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Fat bias

Aimin Tan, Guifen Gu, Xuan Gui, Yanxin Wu, Gordon Bolger, Albert Licollari, John C Fanaras
Previously reported LC-MS methods for quantifying 8-α-hydroxy-mutilin (a marker residue of tiamulin) in tissues all used a pseudo MRM transition (from protonated molecular ion to protonated molecular ion, m/z 337→337) due to difficulties in finding a product ion, leading to suboptimal selectivity and sensitivity for detection. By using electrospray negative ionization in a basic medium, we, for the first time, found a highly selective and sensitive true MRM transition for 8-α-hydroxy-mutilin, m/z 335→179...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Qian Zhao, Dongna Ma, Yuping Huang, Weiyi He, Yiying Li, Liette Vasseur, Minsheng You
Transcription factors (TFs), which play a vital role in regulating gene expression, are prevalent in all organisms and characterization of them may provide important clues for understanding regulation in vivo. The present study reports a genome-wide investigation of TFs in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), a worldwide pest of crucifers. A total of 940 TFs distributed among 133 families were identified. Phylogenetic analysis of insect species showed that some of these families were found to have expanded during the evolution of P...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
K Hidayat, C-M Yang, B-M Shi
Higher body fatness in adulthood has been consistently associated with an increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, as well as a tendency towards a lower risk of premenopausal breast cancer. However, the association between body fatness at a young age (≤30 years), body fatness gain and the risk of breast cancer is less defined. PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched to identify relevant publications. Risk estimates with 95% confidence intervals from each study were transformed into a continuous variable for each 5 kg m(-2) increase in body mass index (BMI) and were pooled under a random-effects model...
November 12, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Mark Bydder, Gavin Hamilton, Ludovic de Rochefort, Ajinkya Desai, Elhamy R Heba, Rohit Loomba, Jeffrey B Schwimmer, Nikolaus M Szeverenyi, Claude B Sirlin
The purpose of this work was to investigate sources of bias in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) liver fat quantification that lead to a dependence of the proton density fat fraction (PDFF) on the number of echoes. This was a retrospective analysis of liver MRI data from 463 subjects. The magnitude signal variation with TE from spoiled gradient echo images was curve fitted to estimate the PDFF using a model that included monoexponential R2 * decay and a multi-peak fat spectrum. Additional corrections for non-exponential decay (Gaussian), bi-exponential decay, degree of fat saturation, water frequency shift and noise bias were introduced...
November 12, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
Mark Oehmigen, Maike E Lindemann, Marcel Gratz, Julian Kirchner, Verena Ruhlmann, Lale Umutlu, Jan Ole Blumhagen, Matthias Fenchel, Harald H Quick
PURPOSE: Recent studies have shown an excellent correlation between PET/MR and PET/CT hybrid imaging in detecting lesions. However, a systematic underestimation of PET quantification in PET/MR has been observed. This is attributable to two methodological challenges of MR-based attenuation correction (AC): (1) lack of bone information, and (2) truncation of the MR-based AC maps (μmaps) along the patient arms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of improved AC featuring a bone atlas and truncation correction on PET quantification in whole-body PET/MR...
November 9, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Maamer Slimani, Hela Znazen, Amri Hammami, Nicola L Bragazzi
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present meta-analysis was to compare the body fat percentage (%) between male soccer players of different competitive levels, playing positions and age groups. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The systematic search was conducted using different databases and according to the Population/Intervention or Exposure/Comparison/Outcome(s) [PICO] criteria. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Higher % values of body fat in lower-level soccer players than higher-level counterparts (ES=0...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Dong Hoon Lee, NaNa Keum, Frank B Hu, E John Orav, Eric B Rimm, Qi Sun, Walter C Willett, Edward L Giovannucci
Quantification of lean body mass and fat mass can provide important insight into epidemiological research. However, there is no consensus on generalisable anthropometric prediction equations to validly estimate body composition. We aimed to develop and validate practical anthropometric prediction equations for lean body mass, fat mass and percent fat in adults (men, n 7531; women, n 6534) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006. Using a prediction sample, we predicted each of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-measured lean body mass, fat mass and percent fat based on different combinations of anthropometric measures...
November 7, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
Francesco Spelta, A M Fratta Pasini, L Cazzoletti, M Ferrari
The positive association between overweight, obesity, and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality is well established, even though this relation is typically U shaped with an increased risk also in low-weight subjects. However, being overweight or obese has been associated with a better prognosis in subjects suffering from chronic diseases, id est the "obesity paradox". In both community-dwelling and hospitalized patients with COPD, several studies have reported a significant protective effect of obesity on all-cause mortality, indicating that also in obstructive pulmonary diseases, an obesity paradox may be present...
November 6, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
J A D R N Appuhamy, L E Moraes, C Wagner-Riddle, D P Casper, E Kebreab
Organic matter (OM) in livestock manure consisting of biodegradable and nonbiodegradable fractions is known as volatile solids (VS). According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Tier 2 guidelines, methane produced by stored manure is determined based on VS. However, only biodegradable OM generates methane production. Therefore, estimates of biodegradable VS (dVS; dVS = VS - lignin) would yield better estimates of methane emissions from manure. The objective of the study was to develop mathematical models for estimating VS and dVS outputs of lactating dairy cows...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Julie Brown, Luke Grzeskowiak, Kathryn Williamson, Michelle R Downie, Caroline A Crowther
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with short- and long-term complications for the mother and her infant. Women who are unable to maintain their blood glucose concentration within pre-specified treatment targets with diet and lifestyle interventions will require anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies. This review explores the safety and effectiveness of insulin compared with oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies, non-pharmacological interventions and insulin regimens...
