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Obesity bias

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096158/vancomycin-area-under-the-curve-estimation-in-obese-adults-the-peak-improves-precision-and-lowers-bias
#1
Manjunath P Pai, Joseph Hong, Lynne Krop
Vancomycin area under the curve (AUC) estimates may be skewed in obese adults due to weight-dependent pharmacokinetic parameters. We demonstrate that peak and trough measurements reduce bias and improve the precision of vancomycin AUC estimates in obese adults (n=75) and validate this in an independent cohort (n=31). The precision and mean %bias of Bayesian vancomycin AUC estimates are comparable between covariate-dependent (R(2)=0.774, 3.55%) and covariate-independent (R(2)=0.804, 3.28%) models when peaks and troughs are measured but not when restricted to trough only measurements (R(2),= 0...
January 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095800/diet-gonadal-sex-and-sex-chromosome-complement-influence-white-adipose-tissue-mirna-expression
#2
Jenny C Link, Yehudit Hasin-Brumshtein, Rita M Cantor, Xuqi Chen, Arthur P Arnold, Aldons J Lusis, Karen Reue
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression by targeting specific mRNA species for degradation or interfering with translation. Specific miRNAs are key regulators of adipogenesis, and are expressed at different levels in adipose tissue from lean and obese mice. The degree of lipid accumulation and distribution of white adipose tissue differs between males and females, and it is unknown whether sex differences in adipose tissue-specific miRNA expression may contribute to this dimorphism...
January 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095331/the-effect-of-combined-avoidance-and-control-training-on-implicit-food-evaluation-and-choice
#3
Naomi Kakoschke, Eva Kemps, Marika Tiggemann
BACKGROUND: Continual exposure to food cues in the environment contributes to unhealthy eating behaviour. According to dual-process models, such behaviour is partly determined by automatic processing of unhealthy food cues (e.g., approach bias), which fails to be regulated by controlled processing (e.g., inhibitory control). The current study aimed to investigate the effect of combined avoidance and control training on implicit evaluation (liking), choice, and consumption of unhealthy snack food...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093732/long-term-hormone-therapy-for-perimenopausal-and-postmenopausal-women
#4
REVIEW
Jane Marjoribanks, Cindy Farquhar, Helen Roberts, Anne Lethaby, Jasmine Lee
BACKGROUND: Hormone therapy (HT) is widely provided for control of menopausal symptoms and has been used for the management and prevention of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and dementia in older women. This is an updated version of a Cochrane review first published in 2005. OBJECTIVES: To assess effects of long-term HT (at least 1 year's duration) on mortality, cardiovascular outcomes, cancer, gallbladder disease, fracture and cognition in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women during and after cessation of treatment...
January 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090351/the-prevalence-and-practice-impact-of-weight-bias-amongst-australian-dietitians
#5
T M Diversi, R Hughes, K J Burke
OBJECTIVES: This study explored weight bias amongst Australian Accredited Practising Dietitians (APDs) and the effect of client weight status on dietetic practice. METHODS: Participants were 201 APDs, recruited using purposive sampling. A self-administered questionnaire, the fat phobia scale (FPS), was completed to assess explicit weight bias. Participants were then randomized to receive either a female within the healthy weight range or female with obesity, accompanied by an identical case study for a condition unrelated to weight...
December 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090339/a-mixed-methods-approach-to-improving-recruitment-and-engagement-of-emerging-adults-in-behavioural-weight-loss-programs
#6
J G LaRose, K M Guthrie, A Lanoye, D F Tate, E Robichaud, L J Caccavale, R R Wing
OBJECTIVE: Emerging adults ages 18-25 are at high risk for obesity, but are markedly underrepresented in behavioural weight loss (BWL) programs and experience lower engagement and retention relative to older adults. PURPOSE: To utilize a mixed methods approach to inform future efforts to effectively recruit and engage this high-risk population in BWL programs. METHODS: We used a convergent parallel design in which quantitative and qualitative data were given equal priority...
December 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087553/prevalence-of-obesity-and-overweight-in-african-learners-a-protocol-for-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Theodosia Adom, Thandi Puoane, Anniza De Villiers, André Pascal Kengne
INTRODUCTION: Obesity and overweight are an emerging problem in Africa. Obese children are at increased risk of developing hypertension, high cholesterol, orthopaedic problems and type 2 diabetes as well as increased risk of adult obesity. Prevention of childhood overweight and obesity therefore needs high priority. The review approach is particularly useful in establishing whether research findings are consistent and can be generalised across populations and settings. This systematic review aims to assess the magnitude and distribution of overweight and obesity among primary school learners within populations in Africa...
