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Obesity bias

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436266/the-identity-threat-of-weight-stigma-in-adolescents
#1
Wren B Hand, Jennifer C Robinson, Mary W Stewart, Lei Zhang, Samuel C Hand
Obesity remains a serious public health issue in adolescents, who may be subjected to weight stigma leading to increased stress and poor health outcomes. Stigma can be detrimental to adolescents during self-identity formation. The purpose of this study was to examine weight stigma in adolescents in light of the Identity Threat Model of Stigma. A cross-sectional correlational design was used to examine the relationships among the variables of weight stigma, psychosocial stress, coping styles, disordered eating, and physical inactivity...
April 1, 2017: Western Journal of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433713/biased-signaling-at-neural-melanocortin-receptors-in-regulation-of-energy-homeostasis
#2
Li-Kun Yang, Ya-Xiong Tao
The global prevalence of obesity highlights the importance of understanding on regulation of energy homeostasis. The central melanocortin system is an important intersection connecting the neural pathways controlling satiety and energy expenditure to regulate energy homeostasis by sensing and integrating the signals of external stimuli. In this system, neural melanocortin receptors, melanocortin-3 and -4 receptors (MC3R and MC4R), play crucial roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Recently, multiple intracellular signaling pathways and biased signaling at neural MCRs have been discovered, providing new insights into neural MCR signaling...
April 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424681/the-spontaneous-autoimmune-neuromyopathy-in-icosl-nod-mice-is-cd4-t-cell-and-interferon-%C3%AE-dependent
#3
Claire Briet, Gwladys Bourdenet, Ute C Rogner, Chantal Becourt, Isabelle Tardivel, Laurent Drouot, Christophe Arnoult, Jean-Claude do Rego, Nicolas Prevot, Charbel Massaad, Olivier Boyer, Christian Boitard
Abrogation of ICOS/ICOS ligand (ICOSL) costimulation prevents the onset of diabetes in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse but, remarkably, yields to the development of a spontaneous autoimmune neuromyopathy. At the pathological level, ICOSL(-/-) NOD mice show stronger protection from insulitis than their ICOS(-/-) counterparts. Also, the ICOSL(-/-) NOD model carries a limited C57BL/6 region containing the Icosl nul mutation, but, in contrast to ICOS(-/-) NOD mice, no gene variant previously reported as associated to NOD diabetes...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418818/-it-is-not-the-diet-it-is-the-mental-part-we-need-help-with-a-multilevel-analysis-of-psychological-emotional-and-social-well-being-in-obesity
#4
Kathryn Rand, Michael Vallis, Megan Aston, Sheri Price, Helena Piccinini-Vallis, Laurene Rehman, Sara F L Kirk
In this research, we explored the psychological, emotional, and social experiences of individuals living with obesity, and perceptions of health care providers. We conducted a theoretical thematic analysis using two theoretical frameworks applied to transcripts from a previous qualitative study. Themes from a mental well-being framework were subsequently categorized under five environmental levels of the Social-Ecological Model (SEM). Key mental well-being themes appeared across all levels of the SEM, except the policy level...
December 2017: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408862/obesity-stigma-and-bias
#5
Sharon M Fruh, Joe Nadglowski, Heather R Hall, Sara L Davis, Errol D Crook, Kimberly Zlomke
Overweight and obesity are escalating in epidemic proportions in the United States. Individuals with overweight and obesity are often reluctant to seek medical help, not only for weight reduction but also for any health issue because of perceived provider discrimination. Providers who are biased against individuals with obesity can hinder our nation's effort to effectively fight the obesity epidemic. By addressing weight bias in the provider setting, individuals affected by obesity may be more likely to engage in a meaningful and productive discussion of weight...
July 2016: Journal for Nurse Practitioners: JNP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401630/causation-or-selection-examining-the-relation-between-education-and-overweight-obesity-in-prospective-observational-studies-a-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
T J Kim, N M Roesler, O von dem Knesebeck
Numerous studies have investigated the association between education and overweight/obesity. Yet less is known about the relative importance of causation (i.e. the influence of education on risks of overweight/obesity) and selection (i.e. the influence of overweight/obesity on the likelihood to attain education) hypotheses. A systematic review was performed to assess the linkage between education and overweight/obesity in prospective studies in general populations. Studies were searched within five databases, and study quality was appraised with the Newcastle-Ottawa scale...
