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Obesity bias

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338874/does-fetal-growth-restriction-cause-later-obesity-pitfalls-in-analyzing-causal-mediators-as-confounders
#1
Michael S Kramer, Xun Zhang, Mourad Dahhou, Seungmi Yang, Richard M Martin, Emily Oken, Robert W Platt
Recent studies finding that small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth is associated with increased adiposity in childhood and adulthood have been based on analyses "adjusting" for height, weight, or body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) measured concurrently with the adiposity measurement. To assess the potential for bias due to overadjustment for a causal mediator, we compared 2 approaches to analyzing the association between SGA birth and adiposity outcomes (skinfold thicknesses and bioelectrical impedance measurement of body fat) at age 11...
March 3, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338324/studies-to-examine-potential-tolerability-differences-between-the-5-ht2c-receptor-selective-agonists-lorcaserin-and-cp-809101
#2
Guy A Higgins, Leonardo B Silenieks, Amy Patrick, Ines A M De Lannoy, Paul J Fletcher, Linda A Parker, Neil J MacLusky, Laura C Sullivan, Teresa A Chavera, Kelly A Berg
Lorcaserin (LOR) is a selective 5-HT2C receptor agonist that has been FDA approved as a treatment for obesity. The most frequently reported side-effects of LOR include nausea and headache, which can be dose limiting. We have previously reported that in the rat, while LOR produced unconditioned signs characteristic of nausea/malaise, the highly selective 5-HT2C agonist CP-809101 (CP) produced fewer equivalent signs. Because this may indicate a subclass of 5-HT2C agonists having better tolerability, the present studies were designed to further investigate this apparent difference...
March 24, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334179/bayesian-distributed-lag-interaction-models-to-identify-perinatal-windows-of-vulnerability-in-children-s-health
#3
Ander Wilson, Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda Chiu, Hsiao-Hsien Leon Hsu, Robert O Wright, Rosalind J Wright, Brent A Coull
Epidemiological research supports an association between maternal exposure to air pollution during pregnancy and adverse children's health outcomes. Advances in exposure assessment and statistics allow for estimation of both critical windows of vulnerability and exposure effect heterogeneity. Simultaneous estimation of windows of vulnerability and effect heterogeneity can be accomplished by fitting a distributed lag model (DLM) stratified by subgroup. However, this can provide an incomplete picture of how effects vary across subgroups because it does not allow for subgroups to have the same window but different within-window effects or to have different windows but the same within-window effect...
February 27, 2017: Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322880/analyzing-the-impact-of-public-transit-usage-on-obesity
#4
Zhaowei She, Douglas M King, Sheldon H Jacobson
The objective of this paper is to estimate the impact of county-level public transit usage on obesity prevalence in the United States and assess the potential for public transit usage as an intervention for obesity. This study adopts an instrumental regression approach to implicitly control for potential selection bias due to possible differences in commuting preferences among obese and non-obese populations. United States health data from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and transportation data from the 2009 National Household Travel Survey are aggregated and matched at the county level...
March 16, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321314/obesity-paradox-and-mortality-in-adults-with-and-without-incident-type-2-diabetes-a-matched-population-level-cohort-study
#5
Ellena Badrick, Matthew Sperrin, Iain E Buchan, Andrew G Renehan
OBJECTIVE: Among adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D), several (but not all) studies show that being overweight (body mass index (BMI): 25.0-29.9 kg/m(2)) or obese I (BMI: 30.0-34.9 kg/m(2)) near the time of diagnosis, is unexpectedly associated with reduced all-cause mortality compared with normal weight-the obesity paradox. We addressed whether this observation is causal (eg, a true protective effect); due to confounding (including effect modification); or due to selection ('collider') bias...
