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Fat bias

Jacob T Gibby, Dennis K Njeru, Steve T Cvetko, Eric L Heiny, Andrew R Creer, Wendell A Gibby
OBJECTIVE: We correlate and evaluate the accuracy of accepted anthropometric methods of percent body fat (%BF) quantification, namely, hydrostatic weighing (HW) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP), to 2 automatic adipose tissue quantification methods using computed tomography (CT). METHODS: Twenty volunteer subjects (14 men, 6 women) received head-to-toe CT scans. Hydrostatic weighing and ADP were obtained from 17 and 12 subjects, respectively. The CT data underwent conversion using 2 separate algorithms, namely, the Schneider method and the Beam method, to convert Hounsfield units to their respective tissue densities...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Joanna Myriam Moussally, Tobias Brosch, Martial Van der Linden
Using a dot-probe discrimination task and a between-subjects design, we examined the time course of attentional biases (facilitated attention, delayed disengagement, and avoidance) toward thin versus fat bodies and explored the influence of body dissatisfaction (BD) on attention allocation among a sample of 163 women from the general population. Three stimulus presentation times were used: 100ms, 500ms, and 1500ms. We also used neutral body-shape-related stimuli as neutral stimuli related to the concept of interest to overcome the limitations of previous studies...
October 14, 2016: Body Image
Timothy K Baker, Gregory S Smith, Negar Nicole Jacobs, Ramona Houmanfar, Robbyn Tolles, Deborah Kuhls, Melissa Piasecki
The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP, Barnes-Holmes et al. in Psychol Rec 60:527-542, 2010) was utilized as a relatively new tool to measure implicit weight bias in first- and third-year medical students. To date, only two studies (Miller et al. in Acad Med 88:978-982, 2013; Phelan et al. in Med Educ 49:983-992, 2015) have investigated implicit weight bias with medical students and both have found pro-thin/anti-fat implicit attitudes, on average, using the Implicit Association Test (IAT, Greenwald and Banaji in Psychol Rev 102:4-27, 1995) as the assessment tool...
October 12, 2016: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Ka Hei Chan, Rahul Krishnan, Michael Alexander, Jonathan Rt Lakey
The islets of Langerhans are endocrine tissue clusters that secrete hormones that regulate the body's glucose, carbohydrate and fat metabolism, the most important of which is insulin, a hormone secreted by β cells within the islets. In certain instances, a person's own immune system attacks and destroys them leading to the development of Type 1 diabetes (T1D), a lifelong condition that needs daily insulin administration to maintain health and prolong survival. Islet transplantation is a surgical procedure that has demonstrated the ability to normalize blood sugar levels for up to a few years, but the need for chronic immunosuppression relegates it to a last resort that is often only used sparingly, and in seriously-ill patients...
October 10, 2016: Cell Transplantation
Uku Vainik, Kenn Konstabel, Evelin Lätt, Jarek Mäestu, Priit Purge, Jaak Jürimäe
Subjective energy intake (sEI) is often misreported, providing unreliable estimates of energy consumed. Therefore, relating sEI data to health outcomes is difficult. Recently, Börnhorst et al. compared various methods to correct sEI-based energy intake estimates. They criticised approaches that categorise participants as under-reporters, plausible reporters and over-reporters based on the sEI:total energy expenditure (TEE) ratio, and thereafter use these categories as statistical covariates or exclusion criteria...
October 11, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Xiaotian Luo, Jifeng Zhang, Chi Zhang, Chengqi He, Pu Wang
PURPOSE: To review the research literature on the effectiveness of whole-body vibration (WBV) therapy in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted by two independent reviewers. Mean differences (MDs), standardized mean differences (SMDs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated, and heterogeneity was assessed with the I(2) test. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess the methodological quality of the selected studies...
