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Fat bias

Robin P Shook, Gregory A Hand, Daniel P O'Connor, Diana M Thomas, Thomas G Hurley, James R Hébert, Clemens Drenowatz, Gregory J Welk, Alicia L Carriquiry, Steven N Blair
Background: Assessments of energy intake (EI) are frequently affected by measurement error. Recently, a simple equation was developed and validated to estimate EI on the basis of the energy balance equation [EI = changed body energy stores + energy expenditure (EE)]. Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare multiple estimates of EI, including 2 calculated from the energy balance equation by using doubly labeled water (DLW) or activity monitors, in free-living adults...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Katsuyuki Taguchi, Toshihide Itoh, Matthew K Fuld, Eric Fournie, Okkyun Lee, Kyo Noguchi
OBJECTIVES: A novel imaging technique ("X-map") has been developed to identify acute ischemic lesions for stroke patients using non-contrast-enhanced dual-energy computed tomography (NE-DE-CT). Using the 3-material decomposition technique, the original X-map ("X-map 1.0") eliminates fat and bone from the images, suppresses the gray matter (GM)-white matter (WM) tissue contrast, and makes signals of edema induced by severe ischemia easier to detect. The aim of this study was to address the following 2 problems with the X-map 1...
March 14, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Asunción Ferri-Morales, Marcus Vinicius Nascimento-Ferreira, Dimitris Vlachopoulos, Esther Ubago-Guisado, Ana Torres-Costoso, Augusto Cesar F De Moraes, Alan R Barker, Luis A Moreno, Vicente Martínez-Vizcaino, Luis Gracia-Marco
PURPOSE: To examine the intermethods agreement of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to assess the percentage of body fat (%BF) in young male athletes using air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) as the reference method. METHODS: Standard measurement protocols were carried out in 104 athletes (40 swimmers, 37 footballers, and 27 cyclists, aged 12-14 y). RESULTS: Age-adjusted %BF ADP and %BF BIA were significantly higher in swimmers than footballers...
March 15, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
Jonathan M Aquino, Jenevieve L Roper
The purpose of the study was to compare smart apparel (SA) muscle activity measurements to surface electromyography (sEMG) muscle activity measurements during exercise, and determine if any systematic bias of the apparel exists. Thirty-five male participants (Ages 23.1±2.92 yrs, height 178±0.09 cm, mass 81.14±10.59 kg, body fat percentage 15.4±4.79%) provided informed consent for participation. During two separate exercise sessions, participants performed three sets of 12 bodyweight squats and pushups in both SA and sEMG...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Nazila Alinaghi, W Robert Reed
This paper studies the performance of the FAT-PET-PEESE (FPP) procedure, a commonly employed approach for addressing publication bias in the economics and business meta-analysis literature. The FPP procedure is generally used for three purposes: (i) to test whether a sample of estimates suffers from publication bias, (ii) to test whether the estimates indicate that the effect of interest is statistically different from zero, and (iii) to obtain an estimate of the mean true effect. Our findings indicate that the FPP procedure performs well in the basic but unrealistic environment of "fixed effects", where all estimates are assumed to derive from a single population value and sampling error is the only reason for why studies produce different estimates...
March 12, 2018: Research Synthesis Methods
Huimin Lin, Caixia Fu, Stephan Kannengiesser, Shu Cheng, Jun Shen, Haipeng Dong, Fuhua Yan
BACKGROUND: The coexistence of hepatic iron and fat is common in patients with hyperferritinemia, which plays an interactive and aggressive role in the progression of diseases (fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinomas). PURPOSE: To evaluate a modified high-speed T2 -corrected multi-echo, single voxel spectroscopy sequence (HISTOV) for liver iron concentration (LIC) quantification in patients with hyperferritinemia, with simultaneous fat fraction (FF) estimation...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Heilok Cheng, Jielan Kong, Catherine Underwood, Peter Petocz, Vasant Hirani, Beryl Dawson, Fiona O'Leary
The loss of lean body mass, muscle strength and physical function causes significant problems in older adults. Protein and amino acid supplements can preserve muscle strength but the effect on function is variable. We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to investigate the effect of protein and amino acid supplementation on fat-free mass, muscle strength and physical function in malnourished, frail, sarcopenic, dependent or elderly with acute or chronic conditions, with or without rehabilitation exercise...
