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Obesity bias

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641372/comparison-of-sociodemographic-and-health-related-characteristics-of-uk-biobank-participants-with-the-general-population
#1
Anna Fry, Thomas J Littlejohns, Cathie Sudlow, Nicola Doherty, Ligia Adamska, Tim Sprosen, Rory Collins, Naomi E Allen
UK Biobank is a population-based cohort of 500,000 participants recruited between 2006 and 2010. Approximately 9.2 million individuals aged 40-69 years who lived within 25 miles of the 22 assessment centres in England, Wales and Scotland were invited, and 5.4% participated in the baseline assessment. The representativeness of the UK Biobank cohort was investigated by comparing demographic characteristics between non-responders and responders. Sociodemographic, physical, lifestyle and health-related characteristics of the cohort were compared with nationally representative data sources...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635182/the-effect-of-flaxseed-supplementation-on-body-weight-and-body-composition-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-45-randomized-placebo-controlled-trials
#2
REVIEW
M Mohammadi-Sartang, Z Mazloom, H Raeisi-Dehkordi, R Barati-Boldaji, N Bellissimo, J O Totosy de Zepetnek
Flaxseed consumption may be inversely associated with obesity; however, findings of available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are conflicting. The present study aimed to systematically review and analyse RCTs assessing the effects of flaxseed consumption on body weight and body composition. PubMed, Medline via Ovid, SCOPUS, EMBASE and ISI Web of Sciences databases were searched up to November 2016. Mean changes in body composition indices including body weight, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were extracted...
June 21, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619783/community-gardening-community-farming-and-other-local-community-based-gardening-interventions-to-prevent-overweight-and-obesity-in-high-income-and-middle-income-countries-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#3
Thomas L Heise, Matthias Romppel, Sandra Molnar, Barbara Buchberger, Agnes van den Berg, Gerald Gartlehner, Stefan K Lhachimi
INTRODUCTION: The worldwide prevalence of overweight/obesity has continued to rise over the last decades. To reverse this trend, public health authorities are exploring cost-effective interventions, especially in high-income and middle-income countries. Community gardening offers a unique opportunity for individuals to enhance physical activity levels and improve their diet. However, synthesised evidence on the short-term or long-term effectiveness and on the costs of community gardening interventions to prevent overweight/obesity remains limited...
June 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614299/homeostatic-circuits-selectively-gate-food-cue-responses-in-insular-cortex
#4
Yoav Livneh, Rohan N Ramesh, Christian R Burgess, Kirsten M Levandowski, Joseph C Madara, Henning Fenselau, Glenn J Goldey, Veronica E Diaz, Nick Jikomes, Jon M Resch, Bradford B Lowell, Mark L Andermann
Physiological needs bias perception and attention to relevant sensory cues. This process is 'hijacked' by drug addiction, causing cue-induced cravings and relapse. Similarly, its dysregulation contributes to failed diets, obesity, and eating disorders. Neuroimaging studies in humans have implicated insular cortex in these phenomena. However, it remains unclear how 'cognitive' cortical representations of motivationally relevant cues are biased by subcortical circuits that drive specific motivational states. Here we develop a microprism-based cellular imaging approach to monitor visual cue responses in the insular cortex of behaving mice across hunger states...
June 14, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607830/university-of-hawai-i-john-a-burns-school-of-medicine-medical-students-attitudes-towards-obese-patients
#5
Kristen M Chin, Mary Tschann, Jennifer Salcedo, Reni Soon, Kasey Kajiwara, Bliss Kaneshiro
Studies have shown that healthcare professionals often demonstrate obesity biases, which in turn reduce the quality of care obese patients receive. The purpose of the current study was to describe third and fourth year University of Hawai'i, John A. Burns School of Medicine medical students' attitudes towards obese patients. Data were collected using previously validated questions from a pilot study assessing how healthcare providers react and recommend medical care to patients with varying characteristics...
June 2017: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606966/obesity-and-rates-of-clinical-remission-and-low-mri-inflammation-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#6
Michael D George, Mikkel Østergaard, Philip G Conaghan, Paul Emery, Daniel G Baker, Joshua F Baker
OBJECTIVES: Obesity has been proposed as a risk factor for refractory rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We evaluated the impact of obesity on achieving clinical and imaging definitions of low disease activity. METHODS: This study evaluated 470 patients with RA from GO-BEFORE and GO-FORWARD randomised clinical trials. Included patients had blinded clinical disease activity measures and MRI at baseline, 24 and 52 weeks. Synovitis, osteitis and total inflammation scores were determined using the RA MRI scoring system...
June 12, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601888/weight-bias-a-systematic-review-of-characteristics-and-psychometric-properties-of-self-report-questionnaires
#7
Emilie Lacroix, Angela Alberga, Shelly Russell-Mathew, Lindsay McLaren, Kristin von Ranson
BACKGROUND: People living with overweight and obesity often experience weight-based stigmatization. Investigations of the prevalence and correlates of weight bias and evaluation of weight bias reduction interventions depend upon psychometrically-sound measurement. Our paper is the first to comprehensively evaluate the psychometric properties, use of people-first language within items, and suitability for use with various populations of available self-report measures of weight bias. METHODS: We searched five electronic databases to identify English-language self-report questionnaires of weight bias...
