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Obesity bias

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922527/-selection-bias-by-death-and-other-ways-collider-bias-may-cause-the-obesity-paradox
#1
C Mary Schooling, S L Au Yeung
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916871/predictive-validity-of-the-body-adiposity-index-in-overweight-and-obese-adults-using-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry
#2
Robinson Ramírez-Vélez, Jorge Enrique Correa-Bautista, Katherine González-Ruíz, Andrés Vivas, Antonio García-Hermoso, Hector Reynaldo Triana-Reina
The body adiposity index (BAI) is a recent anthropometric measure proven to be valid in predicting body fat percentage (BF%) in some populations. However, the results have been inconsistent across populations. This study was designed to verify the validity of BAI in predicting BF% in a sample of overweight/obese adults, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) as the reference method. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 48 participants (54% women, mean age 41.0 ± 7.3 years old). DEXA was used as the "gold standard" to determine BF%...
November 30, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915138/parental-misclassification-of-child-overweight-obese-status-the-role-of-parental-education-and-parental-weight-status
#3
John Cullinan, John Cawley
Childhood overweight and obesity is a major public health challenge for policymakers in many countries. As the most common supervisors of children's activities, parents have a potentially important role to play in obesity prevention. However, a precondition for parents to improve their children's diets, encourage them to be more physically active, or take them to see a doctor about their weight is for the parent to first recognize that their child is overweight or obese. This paper examines the extent of parental misclassification of child weight status, and its correlates, focusing on the role of parental education and the parent's own obesity status...
November 17, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909906/obesity-and-prostate-cancer
#4
Yin Cao, Edward Giovannucci
Prostate cancer is a complex, heterogeneous disease. Factors related to detection, particularly PSA screening, further increase heterogeneity in the manifestation of the disease. It is thus not possible to provide a simple summary of the relationship between obesity and prostate cancer. Findings on obesity, often defined using body mass index (BMI), and total prostate cancer risk have been mixed; however, obesity is relatively consistently associated with a higher risk of aggressive prostate cancer, with aggressiveness defined in various ways (e...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909904/obesity-and-pancreatic-cancer
#5
Dominique S Michaud
Pancreatic cancer has few known risk factors, providing little in the way of prevention, and is the most rapidly fatal cancer with 7 % survival rate at 5 years. Obesity has surfaced as an important risk factor for pancreatic cancer as epidemiological studies with strong methodological designs have removed important biases and solidified the obesity associations. Moreover, studies indicate that obesity early in adulthood is strongly associated with future risk of pancreatic cancer and that abdominal obesity is an independent risk factor...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909903/obesity-and-kidney-cancer
#6
Kathryn M Wilson, Eunyoung Cho
Renal cell cancer (RCC) is the major type of kidney cancer with increasing incidence. Obesity is one of the well-established risk factors for RCC. Meta-analyses including multiple cohort and case-control studies have found a consistent positive association between obesity and RCC. The association appeared to be independent of other RCC risk factors including hypertension and has been often stronger in women, although a positive association has also been observed in men. Obesity has been largely measured as body mass index (BMI)...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905963/accuracy-of-self-reported-height-weight-and-waist-circumference-in-a-general-adult-chinese-population
#7
Shurong Lu, Jian Su, Quanyong Xiang, Jinyi Zhou, Ming Wu
BACKGROUND: Self-reported height, weight, and waist circumference (WC) are widely used to estimate the prevalence of obesity, which has been increasing rapidly in China, but there is limited evidence for the accuracy of self-reported data and the determinants of self-report bias among the general adult Chinese population. METHODS: Using a multi-stage cluster sampling method, 8399 residents aged 18 or above were interviewed in the Jiangsu Province of China. Information on self-reported height, weight, and WC, together with information on demographic factors and lifestyle behaviors, were collected through structured face-to-face interviews...