2017: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315897/complementary-feeding-in-an-obesogenic-environment-behavioral-and-dietary-quality-outcomes-and-interventions
#6
Lynne Allison Daniels
The WHO infant feeding guidelines, including those for complementary feeding (CF), are very prescriptive, largely based on the outcomes of exclusive breastfeeding, and have a bias towards undernutrition. Consideration of longer-term outcomes related to overnutrition, the predominant nutrition problem in affluent countries, is limited. Compared to the ongoing and often zealous debates regarding the short- and long-term benefits of exclusive breastfeeding to 6 months in affluent countries, exposures (particularly feeding practices) and outcomes related to CF, independent of exclusive breastfeeding, have received little attention...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291782/obesity-paradox-in-stroke-myth-or-reality-a-systematic-review
#7
Lisa Oesch, Turgut Tatlisumak, Marcel Arnold, Hakan Sarikaya
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Both stroke and obesity show an increasing incidence worldwide. While obesity is an established risk factor for stroke, its influence on outcome in ischemic stroke is less clear. Many studies suggest a better prognosis in obese patients after stroke ("obesity paradox"). This review aims at assessing the clinical outcomes of obese patients after stroke by performing a systematic literature search. METHODS: The reviewers searched MEDLINE from inception to December 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286340/intensive-gestational-glycemic-management-and-childhood-obesity-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
L Guillemette, A Durksen, R Rabbani, R Zarychanski, A M Abou-Setta, T A Duhamel, J M McGavock, B Wicklow
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hyperglycemia in pregnancy is associated with increased risk of offspring childhood obesity. Treatment reduces macrosomia, however it is unclear if this effect translates into a reduced risk of childhood obesity. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intensive glycemic management in pregnancy in preventing childhood obesity. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and ClinicalTrials...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285652/circulating-adiponectin-levels-in-relation-to-carotid-atherosclerotic-plaque-presence-ischemic-stroke-risk-and-mortality-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses
#9
Jessica Gorgui, Karina Gasbarrino, Marios K Georgakis, Maria A Karalexi, Bénédicte Nauche, Eleni Th Petridou, Stella S Daskalopoulou
BACKGROUND: Low circulating levels of adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory and vasculoprotective adipokine, are associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and atherosclerotic disease. Presence of unstable plaques in the carotid artery is a known etiological factor causing ischemic strokes. Herein, we systematically reviewed the association between circulating adiponectin and progression of carotid atherosclerotic disease, particularly evaluating the occurrence of (1) carotid atherosclerotic plaques, (2) ischemic stroke, and (3) mortality in subjects who suffered a previous ischemic stroke...
April 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285471/the-influence-of-the-orbera-intragastric-balloon-filling-volumes-on-weight-loss-tolerability-and-adverse-events-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Nitin Kumar, Fateh Bazerbachi, Tarun Rustagi, Thomas R McCarty, Christopher C Thompson, Manoel P Galvao Neto, Natan Zundel, Erik B Wilson, Christopher J Gostout, Barham K Abu Dayyeh
BACKGROUND: The Orbera intragastric balloon (IGB) has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in patients with a body mass index (BMI) between 30 and 40 kg/m(2) and is in wide use worldwide as a primary and bridge obesity management tool. The balloon filling volume (BFV) ranges between 400 and 700 mL of saline. Our objective was to determine whether there is an association between BFV and clinically relevant endpoints, namely weight loss outcomes, balloon tolerability, and adverse events...
March 12, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284176/education-as-a-tool-to-modify-anti-obesity-bias-among-pediatric-residents
#11
Marielisa Rincon-Subtirelu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 11, 2017: International Journal of Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284174/childhood-obesity-among-the-poor-in-peru-are-there-implications-for-cognitive-outcomes
#12
Suzanne L Wisniewski
This paper exploits three rounds of panel data provided by the Peruvian dataset of the Young Lives study to investigate the relationship between child cognition and obesity status among the poor. Child weight status is measured by a full distribution of child weight, from severely thin to obese, using data from a z-score for body mass index and cognition is measured by the Spanish version of the Picture Peabody Vocabulary Test (PPVT). This relationship is studied at age five and age eight (school age), and disaggregated across socioeconomic factors of gender, urban/rural setting and indigenous/nonindigenous status...
February 27, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281115/laparoscopic-colectomy-in-obese-patients-a-comparison-of-laparoscopic-and-hand-assisted-laparoscopic-techniques
#13
Douglas M Overbey, Michelle L Cowan, Patrick W Hosokawa, Brandon C Chapman, Jon D Vogel
BACKGROUND: Recent American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Project (ACS-NSQIP)-based evidence indicates that laparoscopic (LAP) colectomy results in improved outcomes compared to hand-assisted laparoscopic (HAL) colectomy in the general population. Previous comparative studies demonstrated that the HAL technique offers distinct advantages for obese patients. The aim of this study was to perform comparative analyses of HAL and LAP colectomy and low anterior resection (LAR) in obese patients...
