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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927688/stress-and-obesity
#1
A Janet Tomiyama
Many pathways connect stress and obesity, two highly prevalent problems facing society today. First, stress interferes with cognitive processes such as executive function and self-regulation. Second, stress can affect behavior by inducing overeating and consumption of foods that are high in calories, fat, or sugar; by decreasing physical activity; and by shortening sleep. Third, stress triggers physiological changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, reward processing in the brain, and possibly the gut microbiome...
June 21, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915364/does-weight-stigma-reduce-working-memory-evidence-of-stereotype-threat-susceptibility-in-adults-with-obesity
#2
Veronica Guardabassi, Carlo Tomasetto
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a highly stigmatizing condition, and reduced cognitive functioning is a stereotypical trait ascribed to individuals with obesity. In the present work, we tested the hypothesis that stereotype threat (i.e., a depletion of working memory resources due to the fear of confirming a negative self-relevant stereotype when a stereotype-related ability is assessed) contributes to cognitive deficits in individuals with obesity. METHODS: Computerized tests of (a) working memory and (b) probabilistic learning-an ability unrelated with working memory-were administered to a community sample of 131 adults...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894992/stimulating-weight-stigma-in-future-experimental-designs-on-physical-activity-development-and-pilot-validation-of-a-video-instrument
#3
Johannes Carl, Hendrik K Thedinga, Stephan Zipfel, Ansgar Thiel
OBJECTIVE: There is a need for more experimental research on weight stigma and physical activity, specifically among men with obesity. Yet, validated procedures are required. The goal of this study was i) to develop a 10-min video instrument for the experimental induction of physical activity-related weight stigma (including a neutral control video), and ii) to collect information with regards to its content, face, construct, and criterion validity. METHODS: To ensure content and face validity, two experts gave repeated feedback on the video development...
June 13, 2018: Obesity Facts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29852268/obesity-prevention-and-treatment-in-primary-care
#4
REVIEW
Callie L Brown, Eliana M Perrin
Despite many public health and clinical interventions, obesity rates remain high and evidence-based preventive strategies are elusive. Many consensus guidelines suggest providers should screen all children after age 2 for obesity by measuring height and weight, calculating body mass index (BMI), and sensitively communicating weight status in the context of health to the family at each visit. However, preventive counseling should begin in infancy and focus on healthy feeding, activity, and family lifestyle behaviors...
May 28, 2018: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783962/predictors-of-weight-stigma-experienced-by-middle-older-aged-general-practice-patients-with-obesity-in-disadvantaged-areas-of-australia-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Catherine Spooner, Upali W Jayasinghe, Nighat Faruqi, Nigel Stocks, Mark F Harris
BACKGROUND: Rates of obesity have increased globally and weight stigma is commonly experienced by people with obesity. Feeling stigmatised because of one's weight can be a barrier to healthy eating, physical activity and to seeking help for weight management. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of perceived weight among middle-older aged patients with obesity attending general practices in socioeconomically disadvantaged urban areas of Australia. METHODS: As part of a randomised clinical trial in Australia, telephone interviews were conducted with 120 patients from 17 general practices in socioeconomically disadvantaged of Sydney and Adelaide...
May 21, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759082/barriers-to-identifying-eating-disorders-in-pregnancy-and-in-the-postnatal-period-a-qualitative-approach
#6
Amanda Bye, Jill Shawe, Debra Bick, Abigail Easter, Megan Kash-Macdonald, Nadia Micali
BACKGROUND: Eating Disorders (ED) are mental health disorders that typically effect women of childbearing age and are associated with adverse maternal and infant outcomes. UK healthcare guidance recommends routine enquiry for current and past mental illness in antenatal and postnatal care for all women, and that pregnant women with a known ED are offered enhanced monitoring and support. Midwives and health visitors are ideally placed to identify and support women with ED as they are often the primary point of contact during the antenatal and postnatal periods...
May 15, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755933/increasing-overweight-and-obesity-erodes-engagement-in-one-s-neighborhood-by-women-but-not-men
#7
Roseanne C Schuster, Seung Yong Han, Alexandra A Brewis, Amber Wutich
Obesity is socially stigmatized in the U.S., especially for women. Significant research has focused on the role that the social and built environments of neighborhoods play in shaping obesity. However, the role of obesity in shaping neighborhood social structure has been largely overlooked. We test the hypothesis that large body size inhibits an individual's engagement in his or her neighborhood. Our study objectives are to assess if (1) body size (body mass index) interacts with gender to predict engagement in one's neighborhood (neighborhood engagement) and (2) if bonding social capital interacts with gender to predict neighborhood engagement independent of body size...