June 10, 2017: Obesity Facts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600365/effect-of-physical-activity-and-dietary-restriction-interventions-on-weight-loss-and-the-musculoskeletal-function-of-overweight-and-obese-older-adults-with-knee-osteoarthritis-a-systematic-review-and-mixed-method-data-synthesis
#8
Asma S Alrushud, Alison B Rushton, Archontissa M Kanavaki, Carolyn A Greig
BACKGROUND: Despite the clinical recommendation of exercise and diet for people with knee osteoarthritis (OA), there are no systematic reviews synthesising the effectiveness of combining physical activity and dietary restriction interventions on the musculoskeletal function of overweight and obese older adults with knee OA. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of combined physical activity and dietary restriction programmes on body weight, body mass index (BMI) and the musculoskeletal function of overweight and obese older adults with knee OA...
June 8, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597536/timing-of-solid-food-introduction-and-association-with-later-childhood-overweight-and-obesity-the-idefics-study
#9
Stalo Papoutsou, Savvas C Savva, Monica Hunsberger, Hannah Jilani, Nathalie Michels, Wolfgang Ahrens, Michael Tornaritis, Toomas Veidebaum, Dénes Molnár, Alfonso Siani, Luis A Moreno, Charis Hadjigeorgiou
This study investigated associations between timing of solid food introduction and childhood obesity and explored maternal characteristics influencing early feeding practices. Cross-sectional data from children 2-9 years (n = 10,808; 50.5% boys) residing in 8 European countries of the IDEFICS study (2007-2008) were included. Late solid food introduction (≥7 months of age) was associated with an increased prevalence of later childhood overweight/obesity among exclusively breastfed children (OR [odds ratio]: 1...
June 8, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596551/automated-segmentation-of-human-cervical-supraclavicular-adipose-tissue-in-magnetic-resonance-images
#10
Elin Lundström, Robin Strand, Anders Forslund, Peter Bergsten, Daniel Weghuber, Håkan Ahlström, Joel Kullberg
Human brown adipose tissue (BAT), with a major site in the cervical-supraclavicular depot, is a promising anti-obesity target. This work presents an automated method for segmenting cervical-supraclavicular adipose tissue for enabling time-efficient and objective measurements in large cohort research studies of BAT. Fat fraction (FF) and R2(*) maps were reconstructed from water-fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 25 subjects. A multi-atlas approach, based on atlases from nine subjects, was chosen as automated segmentation strategy...
June 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594918/obesity-metabolic-factors-and-risk-of-different-histological-types-of-lung-cancer-a-mendelian-randomization-study
#11
Robert Carreras-Torres, Mattias Johansson, Philip C Haycock, Kaitlin H Wade, Caroline L Relton, Richard M Martin, George Davey Smith, Demetrius Albanes, Melinda C Aldrich, Angeline Andrew, Susanne M Arnold, Heike Bickeböller, Stig E Bojesen, Hans Brunnström, Jonas Manjer, Irene Brüske, Neil E Caporaso, Chu Chen, David C Christiani, W Jay Christian, Jennifer A Doherty, Eric J Duell, John K Field, Michael P A Davies, Michael W Marcus, Gary E Goodman, Kjell Grankvist, Aage Haugen, Yun-Chul Hong, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Erik H F M van der Heijden, Peter Kraft, Mikael B Johansson, Stephen Lam, Maria Teresa Landi, Philip Lazarus, Loïc Le Marchand, Geoffrey Liu, Olle Melander, Sungshim L Park, Gad Rennert, Angela Risch, Eric B Haura, Ghislaine Scelo, David Zaridze, Anush Mukeriya, Milan Savić, Jolanta Lissowska, Beata Swiatkowska, Vladimir Janout, Ivana Holcatova, Dana Mates, Matthew B Schabath, Hongbing Shen, Adonina Tardon, M Dawn Teare, Penella Woll, Ming-Sound Tsao, Xifeng Wu, Jian-Min Yuan, Rayjean J Hung, Christopher I Amos, James McKay, Paul Brennan
BACKGROUND: Assessing the relationship between lung cancer and metabolic conditions is challenging because of the confounding effect of tobacco. Mendelian randomization (MR), or the use of genetic instrumental variables to assess causality, may help to identify the metabolic drivers of lung cancer. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We identified genetic instruments for potential metabolic risk factors and evaluated these in relation to risk using 29,266 lung cancer cases (including 11,273 adenocarcinomas, 7,426 squamous cell and 2,664 small cell cases) and 56,450 controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593629/type-2-diabetes-adiposity-and-cancer-morbidity-and-mortality-risk-taking-into-account-competing-risk-of-non-cancer-deaths-in-a-prospective-cohort-setting
#12
Isabel Drake, Bo Gullberg, Emily Sonestedt, Tanja Stocks, Anders Bjartell, Elisabet Wirfält, Peter Wallström, Marju Orho-Melander
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and adiposity associate with increased risk of several cancers, but the impact of competing risk of non-cancer deaths on these associations is not known. We prospectively examined participants in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study aged 44-73 years with no history of cancer at baseline (n=26,953, 43% men). T2D was ascertained at baseline and during follow-up, and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) at baseline. Multivariable cause-specific hazard ratios (HR) and sub-distribution hazard ratios (sHR), taking into account non-cancer deaths, were estimated using Cox- and competing risk regression...
