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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239834/order-constrained-linear-optimization
#1
Joe W Tidwell, Michael R Dougherty, Jeffrey S Chrabaszcz, Rick P Thomas
Despite the fact that data and theories in the social, behavioural, and health sciences are often represented on an ordinal scale, there has been relatively little emphasis on modelling ordinal properties. The most common analytic framework used in psychological science is the general linear model, whose variants include ANOVA, MANOVA, and ordinary linear regression. While these methods are designed to provide the best fit to the metric properties of the data, they are not designed to maximally model ordinal properties...
February 27, 2017: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236966/regulation-of-drosophila-development-by-the-golgi-kinase-four-jointed
#2
Yoko Keira, Moe Wada, Hiroyuki O Ishikawa
Despite intensive research on kinases and protein phosphorylation, most studies focus on kinases localized to the cytosol and nucleus. Studies in Drosophila discovered a novel signaling pathway that regulates growth and planar cell polarity. In this pathway, the atypical cadherin Fat acts as a receptor, and the cadherin Dachsous (Ds) serves as its ligand. Genetic studies in Drosophila identified the four-jointed gene as a regulator of the Fat pathway. Four-jointed (Fj) resides in the Golgi and phosphorylates the cadherin domains of Fat and Ds...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236296/different-types-of-dietary-advice-for-women-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#3
REVIEW
Shanshan Han, Philippa Middleton, Emily Shepherd, Emer Van Ryswyk, Caroline A Crowther
BACKGROUND: Dietary advice is the main strategy for managing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). It remains unclear what type of advice is best. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of different types of dietary advice for women with GDM for improving health outcomes for women and babies. SEARCH METHODS: We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register (8 March 2016), PSANZ's Trials Registry (22 March 2016) and reference lists of retrieved studies...
February 25, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228693/health-benefits-of-dietary-whole-grains-an-umbrella-review-of-meta-analyses
#4
REVIEW
Marc P McRae
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to review the effectiveness of the role of whole grain as a therapeutic agent in type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and obesity. METHODS: An umbrella review of all published meta-analyses was performed. A PubMed search from January 1, 1980, to May 31, 2016, was conducted using the following search strategy: (whole grain OR whole grains) AND (meta-analysis OR systematic review). Only English language publications that provided quantitative statistical analysis on type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and weight loss were retrieved...
March 2017: Journal of Chiropractic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212047/multimaterial-decomposition-algorithm-for-the-quantification-of-liver-fat-content-by-using-fast-kilovolt-peak-switching-dual-energy-ct-clinical-evaluation
#5
Tomoko Hyodo, Norihisa Yada, Masatoshi Hori, Osamu Maenishi, Peter Lamb, Kosuke Sasaki, Minori Onoda, Masatoshi Kudo, Teruhito Mochizuki, Takamichi Murakami
Purpose To assess the clinical accuracy and reproducibility of liver fat quantification with the multimaterial decomposition (MMD) algorithm, comparing the performance of MMD with that of magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy by using liver biopsy as the reference standard. Materials and Methods This prospective study was approved by the institutional ethics committee, and patients provided written informed consent. Thirty-three patients suspected of having hepatic steatosis underwent non-contrast material-enhanced and triple-phase dynamic contrast-enhanced dual-energy computed tomography (CT) (80 and 140 kVp) and single-voxel proton MR spectroscopy within 30 days before liver biopsy...
February 17, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211056/targeted-mass-media-interventions-promoting-healthy-behaviours-to-reduce-risk-of-non-communicable-diseases-in-adult-ethnic-minorities
#6
REVIEW
Annhild Mosdøl, Ingeborg B Lidal, Gyri H Straumann, Gunn E Vist
BACKGROUND: Physical activity, a balanced diet, avoidance of tobacco exposure, and limited alcohol consumption may reduce morbidity and mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Mass media interventions are commonly used to encourage healthier behaviours in population groups. It is unclear whether targeted mass media interventions for ethnic minority groups are more or less effective in changing behaviours than those developed for the general population. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of mass media interventions targeting adult ethnic minorities with messages about physical activity, dietary patterns, tobacco use or alcohol consumption to reduce the risk of NCDs...