August 11, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904645/predicting-resting-energy-expenditure-in-underweight-normal-weight-overweight-and-obese-adult-hospital-patients
#8
Hinke M Kruizenga, Geesje H Hofsteenge, Peter J M Weijs
BACKGROUND: When indirect calorimetry is not available, predictive equations are used to estimate resing energy expenditure (REE). There is no consensus about which equation to use in hospitalized patients. The objective of this study is to examine the validity of REE predictive equations for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese inpatients and outpatients by comparison with indirect calorimetry. METHODS: Equations were included when based on weight, height, age, and/or gender...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903157/obesity-and-other-cancers
#9
Lin Yang, Bettina F Drake, Graham A Colditz
Purpose Evidence on overweight, obesity, and an increased risk of cancer continues to accumulate and was updated in the 2016 handbook on weight control from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The underlying primary data, together with dose-response meta-analysis and, finally, pooled analysis of individual participant data, add insight into the relation between obesity and cancer risk and prognosis. We summarize the evidence for mortality from prostate cancer, hematologic malignancies, and kidney cancer...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903148/obesity-and-energy-balance-in-gi-cancer
#10
Justin C Brown, Jeffrey A Meyerhardt
The prevalence of overweight (body mass index [BMI], 25 to 29.9 kg/m(2)) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) have increased dramatically in the United States. Because increasing BMI is associated with the development of multiple different cancer types, including most GI cancers, providers will frequently encounter patients with GI cancer who are overweight or obese. Mounting evidence associates overweight and/or obesity with worsened prognosis in multiple GI cancers, including esophageal, gastric, hepatocellular, pancreatic, and colorectal...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899810/potential-selection-effects-when-estimating-associations-between-the-infancy-peak-or-adiposity-rebound-and-later-body-mass-index-in-children
#11
C Börnhorst, A Siani, M Tornaritis, D Molnár, L Lissner, S Regber, L Reisch, A De Decker, L A Moreno, W Ahrens, I Pigeot
INTRODUCTION: This study aims to evaluate a potential selection effect caused by exclusion of children with non-identifiable infancy peak (IP) and adiposity rebound (AR) when estimating associations between age and BMI at IP and AR and later weight status. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In 4 744 children with at least 4 repeated measurements of height and weight in the age interval from 0 to 8 years (37 998 measurements) participating in the IDEFICS/I.Family cohort study, fractional polynomial multi-level models were used to derive individual BMI trajectories...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899789/body-mass-index-can-increase-the-risk-of-gallbladder-cancer-a-meta-analysis-of-14-cohort-studies
#12
Hao Liu, Yong Zhang, Min Ai, Jun Wang, Bo Jin, Zhaowei Teng, Yansheng Wang, Li Li
BACKGROUND This study sought to appraise the association between raised body mass index (BMI) and the risk of gallbladder cancer (GBC) by performing a meta-analysis of 14 cohort studies. MATERIAL AND METHODS Eligible cohort studies were selected by searching PubMed and EMBASE from their inception to May 26, 2016, and the reference lists of retrieved articles were also consulted. The information was screened by two authors separately. We used a fixed-effects model to calculate the overall pooled risk estimates...
November 30, 2016: Medical Science Monitor Basic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899001/drug-interventions-for-the-treatment-of-obesity-in-children-and-adolescents
#13
REVIEW
Emma Mead, Greg Atkinson, Bernd Richter, Maria-Inti Metzendorf, Louise Baur, Nicholas Finer, Eva Corpeleijn, Claire O'Malley, Louisa J Ells
BACKGROUND: Child and adolescent obesity has increased globally, and can be associated with significant short- and long-term health consequences. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of drug interventions for the treatment of obesity in children and adolescents. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed (subsets not available on Ovid), LILACS as well as the trial registers ICTRP (WHO) and ClinicalTrials.gov. Searches were undertaken from inception to March 2016...
November 29, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898706/prediction-of-body-mass-index-using-concurrently-self-reported-or-previously-measured-height-and-weight
#14
Zhaohui Cui, June Stevens, Kimberly P Truesdale, Donglin Zeng, Simone French, Penny Gordon-Larsen
OBJECTIVE: To compare alternative models for the imputation of BMIM (measured weight in kilograms/measured height in meters squared) in a longitudinal study. METHODS: We used data from 11,008 adults examined at wave III (2001-2002) and wave IV (2007-2008) in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Participants were asked their height and weight before being measured. Equations to predict wave IV BMIM were developed in an 80% random subsample and evaluated in the remaining participants...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894952/comparison-of-creatinine-and-cystatin-c-based-egfr-in-the-estimation-of-glomerular-filtration-rate-in-indigenous-australians-the-egfr-study
#15
Elizabeth Lm Barr, Louise J Maple-Brown, Federica Barzi, Jaquelyne T Hughes, George Jerums, Elif I Ekinci, Andrew G Ellis, Graham Rd Jones, Paul D Lawton, Cherian Sajiv, Sandawana W Majoni, Alex Dh Brown, Wendy E Hoy, Kerin O'Dea, Alan Cass, Richard J MacIsaac
BACKGROUND: The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation that combines creatinine and cystatin C is superior to equations that include either measure alone in estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR). However, whether cystatin C can provide any additional benefits in estimating GFR for Indigenous Australians, a population at high risk of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) is unknown. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional analysis from the eGFR Study of 654 Indigenous Australians at high risk of ESKD, eGFR was calculated using the CKD-EPI equations for serum creatinine (eGFRcr), cystatin C (eGFRcysC) and combined creatinine and cystatin C (eGFRcysC+cr)...
