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L F Estrella, V B Ferreira, C Gallistl, M G R Alves, W Vetter, O Malm, F D B Abadio Finco, J P M Torres
Natural compounds from the metabolism of marine organisms have been detected at high concentrations in environmental samples which are not the producers of these compounds. These natural substances are known as halogenated natural products (HNPs). HNPs are possibly toxic halogenated compounds analogous to POPs that may bioaccumulate and biomagnify along the food web and pose a further risk to human and environmental health. The present study analyzed the occurrence of HNPs in the edible muscle of the three most consumed commercial fish species in the state of Rio de Janeiro: sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis), whitemouth croaker (Micropogonias furnieri) and mullet (Mugil liza) from the highly polluted Guanabara Bay (GB) and the less polluted Ilha Grande Bay (IGB)...
July 11, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Ze Yu, Haiyan Pei, Qingjie Hou, Changliang Nie, Lijie Zhang, Zhigang Yang, Xiaodong Wang
The algal extracellular substances (AESs), mainly excreted in the lag and stationary phases, inhibited the algal growth and culture recycle. The AESs consisted of protein-like substances and saccharides, which restrained the algal lipid and protein biosynthesis. Moreover, the increasing reactive oxygen species and anti-oxidative enzymes caused by AESs led to the oxidative damage and suppressed the cell activity. The AESs affected the cells through two possible ways: one is the AESs adhered to the cell surfaces; another is the cells yielded signal molecules in response to the AESs...
July 7, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Sydney Osland, Paul D Arnold, Tamara Pringsheim
The objective of this study was to provide epidemiological data regarding obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in Canada, and examine related conditions, childhood experiences and healthcare utilization. A Statistics Canada population-based health survey was utilized (N = 25,097). The prevalence of diagnosed OCD in Canada was 0.93% (95% CI 0.75-1.11). People with OCD were younger and more likely to have lower incomes. They were more likely to have mood disorders including depression and bipolar disorder (both diagnosed conditions and by screening), and generalized anxiety disorder...
July 11, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Dong-Xing Guan, Ya-Qing Li, Nan-Yang Yu, Guang-Hui Yu, Si Wei, Hao Zhang, William Davison, Xin-Yi Cui, Lena Q Ma, Jun Luo
To better understand the environmental impact of ubiquitous perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in waters, reliable and robust measurement techniques are needed. As one of the most widely used passive sampling approaches, diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) is not only easy to handle but also provides time-weighted analyte concentrations. Based on DGT with XAD18 as a binding agent, we developed a new methodology to measure two frequently detected PFASs in surface waters and wastewaters, i.e. perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)...
July 16, 2018: Water Research
Xiaotian Ma, Liping Ye, Congcong Qi, Donglu Yang, Xiaoxu Shen, Jinglan Hong
China, as the world's largest crude steel producer, is suffering from water scarcity and pollution. However, only a few systematic analyses on the environmental burdens and improvements of China's crude steel production have been conducted. Therefore, it is important for research to be done how China's steel industry can be improved in environment management. To help decision-makers understand this, a life cycle water footprint analysis including gray and blue water was performed based on the methodology prescribed in the ISO 14046 standard...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Alison Levin-Rector, Laurel L Hourani, Richard A Van Dorn, Robert M Bray, Valerie A Stander, Joel K Cartwright, Jessica K Morgan, James Trudeau, Pamela K Lattimore
Understanding mental health disorder diagnosis and treatment seeking among active-duty military personnel is a topic with both clinical and policy implications. It has been well documented in military populations that individual-level military experience, including deployment history and combat exposure, influences mental health outcomes, but the impact of unit-level factors is less well understood. In the current study, we used administrative longitudinal data to examine a comprehensive set of unit- and individual-level predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), non-PTSD anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, and overall mental health diagnoses among Army and Marines Corps personnel...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Deda Ogum Alangea, Adolphina Addoley Addo-Lartey, Yandisa Sikweyiya, Esnat Dorothy Chirwa, Dorcas Coker-Appiah, Rachel Jewkes, Richard Mawuena Kofi Adanu
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant global public health problem. Understanding risk factors is crucial for developing prevention programmes. Yet, little evidence exists on population-based prevalence and risk factors for IPV in West Africa. Our objective was to measure both lifetime and past year prevalence of IPV and to determine factors associated with past year physical or sexual IPV experience. This population-based survey involved 2000 randomly selected women aged 18 to 49 years living in 40 localities within four districts of the Central Region of Ghana...
