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Obesity bias

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052153/food-for-thought-reward-mechanisms-and-hedonic-overeating-in-obesity
#1
REVIEW
Phong Ching Lee, John B Dixon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review examines the food addiction model and the role of food hedonic pathways in the pathogenesis and treatment of obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: The hedonic pathway interacts with the obesogenic environment to override homeostatic mechanisms to cause increase in body weight. Weight gain sustained over time leads to "upward setting" of defended level of body-fat mass. There are neurobiological and phenotypic similarities and differences between hedonic pathways triggered by food compared with other addictive substances, and the entity of food addiction remains controversial...
October 19, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050636/targeting-self-regulation-to-promote-health-behaviors-in-children
#2
Alison L Miller, Ashley N Gearhardt, Emily M Fredericks, Benjamin Katz, Lilly Fink Shapiro, Kelsie Holden, Niko Kaciroti, Richard Gonzalez, Christine Hunter, Julie C Lumeng
Poor self-regulation (i.e., inability to harness cognitive, emotional, motivational resources to achieve goals) is hypothesized to contribute to unhealthy behaviors across the lifespan. Enhancing early self-regulation may increase positive health outcomes. Obesity is a major public health concern with early-emerging precursors related to self-regulation; it is therefore a good model for understanding self-regulation and health behavior. Preadolescence is a transition when children increase autonomy in health behaviors (e...
September 28, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049458/long-term-outcomes-of-multiple-arterial-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-a-population-based-study-of-patients-in-british-columbia-canada
#3
Aihua Pu, Lillian Ding, Jungwon Shin, Joel Price, Peter Skarsgard, Daniel R Wong, John Bozinovski, Guy Fradet, James G Abel
Importance: Although the long-term survival advantage of multiple arterial grafting (MAG) vs the standard use of left internal thoracic artery (LITA) supplemented by saphenous vein grafts (LITA+SVG) has been demonstrated in several observational studies, to our knowledge its safety and other long-term clinical benefits in a large, population-based cohort are unknown. Objective: To compare the safety and long-term outcomes of MAG vs LITA+SVG among overall and selected subgroups of patients...
October 11, 2017: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042415/long-term-effects-of-weight-loss-exercise-on-biomarkers-associated-with-angiogenesis
#4
Catherine Duggan, Jean de Dieu Tapsoba, Ching-Yun Wang, Karen E Foster-Schubert, Anne McTiernan
BACKGROUND: We tested the effect of weight-loss on circulating levels of the angiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) in postmenopausal overweight/obese women, 18 months after completing a year-long 4-arm randomized controlled trial of behavioral weight-loss and/or exercise vs. control (i.e., 30-months post-randomization). METHODS: 439 overweight/obese, postmenopausal women, 50-75 years, were randomized to: diet (goal: 10% weight-loss, N=118), exercise (225 min/week moderate-to-vigorous activity, N=117), diet+exercise (N=117), or control (N=87)...
October 17, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040529/insulin-resistance-in-a-large-cohort-of-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-comparison-between-euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic-clamp-and-surrogate-indexes
#5
Flavia Tosi, Enzo Bonora, Paolo Moghetti
STUDY QUESTION: Could surrogate indexes identify insulin resistant individuals among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Surrogate indexes may be able to rule in, but not rule out, insulin resistance in women with PCOS. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Insulin resistance is a typical finding of women with PCOS and most clinical information on this issue is based upon surrogate indexes of insulin resistance. However, data on the performance of these indexes in PCOS women are very limited...
October 13, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032289/exploration-of-body-perception-and-body-dissatisfaction-in-young-adults-with-intellectual-disability
#6
Kate Eden, Cathy Randle-Phillips
BACKGROUND: People with intellectual disability (ID) are more likely to be overweight or obese. Research has shown that body dissatisfaction is a key factor in influencing unhealthy eating behaviour. More evidence is needed relating to how people with ID perceive their bodies in order to provide effectively targeted weight management programmes. AIMS: This study aimed to investigate whether people with ID have concepts for underweight, overweight and healthyweight, and whether they can apply these concepts to themselves...
October 12, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026728/analysis-of-the-relationship-between-sleep-duration-and-body-mass-index-in-a-south-korean-adult-population-a-propensity-score-matching-approach
#7
Baksun Sung
BACKGROUND: One-third of the present adults in South Korea are obese, and previous studies have demonstrated that sleep duration is considered a risk factor for obesity. Hence, I assessed the relationship between sleep duration and body mass index in a South Korean adult population. METHODS: This cross-sectional study consists of a representative sample of 4,218 South Korean adults (20-64 years) who participated in the sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2015)...
