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Fat bias

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432966/risk-for-eating-disorders-modulates-interpretation-bias-in-a-semantic-priming-task
#1
Kaylee Misener, Maya Libben
The current study used a semantic priming paradigm to investigate the presence of implicit interpretation biases for food and body shape words among 118 undergraduate females. Reaction times (RTs) were recorded while participants made lexical decisions (i.e., word vs. non-word judgments) to lexical targets that were preceded by negatively valenced eating disorder related (e.g., fat-PIZZA), eating disorder unrelated (e.g., party-PIZZA), or semantically unrelated (e.g., umbrella-PIZZA) prime words. Self-reported eating disorder traits were assessed using the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ-34), the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), and the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE-Q 6...
April 19, 2017: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432747/whole-body-adipose-tissue-and-lean-muscle-volumes-and-their-distribution-across-gender-and-age-mr-derived-normative-values-in-a-normal-weight-swiss-population
#2
Erika J Ulbrich, Daniel Nanz, Olof Dahlqvist Leinhard, Magda Marcon, Michael A Fischer
PURPOSE: To determine age- and gender-dependent whole-body adipose tissue and muscle volumes in healthy Swiss volunteers in Dixon MRI in comparison with anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance (BIA) measurements. METHODS: Fat-water-separated whole-body 3 Tesla MRI of 80 healthy volunteers (ages 20 to 62 years) with a body mass index (BMI) of 17.5 to 26.2 kg/m(2) (10 men, 10 women per decade). Age and gender-dependent volumes of total adipose tissue (TAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), total abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT) and total abdominal adipose tissue (TAAT), and the total lean muscle tissue (TLMT) normalized for body height were determined by semi-automatic segmentation, and correlated with anthropometric and BIA measurements as well as lifestyle parameters...
April 22, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424188/nutritional-profile-of-supplemental-nutrition-assistance-program-household-food-and-beverage-purchases
#3
Anna H Grummon, Lindsey Smith Taillie
Background: The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), which is the largest federal nutrition assistance program in the United States, serves nearly 1 of 7 Americans. To date, few studies have examined food and beverage purchase behaviors in SNAP participants with the use of electronic purchase data.Objective: In this cross-sectional study, we examined household store purchases of key food, beverage, and nutrient groups in SNAP participants and nonparticipants.Design: Using a data set of US households' (n = 98,256 household-by-quarter observations) packaged food and beverage purchases and SNAP status [current participant, income-eligible nonparticipant (income ≤130% of the Federal Poverty Level [FPL]), and higher-income nonparticipants (income >130% of the FPL)] from 3 quarters during 2012-2013, we estimated pooled ordinary least-squares models, clustered at the household level, to examine the association between SNAP status and purchases while controlling for sociodemographic characteristics...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422154/integration-of-liver-gene-co-expression-networks-and-egwas-analyses-highlighted-candidate-regulators-implicated-in-lipid-metabolism-in-pigs
#4
Maria Ballester, Yuliaxis Ramayo-Caldas, Manuel Revilla, Jordi Corominas, Anna Castelló, Jordi Estellé, Ana I Fernández, Josep M Folch
In the present study, liver co-expression networks and expression Genome Wide Association Study (eGWAS) were performed to identify DNA variants and molecular pathways implicated in the functional regulatory mechanisms of meat quality traits in pigs. With this purpose, the liver mRNA expression of 44 candidates genes related with lipid metabolism was analysed in 111 Iberian x Landrace backcross animals. The eGWAS identified 92 eSNPs located in seven chromosomal regions and associated with eight genes: CROT, CYP2U1, DGAT1, EGF, FABP1, FABP5, PLA2G12A, and PPARA...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421020/social-dominance-orientation-dispositional-empathy-and-need-for-cognitive-closure-moderate-the-impact-of-empathy-skills-training-but-not-patient-contact-on-medical-students-negative-attitudes-toward-higher-weight-patients
#5
Angela Meadows, Suzanne Higgs, Sara E Burke, John F Dovidio, Michelle van Ryn, Sean M Phelan
Anti-fat bias in healthcare providers and medical students has serious implications for quality of care of higher-weight patients. Studies of interventions aimed at reducing anti-fat attitudes in medical students have generally been disappointing, with little enduring effect. It is possible that some students may be more receptive to prejudice-reducing influences than others, due to underlying differences in their personal characteristics. It is also possible that attitudes toward patients, specifically, may differ from anti-fat attitudes in general, and prejudice-reduction effectiveness on patient-specific attitudes has not yet been evaluated...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416013/no-seasonal-variation-in-physical-activity-of-han-chinese-living-in-beijing
#6
Guanlin Wang, Baoguo Li, Xueying Zhang, Chaoqun Niu, Jianbo Li, Li Li, John R Speakman
BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) is widely acknowledged to be beneficial to health and wellbeing, and is potentially influenced by a variety of environmental factors such as ambient temperature, weather conditions and air pollution levels. Since these factors vary seasonally, physical activity participation may also respond seasonally. Current population studies to profile physical activity often sample individuals only once, and this may result in biased estimates if there is strong seasonal variation...
