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Obesity bias

Veronica Cabanas-Sanchez, Sara Higueras-Fresnillo, Miguel Ángel De La Camara, Oscar L Veiga, David Martinez-Gomez
The aims of the present study were: (i) to develop automated algorithms to identify the sleep period time in 24-h data from the Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA) in older adults, and (ii) to analyze the agreement of these algorithms to identify the sleep period time as compared to self-reported data and expert visual analysis of accelerometer raw data.
 Approach. This study comprised 50 participants, aged 65 to 85 years. Fourteen automated algorithms were developed. Participants reported their bedtime and wake time in the days wearing the device...
April 18, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Arya M Sharma, Ximena Ramos Salas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this study was to review public and private sector obesity policies in Canada and to make recommendations for future evidence-based obesity prevention and management strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: Synthesis of obesity prevention and management policies and research studies are presented in three primary themes: (1) Increased awareness about the impact of weight bias and obesity stigma in Canada; (2) Inadequate government obesity prevention and management policies and strategies; and (3) Lack of comprehensive private sector obesity prevention and management policies...
April 17, 2018: Current Obesity Reports
Fateh Bazerbachi, Samir Haffar, Tarek Sawas, Eric J Vargas, Ravinder Jeet Kaur, Zhen Wang, Larry J Prokop, M Hassan Murad, Barham K Abu Dayyeh
BACKGROUND: Four commercially available intragastric balloons have been used for the management of obesity and underwent randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and we aimed to compare them using a network meta-analysis approach. METHODS: Several databases were queried from inception to May 26, 2017, and we included RCTs enrolling patients treated with Orbera, Heliosphere, ReShape Duo, and Obalon compared with another balloon, sham, or open-label control group. Two investigators independently abstracted data...
April 16, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Ken Chow, Stefano Mangiola, Jaideep Vazirani, Justin S Peters, Anthony J Costello, Christopher M Hovens, Niall M Corcoran
Obesity is linked with more aggressive prostate cancer and higher rates of disease recurrence post treatment. It is unclear if this is due to specific tumor-promoting effects of obesity or diagnostic bias. Patients undergoing prostatectomy were categorized according to their body mass index (BMI). Expected prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were calculated for each patient based on tumor characteristics. The effect of obesity on the accuracy of pre-treatment risk categorization was determined, and mediation analysis was used to identify the contribution of biologic vs non-biologic mechanisms to the observed increased risk of biochemical recurrence...
May 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
Riccardo Campi, Sabine D Brookman-May, Jose Daniel Subiela Henríquez, Bülent Akdoğan, Maurizio Brausi, Tobias Klatte, Johan F Langenhuijsen, Estefania Linares-Espinos, Martin Marszalek, Morgan Roupret, Christian G Stief, Alessandro Volpe, Andrea Minervini, Oscar Rodriguez-Faba
CONTEXT: To date, established risk factors for prostate cancer (PCa) are limited to age, race, family history, and certain genetic polymorphisms. Despite great research efforts, available evidence on potentially modifiable risk factors is conflicting. Moreover, most studies on PCa risk factors did not consider the impact of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing on PCa diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: To provide a detailed overview of the latest evidence on the role of metabolic diseases, drugs, and dietary factors for risk of PCa incidence, recurrence, and survival in men exposed to PSA testing...
April 13, 2018: European Urology Focus
Rebecca L Pearl, Thomas A Wadden, Jena Shaw Tronieri, Ariana M Chao, Naji Alamuddin, Zayna M Bakizada, Emilie Pinkasavage, Robert I Berkowitz
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Sociocultural and familial factors associated with weight bias internalization (WBI) are currently unknown. The present study explored the relationship between interpersonal sources of weight stigma, family weight history, and WBI. METHODS: Participants with obesity (N = 178, 87.6% female, 71.3% black) completed questionnaires that assessed the frequency with which they experienced weight stigma from various interpersonal sources. Participants also reported the weight status of their family members and completed measures of WBI, depression, and demographics...
