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Obesity stigma

Maryam Mashmoul, Azrina Azlan, Norhafizah Mohtarrudin, Barakatun Nisak Mohd Yusof, Huzwah Khaza'ai, Hock Eng Khoo, Mehdi Farzadnia, Mohammad Taher Boroushaki
BACKGROUND: Saffron is the dried stigma of Crocus sativus L. flower which commonly used as a natural remedy to enhance health and even fights disease in the Middle-East and Southeast Asian countries. METHODS: This study was aimed to investigate protective effect of saffron extract and crocin in fatty liver tissue of high-fat diet induced obese rats. A total of 36 healthy male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six groups. Two groups served as controls, a normal diet (ND) and a high-fat diet (HFD)...
October 22, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Giuseppe Scimeca, Amelia Alborghetti, Antonio Bruno, Giulia Maria Troili, Gianluca Pandolfo, Maria Rosaria Anna Muscatello, Rocco Antonio Zoccali
AIM: To investigate psychopathological correlates of child obesity via the Draw-A-Person test (DAP). METHODS: The participants were 50 children with a mean age of 9.74 years. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of body fat. Children were divided into normal (n = 17), overweight (n = 14) and obese (n = 19). Two qualitative methods of scoring the DAP based on an integrative approach were used to assess self-concept (ESW) and overall level of children's adjustment (EAC)...
September 22, 2016: World Journal of Psychiatry
Anja Hilbert
One major approach to weight stigma reduction consists of decreasing beliefs about the personal controllability of-and responsibility for-obesity by educating about its biogenetic causes. Evidence on the efficacy of this approach is mixed, and it remains unclear whether this would create a deterministic view, potentially leading to detrimental side-effects. Two independent studies from Germany using randomized designs with delayed-intervention control groups served to (1) develop and pilot a brief, interactive stigma reduction intervention to educate N = 128 university students on gene × environment interactions in the etiology of obesity; and to (2) evaluate this intervention in the general population (N = 128) and determine mechanisms of change...
2016: PloS One
Maya Vadiveloo, Josiemer Mattei
BACKGROUND: Discrimination promotes multisystem physiological dysregulation termed allostatic load, which predicts morbidity and mortality. It remains unclear whether weight-related discrimination influences allostatic load. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to prospectively examine 10-year associations between weight discrimination, allostatic load, and its components among adults 25-75 years in the Midlife Development in the US Biomarker Substudy. METHODS: Participants with information on weight discrimination were analyzed (n=986)...
August 23, 2016: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
Andrea E Bombak, Deborah McPhail, Pamela Ward
Amidst a barrage of policy documents, bio-medical research, and press items concerned with the "crisis" of obesity, a growing scholarship is concerned with what has come to be known as "obesity stigma." This scholarship hails from a range of sources including critical obesity scholars who problematize the idea of obesity as a health concern, as well as from "mainstream" organizations and researchers who, while maintaining obesity is a world-wide health problem, also argue that "obese" people are the targets of discrimination...
October 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Andrea L Murphy, David M Gardner
BACKGROUND: Community pharmacists are accessible health care professionals who are increasingly offering weight management programs. People living with serious mental illness have markedly higher rates of obesity and associated illness outcomes than the general population, providing pharmacists who are interested in offering weight management services with an identifiable patient subgroup with increased health needs. Issues with stigma within obesity and mental illness care are prevalent and can lead to inequities and reduced quality of care...
July 2016: Canadian Pharmacists Journal: CPJ, Revue des Pharmaciens du Canada: RPC
Chandra L Jackson, Madina Agénor, Dayna A Johnson, S Bryn Austin, Ichiro Kawachi
BACKGROUND: Research shows that sexual minorities (e.g., lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals) experience higher levels of discrimination, stigma, and stress and are at higher risk of some poor health outcomes and health behaviors compared to their heterosexual counterparts. However, the majority of studies have examined sexual orientation disparities in a narrow range of health outcomes and behaviors using convenience samples comprised of either men or women living in restricted geographic areas...
2016: BMC Public Health
Kristen Criscitelli, Nicole M Avena
Both cigarette smoking and obesity are significant public health concerns and are associated with increased risk of early mortality. It is well established that the mesolimbic dopamine pathway is an important component of the reward system within the brain and is implicated in the development of addiction. Indeed, nicotine and highly palatable foods are capable of altering dopamine release within this system, engendering addictive like responses in susceptible individuals. Although additional research is warranted, findings from animal and human literature have elucidated many of neuroadaptions that occur from exposure to nicotine and highly palatable foods, leading to a greater understanding of the underlying mechanisms contributing to these aberrant behaviors...
August 7, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Ryan Richard Ruff, Jeannie Ng, Girardin Jean-Louis, Brian Elbel, Basile Chaix, Dustin T Duncan
The primary objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between neighborhood stigma and sleep in a sample of low-income housing residents in New York City. Data were derived from the NYC Low-Income Housing, Neighborhoods, and Health Study (N = 120). Adults living in low-income housing completed a survey consisting of measures of neighborhood stigma, sleep quality, and sleep duration. Neighborhood stigma and sleep were self-reported. Associations between neighborhood stigma and sleep health were analyzed using generalized linear models with cluster variance estimation...
August 5, 2016: Behavioral Medicine
Angela C Incollingo Rodriguez, Courtney M Heldreth, A Janet Tomiyama
OBJECTIVE: Although a considerable amount of research has revealed connections between weight stigma and mental and physical health outcomes, no studies to date have experimentally manipulated the experience of obesity to understand how weight stigma causally affects eating behavior, physiology, and psychological well-being. Research has also not yet identified effective strategies for reducing weight stigma. METHODS: In this research, the effect of weight stigma on psychological outcomes, unhealthy eating behavior, and the stress hormone cortisol was examined by randomly assigning participants to appear obese by wearing a fat suit or not...