April 17, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411313/roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-and-sleeve-gastrectomy-does-not-affect-food-preferences-when-assessed-by-an-ad-libitum-buffet-meal
#7
Mette S Nielsen, Bodil J Christensen, Christian Ritz, Simone Rasmussen, Thea T Hansen, Wender L P Bredie, Carel W le Roux, Anders Sjödin, Julie B Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) lead to a reduction in energy intake. It is uncertain whether this reduction is simply due to eating smaller portions or if surgery changes food preferences towards less energy-dense food. Previous results rely on verbal reports, which may be prone to recall bias and underestimation of especially unhealthy foods. METHODS: Using an ad libitum buffet meal targeting direct behavior, we investigated if RYGB and SG surgery leads to changes in food preferences...
April 14, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393498/the-impact-of-obesity-and-adiposity-on-inflammatory-markers-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#8
Michael D George, Jon T Giles, Patricia P Katz, Bryant R England, Ted R Mikuls, Kaleb Michaud, Alexis R Ogdie-Beatty, Said Ibrahim, Grant W Cannon, Liron Caplan, Brian C Sauer, Joshua F Baker
BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) are important disease activity biomarkers in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study aimed to determine to what extent obesity biases these biomarkers. METHODS: Body mass index (BMI) associations with CRP and ESR were assessed in two RA cohorts - 1) the cross-sectional Body Composition (BC) cohort (N = 451) including whole-body DXA measures of fat mass index, and 2) the longitudinal Veterans Affairs Rheumatoid Arthritis (VARA) registry (N = 1652), using multivariable models stratified by sex...
April 10, 2017: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383778/the-effect-of-noise-and-lipid-signals-on-determination-of-gaussian-and-non-gaussian-diffusion-parameters-in-skeletal-muscle
#9
Donnie Cameron, Mustapha Bouhrara, David A Reiter, Kenneth W Fishbein, Seongjin Choi, Christopher M Bergeron, Luigi Ferrucci, Richard G Spencer
This work characterizes the effect of lipid and noise signals on muscle diffusion parameter estimation in several conventional and non-Gaussian models, the ultimate objectives being to characterize popular fat suppression approaches for human muscle diffusion studies, to provide simulations to inform experimental work and to report normative non-Gaussian parameter values. The models investigated in this work were the Gaussian monoexponential and intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) models, and the non-Gaussian kurtosis and stretched exponential models...
April 6, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371083/animal-models-of-maternal-high-fat-diet-exposure-and-effects-on-metabolism-in-offspring-a-meta-regression-analysis
#10
REVIEW
G A Ribaroff, E Wastnedge, A J Drake, R M Sharpe, T J G Chambers
Animal models of maternal high fat diet (HFD) demonstrate perturbed offspring metabolism although the effects differ markedly between models. We assessed studies investigating metabolic parameters in the offspring of HFD fed mothers to identify factors explaining these inter-study differences. A total of 171 papers were identified, which provided data from 6047 offspring. Data were extracted regarding body weight, adiposity, glucose homeostasis and lipidaemia. Information regarding the macronutrient content of diet, species, time point of exposure and gestational weight gain were collected and utilized in meta-regression models to explore predictive factors...
