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Ranjay Chakraborty, Lisa A Ostrin, Debora L Nickla, P Michael Iuvone, Machelle T Pardue, Richard A Stone
PURPOSE: Despite extensive research, mechanisms regulating postnatal eye growth and those responsible for ametropias are poorly understood. With the marked recent increases in myopia prevalence, robust and biologically-based clinical therapies to normalize refractive development in childhood are needed. Here, we review classic and contemporary literature about how circadian biology might provide clues to develop a framework to improve the understanding of myopia etiology, and possibly lead to rational approaches to ameliorate refractive errors developing in children...
May 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
Andrew Armour
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Nature
Samyak Tamrakar, Michael Conrath, Stefan Kettemann
The energy transition towards high shares of renewable energy will affect the stability of electricity grids in many ways. Here, we aim to study its impact on propagation of disturbances by solving nonlinear swing equations describing coupled rotating masses of synchronous generators and motors on different grid topologies. We consider a tree, a square grid and as a real grid topology, the german transmission grid. We identify ranges of parameters with different transient dynamics: the disturbance decays exponentially in time, superimposed by oscillations with the fast decay rate of a single node, or with a smaller decay rate without oscillations...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
A Mendoza-Galván, L Fernández Del Río, K Järrendahl, H Arwin
The cuticle of the beetle Chrysina chrysargyrea reflects left-handed polarized light in the broad spectral range from 340 to 1000 nm. Interference oscillations in the experimental Mueller-matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry data reveal that transparent materials comprise the cuticle. A spectral analysis of the interference oscillations makes evident that the pitch profile across the cuticle is graded. The graded pitch and effective refractive indices are determined through non-linear regression analysis of the experimental Mueller matrix by using a cuticle model based on twisted biaxial dielectric slices...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Adriano B L Tort, Simon Ponsel, Jakob Jessberger, Yevgenij Yanovsky, Jurij Brankačk, Andreas Draguhn
Slow brain oscillations are usually coherent over long distances and thought to link distributed cell assemblies. In mice, theta (5-10 Hz) stands as one of the most studied slow rhythms. However, mice often breathe at theta frequency, and we recently reported that nasal respiration leads to local field potential (LFP) oscillations that are independent of theta. Namely, we showed respiration-coupled oscillations in the hippocampus, prelimbic cortex, and parietal cortex, suggesting that respiration could impose a global brain rhythm...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rochelle L Coulson, Dag H Yasui, Keith W Dunaway, Benjamin I Laufer, Annie Vogel Ciernia, Yihui Zhu, Charles E Mordaunt, Theresa S Totah, Janine M LaSalle
Rhythmic oscillations of physiological processes depend on integrating the circadian clock and diurnal environment. DNA methylation is epigenetically responsive to daily rhythms, as a subset of CpG dinucleotides in brain exhibit diurnal rhythmic methylation. Here, we show a major genetic effect on rhythmic methylation in a mouse Snord116 deletion model of the imprinted disorder Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). More than 23,000 diurnally rhythmic CpGs are identified in wild-type cortex, with nearly all lost or phase-shifted in PWS...
April 24, 2018: Nature Communications
Minjung Kang, Heung Nam Han, Cheolhee Kim
Oscillating laser beam welding for Al 6014 alloy was performed using a single mode fiber laser and two-axis scanner system. Its effect on the microstructural evolution of the fusion zone was investigated. To evaluate the influence of oscillation parameters, self-restraint test specimens were fabricated with different beam patterns, widths, and frequencies. The behavior of hot cracking propagation was analyzed by high-speed camera and electron backscatter diffraction. The behavior of crack propagation was observed to be highly correlated with the microstructural evolution of the fusion zone...
