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Fat bias

Janatin Hastuti, Masaharu Kagawa, Nuala M Byrne, Andrew P Hills
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Anthropometric equations are widely used to estimate body composition however, are only appropriate for use in populations in which they have been developed and validated. The present study developed anthropometric prediction equations for Indonesian adults and cross-validated them with selected equations used in this population. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Six hundred Indonesian adults aged between 18- 65 years (292 males and 308 females) were divided equally into development and validation groups...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Charlie C Park, Catherine Hooker, Jonathan C Hooker, Emily Bass, William Haufe, Alexandra Schlein, Yesenia Covarrubias, Elhamy Heba, Mark Bydder, Tanya Wolfson, Anthony Gamst, Rohit Loomba, Jeffrey Schwimmer, Diego Hernando, Scott B Reeder, Michael Middleton, Claude B Sirlin, Gavin Hamilton
BACKGROUND: Improving the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of chemical-shift-encoded MRI acquisition with complex reconstruction (MRI-C) may improve the accuracy and precision of noninvasive proton density fat fraction (PDFF) quantification in patients with hepatic steatosis. PURPOSE: To assess the accuracy of high SNR (Hi-SNR) MRI-C versus standard MRI-C acquisition to estimate hepatic PDFF in adult and pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) using an MR spectroscopy (MRS) sequence as the reference standard...
April 29, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Sarah Keller, Avneesh Chhabra, Shaheen Ahmed, Anne C Kim, Jonathan M Chia, Jin Yamamura, Zhiyue J Wang
OBJECTIVE: Quantitative diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of skeletal muscles is challenging due to the bias in DTI metrics, such as fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD), related to insufficient signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This study compares the bias of DTI metrics in skeletal muscles via pixel-based and region-of-interest (ROI)-based analysis. METHODS: DTI of the thigh muscles was conducted on a 3.0-T system in N = 11 volunteers using a fat-suppressed single-shot spin-echo echo planar imaging (SS SE-EPI) sequence with eight repetitions (number of signal averages (NSA) = 4 or 8 for each repeat)...
May 2018: European Journal of Radiology
Duong Duc Pham, Seung Ku Lee, Chol Shin, Nan Hee Kim, Chae Hun Leem
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Low agreement of body-composition analysis (BCA) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) has been reported. We examined whether this discrepancy is influenced by the precision of body weight (BW) measurement using DXA. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 1353 participants aged 53-83 years. A whole-body DXA scan and an eight-polar tactile-electrode impedance-meter using four electronic frequencies of 5, 50, 250, and 500 kHz were employed for BCA...
April 18, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
B Dustin Pooler, Diego Hernando, Jeannine A Ruby, Hiroshi Ishii, Ann Shimakawa, Scott B Reeder
BACKGROUND: Current chemical-shift-encoded (CSE) MRI techniques for measuring hepatic proton density fat fraction (PDFF) are sensitive to motion artifacts. PURPOSE: Initial validation of a motion-robust 2D-sequential CSE-MRI technique for quantification of hepatic PDFF. STUDY TYPE: Phantom study and prospective in vivo cohort. POPULATION: Fifty adult patients (27 women, 23 men, mean age 57.2 years). FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: 3D, 2D-interleaved, and 2D-sequential CSE-MRI acquisitions at 1...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Steven Johnson, Susan M Schwartz
We sought to establish the bioequivalence of 2 weight-loss aids: orlistat 27-mg chewable tablet and orlistat 60-mg capsule, measured pharmacodynamically as percentage fecal fat excretion. Two open-label, single-center, randomized, 3-period, 3-treatment crossover studies were conducted in adults with body mass index 25-33 kg/m2 . For each 9-day treatment period, subjects received orlistat 27-mg chewable tablet, 60-mg capsule, or 120-mg capsules (2 60-mg capsules) 3 times daily; a 2-day washout separated treatments...