2018: PloS One
Rosa De Las Heras, José Luis Rodríguez-Gil, Jon San Sebastián Sauto, Paz Sánchez Sánchez, Myriam Catalá
The development of field-based biomarkers can allow for a more reliable assessment of the exposure of organisms to pollutants. Different sampling sites, along two streams running through an irrigable agricultural area, were selected to evaluate the effect of agrochemical load on the measured endpoints. The levels of lipid peroxidation were evaluated in several organs of Procambarus clarkii. The same method was applied to leaves of two woody species. Determining levels of MDA (malonaldehyde) by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay allows measuring the levels of lipid peroxidation...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
Shabbar I Ranapurwala, Meghan E Shanahan, Apostolos A Alexandridis, Scott K Proescholdbell, Rebecca B Naumann, Daniel Edwards, Stephen W Marshall
OBJECTIVES: To examine differences in rates of opioid overdose death (OOD) between former North Carolina (NC) inmates and NC residents and evaluate factors associated with postrelease OOD. METHODS: We linked NC inmate release data to NC death records, calculated OOD standardized mortality ratios to compare former inmates with NC residents, and calculated hazard ratios to identify predictors of time to OOD. RESULTS: Of the 229 274 former inmates released during 2000 to 2015, 1329 died from OOD after release...
July 19, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Brady P Horn, Xiaoxue Li, Saleh Mamun, Barbara McCrady, Michael T French
BACKGROUND: The US has the highest incarceration rate in the world and spends $40-$80 billion to house inmates per year. It is well-known that a significant correlation is present between substance use and crime, especially over recent years as opioid use disorder (OUD) has grown exponentially. To mitigate OUD, methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has demonstrated effectiveness in numerous randomized and quasi-experimental studies. A potentially fruitful environment for MMT is correctional facilities, particularly short-term facilities, such as city and county jails...
July 19, 2018: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
D Favretto, S Visentin, G Stocchero, S Vogliardi, R Snenghi, M Montisci
OBJECTIVE: To present the prevalence and concentrations of drugs in blood samples of drivers involved in road traffic accidents (RTA) and to discuss the effects of adopting different concentration cut-off values proposed or applied in other European countries on the number of driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) offences. METHODS: Blood samples from drivers involved in RTA in the Padova province, from 2014 to 2017, were analysed for the presence of alcohol and drugs...
July 19, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Sandro Hofstetter, Andreas Beck, Stefan Trapp, Anke Buchholz
Foliar applied systemic agrochemicals require the entrance into the plant vascular system or into specific subcellular compartments to reach their target in planta or to be imbibed by piercing-sucking pests. An inappropriate subcellular localization, like accumulation of aphicides in vacuoles, might lower compound efficiency due to reduced exposure to the target. Permeabilities and mass distributions of sixteen compounds covering a broad range of properties were measured across a pH gradient in a PAMPA ('Parallel artificial membrane permeability assay') system, providing experimental evidence for ion trapping of acids and bases in basic and acidic compartments, respectively...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Natalia Cichoń, Paulina Rzeźnicka, Michał Bijak, Elżbieta Miller, Sergiusz Miller, Joanna Saluk
BACKGROUND: One of the therapeutic methods used in stroke rehabilitation is magnetotherapy using extremely low frequency and variable pulse shape electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF). OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of magnetotherapy on the condition of postacute stroke patients, as measured by plasma oxidative stress markers and clinical parameters which show the progress of rehabilitation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The selected 57 post-stroke patients were divided into 2 groups, those with ELFEMF therapy and those without...
July 19, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Eric Abella Roth, Zishan Cui, Lu Wang, Heather L Armstrong, Ashleigh J Rich, Nathan J Lachowsky, Paul Sereda, Kiffer G Card, Jody Jollimore, Terry Howard, Gbolahan Olarewaju, David M Moore, Robert S Hogg
Research with male sexual minorities frequently combines gay and bisexual men as Men Who Have Sex with Men or Gay and Bisexual Men. When analyzed separately, bisexual men consistently feature negative health differentials, exemplified by higher substance use levels. This interpretation is not clear-cut because studies may combine bisexual men and women, use different dimensions of sexual orientation to define bisexuality, and/or not consider number of sexual partners as a possible confounding factor. This study conducted separate bivariate and multivariate analyses comparing gay to bisexual Momentum Study participants based on self-identity, sexual attraction, and sexual behavior, while controlling for number of sexual partners and sociodemographic, psychosocial, and sexual behavior measures...
