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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350890/quantification-of-motor-network-dynamics-in-parkinson-s-disease-by-means-of-landscape-and-flux-theory
#1
Han Yan, Jin Wang
The basal ganglia neural circuit plays an important role in motor control. Despite the significant efforts, the understanding of the principles and underlying mechanisms of this modulatory circuit and the emergence of abnormal synchronized oscillations in movement disorders is still challenging. Dopamine loss has been proved to be responsible for Parkinson's disease. We quantitatively described the dynamics of the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuit in Parkinson's disease in terms of the emergence of both abnormal firing rates and firing patterns in the circuit...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350462/automated-design-framework-for-synthetic-biology-exploiting-pareto-optimality
#2
Irene Otero-Muras, Julio R Banga
In this work we consider Pareto optimality for automated design in synthetic biology. We present a generalized framework based on a mixed-integer dynamic optimization formulation that, given design specifications, allows the computation of Pareto optimal sets of designs, i.e. the set of best trade-offs for the metrics of interest. We show how this framework can be used for (i) forward design, i.e., fnding the Pareto optimal set of synthetic designs for implementation, and (ii) reverse design i.e. analyzing and inferring motifs and/or design principles of gene regulatory networks from the Pareto set of optimal circuits...
March 28, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346899/multi-scale-approach-to-euro-atlantic-climatic-cycles-based-on-phenological-time-series-air-temperatures-and-circulation-indexes
#3
Luigi Mariani, Franco Zavatti
The spectral periods in North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) were analyzed and has been verified how they imprint a time series of European temperature anomalies (ETA), two European temperature time series and some phenological series (dates of cherry flowering and grapevine harvest). Such work had as reference scenario the linear causal chain MCTP (Macroscale Circulation→Temperature→Phenology of crops) that links oceanic and atmospheric circulation to surface air temperature which in its turn determines the earliness of appearance of phenological phases of plants...
March 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346344/increased-force-variability-is-associated-with-altered-modulation-of-the-motorneuron-pool-activity-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd
#4
Zheng Wang, Minhyuk Kwon, Suman Mohanty, Lauren M Schmitt, Stormi P White, Evangelos A Christou, Matthew W Mosconi
Force control deficits have been repeatedly documented in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). They are associated with worse social and daily living skill impairments in patients suggesting that developing a more mechanistic understanding of the central and peripheral processes that cause them may help guide the development of treatments that improve multiple outcomes in ASD. The neuromuscular mechanisms underlying force control deficits are not yet understood. Seventeen individuals with ASD and 14 matched healthy controls completed an isometric index finger abduction test at 60% of their maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) during recording of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle to determine the neuromuscular processes associated with sustained force variability...
March 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346078/molecular-dynamics-simulation-of-three-plastic-additives-diffusion-in-polyethylene-terephthalate
#5
Bo Li, Zhi-Wei Wang, Qin-Bao Lin, Chang-Ying Hu
Accurate diffusion coefficient data of additives in polymer is of paramount importance for estimating the migration of the additives over time. In this article it is shown how this diffusion coefficient can be estimated for three plastic additives [2-(2'-hydroxy-5'-methylphenyl) (UV-P), 2, 6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)] in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) using the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation method. MD simulations were performed at temperatures of 293-433 K...
March 27, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346013/the-physiology-of-blood-loss-and-shock-new-insights-from-a-human-laboratory-model-of-hemorrhage
#6
Alicia M Schiller, Jeffrey T Howard, Victor A Convertino
The ability to quickly diagnose hemorrhagic shock is critical for favorable patient outcomes. Therefore, it is important to understand the time course and involvement of the various physiological mechanisms that are active during volume loss and that have the ability to stave off hemodynamic collapse. This review provides new insights about the physiology that underlies blood loss and shock in humans through the development of a simulated model of hemorrhage using lower body negative pressure. In this review, we present controlled experimental results through utilization of the lower body negative pressure human hemorrhage model that provide novel insights on the integration of physiological mechanisms critical to the compensation for volume loss...
