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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909906/obesity-and-prostate-cancer
#1
Yin Cao, Edward Giovannucci
Prostate cancer is a complex, heterogeneous disease. Factors related to detection, particularly PSA screening, further increase heterogeneity in the manifestation of the disease. It is thus not possible to provide a simple summary of the relationship between obesity and prostate cancer. Findings on obesity, often defined using body mass index (BMI), and total prostate cancer risk have been mixed; however, obesity is relatively consistently associated with a higher risk of aggressive prostate cancer, with aggressiveness defined in various ways (e...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903157/obesity-and-other-cancers
#2
Lin Yang, Bettina F Drake, Graham A Colditz
Purpose Evidence on overweight, obesity, and an increased risk of cancer continues to accumulate and was updated in the 2016 handbook on weight control from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The underlying primary data, together with dose-response meta-analysis and, finally, pooled analysis of individual participant data, add insight into the relation between obesity and cancer risk and prognosis. We summarize the evidence for mortality from prostate cancer, hematologic malignancies, and kidney cancer...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901030/assessment-of-echomri-ah-versus-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-by-idxa-to-measure-human-body-composition
#3
K L Marlatt, F L Greenway, E Ravussin
Comparison of percent fat mass across different body composition analysis devices is important given variation in technology accuracy and precision, as well as the growing need for cross-validation of devices often applied across longitudinal studies. We compared EchoMRI-AH and Lunar iDXA quantification of percent body fat (PBF) in 84 adults (43M, 41F), with the mean age 39.7±15.9 years and body mass index (BMI) 26.2±5.3 kg/m(2). PBF correlated strongly between devices (r>0.95, P<0.0001). A prediction equation was derived in half of the subjects, and the other half were used to cross-validate the proposed equation (EchoMRI-AH PBF=[(0...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899001/drug-interventions-for-the-treatment-of-obesity-in-children-and-adolescents
#4
REVIEW
Emma Mead, Greg Atkinson, Bernd Richter, Maria-Inti Metzendorf, Louise Baur, Nicholas Finer, Eva Corpeleijn, Claire O'Malley, Louisa J Ells
BACKGROUND: Child and adolescent obesity has increased globally, and can be associated with significant short- and long-term health consequences. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of drug interventions for the treatment of obesity in children and adolescents. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed (subsets not available on Ovid), LILACS as well as the trial registers ICTRP (WHO) and ClinicalTrials.gov. Searches were undertaken from inception to March 2016...
November 29, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878805/pancreatic-enzyme-replacement-therapy-for-people-with-cystic-fibrosis
#5
REVIEW
Usha Rani Somaraju, Arturo Solis-Moya
BACKGROUND: Most people with cystic fibrosis (80% to 90%) need pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy to prevent malnutrition. Enzyme preparations need to be taken whenever food is taken, and the dose needs to be adjusted according to the food consumed. A systematic review on the efficacy and safety of pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy is needed to guide clinical practice, as there is variability between centres with respect to assessment of pancreatic function, time of commencing treatment, dose and choice of supplements...
November 23, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878466/pancreatic-exocrine-insufficiency-comparing%C3%A2-fecal-elastase-1-with-72-h-stool-for-fecal-fat-estimation
#6
Sudipta Dhar Chowdhury, Reuben Thomas Kurien, Anup Ramachandran, Anjilivelil Joseph Joseph, Ebby George Simon, Amit Kumar Dutta, Deepu David, Bharath Kumar C, Prassana Samuel, K A Balasubramaniam
INTRODUCTION: Identification of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) is important in the management of chronic pancreatitis. The 72-h stool for fecal fat estimation (FFE) has long been considered a gold standard indirect test for the diagnosis of PEI. However, the test is cumbersome for both patients and laboratory personnel alike. In this study, we aimed to assess fecal elastase 1 (FE1) as an alternate to FFE for the diagnosis of PEI. METHODS: In all, 87 consecutive patients diagnosed with chronic pancreatitis were included in this study...
November 23, 2016: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870892/body-weight-can-change-how-your-emotions-are-perceived
#7
Yujung Oh, Norah C Hass, Seung-Lark Lim
Accurately interpreting other's emotions through facial expressions has important adaptive values for social interactions. However, due to the stereotypical social perception of overweight individuals as carefree, humorous, and light-hearted, the body weight of those with whom we interact may have a systematic influence on our emotion judgment even though it has no relevance to the expressed emotion itself. In this experimental study, we examined the role of body weight in faces on the affective perception of facial expressions...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867052/accelerating-mri-fat-quantification-using-a-signal-model-based-dictionary-to-assess-gastric-fat-volume-and-distribution-of-fat-fraction
#8
Dian Liu, Andreas Steingoetter, Helen L Parker, Jelena Curcic, Sebastian Kozerke
To quantify intragastric fat volume and distribution with accelerated magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using signal model-based dictionaries (DICT) in comparison to conventional parallel imaging (CG-SENSE). This study was approved by the local ethics committee and written informed consent was obtained. Seven healthy subjects were imaged after intake of a lipid emulsion and data at three different time points during the gastric emptying process was acquired in order to cover a range of fat fractions. Fully sampled and prospectively undersampled image data at a reduction factor of 4 were acquired using a multi gradient echo sequence at 1...