March 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Nicole Prinz, Barbara Bohn, Annamarie Kern, Deborah Püngel, Olga Pollatos, Reinhard W Holl
OBJECTIVE: For dietary assessment, mobile devices with a camera can be used as an alternative to hand-written paper records. The Nutritional Tracking Information Smartphone (Nutris-Phone) study aimed to examine relative validity and feasibility of a photo-based dietary record in everyday life. DESIGN: Parallel to the photo-based technique, a weighed record was performed. Participant satisfaction was assessed by questionnaire. A trained nutrition scientist evaluated portion sizes and nutrient content was calculated (DGExpert)...
March 6, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Moloud Payab, Shirin Hasani-Ranjbar, Azadeh Aletaha, Nasrin Ghasemi, Mostafa Qorbani, Rasha Atlasi, Mohammad Abdollahi, Bagher Larijani
INTRODUCTION: This systematic review protocol aims to perform a protocol for assessing the effectiveness, safety, and mechanism of herbal medicines for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Some systematic reviews conducted earlier have evaluated the efficacy of herbal medicine to treat obesity and metabolic syndrome. Owing to the huge burden imposed by obesity in the recent years, a need is felt for conducting new systematic reviews on the topic of obesity with a focus on randomized clinical trials, we felt the need...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Alex R Chang, Waleed Zafar, Morgan E Grams
As the prevalence of obesity continues to increase worldwide, an increasing number of people are at risk for kidney disease. Thus, there is a critical need to understand how best to assess kidney function in this population, and several challenges exist. The convention of indexing glomerular filtration rate (GFR) to body surface area (BSA) attempts to normalize exposure to metabolic wastes across populations of differing body size. In obese individuals, this convention results in a significantly lower indexed GFR than unindexed GFR, which has practical implications for drug dosing...
January 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
Anne Martin, Josephine N Booth, Yvonne Laird, John Sproule, John J Reilly, David H Saunders
BACKGROUND: The global prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity is high. Lifestyle changes towards a healthy diet, increased physical activity and reduced sedentary activities are recommended to prevent and treat obesity. Evidence suggests that changing these health behaviours can benefit cognitive function and school achievement in children and adolescents in general. There are various theoretical mechanisms that suggest that children and adolescents with excessive body fat may benefit particularly from these interventions...
March 2, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Alexander P Welles, Mark J Buller, David P Looney, William V Rumpler, Andrei V Gribok, Reed W Hoyt
Human metabolic energy expenditure is critical to many scientific disciplines but can only be measured using expensive and/or restrictive equipment. The aim of this work is to determine whether the SCENARIO thermoregulatory model can be adapted to estimate metabolic rate (M) from core body temperature (TC ). To validate this method of M estimation, data were collected from fifteen test volunteers (age = 23 ± 3yr, height = 1.73 ± 0.07m, mass = 68.6 ± 8.7kg, body fat = 16.7 ± 7.3%; mean ± SD) who wore long sleeved nylon jackets and pants (Itot,clo = 1...
February 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Ronan Lordan, Alexandros Tsoupras, Bhaskar Mitra, Ioannis Zabetakis
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain a major cause of death and morbidity globally and diet plays a crucial role in the disease prevention and pathology. The negative perception of dairy fats stems from the effort to reduce dietary saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake due to their association with increased cholesterol levels upon consumption and the increased risk of CVD development. Institutions that set dietary guidelines have approached dairy products with negative bias and used poor scientific data in the past...
March 1, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Sophia Rasheeqa Ismail, Siti Khuzaimah Maarof, Syazwani Siedar Ali, Azizan Ali
BACKGROUND: The high amount of saturated fatty acids (SFA) coupled with the rising availability and consumption of palm oil have lead to the assumption that palm oil contributes to the increased prevalence of cardiovascular diseases worldwide. We aimed at systematically synthesising the association of palm oil consumption with cardiovascular disease risk and cardiovascular disease-specific mortality. METHODS: We systematically searched Central, Medline and Embase databases up to June 2017 without restriction on setting or language...
