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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343944/quantitative-assessment-of-the-effects-of-chitosan-intervention-on-blood-pressure-control
#1
Haohai Huang, Ying Zou, Honggang Chi
Background: Chitosan is a popular dietary fiber often used to reduce dietary fat absorption to control weight and blood lipids. However, its effects on blood pressure (BP) have not been fully elucidated. We evaluated the effects of chitosan administration on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) through a pooled analysis of available randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Materials and methods: Electronic searches were conducted in Medline, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and EMBASE to identify relevant human placebo-control RCTs...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322549/noise-properties-of-proton-density-fat-fraction-estimated-using-chemical-shift-encoded-mri
#2
Nathan T Roberts, Diego Hernando, James H Holmes, Curtis N Wiens, Scott B Reeder
PURPOSE: The purpose of this work is to characterize the noise distribution of proton density fat fraction (PDFF) measured using chemical shift-encoded MRI, and to provide alternative strategies to reduce bias in PDFF estimation. THEORY: We derived the probability density function for PDFF estimated using chemical shift-encoded MRI, and found it to exhibit an asymmetric noise distribution that contributes to signal-to-noise-ratio dependent bias. METHODS: To study PDFF noise bias, we performed (at 1...
January 10, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319918/comparison-of-modified-two-point-dixon-and-chemical-shift-encoded-mri-water-fat-separation-methods-for-fetal-fat-quantification
#3
Stephanie A Giza, Michael R Miller, Prasiddha Parthasarathy, Barbra de Vrijer, Charles A McKenzie
BACKGROUND: Fetal fat is indicative of the energy balance within the fetus, which may be disrupted in pregnancy complications such as fetal growth restriction, macrosomia, and gestational diabetes. Water-fat separated MRI is a technique sensitive to tissue lipid content, measured as fat fraction (FF), and can be used to accurately measure fat volumes. Modified two-point Dixon and chemical shift encoded MRI (CSE-MRI) are water-fat separated MRI techniques that could be applied to imaging of fetal fat...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299877/cocoa-flavanol-supplementation-and-exercise-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Lieselot Decroix, Danusa Dias Soares, Romain Meeusen, Elsa Heyman, Cajsa Tonoli
BACKGROUND: Cocoa flavanols (CFs) have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities and can improve vascular function. It has recently been suggested that CF intake may improve exercise performance and recovery. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the literature on the effects of CF intake on exercise performance and recovery and exercise-induced changes in vascular function, cognitive function, oxidative stress, inflammation, and metabolic parameters. METHODS: Two electronic databases (Pubmed and Web of Science) were searched for studies examining the combination of CF intake and exercise in humans (up to 28 March 2017)...
January 3, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288191/exercise-and-adiposity-in-overweight-and-obese-children-and-adolescents-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis-of-randomised-trials
#5
George A Kelley, Kristi S Kelley, Russell R Pate
INTRODUCTION: Overweight and obesity is a worldwide public health problem among children and adolescents. However, the magnitude of effect, as well as hierarchy of exercise interventions (aerobic, strength training or both), on selected measures of adiposity is not well established despite numerous trials on this issue. The primary purposes of this study are to use the network meta-analytical approach to determine the effects and hierarchy of exercise interventions on selected measures of adiposity in overweight and obese children and adolescents...
December 28, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286209/precision-of-dxa-derived-visceral-fat-measurements-in-a-large-sample-of-adults-of-varying-body-size
#6
Kim Meredith-Jones, Jillian Haszard, Nigel Stanger, Rachael Taylor
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the precision of GE Lunar's CoreScan tool (GE Healthcare, Madison, Wisconsin) for measuring visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in adults of varying body size. METHODS: Two consecutive dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans with repositioning were undertaken in 233 participants (110 male, 123 female) aged 18 to 70 years; 38% (n = 89) had normal weight, 34% (n = 80) had overweight, and 27% (n = 64) had obesity...
December 29, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284797/bedside-quantification-of-fat-free-mass-in-acute-spinal-cord-injury-using-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-a-psychometric-study
#7
Maya G Panisset, Kate Desneves, Leigh C Ward, Jillian Rafferty, Helena Rodi, Geoff Roff, Doa El-Ansary, Mary P Galea
STUDY DESIGN: Psychometric. OBJECTIVES: Assess the validity of bioimpedance-based measures of fat-free mass (FFM) in acute SCI and of current definitions of obesity based on body mass index (BMI). SETTING: Australia. METHODS: All admissions within eight weeks of a new traumatic SCI were screened. 29% were eligible. 71% of those consented. Twenty participants (18 male) completed deuterium dilution (DD) and bioimpedance-based measurements of FFM...
