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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550499/systematic-review-of-fmri-compatible-devices-design-and-testing-criteria
#1
REVIEW
V Hartwig, N Carbonaro, A Tognetti, N Vanello
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is at present one of the most used methodologies for functional brain exploration, both in clinical and research settings. fMRI can noninvasively measure neural activity by using specific experimental paradigms. Often, these paradigms require the stimulation of the subject to perform sensorimotor tasks: in the past, the stimuli have been administered manually for investigating fundamental aspects of tactile perception and somatosensory processing. Nowadays, the use of mechatronic devices to stimulate the subject during fMRI studies is growing, also to assure reproducibility, control, and monitoring of task performances...
May 26, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545629/moral-vindications
#2
Victor Kumar
Psychologists and neuroscientists have recently been unearthing the unconscious processes that give rise to moral intuitions and emotions. According to skeptics like Joshua Greene, what has been found casts doubt on many of our moral beliefs. However, a new approach in moral psychology develops a learning-theoretic framework that has been successfully applied in a number of other domains. This framework suggests that model-based learning shapes intuitions and emotions. Model-based learning explains how moral thought and feeling are attuned to local material and social conditions...
May 22, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544058/beyond-differences-in-means-robust-graphical-methods-to-compare-two-groups-in-neuroscience
#3
Guillaume A Rousselet, Cyril R Pernet, Rand R Wilcox
If many changes are necessary to improve the quality of neuroscience research, one relatively simple step could have great pay-offs: to promote the adoption of detailed graphical methods, combined with robust inferential statistics. Here we illustrate how such methods can lead to a much more detailed understanding of group differences than bar graphs and t-tests on means. To complement the neuroscientist's toolbox, we present two powerful tools that can help us understand how groups of observations differ: the shift function and the difference asymmetry function...
May 24, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535368/unfolding-the-folding-problem-of-the-cerebral-cortex-movin-and-groovin
#4
Yasuhiro Itoh, Alexandros Poulopoulos, Jeffrey D Macklis
The development of reproducible folding in the gyrencephalic cerebral cortex is a topic of great interest to neuroscientists. In a recent paper in Cell, del Toro et al. (2017) show that changing the adhesive properties of neurons in the normally lissencephalic mouse cortex leads to the formation of stereotyped folding.
May 22, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529731/a-bayesian-supervised-dual-dimensionality-reduction-model-for-simultaneous-decoding-of-lfp-and-spike-train-signals
#5
Andrew Holbrook, Alexander Vandenberg-Rodes, Norbert Fortin, Babak Shahbaba
Neuroscientists are increasingly collecting multimodal data during experiments and observational studies. Different data modalities-such as EEG, fMRI, LFP, and spike trains-offer different views of the complex systems contributing to neural phenomena. Here, we focus on joint modeling of LFP and spike train data, and present a novel Bayesian method for neural decoding to infer behavioral and experimental conditions. This model performs supervised dual-dimensionality reduction: it learns low-dimensional representations of two different sources of information that not only explain variation in the input data itself, but also predict extra-neuronal outcomes...
2017: Stat: the ISI's Journal for Rapid Dissemination of Statistics Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529237/-i-life-in-the-year-6000-i-by-santiago-ram%C3%A3-n-y-cajal-a-translation-of-an-unpublished-vacation-story
#6
Andrew W Perez
In 2006, Laura Otis provided the first English translation of five short stories written by the Spanish artist, neuroscientist, and histologist Santiago Ramón y Cajal. These stories, originally published in 1905 by Cajal under the pseudonym "Dr. Bacteria," are called "Cuentos de vacaciones: narraciones seudocientíficas" or "Vacation Stories: Pseudoscientific Tales." In 1973, a version of Cajal's manuscript "La vida en el año 6000" (Life in the year 6000) was revealed. It had remained in manuscript form since the mid-1880s and appears to be a draft of one of Cajal's unpublished "Cuentos de vacaciones...
2017: Literature and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527690/testing-cognitive-functions-in-rodent-disease-models-present-pitfalls-and-future-perspectives
#7
REVIEW
Heikki Tanila
Testing of cognitive functions in rodent disease models constitutes a substantial sector of behavioral neuroscience. It is most often needed in phenotyping genetically modified new rodent (usually mouse) lines or in preclinical testing of cognitive effects of new CNS drugs. This review concerns present pitfalls and future perspectives in this large field, with an emphasis on memory testing in CNS disease models and their preclinical drug testing. It is important to realize that no behavioral test is specific for a single cognitive domain...
