...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145460/trail-attenuates-rankl-mediated-osteoblastic-signalling-in-vascular-cell-mono-culture-and-co-culture-models
#20
Emma Harper, Keith D Rochfort, Hannah Forde, Colin Davenport, Diarmuid Smith, Philip M Cummins
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Vascular calcification (VC) is a major risk factor for elevated cardiovascular morbidity/mortality. Underlying this process is osteoblastic signalling within the vessel wall involving complex and interlinked roles for receptor-activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), and tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). RANKL promotes vascular cell osteoblastic differentiation, whilst OPG acts as a neutralizing decoy receptor for RANKL (and TRAIL)...
2017: PloS One
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