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Obesity bias

Michael B Cook, Jennifer Drahos, Shannon Wood, Lindsey Enewold, Ruth Parsons, Neal D Freedman, Philip R Taylor, Winnie Ricker, Christian C Abnet
BACKGROUND: The absolute risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) among individuals with Barrett's oesophagus (BE) is low and a majority of EA cases are diagnosed among individuals with no prior BE diagnosis. To ensure that insights from EA case-control studies are transferable to clinical management of BE populations, we conducted a case-case study to compare the clinical presentation, medical history and survival of EA cases with and without a prior BE diagnosis in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Medicare database...
October 25, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
Shelley E Keating, Helen M Parker, Toby G Pavey, Michael K Baker, Ian D Caterson, Jacob George, Nathan A Johnson
Objective. Epidemiologic studies suggest an inverse relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and self-reported physical activity levels. However, subjective measurements can be inaccurate and prone to reporter bias. We investigated whether objectively quantified physical activity levels predicted liver fat and VAT in overweight/obese adults. Methods. Habitual physical activity was measured by triaxial accelerometry for four days (n = 82). Time spent in sedentary behavior (MET < 1...
2016: Journal of Obesity
Esther Alhelí Hernández-Tobías, Luisa Torres-Sánchez, Gino Noris, Carla Santana, María Reyna Samano, José Arellano-Galindo, María de la Luz Arenas-Sordo, Daniel Brooks, Ana Lilia Rodríguez-Ventura, Marco Antonio Meraz-Ríos, Rocío Gómez
OBJECTIVE: We studied multi-loci variants to identify the contribution of six candidate genes (ADIPOQ, CDH13, LYPLAL1, MC4R, PPARG and PGC1A) in the development of obesity and overweight. DESIGN: We genotyped 404 chromosomes with eleven SNPs in Mexican female adolescents, who were subdivided into two groups (obesity-overweight and normal-weight) using the World Health Organization parameters. Genomic (800 chromosomes) and ancestral (208 chromosomes) controls were included to reduce the population bias...
October 20, 2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Robert Wagner, Louise Fritsche, Martin Heni, Ellen Fehlert, Norbert Stefan, Harald Staiger, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Andreas Fritsche
AIMS: Insulin resistance underlies the etiology of both type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes. In pregnancy, insulin resistance is also associated with an unfavorable metabolic programming of the fetus, potentially contributing to a higher risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes in the offspring. To assess insulin sensitivity, several methods based on glucose and insulin levels during a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) exist. It is unclear how they perform during pregnancy, where physiologically altered metabolism could introduce a bias...
October 22, 2016: Acta Diabetologica
Mauro Maniscalco, Debora Paris, Dominique J Melck, Maria D'Amato, Anna Zedda, Matteo Sofia, Cristiana Stellato, Andrea Motta
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological and clinical evidence supports the existence of an obesity-related asthma phenotype. No distinct pathophysiological elements or specific biomarkers have been identified so far but increased oxidative stress has been reported. OBJECTIVE: We aimed at verifying whether metabolomics of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) from obese asthmatic (OA), lean asthmatic (LA) and obese non-asthmatic (ONA) patients could recognize specific, statistically validated biomarkers for a separate "asthma-obesity" respiratory metabolic phenotype, here defined as "metabotype"...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
John J M Dwyer, Andrea Starr, Christine Mills, Jess Haines
PURPOSE: This qualitative study, guided by a phenomenological approach, explored senior-level undergraduate, nutrition students' perceptions of how obesity and weight bias were addressed in the undergraduate curricula and how the curricula influenced their attitudes toward individuals with obesity. METHODS: Twenty senior-level undergraduate, nutrition students from the University of Guelph participated in interviews. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim...
July 19, 2016: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
Deanna J M Isaman, Amy E Rothberg, William H Herman
OBJECTIVE: Bariatric surgery may induce remission of type 2 diabetes in obese patients. However, estimates of remission rates reported in the literature range from 25 to 81%, contributing to the uncertainty patients and physicians both face as they assess treatment options. This analysis attempts to reconcile the seemingly disparate rates of diabetes remission reported in studies of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. It examines variation in the methodologies used to derive the estimates and proposes outcomes that should be reported by all studies...