June 8, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591345/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-amfepramone-and-mazindol-as-a-monotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-obese-or-overweight-patients
#13
Rosa Camila Lucchetta, Bruno Salgado Riveros, Roberto Pontarolo, Rosana Bento Radominski, Michel Fleith Otuki, Fernando Fernandez-Llimos, Cassyano Januário Correr
The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy and safety of amfepramone, fenproporex and mazindol as a monotherapy for the treatment of obese or overweight patients. A systematic review of primary studies was conducted, followed by a direct meta-analysis (random effect) and mixed treatment comparison. Medline and other databases were searched. Heterogeneity was explored through I2 associated with a p-value. Of 739 identified publications, 25 were included in the meta-analysis. The global evaluation of Cochrane resulted in 19 studies with a high level of bias and six with unclear risk...
May 2017: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586464/does-unmeasured-confounding-influence-associations-between-the-retail-food-environment-and-body-mass-index-over-time-the-coronary-artery-risk-development-in-young-adults-cardia-study
#14
Pasquale E Rummo, David K Guilkey, Shu Wen Ng, Katie A Meyer, Barry M Popkin, Jared P Reis, James M Shikany, Penny Gordon-Larsen
Background: Findings in the observational retail food environment and obesity literature are inconsistent, potentially due to a lack of adjustment for residual confounding. Methods: Using data from the CARDIA study ( n  = 12 174 person-observations; 6 examinations; 1985-2011) across four US cities (Birmingham, AL; Chicago, IL; Minneapolis, MN; Oakland, CA), we used instrumental-variables (IV) regression to obtain causal estimates of the longitudinal associations between the percentage of neighbourhood food stores or restaurants (per total food outlets within 1 km network distance of respondent residence) with body mass index (BMI), adjusting for individual-level socio-demographics, health behaviours, city, year, total food outlets and market-level prices...
June 6, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580427/incidental-finding-of-low-brown-adipose-tissue-activity-in-endurance-trained-individuals-methodological-considerations-for-positron-emission-tomography
#15
Eric T Trexler, Drew McCallister, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Rosa T Branca
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adults has been shown to have a meaningful impact on energy expenditure and cold-induced thermogenesis. Data from rodent research have suggested that exercise may be a promising method of increasing BAT activity, with potential applications to the treatment and prevention of obesity and diabetes. However, emerging human research using positron emission tomography (PET) with [18F] Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) has identified lower BAT activity in endurance-trained athletes compared to sedentary controls, despite similar metabolic rate responses to cold exposure...
March 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579331/temporary-removal-intersectionality-an-understudied-framework-for-addressing-weight-stigma
#16
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578730/eating-frequency-and-weight-and-body-composition-a-systematic-review-of-observational-studies
#17
Raquel Canuto, Anderson da Silva Garcez, Gilberto Kac, Pedro Israel Cabral de Lira, Maria Teresa Anselmo Olinto
OBJECTIVE: The present review aimed to examine the association of eating frequency with body weight or body composition in adults of both sexes. DESIGN: PubMed, EMBASE and Scopus databases were searched. PRISMA and MOOSE protocols were followed. Observational studies published up to August 2016 were included. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed with the Downs and Black checklist. SETTING: A systematic review of the literature...
June 5, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575922/comparison-of-specific-prediction-equations-to-estimate-peak-oxygen-uptake-in-obese-women
#18
G Racil, C Lemaire, A-E Dubart, D Debeaumont, I Castres, J B Coquart
The aim of the current study was to compare 2 equations to predict peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2peak) in obese women, according to their obesity class. 92 maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing sets (CPET with initial and subsequent increments set to achieve an exercise duration between 8-12 min) were retrospectively analysed. These CPET were divided into 3 groups according to the women body mass indexes (BMI): class 1 (30 kg.m(-2)≤BMI<35 kg.m(-2), n=22), class 2 (35 kg.m(-2)≤BMI<40 kg.m(-2), n=36) or class 3 (BMI≥40 kg...
June 2, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574920/asking-too-much-of-epidemiologic-studies-the-problem-of-collider-bias-and-the-obesity-paradox
#19
Stijn Vansteelandt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 26, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574919/re-collider-bias-is-only-a-partial-explanation-for-the-obesity-paradox
#20
Vivian Viallon, Marine Dufournet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 26, 2017: Epidemiology
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