June 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751291/shame-and-avoidance-as-barriers-in-midwives-communication-about-body-weight-with-pregnant-women-a-qualitative-interview-study
#8
Anne Christenson, Eva Johansson, Signy Reynisdottir, Jarl Torgerson, Erik Hemmingsson
INTRODUCTION: Excessive gestational weight gain, regardless of initial BMI, is associated with perinatal risks for both mother and offspring and contributes to obesity in women. Studies report that healthcare professionals find it difficult to communicate about weight and pregnant women perceive healthcare professionals as unconcerned, leaving many women uninformed about weight recommendations and risks. We aimed to explore how midwives approach communication about gestational weight gain recommendations, and to characterize communication barriers and facilitators...
April 26, 2018: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723962/weight-shame-social-connection-and-depressive-symptoms-in-late-adolescence
#9
Alexandra A Brewis, Meg Bruening
Child and adolescent obesity is increasingly the focus of interventions, because it predicts serious disease morbidity later in life. However, social environments that permit weight-related stigma and body shame may make weight control and loss more difficult. Rarely do youth obesity interventions address these complexities. Drawing on repeated measures in a large sample ( N = 1443) of first-year (freshman), campus-resident university students across a nine-month period, we model how weight-related shame predicts depressive symptom levels, how being overweight (assessed by anthropometric measures) shapes that risk, and how social connection (openness to friendship) might mediate/moderate...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722045/targeting-body-dissatisfaction-among-women-with-overweight-or-obesity-a-proof-of-concept-pilot-study
#10
KayLoni L Olson, Tyler T Thaxton, Charles F Emery
OBJECTIVE: This proof-of-concept study was designed to replicate the effects of the empirically-supported Body Project intervention on body dissatisfaction when combined with behavioral recommendations for weight loss among women with overweight or obesity. METHOD: Women with overweight or obesity who reported body dissatisfaction and a desire to lose weight were randomized to one of two 4-week treatment conditions. Individuals assigned to the standard group (nā€‰=ā€‰15) were directed to track diet and activity level daily...
May 2, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697523/stigmatization-of-overweight-and-obese-women-during-forensic-examinations
#11
Karis M Davis, L Kathleen Sekula
Stigma and discrimination toward overweight and obese people pose consequences to their psychological and physical health. In the United States, overweight and obesity and affects over 34% of the population. This frequently ignored public health issue often sees overweight and obese individuals blamed for their weight, thereby justifying the bias. During a post-sexual-assault examination, sexual assault nurse examiners and other forensic examiners must be cognizant of the specific issues and challenges related to the care of these victims...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Forensic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687615/weight-stigma-in-men-what-when-and-by-whom
#12
Mary S Himmelstein, Rebecca M Puhl, Diane M Quinn
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the weight stigma experiences of men, examining characteristics of men who experienced weight stigma versus men who did not. METHODS: Data from three samples of men were examined (Nā€‰=ā€‰1,513). Sample 1 consisted of men with obesity at elevated risk for weight stigma. Sample 2 comprised a convenience online panel. Sample 3 included men from a national online panel of US adults. Men in all samples completed almost identical questionnaires assessing demographics, anthropometrics, weight stigma, and dieting...
June 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667158/obesity-prevention-and-management-strategies-in-canada-shifting-paradigms-and-putting-people-first
#13
REVIEW
Arya M Sharma, Ximena Ramos Salas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this study was to review public and private sector obesity policies in Canada and to make recommendations for future evidence-based obesity prevention and management strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: Synthesis of obesity prevention and management policies and research studies are presented in three primary themes: (1) Increased awareness about the impact of weight bias and obesity stigma in Canada; (2) Inadequate government obesity prevention and management policies and strategies; and (3) Lack of comprehensive private sector obesity prevention and management policies...
June 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661697/cardiovascular-disease-risk-in-sexual-minority-women-18-59-years-old-findings-from-the-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2001-2012
#14
Billy A Caceres, Abraham A Brody, Perry N Halkitis, Caroline Dorsen, Gary Yu, Deborah A Chyun
OBJECTIVE: Sexual minority women (lesbian and bisexual) experience significant stigma, which may increase their cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of modifiable risk factors for CVD (including mental distress, health behaviors, blood pressure, glycosylated hemoglobin, and total cholesterol) and CVD in sexual minority women compared with their heterosexual peers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A secondary analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001-2012) was conducted...