November 25, 2016: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890604/gender-dimorphism-in-pediatric-osa-is-it-for-real
#16
REVIEW
Pablo E Brockmann, Dorit Koren, Leila Kheirandish-Gozal, David Gozal
In epidemiologic studies focused on adults, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has higher prevalence in men than in women. The evidence supporting a gender-related discrepant prevalence of OSA is however much more tenuous in children. Here, we aimed to review the evidence concerning gender- based differences in the prevalence of OSA in children, and if so, to examine the evidence with the intent to identify potential factors that may account for this putative association. Gender-based perception and reporting of clinical manifestations of OSA may be modulated by several social and cultural factors in children...
November 23, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875413/obesity-as-a-risk-factor-for-low-back-pain-a-meta-analysis
#17
Ting-Ting Zhang, Zhen Liu, Ying-Li Liu, Jing-Jing Zhao, Dian-Wu Liu, Qing-Bao Tian
STUDY DESIGN: A meta-analysis. OBJECTIVE: To update the current knowledge about the association between overweight, obesity, and low back pain (LBP) risk, we conducted a meta-analysis of published cohort studies. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The association between obesity and LBP risk has been the research focus in the past decade. However, available data from studies on the association between obesity and LBP remains debatable. METHODS: An extensive English language literature retrieval regarding the association between overweight, obesity, and the risk of LBP incidence was conducted on PubMed and EMBASE databases through December 2015...
November 21, 2016: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873191/effect-of-exercise-training-on-non-exercise-physical-activity-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#18
REVIEW
Michael V Fedewa, Elizabeth D Hathaway, Tyler D Williams, Michael D Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Many overweight and obese individuals use exercise when attempting to lose weight. However, the improvements in weight and body composition are often far less than expected. Levels of physical activity outside of the structured exercise program are believed to change and may be responsible for the unsuccessful weight loss. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this meta-analysis was to provide a quantitative estimate of the change in non-exercise physical activity (NEPA) during exercise interventions...
November 21, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870910/in-obesity-hpa-axis-activity-does-not-increase-with-bmi-but-declines-with-aging-a-meta-analysis-of-clinical-studies
#19
Judit Tenk, Péter Mátrai, Péter Hegyi, Ildikó Rostás, András Garami, Imre Szabó, Margit Solymár, Erika Pétervári, József Czimmer, Katalin Márta, Alexandra Mikó, Nóra Füredi, Andrea Párniczky, Csaba Zsiborás, Márta Balaskó
BACKGROUND: Obesity is one of the major public health challenges worldwide. It involves numerous endocrine disorders as etiological factors or as complications. Previous studies strongly suggested the involvement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in obesity, however, to date, no consistent trend in obesity-associated alterations of the HPA axis has been identified. Aging has been demonstrated to aggravate obesity and to induce abnormalities of the HPA axis. Thus, the question arises whether obesity is correlated with peripheral indicators of HPA function in adult populations...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863330/weight-bias-health-consciousness-and-behavioral-actions-activities
#20
Matthew Wood, Paurav Shukla
OBJECTIVE: This study examines the influence of weight bias and health consciousness on eating and dietary behavior; it also investigates the role of normative influences. DESIGN AND METHODS: A sample of adults living in South-East England (N=498) completed anonymous questionnaires about their diet, attitudes and beliefs towards obese people, health consciousness and normative influences. The survey included validated measures of anti-fat attitudes, and beliefs about obese people...
December 2016: Eating Behaviors
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