December 28, 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249685/effects-of-beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate-supplementation-on-strength-and-body-composition-in-trained-and-competitive-athletes-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#8
REVIEW
Javier Sanchez-Martinez, Alejandro Santos-Lozano, Antonio Garcia-Hermoso, Kabir P Sadarangani, Carlos Cristi-Montero
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this meta-analysis was to examine the evidence for the effectiveness of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation interventions on modification in strength and body composition in trained and competitive athletes. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: A systematic search was performed using three databases: MEDLINE, EBSCO and Web of Science. The analysis was restricted to randomized controlled trials that examined the effect of HMB supplementation interventions on modification in bench and leg press strength, body mass, fat-free mass and fat mass...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230679/short-tau-inversion-recovery-in-breast-diffusion-weighted-imaging-signal-to-noise-ratio-and-apparent-diffusion-coefficients-using-a-breast-phantom-in-comparison-with-spectral-attenuated-inversion-recovery
#9
Tsukasa Yoshida, Atsushi Urikura, Kensei Shirata, Yoshihiro Nakaya, Masahiro Endo, Shingo Terashima, Yoichiro Hosokawa
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) obtained using two fat suppression techniques in breast diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of a phantom. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The breast phantom comprised agar gels with four different concentrations of granulated sugar (samples 1, 2, 3, and 4). DWI with short tau inversion recovery (STIR-DWI) and that with spectral attenuated inversion recovery (SPAIR-DWI) were performed using 3...
December 11, 2017: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206986/potential-for-bias-when-estimating-critical-windows-for-air-pollution-in-children-s-health
#10
Ander Wilson, Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda Chiu, Hsiao-Hsien Leon Hsu, Robert O Wright, Rosalind J Wright, Brent A Coull
Evidence supports an association between maternal exposure to air pollution during pregnancy and children's health outcomes. Recent interest has focused on identifying critical windows of vulnerability. An analysis based on a distributed lag model (DLM) can yield estimates of a critical window that are different from those from an analysis that regresses the outcome on each of the 3 trimester-average exposures (TAEs). Using a simulation study, we assessed bias in estimates of critical windows obtained using 3 regression approaches: 1) 3 separate models to estimate the association with each of the 3 TAEs; 2) a single model to jointly estimate the association between the outcome and all 3 TAEs; and 3) a DLM...
December 1, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204324/examining-publication-bias-a-simulation-based-evaluation-of-statistical-tests-on-publication-bias
#11
Andreas Schneck
Background: Publication bias is a form of scientific misconduct. It threatens the validity of research results and the credibility of science. Although several tests on publication bias exist, no in-depth evaluations are available that examine which test performs best for different research settings. Methods: Four tests on publication bias, Egger's test (FAT), p-uniform, the test of excess significance (TES), as well as the caliper test, were evaluated in a Monte Carlo simulation...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193411/a-systematic-review-of-the-anti-obesity-and-weight-lowering-effect-of-ginger-zingiber-officinale-roscoe-and-its-mechanisms-of-action
#12
REVIEW
Vahideh Ebrahimzadeh Attari, Aida Malek Mahdavi, Zeinab Javadivala, Sepideh Mahluji, Sepideh Zununi Vahed, Alireza Ostadrahimi
Recently, the beneficial effects of ginger on obesity is taken into consideration. Albeit, it seems that the anti-obesity effect of ginger and its mechanism of action has not yet been reviewed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically review the effect of Zingiber officinale Roscoe on obesity management. Databases including PubMed, Scopus, Google scholar, and Science Direct were searched from 1995 until May 2017 using the definitive keywords. Searching was limited to articles with English language...
November 29, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178029/chemical-shift-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-distinguishing-minimal-fat-renal-angiomyolipoma-from-renal-cell-carcinoma-a-meta-analysis
#13
Ling-Shan Chen, Zheng-Qiu Zhu, Zhi-Tao Wang, Jing Li, Li-Feng Liang, Ji-Yang Jin, Zhong-Qiu Wang
OBJECTIVES: To determine the performance of chemical shift signal intensity index (CS-SII) values for distinguishing minimal-fat renal angiomyolipoma (mfAML) from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and to assess RCC subtype characterisation. METHODS: We identified eligible studies on CS magnetic resonance imaging (CS-MRI) of focal renal lesions via PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. CS-SII values were extracted by lesion type and evaluated using linear mixed model-based meta-regression...
