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Obesity bias

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454871/maternal-and-neonatal-outcomes-after-bariatric-surgery-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-do-the-benefits-outweigh-the-risks
#1
REVIEW
Wilson Kwong, George Tomlinson, Denice S Feig
OBJECTIVE: Obesity during pregnancy is associated with a number of adverse obstetrical outcomes, including gestational diabetes, macrosomia and preeclampsia. There is increasing evidence that bariatric surgery may decrease the risk of these outcomes. Our aim was to evaluate the benefits and risks of bariatric surgery in obese women on obstetrical outcomes. DATA SOURCES: A systematic literature search using MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, Web of Science and PubMed from inception up to December 12, 2016...
February 15, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453396/bone-marrow-lympho-myeloid-malfunction-in-obesity-requires-precursor-cell-autonomous-tlr4
#2
Ailing Liu, Minhui Chen, Rashmi Kumar, Maja Stefanovic-Racic, Robert M O'Doherty, Ying Ding, Willi Jahnen-Dechent, Lisa Borghesi
Obesity, a prevalent condition in adults and children, impairs bone marrow (BM) function. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here, we show that obese mice exhibit poor emergency immune responses in a toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-dependent manner. Canonical myeloid genes (Csf1r, Spi1, Runx1) are enhanced, and lymphoid genes (Flt3, Tcf3, Ebf1) are reduced. Using adoptive transfer and mixed BM chimera approaches we demonstrate that myeloid>lymphoid bias arises after 6 weeks of high-fat diet and depends on precursor cell-autonomous TLR4...
February 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446437/effects-of-total-fat-intake-on-bodyweight-in-children
#3
REVIEW
Celeste E Naude, Marianne E Visser, Kim A Nguyen, Solange Durao, Anel Schoonees
BACKGROUND: As part of efforts to prevent childhood overweight and obesity, we need to understand the relationship between total fat intake and body fatness in generally healthy children. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of total fat intake on measures of weight and body fatness in children and young people not aiming to lose weight. SEARCH METHODS: For this update we revised the previous search strategy and ran it over all years in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (Ovid), MEDLINE (PubMed), and Embase (Ovid) (current to 23 May 2017)...
February 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446218/influence-of-grandparents-on-the-dietary-intake-of-their-2-12-year-old-grandchildren-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Kylie G Young, Kerith Duncanson, Tracy Burrows
AIM: Grandparents are assuming increased child-caregiving responsibilities, which potentially influences the dietary intake of grandchildren. The aim of this systematic review is to determine the influence of grandparental care on the dietary intake, food-related behaviours, food choices and weight status of their preschool and school-aged grandchildren. METHODS: Six electronic health databases were searched in January 2017. Inclusion criteria were publication in English language, peer-reviewed journal between 2000 and 2017; children aged 2-12 years; study outcomes included child dietary intake/weight status, grandparent nutrition knowledge/beliefs or grandparent/parent feeding practices...
February 15, 2018: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432784/cognitive-and-neuromodulation-strategies-for-unhealthy-eating-and-obesity-systematic-review-and-discussion-of-neurocognitive-mechanisms
#5
REVIEW
Laura Forcano, Fernanda Mata, Rafael de la Torre, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia
We systematically reviewed research on cognitive training and neuromodulation interventions for reducing food craving/intake, unhealthy diet and weight, and discussed their mechanisms of action. We reviewed 50 studies involving six cognitive trainings: Approach and Attentional Bias Modification, Implementation Intentions, Response Inhibition, Episodic Future Thinking and Working Memory; and four neuromodulation approaches: Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) and Neurofeedback...
February 9, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427370/weight-stigma-predicts-poorer-psychological-well-being-through-internalized-weight-bias-and-maladaptive-coping-responses
#6
Lydia E Hayward, Lenny R Vartanian, Rebecca T Pinkus
OBJECTIVE: Weight-based stigmatization is associated with negative psychological and behavioral consequences, but individuals respond to stigma in different ways. The present study aimed to understand some of the factors that predict how one will cope with weight stigma and how different coping responses predict psychological well-being. METHODS: Across four samples, 1,391 individuals who identified as having overweight or obesity completed surveys assessing the frequency of weight stigma experiences, internalized weight bias, coping responses to weight stigma, and psychological distress...