April 14, 2018: Obesity Facts
Claudia Strugnell, Liliana Orellana, Joshua Hayward, Lynne Millar, Boyd Swinburn, Steven Allender
Background: Tracking population trends in childhood obesity and identifying target areas for prevention requires accurate prevalence data. This study quantified the magnitude of non-participation bias for mean Body Mass Index-z scores and overweight/obesity prevalence associated with low (opt-in) compared to high (opt-out) participation consent methodologies. Methods: Data arose from all Local Government Areas (LGAs) participating in the Healthy Together Victoria Childhood Obesity Study, Australia. Primary schools were randomly selected in 2013 and 2014 and all Grades 4 and 6 students (aged approx...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Yong-Woo Lee
In social sciences, researchers rely on subjective perceptions of obesity measures to examine the determinants of obesity and the likely effects of obesity on health outcomes. However, subjective perception tends to produce estimation biases. In this study, we investigated the misreporting behavior of individuals regarding obesity using waist-to-height ratio as an objective measurement of obesity. Using the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2008-2011, we showed that false-reporting behavior was significantly associated with socio-economic status...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Health Psychology
Laura Chiavaroli, Cyril W C Kendall, Catherine R Braunstein, Sonia Blanco Mejia, Lawrence A Leiter, David J A Jenkins, John L Sievenpiper
OBJECTIVE: Carbohydrate staples such as pasta have been implicated in the obesity epidemic. It is unclear whether pasta contributes to weight gain or like other low-glycaemic index (GI) foods contributes to weight loss. We synthesised the evidence of the effect of pasta on measures of adiposity. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library were searched through 7 February 2017...
April 2, 2018: BMJ Open
Anna B Konova, Kenway Louie, Paul W Glimcher
Craving is thought to be a specific desire state that biases choice toward the desired object, be it chocolate or drugs. A vast majority of people report having experienced craving of some kind. In its pathological form craving contributes to health outcomes in addiction and obesity. Yet despite its ubiquity and clinical relevance we still lack a basic neurocomputational understanding of craving. Here, using an instantaneous measure of subjective valuation and selective cue exposure, we identify a behavioral signature of a food craving-like state and advance a computational framework for understanding how this state might transform valuation to bias choice...
April 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Mandana Zanganeh, Peymane Adab, Bai Li, Emma Frew
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is a major global public health problem, with governments increasingly having to undertake various strategies to reduce excess weight in their populations. Considering the increasing number of well-conducted intervention studies in the field of childhood obesity prevention, there are relatively few published economic evaluations. The proposed systematic review will explore the methods of these economic evaluations, examine the limitations and establish the evidence base for cost-effectiveness analyses...
April 2, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Nora Mehl, Lara Mueller-Wieland, David Mathar, Annette Horstmann
Eating behavior in obesity resembles addictive disorders in that individuals have difficulties inhibiting problematic eating behavior. They show an approach bias - a tendency to approach rather than avoid problematic stimuli. Here, we investigate the existence of such a bias towards healthy and unhealthy food in individuals with normal-weight and obesity. We further aimed to assess whether it is possible to retrain a bias, and whether training would differentially affect our two weight groups. 60 participants completed a training form of the Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT) on three consecutive days...
March 30, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Arnaud D Kaze, Jean Joel Bigna, Jobert Richie Nansseu, Jean Jacques Noubiap
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is significant risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE); however, the related mechanisms remain unclear. Previous studies have suggested that this might be related to physical factors including anthropometric measures. We intend to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies to summarise the extant literature on the associations between a set of seven measures of body size and the risk of VTE. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The current systematic review will include prospective cohort studies assessing the association between seven measures of body size (height, weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio) and the risk of VTE...
March 31, 2018: BMJ Open
Janet Hunter, Karen Rawlings-Anderson, Tracy Lindsay, Tracey Bowden, Leanne M Aitken
BACKGROUND: As the prevalence of obesity increases worldwide the field of bariatric medicine has emerged, focussing on the causes, prevention and treatment of obesity. People who are obese regularly face bias from healthcare professionals, which can negativity impact on care delivery and patient outcomes. The introduction of bariatric empathy suits into simulated practice may enable student nurses to appreciate the needs of, and influence their attitudes towards, obese people. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore student nurses' attitudes towards those who are obese and whether these attitudes change following a simulated activity...
