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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664886/history-of-the-development-of-anesthesia-for-the-dolphin-a-quest-to-study-a-brain-as-large-as-man-s
#1
James G McCormick, Sam H Ridgway
It is important for academic-minded human anesthesiologists to have an interdisciplinary perspective when engaging in cutting-edge research as well as the practice of human anesthesiology. This was a philosophy promoted by Dr. Robert Dripps, former pioneering Chairman of the Anesthesiology Department at the University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania). Many human and veterinary anesthesiologists as well as biomedical engineers and neuroscientists benefited from Dr. Dripps's constructive outlook personified in the quest to develop dolphin anesthesiology...
April 17, 2018: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664347/which-melodic-universals-emerge-from-repeated-signaling-games-a-note-on-lumaca-and-baggio-2017-%C3%A2
#2
Andrea Ravignani, Tessa Verhoef
Music is a peculiar human behavior. While very common in our species, we still know very little as to why and how music emerged. For centuries, the study of music has been the sole prerogative of the humanities. Lately, however, music is being increasingly investigated by psychologists, neuroscientists, biologists, and computer scientists. One possible approach to study the origins of music is to hypothesize and empirically test the mechanisms behind this structured behavior. Recent experiments in the lab have shown how musical rhythm and melody can emerge via the process of cultural transmission...
April 17, 2018: Artificial Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659058/polyethylene-glycol-solutions-rapidly-restore-and-maintain-axonal-continuity-neuromuscular-structures-and-behaviors-lost-after-sciatic-nerve-transections-in-female-rats
#3
Michelle Mikesh, Cameron L Ghergherehchi, Robert Louis Hastings, Amir Ali, Sina Rahesh, Karthik Jagannath, Dale R Sengelaub, Richard C Trevino, David M Jackson, George D Bittner
Complete severance of major peripheral mixed sensory-motor nerve proximally in a mammalian limb produces immediate loss of action potential conduction and voluntary behaviors mediated by the severed distal axonal segments. These severed distal segments undergo Wallerian degeneration within days. Denervated muscles atrophy within weeks. Slowly regenerating (∼1 mm/day) outgrowths from surviving proximal stumps that often nonspecifically reinnervate denervated targets produce poor, if any, restoration of lost voluntary behaviors...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659046/polyethylene-glycol-treated-allografts-not-tissue-matched-nor-immunosuppressed-rapidly-repair-sciatic-nerve-gaps-maintain-neuromuscular-functions-and-restore-voluntary-behaviors-in-female-rats
#4
Michelle Mikesh, Cameron L Ghergherehchi, Sina Rahesh, Karthik Jagannath, Amir Ali, Dale R Sengelaub, Richard C Trevino, David M Jackson, Haley O Tucker, George D Bittner
Many publications report that ablations of segments of peripheral nerves produce the following unfortunate results: (1) Immediate loss of sensory signaling and motor control; (2) rapid Wallerian degeneration of severed distal axons within days; (3) muscle atrophy within weeks; (4) poor behavioral (functional) recovery after many months, if ever, by slowly-regenerating (∼1mm/d) axon outgrowths from surviving proximal nerve stumps; and (5) Nerve allografts to repair gap injuries are rejected, often even if tissue matched and immunosuppressed...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653378/possible-origins-of-consciousness-in-simple-control-over-involuntary-neuroimmunological-action
#5
REVIEW
Kevin B Clark
The origin(s) and purpose(s) of consciousness continue to be fervently debated by neuroscientists. A recent unconventional hypothesis put forth by Morsella et al. suggests the primary function of consciousness is the integration, selection, and execution of advantageous lower-level voluntary skeletal muscle behavior on surrounding external environments. However, at main issue is whether more precise, adaptable voluntary skeletal motor action, and therefore the corresponding workings of consciousness, first emerged and evolved in animals to exert control over external environments or internal ones regulated by less flexible autonomic function...
April 10, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628505/synaptic-and-circuit-development-of-the-primary-sensory-cortex
#6
REVIEW
Se-Young Choi
Animals, including humans, optimize their primary sensory cortex through the use of input signals, which allow them to adapt to the external environment and survive. The time window at the beginning of life in which external input signals are connected sensitively and strongly to neural circuit optimization is called the critical period. The critical period has attracted the attention of many neuroscientists due to the rapid activity-/experience-dependent circuit development that occurs, which is clearly differentiated from other developmental time periods and brain areas...