February 10, 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425665/newly-diagnosed-bipolar-disorder-and-the-subsequent-risk-of-erectile-dysfunction-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#7
Po-Hsun Hou, Frank Chiahung Mao, Geng-Ruei Chang, Min-Wei Huang, Yao-Ting Wang, Shiau-Shian Huang
BACKGROUND: Although erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common problem in men with mental disorders, there are few reports in the literature on the relation between bipolar disorder (BD) and ED. AIMS: To establish the incidence rate of ED in men with BD and assess the risk of ED in patients with BD according to type of treatment offered or no active treatment with medication during the 1st year of onset. METHODS: We identified 5,150 men with newly diagnosed BD using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database...
February 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412835/control-of-insulin-secretion-by-glp-1
#8
Ben Jones, Stephen R Bloom, Teresa Buenaventura, Alejandra Tomas, Guy A Rutter
Stimulation of insulin secretion by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and other gut-derived peptides is central to the incretin response to ingesting nutriments. Analogues of GLP-1, and inhibitors of its breakdown, have found widespread clinical use for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity. The release of these peptides underlies the improvements in glycaemic control and disease remission after bariatric surgery. Given therapeutically, GLP-1 analogues can lead to side effects including nausea, which limit dosage...
February 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408158/course-risk-factors-and-mental-health-outcomes-of-excessive-daytime-sleepiness-in-rural-chinese-adolescents-a-one-year-prospective-study
#9
Chunliu Luo, Jihui Zhang, Weijun Chen, Wanxian Lu, Jiyang Pan
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine the one-year incidence and persistence of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in rural Chinese adolescents and their risk factors. In addition, we also aimed to explore the potential bidirectional associations of EDS with anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms. METHODS: A total of 3736 adolescents from 5 high schools from rural area in the south China were eligible for follow-up. Among them, 2787 responded to follow-up after one year...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406299/a-qualitative-study-to-explore-the-impact-of-simulating-extreme-obesity-on-health-care-professionals-attitudes-and-perceptions
#10
Caz Hales, Lesley Gray, Lynne Russell, Carol MacDonald
Extremely obese patients pose significant challenges for those who strive to provide care. The prevalence and consequences of weight bias and stigma in health care have been well documented, but research on how to reduce weight bias and stigma is limited. To assess the impact of simulating obesity on the attitudes and perceptions of health professionals toward extreme obesity, a qualitative study involving 6 registered nurses and 1 registered physiotherapist was conducted between November 2015 and May 2016...
January 2018: Ostomy/wound Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401538/effect-of-conjugated-linoleic-acid-on-leptin-level-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#11
Mohsen Mohammadi-Sartang, Zahra Sohrabi, Zahra Esmaeilinezhad, Seyed Mohammad Aqaeinezhad R, Yahya Jalilpiran
The results of human clinical trials examining the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on leptin concentration are inconsistent. Our objective was to elucidate the role of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on leptin through a systematic review and a meta-analysis of available randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs). We searched the PubMed, SCOPUS, and ISI web of science up to February2017, in English, to identify RCTs investigating the effect of CLA supplements on plasma leptin concentrations...
February 2018: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393665/the-effects-of-ginger-intake-on-weight-loss-and-metabolic-profiles-among-overweight-and-obese-subjects-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#12
Najmeh Maharlouei, Reza Tabrizi, Kamran B Lankarani, Abbas Rezaianzadeh, Maryam Akbari, Fariba Kolahdooz, Maryam Rahimi, Fariba Keneshlou, Zatollah Asemi
This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed to summarize the effect of ginger intake on weight loss, glycemic control and lipid profiles among overweight and obese subjects. We searched the following databases through November 2017: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. The relevant data were extracted and assessed for quality of the studies according to the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Data were pooled using the inverse variance method and expressed as Standardized Mean Difference (SMD) with 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI)...
February 2, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393043/new-determinants-for-gallstone-disease
#13
Daniel Mønsted Shabanzadeh
Gallstone disease is highly prevalent in Denmark and other countries of northern Europe, and cholecystectomy for the treatment of clinical gallstone disease is one the most frequently performed surgical procedures. Research efforts for the identification of mechanisms involved in gallstone formation have a long history and the most established include bile cholesterol saturation, gallbladder motor function, and the enterohepatic circulation of secondary bile salts produced by fecal microbiota. A small number of determinants that are believed to affect these mechanisms have been identified until now...
February 2018: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388687/interventions-for-weight-reduction-in-obesity-to-improve-survival-in-women-with-endometrial-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Sarah Kitson, Neil Ryan, Michelle L MacKintosh, Richard Edmondson, James Mn Duffy, Emma J Crosbie
BACKGROUND: Diagnoses of endometrial cancer are increasing secondary to the rising prevalence of obesity. Obesity plays an important role in promoting the development of endometrial cancer, by inducing a state of unopposed oestrogen excess, insulin resistance and inflammation. It also affects treatment, increasing the risk of surgical complications and the complexity of radiotherapy planning, and may additionally impact on subsequent survival. Weight-loss interventions have been associated with improvements in breast and colorectal cancer-specific survival as well as a reduction in the risk of cardiovascular disease, a frequent cause of death in endometrial cancer survivors...