March 30, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368744/-i-am-a-fat-baby-who-moved-to-a-fat-child-who-moved-to-a-fat-teenager-who-moved-to-a-fat-adult-women-s-reflections-of-a-lifetime-of-body-and-weight-concern
#11
Eva Pila, Shauna Solomon-Krakus, Kara Egelton, Catherine M Sabiston
The present study explored how women aged 50-65 years reflect and make meaning of a lifetime of body and weight struggles. Seven purposefully selected women with longstanding body image challenges participated in interviews and reflected on their perceptions, thoughts, and emotions around their body and weight since childhood. Findings revealed consistent and consuming concerns about the body; prevalent body-related self-conscious emotions; influential social experiences that impact physical self-perceptions; and enduring impacts of weight bias, stigma, and discrimination...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Women & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347278/validity-of-anthropometric-equations-to-estimate-infant-fat-mass-at-birth-and-in-early-infancy
#12
Jennifer S Cauble, Mira Dewi, Holly R Hull
BACKGROUND: In newborns and children, body fat estimation equations are often used at different ages than the age used to develop the equations. Limited validation studies exist for newborn body fat estimation equations at birth or later in infancy. The study purpose was to validate 4 newborn fat mass (FM) estimation equations in comparison to FM measured by air displacement plethysmography (ADP; the Pea Pod) at birth and 3 months. METHODS: Ninety-five newborns (1-3 days) had their body composition measured by ADP and anthropometrics assessed by skinfolds...
March 27, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338874/does-fetal-growth-restriction-cause-later-obesity-pitfalls-in-analyzing-causal-mediators-as-confounders
#13
Michael S Kramer, Xun Zhang, Mourad Dahhou, Seungmi Yang, Richard M Martin, Emily Oken, Robert W Platt
Recent studies finding that small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth is associated with increased adiposity in childhood and adulthood have been based on analyses "adjusting" for height, weight, or body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) measured concurrently with the adiposity measurement. To assess the potential for bias due to overadjustment for a causal mediator, we compared 2 approaches to analyzing the association between SGA birth and adiposity outcomes (skinfold thicknesses and bioelectrical impedance measurement of body fat) at age 11...
April 1, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323377/accuracy-of-pdff-estimation-by-magnitude-based-and-complex-based-mri-in-children-with-mr-spectroscopy-as-a-reference
#14
William M Haufe, Tanya Wolfson, Catherine A Hooker, Jonathan C Hooker, Yesenia Covarrubias, Alex N Schlein, Gavin Hamilton, Michael S Middleton, Jorge E Angeles, Diego Hernando, Scott B Reeder, Jeffrey B Schwimmer, Claude B Sirlin
PURPOSE: To assess and compare the accuracy of magnitude-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-M) and complex-based MRI (MRI-C) for estimating hepatic proton density fat fraction (PDFF) in children, using MR spectroscopy (MRS) as the reference standard. A secondary aim was to assess the agreement between MRI-M and MRI-C. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a HIPAA-compliant, retrospective analysis of data collected in children enrolled in prospective, Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved studies between 2012 and 2014...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302391/non-uniform-muscle-fat-replacement-along-the-proximodistal-axis-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#15
M T Hooijmans, E H Niks, J Burakiewicz, C Anastasopoulos, S I van den Berg, E van Zwet, A G Webb, J J G M Verschuuren, H E Kan
The progressive replacement of muscle tissue by fat in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) has been studied using quantitative MRI between, but not within, individual muscles. We studied fat replacement along the proximodistal muscle axis using the Dixon technique on a 3T MR scanner in 22 DMD patients and 12 healthy controls. Mean fat fractions per muscle per slice for seven lower and upper leg muscles were compared between and within groups assuming a parabolic distribution. Average fat fraction for a small central slice stack and a large coverage slice stack were compared to the value when the stack was shifted one slice (15 mm) up or down...