October 10, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
Indu Waidyatilaka, Angela de Silva, Maduka de Lanerolle-Dias, Sunethra Atukorala, Pulani Lanerolle
BACKGROUND: Valid skinfold thickness (SFT) equations for the prediction of body fat are currently unavailable for South Asian women and would be a potentially robust field tool. Our aim was to assess the validity of existing SFT equations against deuterium ((2)H2O) dilution and, if invalid, to develop and validate an SFT equation for % fat mass (%FM) in Sri Lankan women. METHODS: H2O dilution was used with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as the criterion method for the assessment of %FM in urban Sri Lankan women (30-45 years)...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
R S Waples
Theory and empirical estimates agree that the ratio of effective size (Ne ) to census size (N) falls roughly in the range 0·1-0·5 for most populations. In a number of marine species, however, genetic estimates of contemporary Ne /N are as much as 5-6 orders of magnitude lower. Although some mechanisms that could produce such tiny Ne /N ratios have been proposed, the subject remains controversial. This issue is important to resolve: if Ne /N can be 10(-3) or smaller, marine fish populations that are quite large could be at genetic risk...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
Genevieve E Becker, Hazel A Smith, Fionnuala Cooney
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding is important, however not all infants can feed at the breast and methods of expressing milk need evaluation. OBJECTIVES: To assess acceptability, effectiveness, safety, effect on milk composition, contamination and costs of methods of milk expression. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (21 March 2016), handsearched relevant journals and conference proceedings, and contacted experts in the field to seek additional published or unpublished studies...
September 29, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
M Shirin Shandiz, H Saligheh Rad, P Ghafarian, M Bakhshayesh Karam, Afshin Akbarzadeh, Mohammad Reza Ay
PURPOSE: Prostate imaging is one of the major application of hybrid PET/MRI systems. Inaccurate attenuation maps (µ-maps) derived by direct segmentation (SEG) in which the cortical bone is ignored and the volume of the air in cavities is underestimated is the main challenge of commercial PET/MRI systems for the quantitative analysis of the pelvic region. The present study considered the cortical bone and air cavity along with soft tissue, fat, and background air in the µ-map of the pelvic region using a method based on SEG...
September 28, 2016: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
Giuseppe Scimeca, Amelia Alborghetti, Antonio Bruno, Giulia Maria Troili, Gianluca Pandolfo, Maria Rosaria Anna Muscatello, Rocco Antonio Zoccali
AIM: To investigate psychopathological correlates of child obesity via the Draw-A-Person test (DAP). METHODS: The participants were 50 children with a mean age of 9.74 years. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of body fat. Children were divided into normal (n = 17), overweight (n = 14) and obese (n = 19). Two qualitative methods of scoring the DAP based on an integrative approach were used to assess self-concept (ESW) and overall level of children's adjustment (EAC)...
September 22, 2016: World Journal of Psychiatry
M Wanner, A Richard, B Martin, D Faeh, S Rohrmann
OBJECTIVES: To investigate associations between self-reported and objectively measured physical activity, sedentary behavior and overweight/obesity based on percent body fat measured with Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and body mass index (BMI), focusing on different intensities and domains of physical activity. METHODS: Data from NHANES 2003-2006 were analyzed using linear and ordered logistic regression analyses...
September 28, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Hadis Sabour, Abbas Norouzi-Javidan, Zahra Soltani, Seyede Azemat Mousavifar, Sahar Latifi, Seyed Hassan Emami-Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Ghodsi
BACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated the effect of different dietary fats on blood pressure (BP) in general population. However, these associations have not yet been described in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: Referred patients to Brain and SCI Research Center between 2011 and 2014 have been invited to participate. Only paraplegic individuals were recruited and patients with injury at cervical or higher thoracic sections were excluded to omit the bias effect of autonomic dysreflexia...
July 6, 2016: Iranian Journal of Neurology
Vanessa Fadanelli Schoenardie Poli, Ricardo Badan Sanches, Amanda Dos Santos Moraes, João Pedro Novo Fidalgo, Maythe Amaral Nascimento, Stephan Garcia Andrade-Silva, José Carlos Clemente, Liu Chiao Yi, Danielle Arisa Caranti
Assessing energy requirements is a fundamental activity in clinical dietetic practice. The aim of this study was to investigate which resting energy expenditure (REE) predictive equations are the best alternatives to indirect calorimetry before and after an interdisciplinary therapy in Brazilian obese women. In all, twelve equations based on weight, height, sex, age, fat-free mass and fat mass were tested. REE was measured by indirect calorimetry. The interdisciplinary therapy consisted of nutritional, physical exercise, psychological and physiotherapy support during the course of 1 year...
