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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723960/a-validation-of-11-body-condition-indices-in-a-giant-snake-species-that-exhibits-positive-allometry
#1
Bryan G Falk, Ray W Snow, Robert N Reed
Body condition is a gauge of the energy stores of an animal, and though it has important implications for fitness, survival, competition, and disease, it is difficult to measure directly. Instead, body condition is frequently estimated as a body condition index (BCI) using length and mass measurements. A desirable BCI should accurately reflect true body condition and be unbiased with respect to size (i.e., mean BCI estimates should not change across different length or mass ranges), and choosing the most-appropriate BCI is not straightforward...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719493/validity-and-reliability-of-assessing-body-composition-using-a-mobile-application
#2
Elizabeth Z MacDonald, Pat R Vehrs, Gilbert W Fellingham, Dennis Eggett, James D George, Ronald Hager
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the LeanScreen (LS) mobile application that estimates percent body fat (%BF) using estimates of circumferences from photographs. METHODS: The %BF of 148 weight-stable adults was estimated once using DXA. Each of two administrators assessed the %BF of each subject twice using the LS app and manually measured circumferences. A mixed model ANOVA and Bland-Altman analyses were used to compare the estimates of %BF obtained from each method...
July 17, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716588/cathodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-of-the-extrastriate-visual-cortex-modulates-implicit-anti-fat-bias-in-male-but-not-female-participants
#3
Valentina Cazzato, Stergios Makris, Cosimo Urgesi
Explicit negative attitudes towards obese individuals are well documented and seem to modulate the activity of perceptual areas, such as the Extrastriate Body Area (EBA) in the lateral occipito-temporal cortex, which is critical for body-shape perception. Nevertheless, it is still unclear whether EBA serves a role in implicit weight-stereotypical bias, thus reflecting stereotypical trait attribution on the basis of perceptual cues. Here, we used an Implicit Association Test (IAT) to investigate whether applying transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over bilateral extrastriate visual cortex reduces pre-existing implicit weight stereotypical associations (i...
July 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712143/reliability-of-the-echomri-infants-system-for-water-and-fat-measurements-in-newborns
#4
Tatiana Toro-Ramos, Charles Paley, William W Wong, F Xavier Pi-Sunyer, Wen W Yu, John Thornton, Dympna Gallagher
OBJECTIVE: The precision and accuracy of a quantitative magnetic resonance (EchoMRI Infants) system in newborns were determined. METHODS: Canola oil and drinking water phantoms (increments of 10 g to 1.9 kg) were scanned four times. Instrument reproducibility was assessed from three scans (within 10 minutes) in 42 healthy term newborns (12-70 hours post birth). Instrument precision was determined from the coefficient of variation (CV) of repeated scans for total water, lean mass, and fat measures for newborns and the mean difference between weight and measurement for phantoms...
July 16, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693787/secretin-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-cholangiopancreatography-for-assessing-pancreatic-secretory-function-in-children
#5
Andrew T Trout, Daniel B Wallihan, Suraj Serai, Maisam Abu-El-Haija
OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy and interrater reproducibility of measurements of pancreatic secretory function by magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in response to secretin administration and to describe our experience using the technique to noninvasively assess pancreatic secretory function in a pediatric population. STUDY DESIGN: In the accuracy study, phantoms with varying fluid volume (47-206 mL) were imaged using the clinical quantification sequence...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689316/higher-lipophilic-index-indicates-higher-risk-of-coronary-heart-disease-in-postmenopausal-women
#6
Qing Liu, Alice H Lichtenstein, Nirupa R Matthan, Chanelle J Howe, Matthew A Allison, Barbara V Howard, Lisa W Martin, Carolina Valdiviezo, JoAnn E Manson, Simin Liu, Charles B Eaton
Fatty acids (FAs) are essential components of cell membranes and play an integral role in membrane fluidity. The lipophilic index [LI, defined as the sum of the products between FA levels and melting points (°C), divided by the total amount of FA: [Formula: see text]] is thought to reflect membrane and lipoprotein fluidity and may be associated with the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Therefore, we examined the associations of dietary and plasma phospholipid (PL) LI with CHD risk among postmenopausal women...
July 8, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689171/acupuncture-for-the-treatment-of-obesity-in-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Rong-Qiang Zhang, Jiao Tan, Feng-Ying Li, Yong-Hong Ma, Li-Xin Han, Xiao-Li Yang
OBJECTIVE: Meta-analysis was used to assess the clinical efficacy of acupuncture treatment for simple obesity and to provide evidence-based medical data for treating obesity with acupuncture. METHODS: A comprehensive search of studies on MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Chinese databases (Wan Fang,CNKI and VIP) from 1 January 1915 through 30 November 2015 (MEDLINE search updated through 31 December 2015) was performed. We included only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that used acupuncture and sham acupuncture to treat simple obesity...