January 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078784/rumination-in-patients-with-binge-eating-disorder-and-obesity-associations-with-eating-disorder-psychopathology-and-weight-bias-internalization
#8
Shirley B Wang, Janet A Lydecker, Carlos M Grilo
Overvaluation of shape and weight in binge-eating disorder (BED) is associated with greater eating-disorder psychopathology and greater weight-bias internalization, which are-in turn-associated with poorer mental and physical health. Little is known, however, about the significance of other cognitive processes, such as rumination, in BED. This study examined rumination and overvaluation of shape/weight with eating-disorder psychopathology and weight-bias internalization among 237 treatment-seeking patients with BED and comorbid obesity...
January 12, 2017: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073780/chronic-kidney-disease-and-obesity-bias-surrogate-estimates-of-insulin-sensitivity-compared-to-the-hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic-clamp
#9
Iram Ahmad, Leila R Zelnick, Nicole R Robinson, Adriana M Hung, Bryan Kestenbaum, Kristina M Utzschneider, Steven E Kahn, Ian H de Boer
INTRODUCTION: Insulin sensitivity can be measured by procedures such as the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp or using surrogate indices. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and obesity may differentially affect these measurements because of changes in insulin kinetics and organ-specific effects on insulin sensitivity. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study of 59 subjects with non-diabetic CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) and 39 matched healthy controls, we quantified insulin sensitivity by clamp (SIclamp), oral glucose tolerance test, and fasting glucose and insulin...
January 10, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072931/apnoeic-oxygenation-during-intubation-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
L D White, T M Melhuish, L K White, L A Wallace
Apnoeic oxygenation during intubation is used to prevent desaturation during intubation. The aim of this review was to assess whether apnoeic oxygenation during endotracheal intubation reduced the incidence of hypoxaemia. Five major databases were systematically searched for all relevant studies published up to May 2016. All study designs with a control group and a group receiving apnoeic oxygenation were included in this review. These studies were then assessed for level of evidence and risk of bias. The data were then analysed using a meta-analysis...
January 2017: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069728/the-obesity-paradox-in-survival-after-cancer-diagnosis-tools-for-evaluation-of-potential-bias
#11
EDITORIAL
Elizabeth Rose Mayeda, M Maria Glymour
The effects of overweight or obesity on survival after cancer diagnosis are difficult to discern based on observational data because these associations reflect the net impact of both causal and spurious phenomena. We describe two sources of bias that might lead to underestimation of the effect of increased body weight on survival after cancer diagnosis: collider stratification bias and heterogeneity in disease bias. Given the mixed evidence on weight status, weight change, and postdiagnosis survival for cancer patients, systematic evaluation of alternative explanations is critical...
January 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067890/validity-of-visceral-adiposity-estimates-from-dxa-against-mri-in-kuwaiti-men-and-women
#12
A Mohammad, E De Lucia Rolfe, A Sleigh, T Kivisild, K Behbehani, N J Wareham, S Brage, T Mohammad
OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of obesity and diabetes in the Middle East is among the highest in the world. Valid measures of abdominal adiposity are essential to understanding the metabolic consequences of obesity. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is increasingly being utilised to assess body composition in population studies, and has recently been used to estimate visceral adipose tissue (VAT). The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of DXA-derived VAT in a Middle Eastern population using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the criterion measure...