November 17, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863330/weight-bias-health-consciousness-and-behavioral-actions-activities
#9
Matthew Wood, Paurav Shukla
OBJECTIVE: This study examines the influence of weight bias and health consciousness on eating and dietary behavior; it also investigates the role of normative influences. DESIGN AND METHODS: A sample of adults living in South-East England (N=498) completed anonymous questionnaires about their diet, attitudes and beliefs towards obese people, health consciousness and normative influences. The survey included validated measures of anti-fat attitudes, and beliefs about obese people...
December 2016: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851874/adc-quantification-of-the-vertebral-bone-marrow-water-component-removing-the-confounding-effect-of-residual-fat
#10
Michael Dieckmeyer, Stefan Ruschke, Holger Eggers, Hendrik Kooijman, Ernst J Rummeny, Jan S Kirschke, Thomas Baum, Dimitrios C Karampinos
PURPOSE: To remove the confounding effect of unsuppressed fat on the imaging-based apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the vertebral bone marrow water component when using spectrally selective fat suppression and to compare and validate the proposed quantification strategy against diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance spectroscopy (DW-MRS). METHODS: Twelve subjects underwent diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and DW-MRS of the vertebral bone marrow. A theoretical model was developed to take into account and correct the effects of residual fat on ADC, incorporating additional measurements for proton density fat fraction (PDFF) and water T2 (T2w)...
November 8, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825581/usefulness-of-combined-functional-assessment-by-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-and-tissue-characterization-versus-task-force-criteria-for-diagnosis-of-arrhythmogenic-right-ventricular-cardiomyopathy
#11
Giovanni Donato Aquaro, Andrea Barison, Giancarlo Todiere, Chrysanthos Grigoratos, Lamia Ait Ali, Gianluca Di Bella, Michele Emdin, Pierluigi Festa
Current task force criteria (TFC) of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) for the diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC/D) were generated by comparing probands (mean age of 44 years) to healthy participants of the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (mean age of 60 years). These age differences may be a selection bias because right ventricular end-diastolic volume index decreases 4.6% per decade. Moreover, fat infiltration and late gadolinium enhancement were not included. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of TFC using the same methodology used by the task force but comparing probands and age- and gender-matched healthy controls and considering also other morphofunctional and tissue abnormalities detected by CMR...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822655/accelerating-multi-echo-water-fat-mri-with-a-joint-locally-low-rank-and-spatial-sparsity-promoting-reconstruction
#12
Felix Lugauer, Dominik Nickel, Jens Wetzl, Berthold Kiefer, Joachim Hornegger, Andreas Maier
OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to demonstrate the benefits of using locally low-rank (LLR) regularization for the compressed sensing reconstruction of highly-accelerated quantitative water-fat MRI, and to validate fat fraction (FF) and [Formula: see text] relaxation against reference parallel imaging in the abdomen. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Reconstructions using spatial sparsity regularization (SSR) were compared to reconstructions with LLR and the combination of both (LLR+SSR) for up to seven fold accelerated 3-D bipolar multi-echo GRE imaging...
November 7, 2016: Magma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813208/an-interactive-training-programme-to-treat-body-image-disturbance
#13
Lucinda J Gledhill, Katri K Cornelissen, Piers L Cornelissen, Ian S Penton-Voak, Marcus R Munafò, Martin J Tovée
OBJECTIVES: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a life-threatening mental health condition. A core feature is a disturbance of body image, such that sufferers see themselves as fatter than they actually are. DESIGN: We tested the effectiveness of a novel training programme to recalibrate our participants' perception of body size. METHODS: In a novel adaptation of a cognitive bias training programme, participants judged the body size of a series of female bodies and were given feedback to improve their accuracy over four daily training sessions...
November 3, 2016: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809381/stability-and-sensitivity-of-water-t2-obtained-with-ideal-cpmg-in-healthy-and-fat-infiltrated-skeletal-muscle
#14
Christopher D J Sinclair, Jasper M Morrow, Robert L Janiczek, Matthew R B Evans, Elham Rawah, Sachit Shah, Michael G Hanna, Mary M Reilly, Tarek A Yousry, John S Thornton
Quantifying muscle water T2 (T2 -water) independently of intramuscular fat content is essential in establishing T2 -water as an outcome measure for imminent new therapy trials in neuromuscular diseases. IDEAL-CPMG combines chemical shift fat-water separation with T2 relaxometry to obtain such a measure. Here we evaluate the reproducibility and B1 sensitivity of IDEAL-CPMG T2 -water and fat fraction (f.f.) values in healthy subjects, and demonstrate the potential of the method to quantify T2 -water variation in diseased muscle displaying varying degrees of fatty infiltration...