October 13, 2016: Diabetes Care
Timothy K Baker, Gregory S Smith, Negar Nicole Jacobs, Ramona Houmanfar, Robbyn Tolles, Deborah Kuhls, Melissa Piasecki
The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP, Barnes-Holmes et al. in Psychol Rec 60:527-542, 2010) was utilized as a relatively new tool to measure implicit weight bias in first- and third-year medical students. To date, only two studies (Miller et al. in Acad Med 88:978-982, 2013; Phelan et al. in Med Educ 49:983-992, 2015) have investigated implicit weight bias with medical students and both have found pro-thin/anti-fat implicit attitudes, on average, using the Implicit Association Test (IAT, Greenwald and Banaji in Psychol Rev 102:4-27, 1995) as the assessment tool...
October 12, 2016: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Antonios Proestakis, Pablo Brañas-Garza
Empirical evidence suggests that obese people are discriminated in different social environments, such as the work place. Yet, the degree to which obese people are internalizing and adjusting their own behavior as a result of this discriminatory behavior has not been thoroughly studied. We develop a proxy for measuring experimentally the "self-weight bias" by giving to both self-identified obese (n = 90) and non-obese (n = 180) individuals the opportunity to request a positive amount of money after having performed an identical task...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Damien Denimal, Marie-Claude Brindisi, Stéphanie Lemaire, Laurence Duvillard
BACKGROUND: Recent studies revealed that obesity is associated with decreased serum but at the same time increased red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations compared with lean subjects, thus casting doubt upon the agreement between serum and RBC folate measurements for assessing folate status. This work aimed to determine whether these two metrics lead to the same classification of folate status in obese patients. METHODS: RBC and serum folate concentrations were measured with a chemiluminescent immunoassay in 263 adults with body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2) and without previous bariatric surgery...
October 8, 2016: Obesity Surgery
Erik K Grasser, Barbara Ernst, Martin Thurnheer, Bernd Schultes
BACKGROUND: A shortening of electrocardiographic QT interval has been observed in obese subjects after weight loss, but previous results may have been biased by inappropriate heart rate (HR) correction. METHODS: Electrocardiography (ECG) recordings of 49 (35 females) severely obese patients before and 12 months after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery were analysed. QT interval (QTc) was calculated by using four different equations, i.e. Bazett, Fridericia, Framingham and Hodges...
October 8, 2016: Obesity Surgery
Edoardo Vitolo, Eleonora Santini, Antonio Salvati, Duccio Volterrani, Valerio Duce, Rosa Maria Bruno, Anna Solini
OBJECTIVE: Renal function is often compromised in severe obesity. A true measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is unusual, and how estimation formulae (EstForm) perform in such individuals is unclear. We characterized renal function and hemodynamics in severely obese individuals, assessing the reliability of EstForm. METHODS: We measured GFR (mGFR) by iohexol plasma clearance, renal plasma flow (RPF) by 123I-ortho-iodo-hippurate, basal and stimulated vascular renal indices, endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilation using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) as well as metabolic and hormonal profile in morbid, otherwise healthy, obese subjects...
October 5, 2016: Obesity Facts
Luke Wolfenden, Jannah Jones, Christopher M Williams, Meghan Finch, Rebecca J Wyse, Melanie Kingsland, Flora Tzelepis, John Wiggers, Amanda J Williams, Kirsty Seward, Tameka Small, Vivian Welch, Debbie Booth, Sze Lin Yoong
BACKGROUND: Despite the existence of effective interventions and best-practice guideline recommendations for childcare services to implement policies, practices and programmes to promote child healthy eating, physical activity and prevent unhealthy weight gain, many services fail to do so. OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of the review was to examine the effectiveness of strategies aimed at improving the implementation of policies, practices or programmes by childcare services that promote child healthy eating, physical activity and/or obesity prevention...
October 4, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Michelle Harrison, Wendy Brodribb, Julie Hepworth
Evidence supports the establishment of healthy feeding practices early in life to promote lifelong healthy eating patterns protective against chronic disease such as obesity. Current early childhood obesity prevention interventions are built on extant understandings of how feeding practices relate to infant's cues of hunger and satiety. Further insights regarding factors that influence feeding behaviors in early life may improve program designs and outcomes. Four electronic databases were searched for peer-reviewed qualitative studies published between 2000 to 2014 with transitional infant feeding practice rationale from developed countries...