February 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210936/does-obesity-affect-the-non-invasive-measurement-of-cardiac-output-performed-by-electrical-cardiometry-in-children-and-adolescents
#7
Luis Altamirano-Diaz, Eva Welisch, Ralf Rauch, Michael Miller, Teresa Sohee Park, Kambiz Norozi
Electrical cardiometry (EC) is a non-invasive and inexpensive method for hemodynamic assessment and monitoring. However, its feasibility for widespread clinical use, especially for the obese population, has yet to be determined. In this study, we evaluated the agreement and reliability of EC compared to transthoracic Doppler echocardiography (TTE) in normal, overweight, and obese children and adolescents. We measured stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) of 131 participants using EC and TTE simultaneously...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207294/validity-of-core-temperature-measurements-at-3-rectal-depths-during-rest-exercise-cold-water-immersion-and-recovery
#8
Kevin C Miller, Lexie E Hughes, Blaine C Long, William M Adams, Douglas J Casa
CONTEXT:  No evidence-based recommendation exists regarding how far clinicians should insert a rectal thermistor to obtain the most valid estimate of core temperature. Knowing the validity of temperatures at different rectal depths has implications for exertional heat-stroke (EHS) management. OBJECTIVE:  To determine whether rectal temperature (Trec) taken at 4 cm, 10 cm, or 15 cm from the anal sphincter provides the most valid estimate of core temperature (as determined by esophageal temperature [Teso]) during similar stressors an athlete with EHS may experience...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202779/fasting-mimicking-diet-and-markers-risk-factors-for-aging-diabetes-cancer-and-cardiovascular-disease
#9
Min Wei, Sebastian Brandhorst, Mahshid Shelehchi, Hamed Mirzaei, Chia Wei Cheng, Julia Budniak, Susan Groshen, Wendy J Mack, Esra Guen, Stefano Di Biase, Pinchas Cohen, Todd E Morgan, Tanya Dorff, Kurt Hong, Andreas Michalsen, Alessandro Laviano, Valter D Longo
Calorie restriction or changes in dietary composition can enhance healthy aging, but the inability of most subjects to adhere to chronic and extreme diets, as well as potentially adverse effects, limits their application. We randomized 100 generally healthy participants from the United States into two study arms and tested the effects of a fasting-mimicking diet (FMD)-low in calories, sugars, and protein but high in unsaturated fats-on markers/risk factors associated with aging and age-related diseases. We compared subjects who followed 3 months of an unrestricted diet to subjects who consumed the FMD for 5 consecutive days per month for 3 months...
February 15, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190771/obesity-induced-metabolic-stress-leads-to-biased-effector-memory-cd4-t-cell-differentiation-via-pi3k-p110%C3%AE-akt-mediated-signals
#10
Claudio Mauro, Joanne Smith, Danilo Cucchi, David Coe, Hongmei Fu, Fabrizia Bonacina, Andrea Baragetti, Gaia Cermenati, Donatella Caruso, Nico Mitro, Alberico L Catapano, Enrico Ammirati, Maria P Longhi, Klaus Okkenhaug, Giuseppe D Norata, Federica M Marelli-Berg
Low-grade systemic inflammation associated to obesity leads to cardiovascular complications, caused partly by infiltration of adipose and vascular tissue by effector T cells. The signals leading to T cell differentiation and tissue infiltration during obesity are poorly understood. We tested whether saturated fatty acid-induced metabolic stress affects differentiation and trafficking patterns of CD4(+) T cells. Memory CD4(+) T cells primed in high-fat diet-fed donors preferentially migrated to non-lymphoid, inflammatory sites, independent of the metabolic status of the hosts...