April 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345665/oscillating-electric-field-measures-the-rotation-rate-in-a-native-rotary-enzyme
#7
Csilla-Maria Ferencz, Pál Petrovszki, András Dér, Krisztina Sebők-Nagy, Zoltán Kóta, Tibor Páli
Rotary enzymes are complex, highly challenging biomolecular machines whose biochemical working mechanism involves intersubunit rotation. The true intrinsic rate of rotation of any rotary enzyme is not known in a native, unmodified state. Here we use the effect of an oscillating electric (AC) field on the biochemical activity of a rotary enzyme, the vacuolar proton-ATPase (V-ATPase), to directly measure its mean rate of rotation in its native membrane environment, without any genetic, chemical or mechanical modification of the enzyme, for the first time...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345272/population-health-and-the-economy-mortality-and-the-great-recession-in-europe
#8
José A Tapia Granados, Edward L Ionides
We analyze the evolution of mortality-based health indicators in 27 European countries before and after the start of the Great Recession. We find that in the countries where the crisis has been particularly severe, mortality reductions in 2007-2010 were considerably bigger than in 2004-2007. Panel models adjusted for space-invariant and time-invariant factors show that an increase of 1 percentage point in the national unemployment rate is associated with a reduction of 0.5% (p < .001) in the rate of age-adjusted mortality...
March 27, 2017: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344550/hyperpolarization-activated-current-induces-period-doubling-cascades-and-chaos-in-a-cold-thermoreceptor-model
#9
Kesheng Xu, Jean P Maidana, Mauricio Caviedes, Daniel Quero, Pablo Aguirre, Patricio Orio
In this article, we describe and analyze the chaotic behavior of a conductance-based neuronal bursting model. This is a model with a reduced number of variables, yet it retains biophysical plausibility. Inspired by the activity of cold thermoreceptors, the model contains a persistent Sodium current, a Calcium-activated Potassium current and a hyperpolarization-activated current (Ih) that drive a slow subthreshold oscillation. Driven by this oscillation, a fast subsystem (fast Sodium and Potassium currents) fires action potentials in a periodic fashion...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344052/keeping-fat-on-time-circadian-control-of-adipose-tissue
#10
REVIEW
Stine Ninel Hansen, Julia Peics, Zachary Gerhart-Hines
Circadian clocks harmonize processes ranging from intracellular biochemistry to whole-body physiology in accordance with the Earth's 24 hour rotation. These intrinsic oscillators are based on an interlocked transcriptional-translational feedback loop comprised from a set of core clock factors. In addition to maintaining rhythmicity in nearly every cell of the body, these clock factors also mediate tissue specific metabolic functions. In this review, we will explore how the molecular clock shapes the unique features of different adipose depots...
March 23, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343866/selective-entrainment-of-theta-oscillations-in-the-dorsal-stream-causally-enhances-auditory-working-memory-performance
#11
Philippe Albouy, Aurélien Weiss, Sylvain Baillet, Robert J Zatorre
The implication of the dorsal stream in manipulating auditory information in working memory has been recently established. However, the oscillatory dynamics within this network and its causal relationship with behavior remain undefined. Using simultaneous MEG/EEG, we show that theta oscillations in the dorsal stream predict participants' manipulation abilities during memory retention in a task requiring the comparison of two patterns differing in temporal order. We investigated the causal relationship between brain oscillations and behavior by applying theta-rhythmic TMS combined with EEG over the MEG-identified target (left intraparietal sulcus) during the silent interval between the two stimuli...
March 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342747/subthalamic-nucleus-beta-and-gamma-activity-is-modulated-depending-on-the-level-of-imagined-grip-force
#12
Petra Fischer, Alek Pogosyan, Binith Cheeran, Alexander L Green, Tipu Z Aziz, Jonathan Hyam, Simon Little, Thomas Foltynie, Patricia Limousin, Ludvic Zrinzo, Marwan Hariz, Michael Samuel, Keyoumars Ashkan, Peter Brown, Huiling Tan
Motor imagery involves cortical networks similar to those activated by real movements, but the extent to which the basal ganglia are recruited is not yet clear. Gamma and beta oscillations in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) vary with the effort of sustained muscle activity. We recorded local field potentials in Parkinson's disease patients and investigated if similar changes can be observed during imagined gripping at three different 'forces'. We found that beta activity decreased significantly only for imagined grips at the two stronger force levels...
March 22, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341920/rhythmic-modulation-of-entrained-auditory-oscillations-by-visual-inputs
#13
David M Simon, Mark T Wallace
Temporal structure is ubiquitous in sensory signals, and the brain has been shown to robustly represent information about temporal structure in the phase of low frequency neural oscillations. In a related construct, the integration of information across the different senses has been proposed to be at least partly due to the phase resetting of these low frequency oscillations. As a consequence, oscillations represent a potential contributor to the encoding of complex multisensory signals with informative temporal structures...