April 13, 2018: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656285/sociocultural-and-familial-factors-associated-with-weight-bias-internalization
#15
Rebecca L Pearl, Thomas A Wadden, Jena Shaw Tronieri, Ariana M Chao, Naji Alamuddin, Zayna M Bakizada, Emilie Pinkasavage, Robert I Berkowitz
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Sociocultural and familial factors associated with weight bias internalization (WBI) are currently unknown. The present study explored the relationship between interpersonal sources of weight stigma, family weight history, and WBI. METHODS: Participants with obesity (N = 178, 87.6% female, 71.3% black) completed questionnaires that assessed the frequency with which they experienced weight stigma from various interpersonal sources. Participants also reported the weight status of their family members and completed measures of WBI, depression, and demographics...
2018: Obesity Facts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573233/adolescent-preferences-for-weight-terminology-used-by-health-care-providers
#16
R M Puhl, M S Himmelstein
BACKGROUND: In light of high rates of obesity and weight stigma in youth, the American Academy of Paediatrics recommends that paediatric health care professionals use appropriate, sensitive and non-stigmatizing language in communication about weight with youth. For these efforts to be effective, there is a need to identify weight-based language preferences among youth with overweight and obesity, as research in this area is scarce. OBJECTIVES: The present study provides a systematic assessment of youth perspectives of weight-based language used by providers...
March 24, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569462/conceptualizing-obesity-as-a-chronic-disease-an-interview-with-dr-arya-sharma
#17
Arya M Sharma, Donna L Goodwin, Janice Causgrove Dunn
Dr. Arya M. Sharma challenges the conventional wisdom of relying simply on "lifestyle" approaches involving exercise, diet, and behavioral interventions for managing obesity, suggesting that people living with obesity should receive comprehensive medical interventions similar to the approach taken for other chronic diseases such as Type 2 diabetes or hypertension. He purports that the stigma-inducing focus on self-failing (e.g., coping through food, laziness, lack of self-regulation) does not address biological processes that make obesity a lifelong problem for which there is no easy solution...
March 23, 2018: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly: APAQ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559426/weight-stigma-goes-viral-on-the-internet-systematic-assessment-of-youtube-comments-attacking-overweight-men-and-women
#18
Yongwoog Andrew Jeon, Brent Hale, Eric Knackmuhs, Michael Mackert
BACKGROUND: Anonymous verbal attacks against overweight individuals on social media are common and widespread. These comments often use negative, misogynist, or derogatory words, which stigmatize the targeted individuals with obesity. These verbal attacks may cause depression in overweight individuals, which could subsequently promote unhealthy eating behavior (ie, binge eating) and further weight gain. To develop an intervention policy and strategies that tackle the anonymous, Web-based verbal attacks, a thorough understanding of the comments is necessary...
March 20, 2018: Interactive Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552349/gender-differences-in-the-relationship-of-weight-based-stigmatisation-with-motivation-to-exercise-and-physical-activity-in-overweight-individuals
#19
Krystal M Sattler, Frank P Deane, Linda Tapsell, Peter J Kelly
Weight stigma is related to lower levels of motivation to exercise in overweight and obesity. This study explored the nature of the relationship between stigma, motivation to exercise and physical activity while accounting for gender differences. Participants were 439 adults with overweight and obesity (mean body mass index = 32.18 kg/m2 , standard deviation = 4.09 kg/m2 ). Females reported significantly more frequent stigma experiences than males. Mediation models found a conditional direct effect of weight stigma for males, with higher frequency of stigma experiences related to higher levels of walking and vigorous physical activity...
January 2018: Health Psychology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534789/radiology-reporting-of-obesity-a-survey-of-patient-and-clinician-attitudes
#20
T E Murray, S D Ma, F Doyle, M J Lee
AIM: To determine whether obesity information obtained via imaging techniques is desirable for clinicians and patients, and to investigate whether it impacts clinical decision-making. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Parallel surveys were designed to assess patient and clinician attitudes to the medical utility and social stigma of reporting obesity on radiology reports performed for other reasons. RESULTS: Where obesity was noted at medical imaging performed for any reason, clinicians and patients strongly agreed that it should be included in the radiology report (5...
May 2018: Clinical Radiology
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