February 1, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379560/evaluating-of-psychiatric-behavior-in-obese-children-and-adolescents
#15
Fatemeh Moharei, Samaneh Norooziasl, Fatemeh Behdani, Nosrat Ghaemi
Objective: Obesity is a medical condition that may have a harmful effect on health, leading to increased illness and reduced life expectancy. This studyaimed to evaluate the relationship of psychiatry disorders in overweight and obese children and adolescents. Materials & Methods: In this case-control study, 160 children and adolescent were enrolled refereed to Clinic of Pediatric Endocrinology, Imam Reza hospital, Mashhad, Iran in 2009-2011. The sampling method of this study was non-probability and biased...
2018: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376563/physical-activity-diet-and-other-behavioural-interventions-for-improving-cognition-and-school-achievement-in-children-and-adolescents-with-obesity-or-overweight
#16
REVIEW
Anne Martin, Josephine N Booth, Yvonne Laird, John Sproule, John J Reilly, David H Saunders
BACKGROUND: The global prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity is high. Lifestyle changes towards a healthy diet, increased physical activity and reduced sedentary activities are recommended to prevent and treat obesity. Evidence suggests that changing these health behaviours can benefit cognitive function and school achievement in children and adolescents in general. There are various theoretical mechanisms that suggest that children and adolescents with excessive body fat may benefit particularly from these interventions...
January 29, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374028/paediatric-obesity-appears-to-lower-the-risk-of-diabetes-if-selection-bias-is-ignored
#17
Steven D Stovitz, Hailey R Banack, Jay S Kaufman
BACKGROUND: Frustrated with the onslaught of articles reporting fascination with results that appear paradoxical but are merely due to selection bias, we studied the apparent effect of obesity on diabetes risk in youth who had a test for diabetes. We hypothesised that obese subjects would have lower rates of diabetes than non-obese subjects due to selection bias, and consequently, obesity would appear to lower the risk of diabetes. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of children (4-9 years), pre-teens (10-12 years) and teenagers (13-19 years)...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370830/a-comparison-of-meta-analytic-methods-for-synthesizing-evidence-from-explanatory-and-pragmatic-trials
#18
Tolulope T Sajobi, Guowei Li, Oluwagbohunmi Awosoga, Meng Wang, Bijoy K Menon, Michael D Hill, Lehana Thabane
BACKGROUND: The pragmatic-explanatory continuum indicator summary version 2 (PRECIS-2) tool has recently been developed to classify randomized clinical trials (RCTs) as pragmatic or explanatory based on their design characteristics. Given that treatment effects in explanatory trials may be greater than those obtained in pragmatic trials, conventional meta-analytic approaches may not accurately account for the heterogeneity among the studies and may result in biased treatment effect estimates...
January 25, 2018: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369749/calorie-labeling-promotes-dietary-self-control-by-shifting-the-temporal-dynamics-of-health-and-taste-attribute-integration-in-overweight-individuals
#19
Seung-Lark Lim, Molly T Penrod, Oh-Ryeong Ha, Jared M Bruce, Amanda S Bruce
Understanding why people make unhealthy food choices and how to promote healthier choices is critical to prevent obesity. Unhealthy food choices may occur when individuals fail to consider health attributes as quickly as taste attributes in their decisions, and this bias may be modifiable by health-related external cues. One hundred seventy-eight participants performed a mouse-tracking food-choice task with and without calorie information. With the addition of calorie information, participants made healthier choices...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366728/bariatric-surgery-improves-outcomes-after-lower-extremity-arthroplasty-in-the-morbidly-obese-a-propensity-score-matched-analysis-of-a-new-york-statewide-database
#20
Alexander S McLawhorn, Ashley E Levack, Yuo-Yu Lee, Yile Ge, Huong Do, Emily R Dodwell
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare risks for revision and short-term complications after total joint arthroplasty (TJA) in matched cohorts of morbidly obese patients, receiving and not receiving prior bariatric surgery. METHODS: Patients undergoing elective TJA between 1997 and 2011 were identified in a New York Statewide database, analyzing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA) separately. Propensity scores were used to match morbidly obese patients receiving and not receiving bariatric surgery prior to TJA...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
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