April 16, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
Katharina Ziegeler, Hamama Eshkal, Claudia Schorr, Joachim Sieper, Torsten Diekhoff, Marcus R Makowski, Bernd Hamm, Kay-Geert A Hermann
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of fat metaplasia and other structural lesions of the sacroiliac joints associated with axial spondyloarthritis in a nonrheumatological patient population. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging examinations that included the pelvis and were performed in patients without known rheumatological disease were used for this retrospective cross-sectional study. These images were evaluated for sacroiliac fat metaplasia, sclerosis, osteophytes, and joint space alterations such as erosions or ankylosis...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Rheumatology
Yongxin Yang, Elizabeth Anderson, Sheng Zhang
Proteomic analysis of membrane proteins is challenged by the proteins solubility and detergent incompatibility with MS analysis. No single perfect protocol can be used to comprehensively characterize the proteome of membrane fraction. Here, we used cow milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteome analysis to assess six sample preparation procedures including one in-gel and five in-solution digestion approaches prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. The largest number of MFGM proteins were identified by suspension trapping (S-Trap) and filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) methods, followed by acetone precipitation without clean-up of tryptic peptides method...
April 12, 2018: Electrophoresis
Laura Chiavaroli, Cyril W C Kendall, Catherine R Braunstein, Sonia Blanco Mejia, Lawrence A Leiter, David J A Jenkins, John L Sievenpiper
OBJECTIVE: Carbohydrate staples such as pasta have been implicated in the obesity epidemic. It is unclear whether pasta contributes to weight gain or like other low-glycaemic index (GI) foods contributes to weight loss. We synthesised the evidence of the effect of pasta on measures of adiposity. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library were searched through 7 February 2017...
April 2, 2018: BMJ Open
Anna B Konova, Kenway Louie, Paul W Glimcher
Craving is thought to be a specific desire state that biases choice toward the desired object, be it chocolate or drugs. A vast majority of people report having experienced craving of some kind. In its pathological form craving contributes to health outcomes in addiction and obesity. Yet despite its ubiquity and clinical relevance we still lack a basic neurocomputational understanding of craving. Here, using an instantaneous measure of subjective valuation and selective cue exposure, we identify a behavioral signature of a food craving-like state and advance a computational framework for understanding how this state might transform valuation to bias choice...
April 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Neeraj Narula, Amit Dhillon, Dongni Zhang, Mary E Sherlock, Melody Tondeur, Mary Zachos
BACKGROUND: Corticosteroids are often preferred over enteral nutrition (EN) as induction therapy for Crohn's disease (CD). Prior meta-analyses suggest that corticosteroids are superior to EN for induction of remission in CD. Treatment failures in EN trials are often due to poor compliance, with dropouts frequently due to poor acceptance of a nasogastric tube and unpalatable formulations. This systematic review is an update of a previously published Cochrane review. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of exclusive EN as primary therapy to induce remission in CD and to examine the importance of formula composition on effectiveness...
April 1, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Kenneth W Fishbein, Sokratis K Makrogiannis, Vanessa A Lukas, Marilyn Okine, Ramona Ramachandran, Luigi Ferrucci, Josephine M Egan, Chee W Chia, Richard G Spencer
PURPOSE: To develop a protocol to non-invasively measure and map fat fraction, fat/(fat+water), as a function of age in the adult thymus for future studies monitoring the effects of interventions aimed at promoting thymic rejuvenation and preservation of immunity in older adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three-dimensional spoiled gradient echo 3T MRI with 3-point Dixon fat-water separation was performed at full inspiration for thymus conspicuity in 36 volunteers 19 to 56 years old...
March 29, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Renata Micha, Dimitra Karageorgou, Ioanna Bakogianni, Eirini Trichia, Laurie P Whitsel, Mary Story, Jose L Peñalvo, Dariush Mozaffarian
BACKGROUND: School food environment policies may be a critical tool to promote healthy diets in children, yet their effectiveness remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review and quantify the impact of school food environment policies on dietary habits, adiposity, and metabolic risk in children. METHODS: We systematically searched online databases for randomized or quasi-experimental interventions assessing effects of school food environment policies on children's dietary habits, adiposity, or metabolic risk factors...