February 21, 2017: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267855/association-between-dietary-factors-and-mortality-from-heart-disease-stroke-and-type-2-diabetes-in-the-united-states
#16
Renata Micha, Jose L Peñalvo, Frederick Cudhea, Fumiaki Imamura, Colin D Rehm, Dariush Mozaffarian
Importance: In the United States, national associations of individual dietary factors with specific cardiometabolic diseases are not well established. Objective: To estimate associations of intake of 10 specific dietary factors with mortality due to heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes (cardiometabolic mortality) among US adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: A comparative risk assessment model incorporated data and corresponding uncertainty on population demographics and dietary habits from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1999-2002: n = 8104; 2009-2012: n = 8516); estimated associations of diet and disease from meta-analyses of prospective studies and clinical trials with validity analyses to assess potential bias; and estimated disease-specific national mortality from the National Center for Health Statistics...
March 7, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262916/vitamin-e-supplementation-in-people-with-cystic-fibrosis
#17
REVIEW
Peter O Okebukola, Sonal Kansra, Joanne Barrett
BACKGROUND: People with cystic fibrosis are at an increased risk of fat-soluble vitamin deficiency including vitamin E. Vitamin E deficiency can cause a host of conditions such as haemolytic anaemia, cerebellar ataxia and cognitive difficulties. Vitamin E supplementation is widely recommended in cystic fibrosis and aims to ameliorate this deficiency. This is an updated version of the review. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of any level of vitamin E supplementation on the frequency of vitamin E deficiency disorders in people with cystic fibrosis...
March 6, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259403/evaluation-of-the-national-research-council-2001-dairy-model-and-derivation-of-new-prediction-equations-1-digestibility-of-fiber-fat-protein-and-nonfiber-carbohydrate
#18
R R White, Y Roman-Garcia, J L Firkins, M J VandeHaar, L E Armentano, W P Weiss, T McGill, R Garnett, M D Hanigan
Evaluation of ration balancing systems such as the National Research Council (NRC) Nutrient Requirements series is important for improving predictions of animal nutrient requirements and advancing feeding strategies. This work used a literature data set (n = 550) to evaluate predictions of total-tract digested neutral detergent fiber (NDF), fatty acid (FA), crude protein (CP), and nonfiber carbohydrate (NFC) estimated by the NRC (2001) dairy model. Mean biases suggested that the NRC (2001) lactating cow model overestimated true FA and CP digestibility by 26 and 7%, respectively, and under-predicted NDF digestibility by 16%...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258777/multiple-risk-behavior-interventions-meta-analyses-of-rcts
#19
REVIEW
Nick Meader, Kristelle King, Kath Wright, Hilary M Graham, Mark Petticrew, Chris Power, Martin White, Amanda J Sowden
CONTEXT: Multiple risk behaviors are common and associated with developing chronic conditions such as heart disease, cancer, or Type 2 diabetes. A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression of the effectiveness of multiple risk behavior interventions was conducted. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Six electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO were searched to August 2016. RCTs of non-pharmacologic interventions in general adult populations were selected...
February 28, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253910/evaluating-overweight-and-obesity-prevalence-in-survivors-of-childhood-brain-tumors-a-systematic-review-protocol
#20
Kuan-Wen Wang, Adam Fleming, Sheila K Singh, Laura Banfield, Russell J de Souza, Lehana Thabane, M Constantine Samaan
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are well-known risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases including hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, and type 2 diabetes in the general population. Survivors of childhood brain tumors (SCBT) are at risk of premature mortality, and recent evidence suggests that these cardiometabolic diseases are potential emerging determinants of survival and quality of life. Therefore, the rates of overweight and obesity in this population need to be examined to assess their impact on outcomes...
March 3, 2017: Systematic Reviews
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