July 2017: Journal of Lifestyle Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026008/abdominal-obesity-and-colorectal-cancer-risk-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-prospective-studies
#8
Yunlong Dong, Jiao Zhou, Yun Zhu, Tao He, Hong Hu, Hao Liu, Dan Luo, Shuanglan Xu, Lifen Xu, Jun Zhang, Zhaowei Teng
The association between abdominal obesity (as measured by waist circumference (WC) and waist to hip ratio (WHR)) and colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been fully quantified, and the magnitude of CRC risk associated with abdominal obesity is still unclear. A meta-analysis of prospective studies was performed to elucidate the CRC risk associated with abdominal obesity. Pubmed and Embase were searched for studies assessing the association between abdominal obesity and CRC risk. Relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were pooled using random-effects model of meta-analysis...
October 12, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016508/prophylactic-negative-pressure-wound-therapy-for-obese-women-after-cesarean-delivery-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Marcela C Smid, Sarah K Dotters-Katz, Matthew Grace, Sarah T Wright, Margaret S Villers, Abbey Hardy-Fairbanks, David M Stamilio
OBJECTIVE: To summarize available studies on wound complication outcomes after prophylactic negative pressure wound therapy for obese women (body mass index 30 or greater). DATA SOURCES: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis using electronic database search (PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, EMBASE, Google scholar, and Web of Science), Cochrane, and trial registries including ClinicalTrials.gov. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: We conducted an electronic search of research articles from 1966 to January 2017 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), prospective cohort, and retrospective cohort studies of negative pressure wound therapy compared with standard dressing after cesarean delivery among obese women...
October 6, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016150/imagine-that-the-effect-of-counterstereotypic-imagined-intergroup-contact-on-weight-bias
#10
Jamie L Dunaev, Paula M Brochu, Charlotte H Markey
OBJECTIVE: Higher body-weight people are highly stigmatized and face prejudice and discrimination across a number of domains. Further, experiences of weight stigmatization are associated with a host of negative physical, psychological, and social consequences. However, less is known about effective means for reducing weight bias. One strategy that has shown some success in prejudice reduction, yet is relatively untested for weight bias, is imagined intergroup contact. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of counterstereotypic imagined intergroup contact on weight bias...
October 9, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994243/addressing-weight-bias-and-discrimination-moving-beyond-raising-awareness-to-creating-change
#11
REVIEW
X Ramos Salas, A S Alberga, E Cameron, L Estey, M Forhan, S F L Kirk, S Russell-Mayhew, A M Sharma
Weight discrimination is the unjust treatment of individuals because of their weight. There have been very few interventions to address weight discrimination, due in part to the lack of consensus on key messages and strategies. The objective of the third Canadian Weight Bias Summit was to review current evidence and move towards consensus on key weight bias and obesity discrimination reduction messages and strategies. Using a modified brokered dialogue approach, participants, including researchers, health professionals, policy makers and people living with obesity, reviewed the evidence and moved towards consensus on key messages and strategies for future interventions...
November 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991921/the-impact-of-nutritional-supplement-intake-on-diet-behavior-and-obesity-outcomes
#12
Sven Anders, Christiane Schroeter
After decades-old efforts to nudge consumers towards healthier lifestyles through dietary guidelines, diet-related diseases are on the rise. In addition, a growing share of U.S. consumers proactively chooses nutritional supplements as an alternative preventative way of maintaining good health, a $25.5 billion industry in the United States. This paper investigates possible linkages between the economics of consumer supplement choices and the relationship to important dietary and health outcomes. We use National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data to estimate the impact of nutritional supplements intake on respondent's body weight outcomes, controlling for diet quality...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991086/bowel-dysfunction-related-to-spina-bifida-keep-it-simple
#13
Charlène Brochard, Benoît Peyronnet, Anne Dariel, Hélène Ménard, Andréa Manunta, Alain Ropert, Michel Neunlist, Guillaume Bouguen, Laurent Siproudhis
BACKGROUND: Although care of urological disorders in spina bifida is well established, there is yet no agreement on a standardized approach to bowel dysfunction in this population. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess bowel dysfunction using validated instruments and the risk factors in adults with spina bifida. DESIGN: A multidisciplinary team prospectively collected patient data, focusing on anorectal and urological symptoms...
November 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991084/association-among-obesity-metabolic-health-and-the-risk-for-colorectal-cancer-in-the-general-population-in-korea-using-the-national-health-insurance-service-national-sample-cohort
#14
Cheol Min Shin, Kyungdo Han, Dong Ho Lee, Yoon Jin Choi, Nayoung Kim, Young Soo Park, Hyuk Yoon
BACKGROUND: In Korea, the incidence of colorectal cancer has increased and obesity is on a rising trend because of a Westernized lifestyle in men. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between metabolic health status, as well as BMI, and the incidence of colorectal cancer. DESIGN: This was a prospective cohort study. SETTINGS: The study was conducted with the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort...
