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Norihiro Suzuki, Yoshio Hirano, Taneto Tomiyasu, Yuya Esaki, Akiyoshi Uemura, Tsutomu Yasukawa, Munenori Yoshida, Yuichiro Ogura
Purpose: This study evaluates the retinal hemodynamics using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) before and after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy in patients with macular edema associated with retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Methods: Twelve patients (23 eyes; mean age, 64 years) were included (eight eyes with branch RVO, four with central RVO, and 11 unaffected fellow eyes. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central retinal thickness (CRT) were measured before and 6 months after treatment...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Renfeng Xu, Daniel Gil, Mohammed Dibas, William Hare, Arthur Bradley
Purpose: To examine the impact of small pupils and light levels on reading performance of distance-corrected presbyopes. To determine whether small pupils would enable presbyopes to read at near even at low light levels. Methods: To establish the lower range of text luminances, we quantified the space-averaged luminance of text in nine different artificially lit interior environments, and examined the impact of the text characters on space-averaged luminance of electronic and printed displays...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Paul C Cremer, Yuping Wu, Haitham M Ahmed, Lee M Pierson, Danielle M Brennan, Mouaz H Al-Mallah, Clinton A Brawner, Jonathan K Ehrman, Steven J Keteyian, Roger S Blumenthal, Michael J Blaha, Leslie Cho
Importance: Risk assessment tools for exercise treadmill testing may have limited external validity. Cardiovascular mortality has decreased in recent decades, and women have been underrepresented in prior cohorts. Objectives: To determine whether exercise and clinical variables are associated with differential mortality outcomes in men and women and to assess whether sex-specific risk scores better estimate all-cause mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study included 59 877 patients seen at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation (CCF cohort) from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2010, and 49 278 patients seen at the Henry Ford Hospital (FIT cohort) from January 1, 1991, through December 31, 2009...
October 26, 2016: JAMA Cardiology
Dawna Lewis, Kendra Schmid, Samantha O'Leary, Jody Spalding, Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, Robin High
Purpose: This study examined the effects of stimulus type and hearing status on speech recognition and listening effort in children with normal hearing (NH) and children with mild bilateral hearing loss (MBHL) or unilateral hearing loss (UHL). Method: Children (5-12 years of age) with NH (Experiment 1) and children (8-12 years of age) with MBHL, UHL, or NH (Experiment 2) performed consonant identification and word and sentence recognition in background noise. Percentage correct performance and verbal response time (VRT) were assessed (onset time, total duration)...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Richard Gale, Jean-Francois Korobelnik, Yit Yang, Tien Y Wong
PURPOSE: This retrospective review examined visual acuity (VA) in subjects with neovascular age-related macular degeneration and identified early and delayed response to ranibizumab. PROCEDURES: MARINA, ANCHOR, HARBOR, and CATT published data were examined for response with monthly versus individualized dosing and predictors of early versus delayed response. RESULTS: Data were available for 1,631 subjects; 18-29% were early gainers and 15-16% were delayed gainers...
October 27, 2016: Ophthalmologica. Journal International D'ophtalmologie
Helen L May-Simera, Jessica D Gumerson, Chun Gao, Maria Campos, Stephanie M Cologna, Tina Beyer, Karsten Boldt, Koray D Kaya, Nisha Patel, Friedrich Kretschmer, Matthew W Kelley, Ronald S Petralia, Megan G Davey, Tiansen Li
Microtubule actin crosslinking factor 1 (MACF1) plays a role in the coordination of microtubules and actin in multiple cellular processes. Here, we show that MACF1 is also critical for ciliogenesis in multiple cell types. Ablation of Macf1 in the developing retina abolishes ciliogenesis, and basal bodies fail to dock to ciliary vesicles or migrate apically. Photoreceptor polarity is randomized, while inner retinal cells laminate correctly, suggesting that photoreceptor maturation is guided by polarity cues provided by cilia...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
E L Andrade, A F Bento, J Cavalli, S K Oliveira, C S Freitas, R Marcon, R C Schwanke, J M Siqueira, J B Calixto
This review presents a historical overview of drug discovery and the non-clinical stages of the drug development process, from initial target identification and validation, through in silico assays and high throughput screening (HTS), identification of leader molecules and their optimization, the selection of a candidate substance for clinical development, and the use of animal models during the early studies of proof-of-concept (or principle). This report also discusses the relevance of validated and predictive animal models selection, as well as the correct use of animal tests concerning the experimental design, execution and interpretation, which affect the reproducibility, quality and reliability of non-clinical studies necessary to translate to and support clinical studies...
October 24, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article doi: 10.1590/1413-81232015218.05472016].