October 3, 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Yingjun Qian, Huajun Xu, Yuyu Wang, Hongliang Yi, Jian Guan, Shankai Yin
INTRODUCTION: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been suggested to be associated with a high risk of metabolic syndrome (MS). However, results on whether the association between OSA and risk of MS is independent of obesity, and the effect of nocturnal intermittent hypoxia (IH) on MS, are conflicting. Our purpose was to estimate the magnitude of the independent association between OSA and risk of MS and further explore whether nocturnal IH in OSA plays a role in MS risk. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The PubMed and EMBASE databases were systematically searched (until January 21, 2015) for available observational evidence...
October 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
Luis A Berrios
More than one-third of the US adult population and 17% of the youth are now obese, and obesity is associated with more than $147 billion a year in health care costs. Critical care nurses should understand the physiological differences and practice guidelines for patients with a body mass index greater than 30. The ABCD approach encompasses key clinical concepts in the management of critically ill obese and morbidly obese patients, including management of airways and breathing, minimizing nurses' back and other injuries, increasing awareness of bias, circulation problems, risks of decubitus ulcers and other skin breakdown, differences in drug calculations and metabolism, limitations in diagnostic equipment and imaging, diet and nutritional recommendations, and concerns with durable medical equipment...
October 2016: Critical Care Nurse
Roman Schumann, Andrzej P Kwater, Iwona Bonney, Diane Ladd, Julie Kim, Anupriya Gupta, Sam D Gumbert, Evan G Pivalizza
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate use of a respiratory volume monitor (RVM; ExSpiron, Respiratory Motion, Inc., Waltham, MA, USA) that provides minute ventilation (MV), tidal volume (TV) and respiratory rate (RR) measurements in obese surgical patients, hitherto undescribed. DESIGN: Prospective, IRB-approved observational study of RVM parameter accuracy in obese surgical patients, designed to test the ability of the RVM to detect predefined postoperative respiratory depression (PORD) and apneic events (POA) and to correlate STOP-Bang scores with PORD and POA...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Celso Roberto Passeri, Jacira Alves Caracik de Camargo Andrade, Karla Thaíza Tomal, Eduardo Marcucci Pracucho, Livia Paschoalino de Campos, Silvia Helena de Carvalho Sales-Peres
Background: Obesity and metabolic syndrome can be labeled as worldwide outbreak; thus, both have led to serious public health problem. Oral health can be worsened by both, obesity and metabolic syndrome. Tooth loss harms masticatory function, essential status to whom will be submitted to bariatric surgery. Aim: Assess masticatory function of obese candidates to bariatric surgery, who belong to distinct socioeconomic class range, in order to recognize hazard factors and the bias of socioeconomic factor in this context...
2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
Lisa M Bodnar, Sarah J Pugh, Timothy L Lash, Jennifer A Hutcheon, Katherine P Himes, Sara M Parisi, Barbara Abrams
BACKGROUND: Our objective was to estimate associations between gestational weight gain z scores and preterm birth, neonatal intensive care unit admission, large- and small-for-gestational age birth, and cesarean delivery among grades 1, 2, and 3 obese women. METHODS: We included singleton infants born in Pennsylvania (2003-2011) to grade 1 (body mass index 30-34.9 kg/m, n = 148,335), grade 2 (35-39.9 kg/m, n = 72,032), or grade 3 (≥40 kg/m, n = 47,494) obese mothers...
November 2016: Epidemiology
Giuseppe Scimeca, Amelia Alborghetti, Antonio Bruno, Giulia Maria Troili, Gianluca Pandolfo, Maria Rosaria Anna Muscatello, Rocco Antonio Zoccali
AIM: To investigate psychopathological correlates of child obesity via the Draw-A-Person test (DAP). METHODS: The participants were 50 children with a mean age of 9.74 years. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of body fat. Children were divided into normal (n = 17), overweight (n = 14) and obese (n = 19). Two qualitative methods of scoring the DAP based on an integrative approach were used to assess self-concept (ESW) and overall level of children's adjustment (EAC)...
September 22, 2016: World Journal of Psychiatry
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