June 2018: Nurse Education Today
Emma Rose McGlone, Ajay K Gupta, Marcus Reddy, Omar A Khan
Although laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is an established operation for severe obesity, there is controversy regarding the extent to which the antrum is excised. The objective of this systematic review was to investigate the effect on perioperative complications and medium-term outcomes of antral resecting versus antral preserving sleeve gastrectomy. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched from 1946 to April 2017. Eligible studies compared antral resection (staple line commencing 2-3 cm from pylorus) with antral preservation (>5 cm from pylorus) in patients undergoing primary sleeve gastrectomy for obesity...
March 6, 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
Carlotta Sacerdote, Fulvio Ricceri
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major cause of complications and death in many countries. The possible causal relation between T2D and cancer has been the aim of many research investigations. In view of the importance of the topic we carried out a narrative review of observational studies to summarize the available evidence of the association between T2D and cancer. To deal with the problem of abundance of published studies, we reviewed up to December 2017, the literature of meta-analyses of observational studies first, then we reviewed cohort studies not reported in meta-analyses because of more recent publication...
March 27, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Hannah Ferentzi, Hannah Scheibner, Reinout Wiers, Eni S Becker, Johannes Lindenmeyer, Sylvia Beisel, Mike Rinck
Obesity is a major health concern, characterized by an automatically activated tendency to (over)-eat. Recent research suggests that an effective way to counteract automatic approach tendencies in unhealthy consumption behavior might be approach bias modification. Therefore, we investigated an approach-avoidance training for unhealthy food cues in 189 patients with obesity of a psychosomatic inpatient clinic who were participating in a nutrition advice program. Patients in the active training group were trained to make avoidance movements (pushing a joystick) in response to unhealthy food pictures and approach movements (pulling the joystick) in response to positive pictures, while the control group received sham training (approaching and avoiding both picture types)...
March 26, 2018: Appetite
Jasper Tromp, Wan Ting Tay, Wouter Ouwerkerk, Tiew-Hwa Katherine Teng, Jonathan Yap, Michael R MacDonald, Kirsten Leineweber, John J V McMurray, Michael R Zile, Inder S Anand, Carolyn S P Lam
BACKGROUND: Comorbidities are common in patients with heart failure (HF) and complicate treatment and outcomes. We identified patterns of multimorbidity in Asian patients with HF and their association with patients' quality of life (QoL) and health outcomes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used data on 6,480 patients with chronic HF (1,204 with preserved ejection fraction) enrolled between 1 October 2012 and 6 October 2016 in the Asian Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure (ASIAN-HF) registry...
March 2018: PLoS Medicine
Kevin Caref, Saleem M Nicola
When relatively sated, people (and rodents) are still easily tempted to consume calorie-dense foods, particularly those containing fat and sugar. Consumption of such foods while calorically replete likely contributes to obesity. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) opioid system has long been viewed as a critical substrate for this behavior, mainly via contributions to the neural control of consumption and palatability. Here, we test the hypothesis that endogenous NAc opioids also promote appetitive approach to calorie-dense food in states of relatively high satiety...
March 27, 2018: ELife
Akshay Kumar Gupta, Hanaa Dakour Aridi, Satinderjit Locham, Besma Nejim, Frank J Veith, Mahmoud B Malas
OBJECTIVE: The majority of previous studies, including randomized controlled trials, have failed to provide sufficient evidence of superiority of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) over open aortic repair (OAR) of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) while comparing mortality and complications. This is in part due to small study size, patient selection bias, scarce adjustment for essential variables, single insurance type, or selection of only older patients. This study aimed to provide real-world, contemporary, comprehensive, and robust evidence on mortality of EVAR vs OAR of rAAA...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
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