January 30, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183444/effects-of-lifestyle-interventions-on-clinical-characteristics-of-patients-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-meta-analysis
#11
Christina N Katsagoni, Michael Georgoulis, George V Papatheodoridis, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos, Meropi D Kontogianni
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Although lifestyle modifications remain the cornerstone therapy for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the optimal lifestyle intervention is still controversial. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of exercise and/or dietary interventions, type or intensity of exercise and type of diet, on liver function outcomes (liver enzymes, intrahepatic fat and liver histology), as well as on anthropometric and glucose metabolism parameters in NAFLD patients...
March 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177732/determination-of-the-exercise-intensity-that-elicits-maximal-fat-oxidation-in-individuals-with-obesity
#12
Sune Dandanell, Charlotte Boslev Præst, Stine Dam Søndergård, Camilla Skovborg, Flemming Dela, Steen Larsen, Jørn Wulff Helge
Maximal fat oxidation (MFO) and the exercise intensity that elicits MFO (FatMax) are commonly determined by indirect calorimetry during graded exercise tests in both obese and normal weight individuals. However, no protocol has been validated in individuals with obesity. Thus, the aims were to develop a graded exercise protocol for determination of FatMax in individuals with obesity, and to test validity and inter-method reliability. Fat oxidation was assessed over a range of exercise intensities in 16 individuals (Age: 28 (26-29) years, BMI: 36 (35-38) kg m-2) (95%CI) on a cycle ergometer...
December 19, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162956/exercise-and-ectopic-fat-in-type-2-diabetes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
A Sabag, K L Way, S E Keating, R N Sultana, H T O'Connor, M K Baker, V H Chuter, J George, N A Johnson
Ectopic adipose tissue surrounding the intra-abdominal organs (visceral fat) and located in the liver, heart, pancreas and muscle, is linked to cardio-metabolic complications commonly experienced in type 2 diabetes. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to determine the effect of exercise on ectopic fat in adults with type 2 diabetes. Relevant databases were searched to February 2016. Included were randomised controlled studies, which implemented≥4 weeks of aerobic and/or resistance exercise and quantified ectopic fat via magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy or muscle biopsy before and after intervention...
February 2, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158304/validation-of-two-portable-bioelectrical-impedance-analyses-for-the-assessment-of-body-composition-in-school-age-children
#14
Li-Wen Lee, Yu-San Liao, Hsueh-Kuan Lu, Pei-Lin Hsiao, Yu-Yawn Chen, Ching-Chi Chi, Kuen-Chang Hsieh
BACKGROUND: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a convenient and child-friendly method for longitudinal analysis of changes in body composition. However, most validation studies of BIA have been performed on adult Caucasians. The present cross-sectional study investigated the validity of two portable BIA devices, the Inbody 230 (BIA8MF) and the Tanita BC-418 (BIA8SF), in healthy Taiwanese children. METHODS: Children aged 7-12 years (72 boys and 78 girls) were recruited...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157576/alterations-in-over-ground-walking-patterns-in-obese-and-overweight-adults
#15
Hao Meng, Daniel P O'Connor, Beom-Chan Lee, Charles S Layne, Stacey L Gorniak
Obesity has been associated with negative effects on postural control, including falls. Previous studies revealed different outcomes regarding the effects of obesity on gait features, and the use of BMI may lead to bias in assessing the true effects of obesity on gait. To better understand the effects of obesity on gait, it is important to examine gait features and associated body composition measures. The purpose of this study was: (1) to assess gait features of normal weight, overweight and obese adults, and (2) to assess the relationship between body composition measures and gait features...