April 9, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625234/baby-brain-atlases
#7
REVIEW
Kenichi Oishi, Linda Chang, Hao Huang
The baby brain is constantly changing due to its active neurodevelopment, and research into the baby brain is one of the frontiers in neuroscience. To help guide neuroscientists and clinicians in their investigation of this frontier, maps of the baby brain, which contain a priori knowledge about neurodevelopment and anatomy, are essential. "Brain atlas" in this review refers to a 3D-brain image with a set of reference labels, such as a parcellation map, as the anatomical reference that guides the mapping of the brain...
April 3, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621615/statistical-power-comparisons-at-3t-and-7t-with-a-go-nogo-task
#8
Salvatore Torrisi, Gang Chen, Daniel Glen, Peter A Bandettini, Chris I Baker, Richard Reynolds, Jeffrey Yen-Ting Liu, Joseph Leshin, Nicholas Balderston, Christian Grillon, Monique Ernst
The field of cognitive neuroscience is weighing evidence about whether to move from standard field strength to ultra-high field (UHF). The present study contributes to the evidence by comparing a cognitive neuroscience paradigm at 3 T (3T) and 7 T (7T). The goal was to test and demonstrate the practical effects of field strength on a standard GO/NOGO task using accessible preprocessing and analysis tools. Two independent matched healthy samples (N = 31 each) were analyzed at 3T and 7T. Results show gains at 7T in statistical strength, the detection of smaller effects and group-level power...
April 2, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621483/neuroscience-past-and-future
#9
(no author information available yet)
Reflecting on when Neuron was launched and what the next 30 years may bring, neuroscientists share their excitement and visions for the future of the field.
April 4, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618974/the-automatic-proportionator-estimator-is-highly-efficient-for-estimation-of-total-number-of-sparse-cell-populations
#10
Rogely W Boyce, Hans J G Gundersen
Estimation of total number of a population of cells that are sparsely distributed in an organ or anatomically-defined region of interest represents a challenge for conventional stereological methods. In these situations, classic fractionator approaches that rely on systematic uniform random sampling are highly inefficient and, in many cases, impractical due to the intense sampling of the organ and tissue sections that is required to obtain sufficient counts for an acceptable level of precision. The proportionator, an estimator based on non-uniform sampling theory, marries automated image analysis with stereological principles and is the only estimator that provides a highly efficient and precise method to address these challenging quantification problems...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610102/bayesian-multiresolution-variable-selection-for-ultra-high-dimensional-neuroimaging-data
#11
Yize Zhao, Jian Kang, Qi Long
Ultra-high dimensional variable selection has become increasingly important in analysis of neuroimaging data. For example, in the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) study, neuroscientists are interested in identifying important biomarkers for early detection of the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using high resolution brain images that include hundreds of thousands voxels. However, most existing methods are not feasible for solving this problem due to their extensive computational costs. In this work, we propose a novel multiresolution variable selection procedure under a Bayesian probit regression framework...
March 2018: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606317/behavioral-disorders-the-blind-spot-of-neurology-and-psychiatry
#12
REVIEW
C Azuar, R Levy
Behavioral disorders occupy the crossroads between neurology and psychiatry, and emerging disorders, such as frontotemporal lobar degeneration of genetic origin and autoimmune encephalitis, can present with both neurological and psychiatric signs. Thus, the primary aim of this introductory article is to review frequently encountered behavioral clinical features, such as apathy and agitation, and their related syndromes, including frontal and anterior temporal syndromes. These behavioral states and their underlying etiologies are also here illustrated with clinical case reports...
March 29, 2018: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595683/mapping-the-human-brain-during-a-specific-vojta-s-tactile-input-the-ipsilateral-putamen-s-role
#13
Ismael Sanz-Esteban, Cesar Calvo-Lobo, Marcos Ríos-Lago, Juan Álvarez-Linera, Daniel Muñoz-García, David Rodríguez-Sanz
A century of research in human brain parcellation has demonstrated that different brain areas are associated with functional tasks. New neuroscientist perspectives to achieve the parcellation of the human brain have been developed to know the brain areas activation and its relationship with different stimuli. This descriptive study aimed to compare brain regions activation by specific tactile input (STI) stimuli according to the Vojta protocol (STI-group) to a non-STI stimulation (non-STI-group). An exploratory functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was performed...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590314/altruistic-decisions-following-penetrating-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Jorge Moll, Ricardo de Oliveira-Souza, Rodrigo Basilio, Ivanei Edson Bramati, Barry Gordon, Geraldine Rodríguez-Nieto, Roland Zahn, Frank Krueger, Jordan Grafman
The cerebral correlates of altruistic decisions have increasingly attracted the interest of neuroscientists. To date, investigations on the neural underpinnings of altruistic decisions have primarily been conducted in healthy adults undergoing functional neuroimaging as they engaged in decisions to punish third parties. The chief purpose of the present study was to investigate altruistic decisions following focal brain damage with a novel altruistic decision task. In contrast to studies that have focused either on altruistic punishment or donation, the Altruistic Decision Task allows players to anonymously punish or donate to 30 charitable organizations involved with salient societal issues such as abortion, nuclear energy and civil rights...