April 23, 2018: Materials
Abigail Dickinson, Charlotte DiStefano, Yin-Ying Lin, Aaron Wolfe Scheffler, Damla Senturk, Shafali Spurling Jeste
Diverse genetic and environmental etiologies converge onto circuit level brain dysfunction in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), manifesting at a macroscopic level as aberrant neural connectivity. Previous studies have described atypical patterns of decreased short range and increased long range connectivity in ASD [1]. However, it remains unclear whether group level features of circuit dysfunction are consistently present across the range of cognitive function seen in the autism spectrum. The dynamics of neural oscillations in the alpha range (6-12 Hz) are exquisitely sensitive to healthy development of functional and structural connectivity...
April 21, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Eri Miyauchi, Masahiro Kawasaki
Boredom is a universal experience; however, the neural mechanisms underlying the phenomenon remain unclear. Previous research suggests that boredom is related to attentional failure and derives a possible explanation for the cognitive processes of boredom as a product of appraisals made about task-unrelated thoughts. There are little published data regarding proposed processes from neuroscientific perspectives. Therefore, the authors aimed to examine whether cognitive processes of boredom with task-unrelated thoughts followed by appraisals of them can be explained by examining oscillatory correlates...
April 21, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Atsushi Ueda, Scott Woods, Ian McElree, Tristan C D G O'Harrow, Casey Inman, Savantha Thenuwara, Muhammad Aftab, Atulya Iyengar
Over an animal's lifespan, neuronal circuits and systems often decline in an inherently heterogeneous fashion. To compare the age-dependent progression of changes in visual behavior with alterations in retinal physiology, we examined phototaxis and electroretinograms (ERGs) in a wild-type D. melanogaster strain (Canton-S) across their lifespan. In aged flies (beyond 50% median lifespan), we found a marked decline in phototaxis, while motor coordination was less disrupted, as indicated by relatively stronger negative geotaxis...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Neurogenetics
Eduardo G G Farias, Paulo R Preichardt, David V Dantas
Worldwide, the marine debris emissions have been provoking impacts in ecosystems, generating massive mortality of different species with commercial interest. In South America, we have a lack of studies to verify the marine debris composition in transitional environments such as adjacent regions of coastal jetties. These are hydraulic engineering constructions used to maintain the navigation channel access between the sea-estuarine interface and are also used by teleost fishes, crustaceans, and mollusks like artificial shelters (reefs), being excellent fishing grounds...
April 23, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Nan Lyu, Maria R Servedio, Yue-Hua Sun
Mounting evidence has indicated that engaging in extrapair copulations (EPCs) might be maladaptive or detrimental to females. It is unclear why such nonadaptive female behavior evolves. In this study, we test two hypotheses about the evolution of female EPC behavior using population genetic models. First, we find that both male preference for allocating extra effort to seek EPCs and female pursuit behavior without costs can be maintained and remain polymorphic in a population via frequency-dependent selection...
April 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Kathrin Fricke, Marcela Vieira, Haris Younas, Mi-Kyung Shin, Shannon Bevans-Fonti, Slava Berger, Rachel Lee, Franco R D'Alessio, Qiong Zhong, Andrew Nelson, Jeff Loube, Ian Sanchez, Nadia N Hansel, Wayne Mitzner, Vsevolod Y Polotsky
The experiment was conducted to examine the effect of a high fat diet (HFD) on airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in mice. Twenty-three adult male C57BL/6 J mice were fed with HFD or regular chow diet for two weeks. The total respiratory resistance was measured by forced oscillation technique at baseline and after methacholine aerosol challenge at 1, 3, 10 and 30 mg/mL. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed. Lipid levels and lipid peroxidation in lung tissue were measured along with gene expression of multiple cytokines...
April 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
G Peramaiyan, Raman Sankar, I Panneer Muthuselvam, Wei-Li Lee
We report the extremely large magnetoresistance and anisotropic magnetoresistance in a non-magnetic semimetallic NbAs2 single crystal. Unsaturated transverse XMR with quadratic field dependence has been observed to be ~3 × 105 % at 2 K and 15 T. Up to 12.5 K, clear Shubnikov de Haas (SdH) quantum oscillations were observed from which two distinct Fermi pockets were identified. The corresponding quantum electronic parameters such as effective cyclotron mass and Dingle temperature were obtained using Lifshitz-Kosevich formula...