November 24, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177204/nutritional-renaissance-and-public-health-policy
#14
T C Campbell
The science of nutrition has long been entrapped in reductionist interpretation of details, a source of great confusion. However, if nutrition is defined as the integration of countless nutrient factors, metabolic reactions and outcomes, biologically orchestrated as in symphony, its relevance for personal and public health would be less confusing and more productive. This more wholistic interpretation may be observed at the cellular and physiological levels and may be described, in part, by the concept of pleiotropy (multiple cell-based effects from one nutrient source), together with its more expansive cousin, epitropy (multiple cell-based effects from multiple nutrients)...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170929/the-validity-of-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-to-measure-body-composition-in-phenylketonuria
#15
Maureen Evans, Kay Nguo, Avihu Boneh, Helen Truby
AIM: To compare the measurement of total body water (TBW) and fat-free mass (FFM) using the criterion method of deuterium dilution space ((2)H2O) with bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) using a portable QuadScan 4000, Bodystat(®) in children and adolescents with phenylketonuria (PKU). METHODS: Sixteen patients with PKU, median age is 12.5 (range 5-20.6) years, were recruited into this cross-sectional study. TBW was measured by both deuterium dilution and BIA on the same occasion as per a standard protocol...
November 24, 2017: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167695/total-energy-expenditure-of-10-to-12-year-old-japanese-children-measured-using-the-doubly-labeled-water-method
#16
Keisuke Komura, Satoshi Nakae, Kazufumi Hirakawa, Naoyuki Ebine, Kazuhiro Suzuki, Haruo Ozawa, Yosuke Yamada, Misaka Kimura, Kojiro Ishii
Background: To establish Japanese children's estimated energy requirements, total energy expenditure (TEE) data measured using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method is needed. This study aimed to 1) obtain basic TEE data from Japanese children measured using DLW (TEEDLW), 2) compare TEEDLW with TEE estimated by various estimation formulas to calculate their accuracy, and 3) develop a new equation to estimate TEE using body composition and pedometers. Methods: TEE was measured using DLW in 56 10- to 12-year-old Japanese children (33 boys, 23 girls)...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167014/the-effect-of-age-and-body-composition-on-body-mass-estimation-of-males-using-the-stature-bi-iliac-method
#17
Juho-Antti Junno, Markku Niskanen, Heli Maijanen, Brigitte Holt, Vladimir Sladek, Sirpa Niinimäki, Margit Berner
The stature/bi-iliac breadth method provides reasonably precise, skeletal frame size (SFS) based body mass (BM) estimations across adults as a whole. In this study, we examine the potential effects of age changes in anthropometric dimensions on the estimation accuracy of SFS-based body mass estimation. We use anthropometric data from the literature and our own skeletal data from two osteological collections to study effects of age on stature, bi-iliac breadth, body mass, and body composition, as they are major components behind body size and body size estimations...
November 19, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153999/improving-the-selectivity-and-sensitivity-for-quantifying-8-%C3%AE-hydroxy-mutilin-in-rabbit-tissues-by-using-basic-mobile-phases-and-negative-ionization
#18
Aimin Tan, Guifen Gu, Xuan Gui, Yanxin Wu, Gordon Bolger, Albert Licollari, John C Fanaras
Previously reported LC-MS methods for quantifying 8-α-hydroxy-mutilin (a marker residue of tiamulin) in tissues all used a pseudo MRM transition (from protonated molecular ion to protonated molecular ion, m/z 337→337) due to difficulties in finding a product ion, leading to suboptimal selectivity and sensitivity for detection. By using electrospray negative ionization in a basic medium, we, for the first time, found a highly selective and sensitive true MRM transition for 8-α-hydroxy-mutilin, m/z 335→179...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147778/genome-wide-investigation-of-transcription-factors-provides-insights-into-transcriptional-regulation-in-plutella-xylostella
#19
Qian Zhao, Dongna Ma, Yuping Huang, Weiyi He, Yiying Li, Liette Vasseur, Minsheng You
Transcription factors (TFs), which play a vital role in regulating gene expression, are prevalent in all organisms and characterization of them may provide important clues for understanding regulation in vivo. The present study reports a genome-wide investigation of TFs in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), a worldwide pest of crucifers. A total of 940 TFs distributed among 133 families were identified. Phylogenetic analysis of insect species showed that some of these families were found to have expanded during the evolution of P...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130623/body-fatness-at-a-young-age-body-fatness-gain-and-risk-of-breast-cancer-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-cohort-studies
#20
REVIEW
K Hidayat, C-M Yang, B-M Shi
Higher body fatness in adulthood has been consistently associated with an increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, as well as a tendency towards a lower risk of premenopausal breast cancer. However, the association between body fatness at a young age (≤30 years), body fatness gain and the risk of breast cancer is less defined. PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched to identify relevant publications. Risk estimates with 95% confidence intervals from each study were transformed into a continuous variable for each 5 kg m(-2) increase in body mass index (BMI) and were pooled under a random-effects model...
November 12, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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