April 12, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401455/what-is-the-appropriate-lesion-set-for-ablation-in-patients-with-persistent-atrial-fibrillation
#7
REVIEW
Jorge Romero, Carola Gianni, Andrea Natale, Luigi Di Biase
Special attention must be paid to detect, diagnose, and optimize management of reversible or treatable causes of long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation (LSPAF) such as obesity, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), hypertension, hypo or hyperthyroidism, inflammatory and infectious diseases, and stress. Though, we strongly believe that the role of the pulmonary veins (PVs) is more pronounced in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) than in persistent AF, performing an adequate pulmonary vein isolation is still key in LSPAF...
May 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401383/gallstone-disease-after-laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy-in-an-asian-population-what-proportion-of-gallstones-actually-becomes-symptomatic
#8
Muhammed Yaser Hasan, Davide Lomanto, Lee Leng Loh, Jimmy Bok Yan So, Asim Shabbir
BACKGROUND: Despite evidence on gallstone disease after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG), there is an existing lack of consensus on practice guidelines, i.e., surveillance and stone-lowering prophylaxis. Available evidence also has a racial bias as western reports predominate current data. Considering the growing popularity of LSG in Asia and the unique Asian anthropometrics, we have attempted to provide a regional perspective by reviewing our LSG database to investigate the epidemiology of this complication...
April 11, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399572/correction-of-selection-bias-in-survey-data-is-the-statistical-cure-worse-than-the-bias
#9
James A Hanley
In previous articles in the American Journal of Epidemiology (Am J Epidemiol. 2013;177(5):431-442) and American Journal of Public Health (Am J Public Health. 2013;103(10):1895-1901), Masters et al. reported age-specific hazard ratios for the contrasts in mortality rates between obesity categories. They corrected the observed hazard ratios for selection bias caused by what they postulated was the nonrepresentativeness of the participants in the National Health Interview Study that increased with age, obesity, and ill health...
March 15, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394727/overweight-and-obesity-associated-with-higher-depression-prevalence-in-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Emile Pereira-Miranda, Priscila R F Costa, Valterlinda A O Queiroz, Marcos Pereira-Santos, Mônica L P Santana
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to review and synthesize scientific evidence to assess the association between excess body weight and depression among adults. METHODS: The systematic research of observational studies was held from January to March 2015 on Pubmed, Web of Science, Scopus, Embase, PsycInfo, Psicodoc, Psycarticles, and Isi Web. A prevalence ratio (PR) was adopted as a summary measurement. All articles were evaluated for methodological quality and risk of bias...
March 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393498/the-impact-of-obesity-and-adiposity-on-inflammatory-markers-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#11
Michael D George, Jon T Giles, Patricia P Katz, Bryant R England, Ted R Mikuls, Kaleb Michaud, Alexis R Ogdie-Beatty, Said Ibrahim, Grant W Cannon, Liron Caplan, Brian C Sauer, Joshua F Baker
BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) are important disease activity biomarkers in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study aimed to determine to what extent obesity biases these biomarkers. METHODS: Body mass index (BMI) associations with CRP and ESR were assessed in two RA cohorts - 1) the cross-sectional Body Composition (BC) cohort (N = 451) including whole-body DXA measures of fat mass index, and 2) the longitudinal Veterans Affairs Rheumatoid Arthritis (VARA) registry (N = 1652), using multivariable models stratified by sex...
April 10, 2017: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392932/delay-discounting-and-utility-for-money-or-weight-loss
#12
Y Y Sze, E M Slaven, W K Bickel, L H Epstein
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is related to a bias towards smaller immediate over larger delayed rewards. This bias is typically examined by studying single commodity discounting. However, weight loss often involves choices among multiple commodities. To our knowledge, no research has examined delay discounting of delayed weight loss compared with other commodities. METHODS: We examined single commodity discounting of money and cross commodity discounting of money and weight loss in a sample of 84 adults with obesity or overweight statuses interested in weight loss...
March 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392930/overweight-or-about-right-a-norm-comparison-explanation-of-perceived-weight-status
#13
E Robinson, I Kersbergen
OBJECTIVES: Body-weight norms may explain why personal evaluations of weight status are often inaccurate. Here, we tested a 'norm comparison' explanation of weight status perceptions, whereby personal evaluations of weight status are biased by perceived body-weight norms. METHODS: Study 1 examined whether perceptions of how one's own body weight compares to an average person predict personal evaluations of weight status. Study 2 examined whether manipulating perceptions of how one's own body weight compares to an average person influences whether or not a person identifies their own weight status as being overweight...