November 5, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
J G Bond, A Ramírez-Osorio, C F Marina, I Fernández-Salas, P Liedo, A Dor, T Williams
Aedes aegypti is a major vector of arboviruses that may be controlled on an area-wide basis using the sterile insect technique (SIT). Larval diet is a major factor in mass-rearing for SIT programs. We compared dietary effects on immature development and adult fitness-related characteristics for an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) diet, developed for rearing Ae. albopictus, and a standardized laboratory rodent diet (LRD), under a 14:10 h (light:dark) photoperiod ("light" treatment) or continuous darkness during larval rearing...
2017: PloS One
Sharon V Thompson, Bridget A Hannon, Ruopeng An, Hannah D Holscher
Background: There is strong epidemiologic evidence that dietary fiber intake is protective against overweight and obesity; however, results of intervention studies have been mixed. Soluble fiber beneficially affects metabolism, and fiber supplementation may be a feasible approach to improve body composition and glycemia in adults with overweight and obesity.Objective: We evaluated randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of isolated soluble fiber supplementation in overweight and obese adults on outcomes related to weight management [body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)), body weight, percentage of body fat, and waist circumference] and glucose and insulin metabolism (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and fasting insulin) through a systematic review and meta-analysis...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Carolina C Llanos-Paez, Christine Staatz, Rachael Lawson, Stefanie Hennig
AIMS: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is estimated daily in paediatric oncology patients; however, few equations, particularly ones that do not include serum creatinine, have been evaluated in this population. We aimed to compare the predictive performance of different equations available to estimate GFR in paediatric oncology patients. METHODS: GFR was measured (mGFR) in paediatric oncology patients based on a chromium 51-labeled ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid excretion test...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Marci H Levine, Silvia Spivakovsky
Data sourcesCochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline via Ovid, Embase via Ovid, US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry and the World Health Organisation (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched until July 2015 followed by hand searching of relevant references.Study selectionUsing no language restrictions, two authors independently assessed for inclusion of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating any intervention for treating oro-antral communications (OAC) and oro-antral fistulae (OAF) due to dental procedures...
October 27, 2017: Evidence-based Dentistry
Nazli Namazi, Kajal Khodamoradi, Bagher Larijani, Mohammad Hossein Ayati
BACKGROUND: Complementary therapies may increase the success rate of weight loss via a calorie-restricted diet. Acupuncture is a popular complementary therapy for obesity management. To our knowledge, no studies have summarised the effects of laser acupuncture (LA) on obesity. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of LA, in particular with respect to its impact on anthropometric features and appetite in obese adults, by conducting a systematic review of previous clinical trials...
October 26, 2017: Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society
Nidarshana Chaturvedi Parashar, Gaurav Parashar, Harsh Nayyar, Rajat Sandhir
N(6)-methyl-2'-deoxyadenosine (m6dA) is a well characterized DNA modification in prokaryotes. Its existence in eukaryotic DNA remained doubtful until recently. Evidence suggests that the m6dA levels decrease with the increasing complexity of eukaryotic genomes. Analysis of m6dA levels in genome of lower eukaryotes reveals its role in gene regulation, nucleosome positioning and early development. In higher eukaryotes m6dA is enriched in nongenic region compared to genic region, preferentially in chromosome X and 13 suggesting a chromosome bias...
October 23, 2017: Biochimie
Jennette P Moreno, Lydi-Anne Vézina-Im, Elizabeth M Vaughan, Tom Baranowski
INTRODUCTION: In previous studies, it has been found that on average, children consistently gained weight during the summer months at an increased rate compared with the 9-month school year. This contributed to an increased prevalence of overweight and obesity in children. Several obesity-related interventions have occurred during or targeting the summer months. We propose to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of obesity prevention and treatment interventions for school-age children conducted during the summer or targeting the summer months when children are not in school on their body mass index (BMI), or weight-related behaviours...
October 22, 2017: BMJ Open
Mona M Voges, Claire-Marie Giabbiconi, Benjamin Schöne, Manuel Waldorf, Andrea S Hartmann, Silja Vocks
Although it is well documented that women evaluate their own body differently from other bodies, it remains unclear whether this discrepancy is based on double standards because of identity or on objective differences between these bodies. The aim of this study was therefore to test whether women apply double standards depending on a body's identity when evaluating the same bodies presented with different faces. Average-weight women (N = 104) rated body attractiveness, body fat, and muscle mass of thin, average-weight, overweight, athletic, and hypermuscular bodies with either another female's face or their own face...
October 20, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Vicki Trier Taasti, Gregory James Michalak, David C Hansen, Amanda Deisher, Jon J Kruse, Bernhard Krauss, Ludvig Paul Muren, Jørgen Breede Baltzer Petersen, Cynthia H McCollough
Dual energy CT (DECT) has been shown, in theoretical and phantom studies, to improve the stopping power ratio (SPR) determination used for proton treatment planning compared to the use of single energy CT (SECT). However, it has not been shown that this also extends to organic tissues. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the accuracy of SPR estimation for fresh pork and beef tissue samples used as surrogates of human tissues. The reference SPRs for fourteen tissue samples, which included fat, muscle and femur bone, were measured using proton pencil beams...
October 23, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Ryotaro Bouchi, Tatsuya Fukuda, Takato Takeuchi, Yujiro Nakano, Masanori Murakami, Isao Minami, Hajime Izumiyama, Koshi Hashimoto, Takanobu Yoshimoto, Yoshihiro Ogawa
BACKGROUND: Activation of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) has been reported to be associated with impairment of insulin signaling in skeletal muscle mass, presumably leading to loss of muscle function. This study was aimed to investigate whether the use of DPP4 inhibitors (DPP4i) could attenuate the progressive loss of muscle mass in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A total 105 patients with type 2 diabetes (mean age 62 ± 12 years; 39% female) were studied in this retrospective observational study...
October 20, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
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