July 8, 2017: Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682660/the-impact-of-low-accelerometer-wear-time-on-the-estimates-and-application-of-sedentary-behavior-and-physical-activity-data-in-adults
#8
Ryan McGrath, Chantal A Vella, Philip W Scruggs, Mark D Peterson, Christopher J Williams, David R Paul
BACKGROUND: This investigation sought to determine how accelerometer wear 1) biased estimates of sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA), 2) affected misclassifications for meeting Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (PAGA), and 3) impacted the results of regression models examining the association between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and a clinically-relevant health outcome. METHODS: One-hundred participants (age: 20.6±7.9 years) wore an Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer for 15...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673233/fixed-length-haplotypes-can-improve-genomic-prediction-accuracy-in-an-admixed-dairy-cattle-population
#9
Melanie Hess, Tom Druet, Andrew Hess, Dorian Garrick
BACKGROUND: Fitting covariates representing the number of haplotype alleles rather than single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles may increase genomic prediction accuracy if linkage disequilibrium between quantitative trait loci and SNPs is inadequate. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the accuracy, bias and computation time of Bayesian genomic prediction methods that fit fixed-length haplotypes or SNPs. Genotypes at 37,740 SNPs that were common to Illumina BovineSNP50 and high-density panels were phased for ~58,000 New Zealand dairy cattle...
July 3, 2017: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655389/role-of-dry-lean-body-mass-for-estimation-of-glomerular-filtration-rate-in-kidney-transplant-recipients
#10
Špela Borštnar, Jelka Lindič, Andrej Škoberne, Luka Ležaič, Aljaž Sočan, Aljoša Kandus, Damjan Kovač
BACKGROUND: The use of equations that predict glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in patients with a kidney graft is still a matter of debate. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of accuracy of GFR equations and the relevance of dry lean body mass in the assessment of GFR. METHODS: In a prospective clinical study, 100 patients with a kidney graft were included. Estimated GFR with Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation (MDRD), Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation (CKD EPI) with serum creatinine concentration (CKD EPI Cr), serum cystatin C concentration (CKD EPI CysC) or both (CKD EPI Cr-CysC), and creatinine clearance calculated with Cockcroft-Gault equation (CG) was compared with GFR measured by 51Cr-EDTA clearance (mGFR 51Cr-EDTA)...
June 28, 2017: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654627/effect-of-programmed-exercise-on-insulin-sensitivity-in-postmenopausal-women-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#11
Juan Bueno-Notivol, Julia Calvo-Latorre, Vanesa Alonso-Ventura, Vinay Pasupuleti, Adrian V Hernandez, Faustino R Pérez-López
OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of programmed exercise for at least 12 weeks, in postmenopausal women on insulin sensitivity-related outcomes (ISROs), including fasting insulin, C-peptide, insulin growth factor (IGF-1) and IGF-binding protein (IGFBP-3), Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), and anthropometric variables. METHODS: Searches were conducted in PubMed-Medline, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library from inception through May 3, 2016, for studies published in all languages...
June 26, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644688/intraosseous-administration-of-antidotes-a-systematic-review
#12
Audrée Elliott, Pierre-André Dubé, Amélie Cossette-Côté, Laura Patakfalvi, Eric Villeneuve, Martin Morris, Sophie Gosselin
CONTEXT: Intraosseous (IO) access is an established route of administration in resuscitation situations. Patients with serious poisoning presenting to the emergency department may require urgent antidote therapy. However, intravenous (IV) access is not always readily available. OBJECTIVE: This study reviews the current evidence for IO administration of antidotes that could be used in poisoning. The primary outcome was mortality as a surrogate of efficacy. Secondary outcomes included hemodynamic variables, electrocardiographic variables, neurological status, pharmacokinetics outcomes, and adverse effects as defined by each article...
June 23, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641952/the-effect-of-tissue-segmented-attenuation-maps-on-pet-quantification-with-a-special-focus-on-large-arteries
#13
A Mota-Cobian, J C Alonso-Farto, L Fernández-Friera, J Sánchez-González, B López-Melgar, L J Jiménez-Borreguero, V Fuster, J Ruiz-Cabello, S España
OBJECTIVES: Accuracy on quantitative PET image analysis relies on the correct application of attenuation correction which is one of the major challenges for PET/MRI that remains to be solved. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of MRI-based attenuation maps and the use of flexible coils on the quantitative accuracy of PET images with a special focus on large arteries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PET/CT data from eight oncologic patients was used. PET data was reconstructed using attenuation maps with different level of detail emulating several approaches available on current PET/MRI scanners...