May 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521125/beyond-hat-in-hand-science-advocacy-is-foundational-for-policy-decisions
#8
Nathaniel Kendall-Taylor, Pat Levitt
Beyond those to whom neuroscientists typically communicate exciting discoveries-that is, those who can provide more funding for researchers-there are important audiences that are positioned to use neuroscience findings to affect policy and improve societal outcomes. Showing the utility of research that policymakers, service providers, and the public can use to make decisions will enhance views of the value of scientific research. The ingredients of successful communications between neuroscientists and other stakeholders are different from those that characterize effective communications between scientists...
May 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499176/brain-networks-structural-realism-and-local-approaches-to-the-scientific-realism-debate
#9
Karen Yan, Jonathon Hricko
We examine recent work in cognitive neuroscience that investigates brain networks. Brain networks are characterized by the ways in which brain regions are functionally and anatomically connected to one another. Cognitive neuroscientists use various noninvasive techniques (e.g., fMRI) to investigate these networks. They represent them formally as graphs. And they use various graph theoretic techniques to analyze them further. We distinguish between knowledge of the graph theoretic structure of such networks (structural knowledge) and knowledge of what instantiates that structure (nonstructural knowledge)...
May 9, 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491032/topological-filtering-of-dynamic-functional-brain-networks-unfolds-informative-chronnectomics-a-novel-data-driven-thresholding-scheme-based-on-orthogonal-minimal-spanning-trees-omsts
#10
Stavros I Dimitriadis, Christos Salis, Ioannis Tarnanas, David E Linden
The human brain is a large-scale system of functionally connected brain regions. This system can be modeled as a network, or graph, by dividing the brain into a set of regions, or "nodes," and quantifying the strength of the connections between nodes, or "edges," as the temporal correlation in their patterns of activity. Network analysis, a part of graph theory, provides a set of summary statistics that can be used to describe complex brain networks in a meaningful way. The large-scale organization of the brain has features of complex networks that can be quantified using network measures from graph theory...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475130/universal-connection-through-art-role-of-mirror-neurons-in-art-production-and-reception
#11
REVIEW
Bartlomiej Piechowski-Jozwiak, François Boller, Julien Bogousslavsky
Art is defined as expression or application of human creative skill and imagination producing works to be appreciated primarily for their aesthetic value or emotional power. This definition encompasses two very important elements-the creation and reception of art-and by doing so it establishes a link, a dialogue between the artist and spectator. From the evolutionary biological perspective, activities need to have an immediate or remote effect on the population through improving survival, gene selection, and environmental adjustment, and this includes art...
May 5, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474309/preoperative-prediction-of-language-function-by-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#12
C F Freyschlag, J Kerschbaumer, D Pinggera, T Bodner, A E Grams, C Thomé
For surgery of eloquent tumors in language areas, the accepted gold standard is functional mapping through direct cortical stimulation (DCS) in awake patients. Ever since, neuroscientists are searching for reliable noninvasive detection of function in the human brain, with variable success. The potential of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in combination with computational cortical parcellation to predict functional areas in language eloquent tumors has not been assessed so far. We present a proof-of-concept report involving awake surgery for a temporodorsal tumor...
May 4, 2017: Brain Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464514/cell-density-modulates-intracellular-mass-transport-in-neural-networks
#13
Patricia Cintora, Jyothi Arikkath, Mikhail Kandel, Gabriel Popescu, Catherine Best-Popescu
In order to fully understand brain connectivity and elucidate the mechanisms involved in central nervous system disease, the field of neuroscience depends on quantitative studies of neuronal structure and function. Cell morphology and neurite (axonal and dendritic) arborization are typically studied by immunohistochemical and fluorescence techniques. However, dry mass content and intracellular mass transport rates have largely been under-investigated given the inherent difficulties in their measurement. Here, spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM) and dispersion-relation phase spectroscopy (DPS) were used to measure pathlength fluctuations that report on the dry mass and transport within cultured primary neurons across low, medium, and high cell density conditions...
May 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449195/reliable-estimation-of-inhibitory-efficiency-to-anticipate-choose-or-simply-react
#14
Inge Leunissen, Bram B Zandbelt, Zrinka Potocanac, Stephan P Swinnen, James P Coxon
Response inhibition is an important executive process studied by clinical and experimental psychologists, neurophysiologists, and cognitive neuroscientists alike. Stop-signal paradigms are popular because they are grounded in a theory that provides methods to estimate the latency of an unobservable process: the stop-signal reaction time (SSRT). Critically, SSRT estimates can be biased by skew of the response time distribution and gradual slowing over the course of the experiment. Here, we present a series of experiments that directly compare three common stop-signal paradigms that differ in the distribution of response times...