July 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
Carlos Burneo-Garcés, Manuel Fernández-Alcántara, Raimundo Aguayo-Estremera, Miguel Pérez-García
The Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991 , 2007 ) is among the most important personality and psychopathology assessment tools. However, its psychometric properties in the Spanish-speaking prison population have not yet been studied. We aimed to explore the factor structure of the Spanish adaptation of the PAI (Ortiz-Tallo et al., 2011 ) in an Ecuadorian sample of 811 convicted men using exploratory structural equation modeling, with the further objective of confirming its internal consistency...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
Valerie Forman-Hoffman, Kathryn Batts, Jonaki Bose, Cristie Glasheen, Erica Hirsch, Feng Yu, Sarra Hedden
OBJECTIVE: Prior studies have indicated that exposure to potentially traumatic events (PTEs) may increase the risk of poor mental and physical health outcomes. This study's main goal is to examine the association between PTE exposures and having any past year mental disorder, substance use disorder (SUD), or functional impairment and to explore the moderating effects of age and gender on these associations in a nationally representative sample of civilian adults living in U.S. households...
July 19, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Aprile D Benner, Yijie Wang, Yishan Shen, Alaina E Boyle, Richelle Polk, Yen-Pi Cheng
This meta-analytic study systematically investigates the relations between perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and socioemotional distress, academics, and risky health behaviors during adolescence, and potential variation in these relations. The study included 214 peer-reviewed articles, theses, and dissertations, with 489 unique effect sizes on 91,338 unique adolescents. Random-effects meta-analyses across 11 separate indicators of well-being identified significant detrimental effects. Greater perceptions of racial/ethnic discrimination were linked to more depressive and internalizing symptoms; greater psychological distress; poorer self-esteem; lower academic achievement and engagement; less academic motivation; greater engagement in externalizing behaviors, risky sexual behaviors, and substance use; and more associations with deviant peers...
July 19, 2018: American Psychologist
Stéphanie Baggio, Vladan Starcevic, Joseph Studer, Olivier Simon, Sally M Gainsbury, Gerhard Gmel, Joël Billieux
An important ongoing debate in the addiction field is whether certain technology-mediated behaviors constitute tenable and independent constructs. This study investigated whether problematic technology-mediated behaviors could be conceptualized as a spectrum of related, yet distinct disorders (spectrum hypothesis), using the network approach, which considers disorders as networks of symptoms. We used data from the Cohort Study on Substance Use and Risk Factors (C-SURF; Swiss National Science Foundation), with a representative sample of young Swiss men (subsample of participants engaged in technology-mediated behaviors, n = 3,404)...
July 19, 2018: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
Kathrine S Sullivan, Gordon Capp, Tamika D Gilreath
Military-connected youths are a vulnerable population exposed to a unique set of stressors, which may put them at increased risk for adverse mental and behavioral health outcomes, compared to their civilian counterparts. Among military-connected adolescents, emotional and instrumental parentification are mechanisms hypothesized to account for negative outcomes, including substance use. However, parentification may be protective in some cultures and has not been examined in the military population. Data were drawn from 1,441 7th-, 9th-, and 11th-graders who had a parent in the military and completed the 2013 California Healthy Kids Survey...
July 19, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Paul R Erickson, Kyle J Moor, Jeffrey J Werner, Douglas E Latch, William A Arnold, Kristopher McNeill
Triplet-state chromophoric dissolved organic matter (3 CDOM*) plays an important role in aquatic photochemistry, yet much remains unknown about reactivity of these intermediates. To better understand the kinetic behavior and reactivity of 3 CDOM*, we have developed an indirect observation method based on monitoring time-resolved singlet oxygen (1 O2 ) phosphorescence kinetics. The underpinning principle of our approach relies on the fact that O2 quenches almost all triplets with near diffusion-limited rate constants, resulting in the formation of 1 O2 , which is kinetically linked to the precursors...
July 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
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