December 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797100/correction-of-phase-errors-in-quantitative-water-fat-imaging-using-a-monopolar-time-interleaved-multi-echo-gradient-echo-sequence
#15
Stefan Ruschke, Holger Eggers, Hendrik Kooijman, Maximilian N Diefenbach, Thomas Baum, Axel Haase, Ernst J Rummeny, Houchun H Hu, Dimitrios C Karampinos
PURPOSE: To propose a phase error correction scheme for monopolar time-interleaved multi-echo gradient echo water-fat imaging that allows accurate and robust complex-based quantification of the proton density fat fraction (PDFF). METHODS: A three-step phase correction scheme is proposed to address a) a phase term induced by echo misalignments that can be measured with a reference scan using reversed readout polarity, b) a phase term induced by the concomitant gradient field that can be predicted from the gradient waveforms, and c) a phase offset between time-interleaved echo trains...
October 31, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787772/group-cognitive-behavioral-treatment-for-internalized-weight-stigma-a-pilot-study
#16
Rebecca L Pearl, Christina H Hopkins, Robert I Berkowitz, Thomas A Wadden
OBJECTIVE: This study tested a novel group-based, cognitive-behavioral intervention designed to reduce internalized weight stigma among individuals with obesity. METHODS: A total of eight men and women with obesity who had experienced weight stigma and reported high levels of internalized weight stigma attended the Weight Bias Internalization and Stigma (BIAS) Program. The program provided eight weekly sessions of cognitive-behavioral treatment to cope with weight stigma...
October 27, 2016: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777796/objectively-quantified-physical-activity-and-sedentary-behavior-in-predicting-visceral-adiposity-and-liver-fat
#17
Shelley E Keating, Helen M Parker, Toby G Pavey, Michael K Baker, Ian D Caterson, Jacob George, Nathan A Johnson
Objective. Epidemiologic studies suggest an inverse relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and self-reported physical activity levels. However, subjective measurements can be inaccurate and prone to reporter bias. We investigated whether objectively quantified physical activity levels predicted liver fat and VAT in overweight/obese adults. Methods. Habitual physical activity was measured by triaxial accelerometry for four days (n = 82). Time spent in sedentary behavior (MET < 1...
2016: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753722/whole-body-computed-tomography-based-body-mass-and-body-fat-quantification-a-comparison-to-hydrostatic-weighing-and-air-displacement-plethysmography
#18
Jacob T Gibby, Dennis K Njeru, Steve T Cvetko, Eric L Heiny, Andrew R Creer, Wendell A Gibby
OBJECTIVE: We correlate and evaluate the accuracy of accepted anthropometric methods of percent body fat (%BF) quantification, namely, hydrostatic weighing (HW) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP), to 2 automatic adipose tissue quantification methods using computed tomography (CT). METHODS: Twenty volunteer subjects (14 men, 6 women) received head-to-toe CT scans. Hydrostatic weighing and ADP were obtained from 17 and 12 subjects, respectively. The CT data underwent conversion using 2 separate algorithms, namely, the Schneider method and the Beam method, to convert Hounsfield units to their respective tissue densities...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750205/time-course-of-attentional-biases-toward-body-shapes-the-impact-of-body-dissatisfaction
#19
Joanna Myriam Moussally, Tobias Brosch, Martial Van der Linden
Using a dot-probe discrimination task and a between-subjects design, we examined the time course of attentional biases (facilitated attention, delayed disengagement, and avoidance) toward thin versus fat bodies and explored the influence of body dissatisfaction (BD) on attention allocation among a sample of 163 women from the general population. Three stimulus presentation times were used: 100ms, 500ms, and 1500ms. We also used neutral body-shape-related stimuli as neutral stimuli related to the concept of interest to overcome the limitations of previous studies...
December 2016: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734175/a-deeper-look-at-implicit-weight-bias-in-medical-students
#20
Timothy K Baker, Gregory S Smith, Negar Nicole Jacobs, Ramona Houmanfar, Robbyn Tolles, Deborah Kuhls, Melissa Piasecki
The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP, Barnes-Holmes et al. in Psychol Rec 60:527-542, 2010) was utilized as a relatively new tool to measure implicit weight bias in first- and third-year medical students. To date, only two studies (Miller et al. in Acad Med 88:978-982, 2013; Phelan et al. in Med Educ 49:983-992, 2015) have investigated implicit weight bias with medical students and both have found pro-thin/anti-fat implicit attitudes, on average, using the Implicit Association Test (IAT, Greenwald and Banaji in Psychol Rev 102:4-27, 1995) as the assessment tool...
October 12, 2016: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
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