September 2016: Obesity
Ketan Sharma, David Grant, Rajiv Parikh, Terence Myckatyn
BACKGROUND: Racial disparity continues to be a well-documented problem afflicting contemporary health care. Because the breast is a symbol of femininity, breast reconstruction is critical to mitigating the psychosocial stigma of a breast cancer diagnosis. Whether different races have equitable access to breast reconstruction remains unknown. METHODS: Two thousand five hundred thirty-three women underwent first-time autologous versus implant-based reconstruction following mastectomy...
August 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Lara Palmeira, José Pinto-Gouveia, Marina Cunha
Weight self-stigma is conceptualized as a multidimensional concept involving experiences of shame, self-devaluation and the perception of being discriminated against in social situations due to one's weight. It has been associated with experiential avoidance, unhealthy eating behaviors, binge eating and diminish quality-of-life (QoL). The current study aims to explore the mediation effect of weight-related experiential avoidance on the relationship between weight self-stigma and obesity-related QoL in women with and without binge eating (BE)...
October 1, 2016: Appetite
Birgit Wagner, Michaela Nagl, Ruth Dölemeyer, Grit Klinitzke, Jana Steinig, Anja Hilbert, Anette Kersting
Binge-eating disorder (BED) is a prevalent health condition associated with obesity. Few people with BED receive appropriate treatment. Personal barriers include shame, fear of stigma, geographic distance to mental health services, and long wait-lists. The aims of this study were to examine the efficacy of an Internet-based cognitive-behavioral intervention for adults with threshold BED (DSM-IV) and to examine the stability of treatment effects over 12months. Participants were randomly assigned to a 16-week Internet-based cognitive-behavioral intervention (n=69) or a wait-list condition (n=70)...
July 2016: Behavior Therapy
Natalie Ingraham, D Magrini, Jacquetta Brooks, Dawn Harbatkin, Asa Radix, Suzanne G Haynes
PURPOSE: Provider curricula to reduce potential weight bias or stigma in treating lesbian and bisexual (LB) women who are overweight or obese were pilot-tested in two unique settings. Trainings used LB cultural competency and motivational interviewing techniques to improve provider-patient interactions. METHODS: Two training formats were used: Clinic Format and Academic Format. Clinic Format training was pilot tested at Lyon-Martin Health Services, a Program of HealthRight360, a community health center serving women, lesbians, and transgender people in San Francisco and in two community settings...
July 7, 2016: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
Stuart W Flint, Sophie Reale
The aim of this study was to qualitatively examine weight stigma in individuals who exercise frequently. In total, six focus groups, comprising 30 participants aged 18-25 years, were conducted using convenience sampling. All participants were frequent exercisers. Five themes emerged in the data with participants discussing bullying, the consequences of obesity, causes of obesity, lack of willpower and interventions to reduce obesity. This study is the first qualitative examination of weight stigmatisation in frequent exercisers, where the beliefs reported by focus group participants suggest that frequent exercisers stigmatise, discriminate and dehumanise obese people...
July 4, 2016: Journal of Health Psychology
Yasha Parikh, Maryann Mason, Karen Williams
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity prevalence has tripled over the last three decades. Pediatric obesity has important implications for both adult health as well as the United States economy. In order to combat pediatric obesity, exploratory studies are necessary to create effective interventions. Recruitment is an essential part of any study, and it has been challenging for all studies, especially pediatric obesity studies. The objective of this study was to understand barriers to pediatric obesity study recruitment and review facilitators to overcome recruitment difficulties...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
N Alfaris, T K Kyle, J Nadai, F C Stanford
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
D Paul Sullins
The relationship of elevated depression risk recently discovered among adult persons raised by same-sex parents with possible precipitating conditions in childhood has not previously been acknowledged. This study tests whether such inattention is supportable. Logistic regression based risk ratios were estimated from longitudinal measures of mental health outcomes observed in three waves (at ages 15, 22, and 28) of the US National Survey of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 15,701). At age 28, the adults raised by same-sex parents were at over twice the risk of depression (CES-D: risk ratio 2...
2016: Depression Research and Treatment
Pilar Isla Pera, M Carmen Olivé Ferrér, Montserrat Nuñez Juarez, Esther Nuñez Juarez, Loreto Maciá Soler, Carmen López Matheu, Assumpta Rigol Cuadra, María Honrubia Pérez, Diana Marre
AIM: We aimed to explore the meaning of obesity in elderly persons with knee osteoarthritis (KO) and to determine the factors that encourage or discourage weight loss. BACKGROUND: Various studies have demonstrated that body mass index is related to KO and that weight loss improves symptoms and functional capacity. However, dietary habits are difficult to modify and most education programs are ineffective. DESIGN: A phenomenological qualitative study was conducted...
2016: Patient Preference and Adherence
Jeanne M Ferrante, KelliAnn Seaman, Alicja Bator, Pamela Ohman-Strickland, Daniel Gundersen, Lynn Clemow, Rebecca Puhl
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how perception of weight stigma among underserved women with obesity impacts doctor-patient relationships. METHODS: This study consisted of an interviewer-administered survey of 149 women with obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) immediately after their physician visit at four Federally Qualified Health Centers. Perceptions of weight stigma and physician empathy were measured using the Stigma Situations in Health Care instrument and Consultation and Relational Empathy (CARE) measure, respectively...
June 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
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