March 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392929/missing-the-target-including-perspectives-of-women-with-overweight-and-obesity-to-inform-stigma-reduction-strategies
#14
R M Puhl, M S Himmelstein, A A Gorin, Y J Suh
OBJECTIVE: Pervasive weight stigma and discrimination have led to ongoing calls for efforts to reduce this bias. Despite increasing research on stigma-reduction strategies, perspectives of individuals who have experienced weight stigma have rarely been included to inform this research. The present study conducted a systematic examination of women with high body weight to assess their perspectives about a broad range of strategies to reduce weight-based stigma. METHODS: Women with overweight or obesity (N = 461) completed an online survey in which they evaluated the importance, feasibility and potential impact of 35 stigma-reduction strategies in diverse settings...
March 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387544/promise-of-wearable-physical-activity-monitors-in-oncology-practice
#15
Muhammad S Beg, Arjun Gupta, Tyler Stewart, Chad D Rethorst
Commercially available physical activity monitors provide clinicians an opportunity to obtain oncology patient health measures to an unprecedented degree. These devices can provide objective and quantifiable measures of physical activity, which are not subject to errors or bias of self-reporting or shorter duration of formal testing. Prior work on so-called quantified-self data was based on older-generation, research-grade accelerometers, which laid the foundation for consumer-based physical activity monitoring devices to be validated as a feasible and reliable tool in patients with cancer...
February 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384755/weight-history-and-all-cause-and-cause-specific-mortality-in-three-prospective-cohort-studies
#16
Edward Yu, Sylvia H Ley, JoAnn E Manson, Walter Willett, Ambika Satija, Frank B Hu, Andrew Stokes
Background: The relationship between body mass index (BMI) and mortality is controversial. Objective: To investigate the relationship between maximum BMI over 16 years and subsequent mortality. Design: 3 prospective cohort studies. Setting: Nurses' Health Study I and II and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Participants: 225 072 men and women with 32 571 deaths observed over a mean of 12...
April 4, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384631/public-support-for-weight-related-antidiscrimination-laws-and-policies
#17
Anja Hilbert, Claudia Hübner, Gabriele Schmutzer, Sigrun Danielsdottir, Elmar Brähler, Rebecca Puhl
OBJECTIVE: Weight-related discrimination is prevalent and associated with health impairments for those who are targeted, which underscores the need of antidiscrimination legislation. This study is the first to examine public support of weight-related antidiscrimination laws or policies in Germany, compared to the US and Iceland. METHODS: In a representative German population sample (N = 2,513), public support for general and employment-specific weight-related antidiscrimination policies, weight-based victimization, and weight bias internalization were measured through established self-report questionnaires...
April 7, 2017: Obesity Facts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380255/comparative-effects-of-the-restriction-method-in-two-large-observational-studies-of-body-mass-index-and-mortality-among-adults
#18
Katherine M Flegal, Barry I Graubard, Sang-Wook Yi
BACKGROUND: A method applied in some large studies of weight and mortality is to begin with a well-defined analytic cohort and use successive restrictions in order to control for methodologic bias and arrive at final analytic results. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two observational studies of body mass index and mortality allow a comparative assessment of these restrictions in very large data sets. One was a meta-analysis of individual participant data with a sample size of 8 million...
April 5, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378086/the-bariatric-surgery-and-weight-losing-a-meta-analysis-in-the-long-and-very-long-term-effects-of-laparoscopic-adjustable-gastric-banding-laparoscopic-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-and-laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy-on-weight-loss-in-adults
#19
Mahdieh Golzarand, Karamollah Toolabi, Roya Farid
BACKGROUND: Several studies have been investigated to find the long-term effect of bariatric surgery on weight loss; nevertheless, a meta-analysis can detailedly demonstrate the effect of bariatric surgery on weight in morbidly obese patients. This study aimed to assess the long- and very long-term effects of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB), and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) on weight loss in adults. METHODS: An electronic search using PubMed, Scopus, and Google scholar databases was performed for all English-language articles up to May 15, 2016 with no publication date restriction...
April 4, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369174/measuring-the-association-between-body-mass-index-and-all-cause-mortality-in-the-presence-of-missing-data-analyses-from-the-scottish-national-diabetes-register
#20
Stephanie H Read, Steff C Lewis, Nynke Halbesma, Sarah H Wild
Incorrectly handling missing data can lead to imprecise and biased estimates. We describe the effect of applying different approaches to handling missing data in an analysis of the association between body mass index and all-cause mortality among people with type 2 diabetes. We used data from the Scottish diabetes register that were linked to hospital admissions data and death registrations. The analysis was based on people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes between 2004 and 2011, with follow-up until May 31, 2014...
April 15, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
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