April 27, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444406/-king-s-parkinson-s-disease-pain-scale-intercultural-adaptation-in-the-german-language
#15
REVIEW
W H Jost, A Rizos, P Odin, M Löhle, A Storch
BACKGROUND: Pain is a frequent symptom of idiopathic Parkinson's disease and has a substantial impact on quality of life. The King's Parkinson's disease pain scale (KPPS) has become internationally established and is an English-language, standardized, reliable and valid scale for evaluation of pain in idiopathic Parkinson's disease. This article presents a validated version in German. METHOD: The German translation was adapted interculturally and developed using an internationally recognized procedure in consultation with the authors of the original publication...
April 25, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438652/assessing-the-relevancy-of-highly-cited-works-in-neurosurgery-part-i-the-100-most-relevant-papers-in-neurosurgical-journals
#16
REVIEW
Michael A Bohl, Francisco A Ponce
Bibliometric analyses based on total citation count come with many limitations, which authors in other fields have overcome using the average number of citations per year since publication. The following study is presented in two parts. In this first part, the 100 most relevant papers in neurosurgical journals have been identified and ranked by total citations per year since publication. We queried the Web of Science database for the 1000 most-cited articles in neurosurgical journals. The number of citations per year was calculated for these 1000 articles, and the top 100 were identified...
April 21, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426802/decoding-the-infant-mind-multivariate-pattern-analysis-mvpa-using-fnirs
#17
Lauren L Emberson, Benjamin D Zinszer, Rajeev D S Raizada, Richard N Aslin
The MRI environment restricts the types of populations and tasks that can be studied by cognitive neuroscientists (e.g., young infants, face-to-face communication). FNIRS is a neuroimaging modality that records the same physiological signal as fMRI but without the constraints of MRI, and with better spatial localization than EEG. However, research in the fNIRS community largely lacks the analytic sophistication of analogous fMRI work, restricting the application of this imaging technology. The current paper presents a method of multivariate pattern analysis for fNIRS that allows the authors to decode the infant mind (a key fNIRS population)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411271/neural-correlates-of-semantic-prediction-and-resolution-in-sentence-processing
#18
Luigi Grisoni, Tally McCormick Miller, Friedemann Pulvermüller
Most brain-imaging studies of language comprehension focus on activity following meaningful stimuli. Testing adult human participants with high-density EEG, we show that, already before the presentation of a critical word, context-induced semantic predictions are reflected by a neurophysiological index, which we therefore call the semantic readiness potential (SRP). The SRP precedes critical words if a previous sentence context constrains the upcoming semantic content (high-constraint contexts), but not in unpredictable (low-constraint) contexts...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408890/assessing-the-role-of-the-unity-assumption-on-multisensory-integration-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Yi-Chuan Chen, Charles Spence
There has been longstanding interest from both experimental psychologists and cognitive neuroscientists in the potential modulatory role of various top-down factors on multisensory integration/perception in humans. One such top-down influence, often referred to in the literature as the 'unity assumption,' is thought to occur in those situations in which an observer considers that various of the unisensory stimuli that they have been presented with belong to one and the same object or event (Welch and Warren, 1980)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399863/vectorized-nanodelivery-systems-for-ischemic-stroke-a-concept-and-a-need
#20
REVIEW
Andrés Da Silva-Candal, Bárbara Argibay, Ramón Iglesias-Rey, Zulema Vargas, Alba Vieites-Prado, Esteban López-Arias, Emilio Rodríguez-Castro, Iria López-Dequidt, Manuel Rodríguez-Yáñez, Yolanda Piñeiro, Tomás Sobrino, Francisco Campos, José Rivas, José Castillo
Neurological diseases of diverse aetiologies have significant effects on the quality of life of patients. The limited self-repairing capacity of the brain is considered to be the origin of the irreversible and progressive nature of many neurological diseases. Therefore, neuroprotection is an important goal shared by many clinical neurologists and neuroscientists. In this review, we discuss the main obstacles that have prevented the implementation of experimental neuroprotective strategies in humans and propose alternative avenues for the use of neuroprotection as a feasible therapeutic approach...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
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