October 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Bruna Rafaela de Batista, Márcia Duarte, Fabiana Cia
The presence of a disabled person causes transformations in the family that demand a redefinition of the role of each member. Siblings, like all other members, experience frustration, acceptance, guilt and adaptation. In this respect, an attempt was made to; (a) analyze the interaction between a sibling with standard development and a sibling with Down syndrome; (b) identify what information and reaction the siblings with standard development have regarding the diagnosis of Down syndrome; (c) verify whether or not there were changes in the family context and also changes in their own lives after the birth of the sibling with Down syndrome...
October 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article doi: 10.1590/0034-7167.2016690312i].
September 2016: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article doi: 10.1590/S0034-71672013000100013].
September 2016: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Aline Cruz Esmeraldo Áfio, Aline Tomaz de Carvalho, Luciana Vieira de Caravalho, Andréa Soares Rocha da Silva, Lorita Marlena Freitag Pagliuca
Objective: to assess the automatic accessibility of assistive technology in online courses for the hearing impaired. Method: evaluation study guided by the Assessment and Maintenance step proposed in the Model of Development of Digital Educational Material. The software Assessor and Simulator for the Accessibility of Sites (ASES) was used to analyze the online course "Education on Sexual and Reproductive Health: the use of condoms" according to the accessibility standards of national and international websites...
September 2016: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Vincent Souday, Nick J Koning, Bruno Perez, Fabien Grelon, Alain Mercat, Christa Boer, Valérie Seegers, Peter Radermacher, Pierre Asfar
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0154761.].
2016: PloS One
Ioana Streata, January Weiner, Marco Iannaccone, Gayle McEwen, Marius Sorin Ciontea, Marian Olaru, Rosanna Capparelli, Mihai Ioana, Stefan H E Kaufmann, Anca Dorhoi
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0163662.].
2016: PloS One
Kailash Singh, Vijayalakshmi Senthil, Aloysius Wilfred Raj Arokiaraj, Jérôme Leprince, Benjamin Lefranc, David Vaudry, Ahmed A Allam, Jamaan Ajarem, Billy K C Chow
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0149359.].
2016: PloS One
Mrinmoyee Majumder, Reniqua House, Nallasivam Palanisamy, Shuo Qie, Terrence A Day, David Neskey, J Alan Diehl, Viswanathan Palanisamy
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1006306.].
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Henk J van Lingen, Caroline M Plugge, James G Fadel, Ermias Kebreab, André Bannink, Jan Dijkstra
Hydrogen is a key product of rumen fermentation and has been suggested to thermodynamically control the production of the various volatile fatty acids (VFA). Previous studies, however, have not accounted for the fact that only thermodynamic near-equilibrium conditions control the magnitude of reaction rate. Furthermore, the role of NAD, which is affected by hydrogen partial pressure (PH2), has often not been considered. The aim of this study was to quantify the control of PH2 on reaction rates of specific fermentation pathways, methanogenesis and NADH oxidation in rumen microbes...
2016: PloS One
Catherine Hankins, Mitchell Warren, Emmanuel Njeuhmeli
Over 11 million voluntary medical male circumcisions (VMMC) have been performed of the projected 20.3 million needed to reach 80% adult male circumcision prevalence in priority sub-Saharan African countries. Striking numbers of adolescent males, outside the 15-49-year-old age target, have been accessing VMMC services. What are the implications of overall progress in scale-up to date? Can mathematical modeling provide further insights on how to efficiently reach the male circumcision coverage levels needed to create and sustain further reductions in HIV incidence to make AIDS no longer a public health threat by 2030? Considering ease of implementation and cultural acceptability, decision makers may also value the estimates that mathematical models can generate of immediacy of impact, cost-effectiveness, and magnitude of impact resulting from different policy choices...
2016: PloS One
Eva Wiberg-Itzel, Andrea B Pembe, Hans Järnbert-Pettersson, Margareta Norman, Anna-Carin Wihlbäck, Irene Hoesli, Monya Todesco Bernasconi, Elie Azria, Helena Åkerud, Elisabet Darj
BACKGROUND: One of the major complications related to delivery is labor dystocia, or an arrested labor progress. Many dystocic deliveries end vaginally after administration of oxytocin, but a large numbers of women with labor dystocia will undergo a long and unsafe parturition. As a result of the exertion required in labor, the uterus produces lactate. The uterine production of lactate is mirrored by the level of lactate in amniotic fluid (AFL). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether the level of AFL, analysed in a sample of amniotic fluid collected vaginally at arrested labor when oxytocin was needed, could predict labor outcome in nulliparous deliveries...
2016: PloS One
Rosario Mete
In the Lazio Region (Italy), health districts were established with Regional Law n. 18 of 1994. In the absence of specific regional recommendations, this was done by taking into account local situations and the needs of individual local health authorities, resulting in a network of markedly heterogeneous health districts. This serious situation has never been dealt with in a concrete manner and no measures have been undertaken over the years to correct it. The Regional Association of healthcare directors, managers and workers, established in 2001, has performed a number of studies to compare corporate acts and healthcare services provided by individual health units; these have confirmed the existence of varied organizational structures...
July 2016: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
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