March 9, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279969/sex-hormones-and-sex-chromosomes-cause-sex-differences-in-the-development-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Arthur P Arnold, Lisa A Cassis, Mansoureh Eghbali, Karen Reue, Kathryn Sandberg
This review summarizes recent evidence concerning hormonal and sex chromosome effects in obesity, atherosclerosis, aneurysms, ischemia/reperfusion injury, and hypertension. Cardiovascular diseases occur and progress differently in the 2 sexes, because biological factors differing between the sexes have sex-specific protective and harmful effects. By comparing the 2 sexes directly, and breaking down sex into its component parts, one can discover sex-biasing protective mechanisms that might be targeted in the clinic...
March 9, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278610/can-raising-awareness-about-the-psychological-causes-of-obesity-reduce-obesity-stigma
#15
Sammyh S Khan, Mark Tarrant, Dale Weston, Pooja Shah, Claire Farrow
Obesity stigma largely remains a socially acceptable bias with harmful outcomes for its victims. While many accounts have been put forward to explain the bias, the role of obesity etiology beliefs has received little scrutiny. The research examined the effect that beliefs about the psychological etiology of obesity have on the expression of obesity stigma and the mechanisms underpinning this effect. Participants (N = 463) were asked to evaluate a target person with obesity after reading one of three possible etiologies: psychological, genetic, or behavioral...
February 19, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272961/correction-of-selection-bias-in-survey-data-is-the-statistical-cure-worse-than-the-bias
#16
James A Hanley
In previous articles in the American Journal of Epidemiology (Am J Epidemiol. 2013;177(5):431-442) and American Journal of Public Health (Am J Public Health. 2013;103(10):1895-1901), Masters et al. reported age-specific hazard ratios for the contrasts in mortality rates between obesity categories. They corrected the observed hazard ratios for selection bias caused by what they postulated was the nonrepresentativeness of the participants in the National Health Interview Study that increased with age, obesity, and ill health...
April 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264433/the-effect-of-low-carbohydrate-diets-on-fertility-hormones-and-outcomes-in-overweight-and-obese-women-a-systematic-review
#17
Melanie McGrice, Judi Porter
(1) Background: Medical interventions including assisted reproductive technologies have improved fertility outcomes for many sub-fertile couples. Increasing research interest has investigated the effect of low carbohydrate diets, with or without energy restriction. We aimed to systematically review the published literature to determine the extent to which low carbohydrate diets can affect fertility outcomes; (2) Methods: The review protocol was registered prospectively with Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews (registration number CRD42016042669) and followed Preferred Reporting Items For Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines...
February 27, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260334/-comparison-whole-body-muscle-mass-assessed-by-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-and-multi-frequency-bioelectrical-impedance-in-overweight-and-obese-adults
#18
Z H Wang, Y H Dong, Y D Yang, S Wang, J Ma
Objective: To investigate consistency of whole-body muscle mass (WBMM) assessed using multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) and dual energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) measurement, and to delvelop the correction regression formulas for the method of MF-BIA. Methods: 1 488 participants who resided in Beijing longer than one year, under 22 to 55 years of age, with self-report BMI ≥24 kg/m(2) were voluntarily recruited based on convenience sampling in Beijing, from April 1(st) 2014 to May 2(nd) 2014...
March 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258777/multiple-risk-behavior-interventions-meta-analyses-of-rcts
#19
REVIEW
Nick Meader, Kristelle King, Kath Wright, Hilary M Graham, Mark Petticrew, Chris Power, Martin White, Amanda J Sowden
CONTEXT: Multiple risk behaviors are common and associated with developing chronic conditions such as heart disease, cancer, or Type 2 diabetes. A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression of the effectiveness of multiple risk behavior interventions was conducted. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Six electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO were searched to August 2016. RCTs of non-pharmacologic interventions in general adult populations were selected...
February 28, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253910/evaluating-overweight-and-obesity-prevalence-in-survivors-of-childhood-brain-tumors-a-systematic-review-protocol
#20
Kuan-Wen Wang, Adam Fleming, Sheila K Singh, Laura Banfield, Russell J de Souza, Lehana Thabane, M Constantine Samaan
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are well-known risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases including hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, and type 2 diabetes in the general population. Survivors of childhood brain tumors (SCBT) are at risk of premature mortality, and recent evidence suggests that these cardiometabolic diseases are potential emerging determinants of survival and quality of life. Therefore, the rates of overweight and obesity in this population need to be examined to assess their impact on outcomes...
March 3, 2017: Systematic Reviews
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