January 9, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060948/weight-loss-and-mortality-in-overweight-and-obese-cancer-survivors-a-systematic-review
#13
Sarah E Jackson, Malgorzata Heinrich, Rebecca J Beeken, Jane Wardle
BACKGROUND: Excess adiposity is a risk factor for poorer cancer survival, but there is uncertainty over whether losing weight reduces the risk. We conducted a critical review of the literature examining weight loss and mortality in overweight or obese cancer survivors. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed and EMBASE for articles reporting associations between weight loss and mortality (cancer-specific or all-cause) in overweight/obese patients with obesity-related cancers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059509/pyrimidinyl-biphenylureas-identification-of-new-lead-compounds-as-allosteric-modulators-of-the-cannabinoid-receptor-cb1
#14
Leepakshi Khurana, Bo-Qiao Fu, Anantha L Duddupudi, Yu-Hsien Liao, Sri Sujana Immadi, Debra A Kendall, Dai Lu
The allosteric modulator 1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(3-(6-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)pyridin-2-yl)phenyl)urea (PSNCBAM-1, 2) bound the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and antagonized G protein coupling. This compound demonstrated potent anorectic effects similar to the CB1 antagonist rimonabant that once was marketed for the treatment of obesity, suggesting a new chemical entity for the discovery of antiobesity drugs. To increase structural diversity of this class of CB1 ligands, we designed and synthesized two classes of novel analogues, in which the pyridine ring of 2 was replaced by a pyrimidine ring...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056581/is-the-robson-s-classification-system-burdened-by-obstetric-pathologies-and-maternal-characteristics-and-assistential-levels-in-comparing-hospitals-cesarean-rates-a-regional-analysis-of-class-1-and-3
#15
Sandro Gerli, Alessandro Favilli, David Franchini, Marcello De Giorgi, Paola Casucci, Fabio Parazzini
OBJECTIVE: to assess if maternal risk profile and Hospital assistential levels were able to influence the inter-Hospitals comparison in the class 1 and 3 of the "The Ten Group Classification System" (TGCS). METHODS: a population-based analysis using data from Isititutional data-base of an Italian Region was carried out. The 11 maternity wards were divided into two categories: second-level hospitals (SLH), and first-level hospitals (FLH). The recorded deliveries were classified according to the TGCS...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052689/nurses-weight-bias-in-caring-for-obese-patients
#16
Anne Tanneberger, Cristina Ciupitu-Plath
Given the pervasive stigma faced by obese individuals in family, work, and health care settings, the present study aimed to explore whether nurses' weight controllability beliefs influence their perception of how care is provided to obese patients. To this end, 73 nurses from an acute care hospital completed the Weight Control/Blame Subscale of the Antifat Attitudes Test and reported on their perception of discrimination in, and available resources for, the provision of care to obese patients. Nurses endorsing stronger beliefs that weight lies under individual control were more likely to report discrimination of obese patients in clinical practice...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051979/barriers-and-health-beliefs-related-to-weight-management-among-veterans-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#17
Shannon Munro, Emily Dinatale, Sarah Hartley, Monica St Jacques, Kris Ann Oursler
INTRODUCTION: The success of antiretroviral therapy has led to dramatic changes in causes of morbidity and mortality among U.S. Veterans with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Among the 25,000 Veterans treated for HIV, 70% are over age 50 and the rate of obesity has doubled in this population. Veterans with HIV have a 50% increased risk of myocardial infarction yet have limited presence in prevention-related programs designed to lower cardiovascular disease risk. METHODS: This mixed methods study (focus groups, Schwarzer and Renner physical activity, and nutrition self-efficacy questionnaires) was used to explore factors related to health behavior and identify barriers that overweight Veterans with HIV face in enrolling in the MOVE weight management program...
January 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050919/resistance-training-effects-on-metabolic-function-among-youth-a-systematic-review
#18
Jennifer W Bea, Robert M Blew, Carol Howe, Megan Hetherington-Rauth, Scott B Going
PURPOSE: This systematic review evaluates the relationship between resistance training and metabolic function in youth. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CINAHL, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched for articles that: (1) studied children; (2) included resistance training; (3) were randomized interventions; and (4) reported markers of metabolic function. The selected studies were analyzed using the Cochrane Risk-of-Bias Tool. RESULTS: Thirteen articles met inclusion criteria...
January 4, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049749/obesity-and-the-built-environment-at-different-urban-scales-examining-the-literature
#19
Andrea Garfinkel-Castro, Keuntae Kim, Shima Hamidi, Reid Ewing
The majority of people now live in an urban (or suburban) environment. The built (material) environment, its vehicular and pedestrian infrastructure, buildings, and public realm places, are the places used for working, living, and recreating. The environment currently favors and facilitates motorized vehicles generally, and private automobiles especially. The prioritization given to vehicles reduces opportunities for other, more active modes of travel such as walking and bicycling. Though the built environment cannot be said to directly affect human obesity, the built environment clearly has a relationship to obesity as a consequence of physical activity...
January 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046205/dietary-advice-interventions-in-pregnancy-for-preventing-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#20
REVIEW
Joanna Tieu, Emily Shepherd, Philippa Middleton, Caroline A Crowther
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a form of diabetes occurring during pregnancy which can result in short- and long-term adverse outcomes for women and babies. With an increasing prevalence worldwide, there is a need to assess strategies, including dietary advice interventions, that might prevent GDM. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of dietary advice interventions for preventing GDM and associated adverse health outcomes for women and their babies...
January 3, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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