March 24, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556178/total-number-is-important-using-the-disector-method-in-design-based-stereology-to-understand-the-structure-of-the-rodent-brain
#15
REVIEW
Ruth M A Napper
The advantages of using design-based stereology in the collection of quantitative data, have been highlighted, in numerous publications, since the description of the disector method by Sterio (1984). This review article discusses the importance of total number derived with the disector method, as a key variable that must continue to be used to understand the rodent brain and that such data can be used to develop quantitative networks of the brain. The review article will highlight the huge impact total number has had on our understanding of the rodent brain and it will suggest that neuroscientists need to be aware of the increasing number of studies where density, not total number, is the quantitative measure used...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545740/three-research-strategies-of-neuroscience-and-the-future-of-legal-imaging-evidence
#16
Jinkwon Jun, Soyoung Yoo
Neuroscientific imaging evidence (NIE) has become an integral part of the criminal justice system in the United States. However, in most legal cases, NIE is submitted and used only to mitigate penalties because the court does not recognize it as substantial evidence, considering its lack of reliability. Nevertheless, we here discuss how neuroscience is expected to improve the use of NIE in the legal system. For this purpose, we classified the efforts of neuroscientists into three research strategies: cognitive subtraction, the data-driven approach, and the brain-manipulation approach...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542141/time-frequency-and-time-varying-granger-causality-measures-in-neuroscience
#17
Sezen Cekic, Didier Grandjean, Olivier Renaud
This article proposes a systematic methodological review and an objective criticism of existing methods enabling the derivation of time, frequency, and time-varying Granger-causality statistics in neuroscience. The capacity to describe the causal links between signals recorded at different brain locations during a neuroscience experiment is indeed of primary interest for neuroscientists, who often have very precise prior hypotheses about the relationships between recorded brain signals. The increasing interest and the huge number of publications related to this topic calls for this systematic review, which describes the very complex methodological aspects underlying the derivation of these statistics...
March 15, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535413/tailoring-light-delivery-for-optogenetics-by-modal-demultiplexing-in-tapered-optical-fibers
#18
Marco Pisanello, Filippo Pisano, Leonardo Sileo, Emanuela Maglie, Elisa Bellistri, Barbara Spagnolo, Gil Mandelbaum, Bernardo L Sabatini, Massimo De Vittorio, Ferruccio Pisanello
Optogenetic control of neural activity in deep brain regions ideally requires precise and flexible light delivery with non-invasive devices. To this end, Tapered Optical Fibers (TFs) represent a versatile tool that can deliver light over either large brain volumes or spatially confined sub-regions, while being sensibly smaller than flat-cleaved optical fibers. In this work, we report on the possibility of further extending light emission length along the taper in the range 0.4 mm-3.0 mm by increasing the numerical aperture of the TFs to NA = 0...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527187/emerging-viral-infections-in-sub-saharan-africa-and-the-developing-nervous-system-a-mini-review
#19
REVIEW
Angelina Kakooza-Mwesige, Abdul H Mohammed, Krister Kristensson, Sharon L Juliano, Julius J Lutwama
The global public health concern is heightened over the increasing number of emerging viruses, i.e., newly discovered or previously known that have expanded into new geographical zones. These viruses challenge the health-care systems in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries from which several of them have originated and been transmitted by insects worldwide. Some of these viruses are neuroinvasive, but have been relatively neglected by neuroscientists. They may provide experiments by nature to give a time window for exposure to a new virus within sizeable, previously non-infected human populations, which, for instance, enables studies on potential long-term or late-onset effects on the developing nervous system...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498174/the-mind-brain-gap-and-the-neuroscience-psychiatry-gap
#20
Diogo Telles-Correia
A problem underlying the mind brain gap is the complex integration among the disciplines involved in it: neurosciences, clinical psychiatry and psychology, and philosophy of science. Research in neurosciences and clinical psychiatry requires a positioning in relation to some conceptual/philosophical aspects. These are related to the models of interrelationship of the brain and the mind, to explanatory approaches in psychiatry, and to conceptual issues such as dimensionality versus categories, symptoms versus disorders, and neurobiological correlates versus clinical determination of mental disorder...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
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