June 19, 2017: Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633874/proportional-bias-between-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-and-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-varies-based-on-sex-in-active-adults-consuming-high-and-low-carbohydrate-diets
#14
Grant M Tinsley
Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) are common methods of body composition assessment, but the agreement between these methods varies. Bias between DXA and single-frequency BIA was evaluated at 6 different time points in 48 active male and female adults consuming standardized high- and low-carbohydrate diets. It was hypothesized that fixed and proportional biases exist between DXA and BIA but that the extent of bias does not differ based on sex. Substantial fixed bias was present for estimates obtained by DXA and BIA, and both men and women exhibited proportional bias for fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM)...
June 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601451/effect-of-uncertainty-in-composition-and-weight-measures-in-control-of-cheese-yield-and-fat-loss-in-large-cheese-factories
#15
Brenda Margolies, Michael C Adams, Joice Pranata, Kathleen Gondoutomo, David M Barbano
Our objective was to develop a computer-based cheese yield, fat recovery, and composition control performance measurement system to provide quantitative performance records for a Cheddar and mozzarella cheese factory. The system can be used to track trends in performance of starter cultures and vats, as well as systematically calculate theoretical yield. Yield equations were built into the spreadsheet to evaluate cheese yield performance and fat losses in a cheese factory. Based on observations in commercial cheese factories, sensitivity analysis was done to demonstrate the sensitivity of cheese factory performance to analytical uncertainty of data used in the evaluation...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598587/challenges-in-model-development-for-meat-composition-using-multipoint-nir-spectroscopy-from-at-line-to-in-line-monitoring
#16
Y Dixit, Maria P Casado-Gavalda, R Cama-Moncunill, P J Cullen, Carl Sullivan
This study evaluates the efficiency of multipoint near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict the fat and moisture content of minced beef samples both in at-line and on-line modes. Additionally, it aims at identifying the obstacles that can be encountered in the path of performing in-line monitoring. Near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectra of minced beef samples were collected using an NIR spectrophotometer, employing a Fabry-Perot interferometer. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) models based on reference values from proximate analysis yielded calibration coefficients of determination (Rc2) of 0...
July 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596551/automated-segmentation-of-human-cervical-supraclavicular-adipose-tissue-in-magnetic-resonance-images
#17
Elin Lundström, Robin Strand, Anders Forslund, Peter Bergsten, Daniel Weghuber, Håkan Ahlström, Joel Kullberg
Human brown adipose tissue (BAT), with a major site in the cervical-supraclavicular depot, is a promising anti-obesity target. This work presents an automated method for segmenting cervical-supraclavicular adipose tissue for enabling time-efficient and objective measurements in large cohort research studies of BAT. Fat fraction (FF) and R2(*) maps were reconstructed from water-fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 25 subjects. A multi-atlas approach, based on atlases from nine subjects, was chosen as automated segmentation strategy...
June 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596227/outcomes-with-perioperative-fat-emulsions-containing-omega-3-fatty-acid-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#18
Hye Jung Bae, Gwan Young Lee, Jong-Mi Seong, Hye Sun Gwak
PURPOSE: Results of a meta-analysis of data from clinical studies comparing patient outcomes and hospital length of stay (LOS) in surgical patients receiving fish oil (FO)-containing i.v. fat emulsions (IVFEs) versus non-FO-containing IVFEs are presented. METHODS: Computerized searches of the MEDLINE, Embase, and Coch rane CENTRAL databases were performed in August 2014 to identify English-language articles on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing FO-containing and non-FO-containing IVFEs in adult surgical patients receiving parenteral nutrition...
June 15, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593731/multimodal-3d-imaging-based-on-%C3%AE-mri-and-%C3%AE-ct-techniques-bridges-the-gap-with-histology-in-visualization-of-the-bone-regeneration-process
#19
R Sinibaldi, A Conti, B Sinjari, S Spadone, R Pecci, M Palombo, V S Komlev, M G Ortore, G Tromba, S Capuani, F De Luca, S Caputi, T Traini, S Della Penna
Bone repair/regeneration is usually investigated through x-ray computed microtomography (μCT) supported by histology of extracted samples, to analyze biomaterial structure and new bone formation processes. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (μMRI) shows a richer tissue contrast than μCT, despite at lower resolution, and could be combined with μCT in the perspective of conducting non-destructive 3D investigations of bone. A pipeline designed to combine μMRI and μCT images of bone samples is here described and applied on samples of extracted human jawbone core following bone graft...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580427/incidental-finding-of-low-brown-adipose-tissue-activity-in-endurance-trained-individuals-methodological-considerations-for-positron-emission-tomography
#20
Eric T Trexler, Drew McCallister, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Rosa T Branca
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adults has been shown to have a meaningful impact on energy expenditure and cold-induced thermogenesis. Data from rodent research have suggested that exercise may be a promising method of increasing BAT activity, with potential applications to the treatment and prevention of obesity and diabetes. However, emerging human research using positron emission tomography (PET) with [18F] Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) has identified lower BAT activity in endurance-trained athletes compared to sedentary controls, despite similar metabolic rate responses to cold exposure...
March 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
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