October 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Regine Zopf, Erika Contini, Chris Fowler, Naresh Mondraty, Mark A Williams
Body size and shape distortion is a core feature of Anorexia Nervosa (AN) - patients experience their body as fat while objectively being very thin. The cause of this distortion is unclear and disturbances in body perception could be involved. Body perception comprises estimating shape and location of one's body and requires integrating multisensory signals. We investigated if and how body location perception is changed and tested 23 AN patients and 23 healthy controls (HC) in a Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI) reaching paradigm...
November 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
M E H Jaspers, K M Brouwer, A J M van Trier, M L Groot, E Middelkoop, P P M van Zuijlen
BACKGROUND: Nowadays, patients normally survive severe traumas such as burn injuries and necrotizing fasciitis. Large skin defects can be closed but the scars remain. Scars may become adherent to underlying structures when the subcutical fat layer is damaged. Autologous fat grafting (AFG) provides the possibility to reconstruct a functional sliding layer underneath the scar. AFG is becoming increasingly popular for scar treatment although large studies using validated evaluation tools are lacking...
September 14, 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Rosa Vono, Claudia Fuoco, Stefano Testa, Stefano Pirrò, Davide Maselli, David Ferland Mc Collough, Elena Sangalli, Gianfranco Pintus, Roberta Giordo, Giovanna Finzi, Fausto Sessa, Rosanna Cardani, Ambra Gotti, Sergio Losa, Gianni Cesareni, Roberto Rizzi, Claudia Bearzi, Stefano Cannata, Gaia Spinetti, Cesare Gargioli, Paolo Madeddu
Critical limb ischemia (CLI), foot ulcers, former amputation and impaired regeneration are independent risk factors for limb amputation in diabetic subjects. The present work investigates whether and by which mechanism diabetes negatively impacts on functional properties of muscular pericytes (MPs), which are resident stem cells committed to reparative angiomyogenesis.We obtained muscle biopsies from diabetic patients undergoing major limb amputation and control subjects. Diabetic muscles collected at the rim of normal tissue surrounding the plane of dissection showed myofibres degeneration, fat deposition, and reduction of MPs vascular coverage...
September 6, 2016: Diabetes
Kyria Jayanne Clímaco Cruz, Jennifer Beatriz Silva Morais, Ana Raquel Soares de Oliveira, Juliana Soares Severo, Dilina do Nascimento Marreiro
Obesity is a chronic disease characterized by excessive accumulation of body fat and the presence of metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance. In this sense, zinc is an important nutrient that stimulates insulin secretion and increases sensitivity to insulin. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of zinc supplementation on insulin resistance in obese subjects through a systematic review of the available clinical trials. The search for articles was conducted using the PubMed, SciVerse Scopus, SciVerse ScienceDirect, and Cochrane databases, on May 25, 2016, by two authors independently...
September 1, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Lisa Schweitzer, Corinna Geisler, Maryam Pourhassan, Wiebke Braun, Claus-Christian Glüer, Anja Bosy-Westphal, Manfred J Müller
BACKGROUND: Assessing skeletal muscle (SM) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) by a single MRI slice at lumbar vertebra (L) 3 can replace whole-body MRI in young and middle-aged adults. However, this technique has not been proven in older adults. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this analysis was to reinvestigate the best estimate for SM and VAT in an independent population of healthy elderly people. METHODS: SM and VAT were assessed by whole-body MRI in 84 subjects ≥60 y [45 men; mean ± SD age: 68...
October 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Giulio Siracusano, Aurelio La Corte, Carmelo Milazzo, Giuseppe Pio Anastasi, Giovanni Finocchio, Michele Gaeta
PURPOSE: Investigation of the feasibility of the R2(⁎) mapping techniques by using latest theoretical models corrected for confounding factors and optimized for signal to noise ratio. THEORY AND METHODS: The improvement of the performance of state of the art magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) relaxometry algorithms is challenging because of a non-negligible bias and still unresolved numerical instabilities. Here, R2(⁎) mapping reconstructions, including complex fitting with multi-spectral fat-correction by using single-decay and double-decay formulation, are deeply studied in order to investigate and identify optimal configuration parameters and minimize the occurrence of numerical artifacts...
August 26, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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