2018: PloS One
Rachel A Crockett, Sarah E King, Theresa M Marteau, A T Prevost, Giacomo Bignardi, Nia W Roberts, Brendon Stubbs, Gareth J Hollands, Susan A Jebb
BACKGROUND: Nutritional labelling is advocated as a means to promote healthier food purchasing and consumption, including lower energy intake. Internationally, many different nutritional labelling schemes have been introduced. There is no consensus on whether such labelling is effective in promoting healthier behaviour. OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of nutritional labelling for food and non-alcoholic drinks on purchasing and consumption of healthier items. Our secondary objective was to explore possible effect moderators of nutritional labelling on purchasing and consumption...
February 27, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Anna Zuba, Petra Warschburger
Anti-fat bias is widespread and is linked to the internalization of weight bias and psychosocial problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the internalization of weight bias among children across weight categories and to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Weight Bias Internalization Scale for Children (WBIS-C). Data were collected from 1484 primary school children and their parents. WBIS-C demonstrated good internal consistency (α = .86) after exclusion of Item 1. The unitary factor structure was supported using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (factorial validity)...
February 22, 2018: Body Image
Mindy Millard-Stafford, Ann E Swanson, Matthew T Wittbrodt
Men outperform women in sports requiring muscular strength and/or endurance, but the relative influence of "nurture" versus "nature" remains difficult to quantify. Performance gaps between elite men and women are well-documented using world records in second, centimeter or kilogram sports. However, this approach is biased by global disparity in reward structures and opportunities for women. Despite policies enhancing female participation (Title IX legislation), USA women only closed performance gaps by 2 and 5% in Olympic Trial swimming and running, respectively, from 1972 to 1980 (with no change thereafter through 2016)...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Haroldo Junior Fiorini, Marcel Jun Tamaoki, Mário Lenza, Joao Baptista Gomes Dos Santos, Flávio Faloppa, Joao Carlos Belloti
BACKGROUND: Trigger finger is a common clinical disorder, characterised by pain and catching as the patient flexes and extends digits because of disproportion between the diameter of flexor tendons and the A1 pulley. The treatment approach may include non-surgical or surgical treatments. Currently there is no consensus about the best surgical treatment approach (open, percutaneous or endoscopic approaches). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different methods of surgical treatment for trigger finger (open, percutaneous or endoscopic approaches) in adults at any stage of the disease...
February 20, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Sylvia H J Jochems, Frits H M Van Osch, Richard T Bryan, Anke Wesselius, Frederik J van Schooten, Kar Keung Cheng, Maurice P Zeegers
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is an association between dietary patterns/indices and foods from the main food groups (highest vs lowest intakes) prior to or after cancer diagnosis and mortality and cancer recurrence in cancer survivors. PARTICIPANTS: Survivors of common cancers with a 10-year survival rate of ≥50%: bladder, bowel, breast, cervical, kidney, laryngeal, prostate, testicular, uterine cancer, malignant melanoma and (non-)Hodgkin's lymphoma...
February 19, 2018: BMJ Open
Ailing Liu, Minhui Chen, Rashmi Kumar, Maja Stefanovic-Racic, Robert M O'Doherty, Ying Ding, Willi Jahnen-Dechent, Lisa Borghesi
Obesity, a prevalent condition in adults and children, impairs bone marrow (BM) function. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here, we show that obese mice exhibit poor emergency immune responses in a toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-dependent manner. Canonical myeloid genes (Csf1r, Spi1, Runx1) are enhanced, and lymphoid genes (Flt3, Tcf3, Ebf1) are reduced. Using adoptive transfer and mixed BM chimera approaches we demonstrate that myeloid>lymphoid bias arises after 6 weeks of high-fat diet and depends on precursor cell-autonomous TLR4...
February 16, 2018: Nature Communications
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