January 24, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148928/subcutaneous-fat-loss-is-greater-than-visceral-fat-loss-with-diet-and-exercise-weight-loss-promoting-drugs-and-bariatric-surgery-a-critical-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
C Merlotti, V Ceriani, A Morabito, A E Pontiroli
Aim of this review is to compare visceral and subcutaneous fat loss with all available strategies (diet and exercise, weight-loss promoting agents, and bariatric surgery). Eighty-nine studies, all full papers, were analysed to evaluate visceral and subcutaneous fat changes, measured through ultrasound, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and expressed as thickness, weight, area, and volume. Studies were included in a meta-analysis (random-effects model). Intervention effect (absolute and percent changes of visceral and subcutaneous fat) was expressed as standardized mean differences (SMD), with 95% confidence intervals (C...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122662/validity-of-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-in-estimation-of-fat-free-mass-in-colorectal-cancer-patients
#17
Hanna Ræder, Ane Sørlie Kværner, Christine Henriksen, Geir Florholmen, Hege Berg Henriksen, Siv Kjølsrud Bøhn, Ingvild Paur, Sigbjørn Smeland, Rune Blomhoff
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is an accessible and cheap method to measure fat-free mass (FFM). However, BIA estimates are subject to uncertainty in patient populations with altered body composition and hydration. The aim of the current study was to validate a whole-body and a segmental BIA device against dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, and to investigate the ability of different empiric equations for BIA to predict DXA FFM (FFMDXA)...
January 12, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106719/body-adiposity-index-performance-in-estimating-body-fat-percentage-in-colombian-college-students-findings-from-the-fuprecol-adults-study
#18
Robinson Ramírez-Vélez, Jorge Enrique Correa-Bautista, Katherine González-Ruíz, Andrés Vivas, Héctor Reynaldo Triana-Reina, Javier Martínez-Torres, Daniel Humberto Prieto-Benavides, Hugo Alejandro Carrillo, Jeison Alexander Ramos-Sepúlveda, Emilio Villa-González, Antonio García-Hermoso
Recently, a body adiposity index (BAI = (hip circumference)/((height)(1.5))(-18)) was developed and validated in adult populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of BAI in estimating percentage body fat (BF%) in a sample of Colombian collegiate young adults. The participants were comprised of 903 volunteers (52% females, mean age = 21.4 years ± 3.3). We used the Lin's concordance correlation coefficient, linear regression, Bland-Altman's agreement analysis, concordance correlation coefficient (ρc) and the coefficient of determination (R²) between BAI, and BF%; by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA))...
January 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101444/accelerometer-data-treatment-for-adolescents-fitting-a-piece-of-the-puzzle
#19
Melody Smith, Steve Taylor, Leon Iusitini, Tom Stewart, Fa'asisila Savila, El-Shadan Tautolo, Lindsay Plank, Shabnam Jalili-Moghaddam, Janis Paterson, Elaine Rush
This study aimed to assess the differences in participant retention and associations between physical activity and key variables when a range of accelerometer data inclusion criteria are employed. Data were drawn from 204 adolescents of Pacific Island heritage (survey, body composition, 7-day accelerometry) and their parents (date of birth, socioeconomic status) between October 2014 and February 2016 in Auckland, New Zealand. Data wear time criteria for inclusion were as follows: A) > = 10 h/weekday or > = 8 h weekend day, > = 5 days (at least one weekend day); B) > = 10 h/weekday or > = 8 h weekend day, > = 4 days; C) > = 7 h/day, > = 3 days; D) > = 10 h/day, > = 1 day...
March 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095800/diet-gonadal-sex-and-sex-chromosome-complement-influence-white-adipose-tissue-mirna-expression
#20
Jenny C Link, Yehudit Hasin-Brumshtein, Rita M Cantor, Xuqi Chen, Arthur P Arnold, Aldons J Lusis, Karen Reue
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression by targeting specific mRNA species for degradation or interfering with translation. Specific miRNAs are key regulators of adipogenesis, and are expressed at different levels in adipose tissue from lean and obese mice. The degree of lipid accumulation and distribution of white adipose tissue differs between males and females, and it is unknown whether sex differences in adipose tissue-specific miRNA expression may contribute to this dimorphism...
January 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
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