April 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Daofu Yuan, Shengrui Yu, Wentao Chen, Jiwei Sang, Chang Luo, Tao Wang, Xin Xu, Piergiorgio Casavecchia, Xingan Wang, Zhigang Sun, Dong H Zhang, Xueming Yang
Accurate measurements of product state-resolved angular distributions are central to fundamental studies of chemical reaction dynamics. Yet, fine quantum-mechanical structures in product angular distributions of a reactive scattering process, such as the fast oscillations in the forward-scattering direction, have never been observed experimentally and the nature of these oscillations has not been fully explored. Here we report the crossed-molecular-beam experimental observation of these fast forward-scattering oscillations in the product angular distribution of the benchmark chemical reaction, H + HD → H2  + D...
April 23, 2018: Nature Chemistry
Mati Kahru, Ragnar Elmgren, Emanuele Di Lorenzo, Oleg Savchuk
Population oscillations in multi-species or even single species systems are well-known but have rarely been detected at the lower trophic levels in marine systems. Nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria are a major component of the Baltic Sea ecosystem and sometimes form huge surface accumulations covering most of the sea surface. By analysing a satellite-derived 39-year (1979-2017) data archive of surface cyanobacteria concentrations we have found evidence of strikingly regular interannual oscillations in cyanobacteria concentrations in the northern Baltic Sea...
April 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Penghui Yin, Yi Tan, Hanbing Fang, Manu Hegde, Pavle V Radovanovic
Spintronics 1 and valleytronics 2 are emerging quantum electronic technologies that rely on using electron spin and multiple extrema of the band structure (valleys), respectively, as additional degrees of freedom. There are also collective properties of electrons in semiconductor nanostructures that potentially could be exploited in multifunctional quantum devices. Specifically, plasmonic semiconductor nanocrystals3-10 offer an opportunity for interface-free coupling between a plasmon and an exciton. However, plasmon-exciton coupling in single-phase semiconductor nanocrystals remains challenging because confined plasmon oscillations are generally not resonant with excitonic transitions...
April 23, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
Tianqi Xu, Jing Huo, Shuai Shao, Michelle Po, Taizo Kawano, Yangning Lu, Min Wu, Mei Zhen, Quan Wen
Descending signals from the brain play critical roles in controlling and modulating locomotion kinematics. In the Caenorhabditis elegans nervous system, descending AVB premotor interneurons exclusively form gap junctions with the B-type motor neurons that execute forward locomotion. We combined genetic analysis, optogenetic manipulation, calcium imaging, and computational modeling to elucidate the function of AVB-B gap junctions during forward locomotion. First, we found that some B-type motor neurons generate rhythmic activity, constituting distributed oscillators...
April 23, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
B W Kooi, J C Poggiale
Two predator-prey model formulations are studied: for the classical Rosenzweig-MacArthur (RM) model and the Mass Balance (MB) chemostat model. When the growth and loss rate of the predator is much smaller than that of the prey these models are slow-fast systems leading mathematically to singular perturbation problem. In contradiction to the RM-model, the resource for the prey are modelled explicitly in the MB-model but this comes with additional parameters. These parameter values are chosen such that the two models become easy to compare...
April 20, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
Xianchong Miao, Guowei Zhang, Fanjie Wang, Hugen Yan, Minbiao Ji
Black phosphorus is a layered semiconducting material, demonstrating strong layer-dependent optical and electronic properties. Probing the photophysical properties on ultrafast timescales is of central importance in understanding many-body interactions and non-equilibrium quasiparticle dynamics. Here, we applied temporally, spectrally and spatially resolved pump-probe microscopy to study the transient optical responses of mechanically exfoliated few-layer black phosphorous, with layer number ranging from 2 to 9...
April 23, 2018: Nano Letters
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