March 24, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341856/autoassociative-memory-and-pattern-recognition-in-micromechanical-oscillator-network
#14
Ankit Kumar, Pritiraj Mohanty
Towards practical realization of brain-inspired computing in a scalable physical system, we investigate a network of coupled micromechanical oscillators. We numerically simulate this array of all-to-all coupled nonlinear oscillators in the presence of stochasticity and demonstrate its ability to synchronize and store information in the relative phase differences at synchronization. Sensitivity of behavior to coupling strength, frequency distribution, nonlinearity strength, and noise amplitude is investigated...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341565/single-pulse-electrical-stimulation-and-high-frequency-oscillations-a-complicated-marriage
#15
EDITORIAL
Antonio Valentín, Gonzalo Alarcón
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341132/stochastic-modeling-and-numerical-simulation-of-gene-regulatory-networks-with-protein-bursting
#16
Manuel Pájaro, Antonio A Alonso, Irene Otero-Muras, C Vázquez
Gene expression is inherently stochastic. Advanced single-cell microscopy techniques together with mathematical models for single gene expression led to important insights in elucidating the sources of intrinsic noise in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. In addition to the finite size effects due to low copy numbers, translational bursting is a dominant source of stochasticity in cell scenarios involving few short lived mRNA transcripts with high translational efficiency (as is typically the case for prokaryotes), causing protein synthesis to occur in random bursts...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341096/anoxic-oscillating-mbr-for-photosynthetic-bacteria-harvesting-and-high-salinity-wastewater-treatment
#17
Lei Qin, Qiuhua Liu, Qin Meng, Zheng Fan, Jinzhe He, Tao Liu, Chong Shen, Guoliang Zhang
In this study, photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) were first harvested by MBR with pendulum type oscillation (PTO) hollow fiber module in succession and on a large scale. Based on unique properties of PSB, PSB/MBR was successfully applied for high-salinity wastewater treatment. Compared with control PSB-MBR (CMBR), PSB/PTO-MBR exhibited more excellent organics removal, which was mainly attributed to much higher biomass production for utilization. Meanwhile, the influence of light irradiation and aeration on activity of PSB was investigated in detail...
January 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340582/optimisation-of-an-exemplar-oculomotor-model-using-multi-objective-genetic-algorithms-executed-on-a-gpu-cpu-combination
#18
Eleftherios Avramidis, Ozgur E Akman
BACKGROUND: Parameter optimisation is a critical step in the construction of computational biology models. In eye movement research, computational models are increasingly important to understanding the mechanistic basis of normal and abnormal behaviour. In this study, we considered an existing neurobiological model of fast eye movements (saccades), capable of generating realistic simulations of: (i) normal horizontal saccades; and (ii) infantile nystagmus - pathological ocular oscillations that can be subdivided into different waveform classes...
March 24, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340443/quantitative-eeg-abnormalities-in-major-depressive-disorder-with-basal-ganglia-stroke-with-lesions-in-different-hemispheres
#19
Chunfang Wang, Yuanyuan Chen, Ying Zhang, Jin Chen, Xiaojing Ding, Dong Ming, Jingang Du
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine the aberrant EEG oscillation in major depressive subjects with basal ganglia stroke with lesions in different hemispheres. METHODS: Resting EEG of 16 electrodes in 58 stroke subjects, 26 of whom had poststroke depression (13 with left-hemisphere lesion and 13 with right) and 32 of whom did not (18 with left lesion and 14 with right), was recorded to obtain spectral power analysis for several frequency bands. Multiple analysis of variance and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to identify differences between poststroke depression (PSD) and poststroke non-depression (PSND), treating the different lesion hemispheres separately...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339615/viable-offspring-after-imaging-of-ca2-oscillations-and-visualization-of-the-cortical-reaction-in-mouse-eggs%C3%A2
#20
Yuhkoh Satouh, Kaori Nozawa, Kazuo Yamagata, Takao Fujimoto, Masahito Ikawa
During mammalian fertilization, egg Ca 2+ oscillations are known to play pivotal roles in triggering downstream events such as resumption of the cell cycle and the establishment of blocks to polyspermy. However, viable offspring have not been obtained after monitoring Ca 2+ oscillations, and their spatiotemporal links to subsequent events are still to be examined. Therefore, the development of imaging methods to avoid phototoxic damage while labeling these events is required. Here, we examined the usefulness of genetically encoded Ca 2+ indicators for optical imaging (GECOs), in combination with spinning-disk confocal imaging...
February 3, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
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