November 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987018/validation-of-multi-frequency-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-versus-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-to-measure-body-fat-percentage-in-overweight-obeses-colombian-adults
#15
Robinson Ramírez-Vélez, Alejandra Tordecilla-Sanders, Jorge Enrique Correa-Bautista, Katherine González-Ruíz, Emilio González-Jiménez, Hector Reynaldo Triana-Reina, Antonio García-Hermoso, Jacqueline Schmidt-RioValle
OBJECTIVES: To verify the validity of multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (mBCA) for predicting body fat percentage (BF%) in overweight/obese adults using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the reference method. METHODS: Forty-eight adults participated (54% women, mean age = 41.0 ± 7.3 years old). The Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the correlation between BIA and BF% assessed by DXA. The concordance between BF% measured by both methods was obtained with Lin's concordance correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman difference plots...
October 7, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986544/a-novel-mouse-model-of-inkt-cell-deficiency-generated-by-crispr-cas9-reveals-a-pathogenic-role-of-inkt-cells-in-metabolic-disease
#16
Yue Ren, Etsuko Sekine-Kondo, Risa Shibata, Megumi Kato-Itoh, Ayumi Umino, Ayaka Yanagida, Masashi Satoh, Komaki Inoue, Tomoyuki Yamaguchi, Keiichi Mochida, Susumu Nakae, Luc Van Kaer, Kazuya Iwabuchi, Hiromitsu Nakauchi, Hiroshi Watarai
iNKT cells play important roles in immune regulation by bridging the innate and acquired immune systems. The functions of iNKT cells have been investigated in mice lacking the Traj18 gene segment that were generated by traditional embryonic stem cell technology, but these animals contain a biased T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire that might affect immune responses. To circumvent this confounding factor, we have generated a new strain of iNKT cell-deficient mice by deleting the Traj18 locus using CRISPR/Cas9 technology, and these animals contain an unbiased TCR repertoire...
October 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985441/effects-and-associations-of-nutrition-in-patients-with-venous-leg-ulcers-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Georgina A Barber, Carolina D Weller, Simone J Gibson
AIMS: To identify the associations and effects of nutritional characteristics and interventions on ulcer outcomes in adult patients with venous leg ulcers. BACKGROUND: Venous leg ulcers are the most prevalent type of lower limb ulcer, however little evidence exists regarding the relationship between nutritional status and ulcer healing. DESIGN: A systematic search of English language articles was conducted using the Cochrane Collaboration Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982642/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-early-life-exposure-to-bisphenol-a-and-obesity-related-outcomes-in-rodents
#18
REVIEW
Pim Nicolaas Hubertus Wassenaar, Leonardo Trasande, Juliette Legler
BACKGROUND: Early-life exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has been implicated to play a role in the development of obesity. OBJECTIVE: A systematic review with meta-analyses of experimental rodent studies was conducted to answer the following question: does early-life exposure to BPA affect the obesity-related outcomes body weight, fat (pad) weight, and circulating and tissue levels of triglycerides, free fatty acids (FFA), and leptin? METHODS: The methodology was prespecified in a rigorous protocol using the Systematic Review Centre for Laboratory Animal Experimentation (SYRCLE) approach...
October 5, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978303/cesarean-deliveries-and-maternal-weight-retention
#19
Kandice A Kapinos, Olga Yakusheva, Marianne Weiss
BACKGROUND: Cesarean delivery accounts for nearly one-third of all births in the U.S. and contributes to an additional $38 billion in healthcare costs each year. Although Cesarean delivery has a long record of improving maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity, increased utilization over time has yielded public health concerns and calls for reductions. Observational evidence suggests Cesarean delivery is associated with increased maternal postpartum weight, which may have significant implications for the obesity epidemic...
October 4, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977589/retinoid-x-receptor-activation-alters-the-chromatin-landscape-to-commit-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-the-adipose-lineage
#20
Bassem M Shoucri, Eric S Martinez, Timothy J Abreo, Victor T Hung, Zdena Moosova, Toshi Shioda, Bruce Blumberg
Developmental exposure to environmental factors has been linked to obesity risk later in life. Nuclear receptors are molecular sensors that play critical roles during development and, as such, are prime candidates to explain the developmental programming of disease risk by environmental chemicals. We have previously characterized the obesogen tributyltin (TBT), which activates the nuclear receptors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) to increase adiposity in mice exposed in utero...
October 1, 2017: Endocrinology
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