2018: PloS One
Mario Lozano-Lozano, Noelia Galiano-Castillo, Lydia Martín-Martín, Nicolás Pace-Bedetti, Carolina Fernández-Lao, Manuel Arroyo-Morales, Irene Cantarero-Villanueva
BACKGROUND: The majority of breast cancer survivors do not meet recommendations in terms of diet and physical activity. To address this problem, we developed a mobile health (mHealth) app for assessing and monitoring healthy lifestyles in breast cancer survivors, called the Energy Balance on Cancer (BENECA) mHealth system. The BENECA mHealth system is a novel and interactive mHealth app, which allows breast cancer survivors to engage themselves in their energy balance monitoring. BENECA was designed to facilitate adherence to healthy lifestyles in an easy and intuitive way...
March 27, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Kevin Caref, Saleem M Nicola
When relatively sated, people (and rodents) are still easily tempted to consume calorie-dense foods, particularly those containing fat and sugar. Consumption of such foods while calorically replete likely contributes to obesity. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) opioid system has long been viewed as a critical substrate for this behavior, mainly via contributions to the neural control of consumption and palatability. Here, we test the hypothesis that endogenous NAc opioids also promote appetitive approach to calorie-dense food in states of relatively high satiety...
March 27, 2018: ELife
Mei-Ling Yeh, Ru-Wen Liao, Chin-Che Hsu, Yu-Chu Chung, Jaung-Geng Lin
BACKGROUND: Menopause has been considered as an aggravating factor for developing cardiovascular diseases and the metabolic syndromes for women. Exercise might be an effective intervention for reducing such threats. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the exercise effects on body composition, cardiovascular risk factors, and bone mineral density of menopausal women. METHODS: Two reviewers did a complete search of five electronic database (Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, and the Chinese Electronic Periodical Service) records up to January 31, 2014...
April 2018: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
Y Masuda, P M VanRaden, I Misztal, T J Lawlor
The objective of this study was to compare genetic trends from single-step genomic BLUP (ssGBLUP) and traditional BLUP models for milk production traits of US Holsteins. Phenotypes were 305-d milk, fat, and protein yields from 21,527,040 cows recorded between January 1990 and August 2015. The pedigree file included 29,651,623 animals and was limited to 3 generations back from recorded or genotyped animals. Genotypes for 764,029 animals were used, and analyses were by a 3-trait repeatability model as used in the US official genetic evaluation...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Bruno Affonso Parenti de Oliveira, Carolina Ferreira Nicoletti, Cristiana Cortes de Oliveira, Marcela Augusta de Souza Pinhel, Driele Cristina Gomes Quinhoneiro, Natália Yumi Noronha, Júlio Sergio Marchini, Carla Barbosa Nonino
OBJECTIVE: Resting metabolic rate (RMR) is an important parameter to guide the nutritional therapy of class III obese patients. The aims of the present study were to develop a predictive equation for RMR estimation in class III obese women using anthropometric indicators and to compare indirect calorimetry with other predictive equations. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study on women with class III obesity (body mass index >40 kg/m2 ). Weight, height, fat-free mass, fat mass, and RMR of all individuals were measured...
May 2018: Nutrition
Diego Munguia-Izquierdo, Luis Suarez-Arrones, Valter Di Salvo, Victor Paredes-Hernandez, Julian Alcazar, Ignacio Ara, Richard Kreider, Alberto Mendez-Villanueva
This study determined the most effective field method for quantifying body fat percentage in male elite youth soccer players and developed prediction equations based on anthropometric variables. Forty-four male elite-standard youth soccer players aged 16.3-18.0 years underwent body fat percentage assessments, including bioelectrical impedance analysis and the calculation of various skinfold-based prediction equations. Dual X-ray absorptiometry provided a criterion measure of body fat percentage. Correlation coefficients, bias, limits of agreement, and differences were used as validity measures, and regression analyses were used to develop soccer-specific prediction equations...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Lukumon A Odunmbaku, Sunday S Sobowale, Monilola K Adenekan, Taiwo Oloyede, Janet A Adebiyi, Oluwafemi A Adebo
The quest for high-quality starch that would meet the needs of manufacturers is ever increasing. This study investigated the effect of steeping duration, drying temperature, and duration on the chemical properties of sorghum starch, to possibly alter the characteristics of sorghum starch for food applications. Steeping duration, drying temperature, and drying time of starch isolation were optimized using a central composite design and nine parameters including pH, amylose content, moisture, protein, ash, crude fiber, fat, carbohydrate, and total energy determined...
March 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
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