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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821393/nutritional-status-brain-network-organization-and-general-intelligence
#1
Marta K Zamroziewicz, M Tanveer Talukdar, Chris E Zwilling, Aron K Barbey
The high energy demands of the brain underscore the importance of nutrition in maintaining brain health and further indicate that aspects of nutrition may optimize brain health, in turn enhancing cognitive performance. General intelligence represents a critical cognitive ability that has been well characterized by cognitive neuroscientists and psychologists alike, but the extent to which a driver of brain health, namely nutritional status, impacts the neural mechanisms that underlie general intelligence is not understood...
August 15, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804598/a-rigorous-method-to-enrich-for-exosomes-from-brain-tissue
#2
Laura J Vella, Benjamin J Scicluna, Lesley Cheng, Emma G Bawden, Colin L Masters, Ching-Seng Ang, Nicholas Willamson, Catriona McLean, Kevin J Barnham, Andrew F Hill
Extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, are released by all cells, including those of the nervous system. Capable of delivering lipid, protein and nucleic acids to both nearby and distal cells, exosomes have been hypothesized to play a role in progression of many diseases of the nervous system. To date, most analyses on the role of these vesicles in the healthy and diseased state have relied on studying vesicles from in vitro sources, such as conditioned cell culture media, or body fluids. Here we have taken a critical approach to the enrichment and characterization of exosomes from human frontal cortex...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801251/modeling-correlated-noise-is-necessary-to-decode-uncertainty
#3
REVIEW
R S van Bergen, J F M Jehee
Brain decoding algorithms form an important part of the arsenal of analysis tools available to neuroscientists, allowing for a more detailed study of the kind of information represented in patterns of cortical activity. While most current decoding algorithms focus on estimating a single, most likely stimulus from the pattern of noisy fMRI responses, the presence of noise causes this estimate to be uncertain. This uncertainty in stimulus estimates is a potentially highly relevant aspect of cortical stimulus processing, and features prominently in Bayesian or probabilistic models of neural coding...
August 8, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799092/dissociable-learning-processes-in-comparative-psychology
#4
REVIEW
J David Smith, Barbara A Church
Comparative and cognitive psychologists interpret performance in different ways. Animal researchers invoke a dominant construct of associative learning. Human researchers acknowledge humans' capacity for explicit-declarative cognition. This article offers a way to bridge a divide that defeats productive cross-talk. We show that animals often challenge the associative-learning construct, and that it does not work to try to stretch the associative-learning construct to encompass these performances. This approach thins and impoverishes that important construct...
August 10, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783140/structure-in-neural-population-recordings-an-expected-byproduct-of-simpler-phenomena
#5
Gamaleldin F Elsayed, John P Cunningham
Neuroscientists increasingly analyze the joint activity of multineuron recordings to identify population-level structures believed to be significant and scientifically novel. Claims of significant population structure support hypotheses in many brain areas. However, these claims require first investigating the possibility that the population structure in question is an expected byproduct of simpler features known to exist in data. Classically, this critical examination can be either intuited or addressed with conventional controls...
August 7, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774225/the-anterior-temporal-lobes-new-frontiers-opened-to-neuropsychological-research-by-changes-in-health-care-and-disease-epidemiology
#6
Guido Gainotti
Changes in health care and disease epidemiology have shifted the attention of neuropsychologists and cognitive neuroscientists from vascular lesions to degenerative diseases or other bilateral brain lesions. This displacement of attention from vascular patients to patients with degenerative brain diseases allowed the discovery of hitherto unexplored and unheralded aspects of the neural substrates of human cognition. Three aspects of research on the anterior parts of the temporal lobes (ATLs) are the focus of the present review...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757305/precision-functional-mapping-of-individual-human-brains
#7
Evan M Gordon, Timothy O Laumann, Adrian W Gilmore, Dillan J Newbold, Deanna J Greene, Jeffrey J Berg, Mario Ortega, Catherine Hoyt-Drazen, Caterina Gratton, Haoxin Sun, Jacqueline M Hampton, Rebecca S Coalson, Annie L Nguyen, Kathleen B McDermott, Joshua S Shimony, Abraham Z Snyder, Bradley L Schlaggar, Steven E Petersen, Steven M Nelson, Nico U F Dosenbach
Human functional MRI (fMRI) research primarily focuses on analyzing data averaged across groups, which limits the detail, specificity, and clinical utility of fMRI resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) and task-activation maps. To push our understanding of functional brain organization to the level of individual humans, we assembled a novel MRI dataset containing 5 hr of RSFC data, 6 hr of task fMRI, multiple structural MRIs, and neuropsychological tests from each of ten adults. Using these data, we generated ten high-fidelity, individual-specific functional connectomes...
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739527/deconstructing-the-cortical-column-in-the-barrel-cortex
#8
Kevin Fox
The question of what function is served by the cortical column has occupied neuroscientists since its original description some 60 years ago. The answer seems tractable in the somatosensory cortex when considering the inputs to the cortical column and the early stages of information processing, but quickly breaks down once the multiplicity of output streams and their sub-circuits are brought into consideration. This article describes the early stages of information processing in the barrel cortex, through generation of the centre and surround receptive field components of neurones that subserve integration of multi whisker information, before going on to consider the diversity of properties exhibited by the layer 5 output neurones...
July 21, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738342/a-succinct-history-of-sleep-medicine
#9
Leh-Kiong Anne Huon, Christian Guilleminault
Although sleep and sleep disorders have been studied for centuries, it was the development of sophisticated tools to monitor eye movements, brain waves, and muscle tone in the mid-20th century that led to modern sleep research. These tools allowed neuroscientists to distinguish between different "states" or "phases" of sleep, and to relate these findings to sleep disorders. This review chronicles the groundbreaking work of the pioneers in this field, and the impact their findings have had on patients today.
2017: Advances in Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738240/computational-training-for-the-next-generation-of-neuroscientists
#10
REVIEW
Mark S Goldman, Michale S Fee
Neuroscience research has become increasingly reliant upon quantitative and computational data analysis and modeling techniques. However, the vast majority of neuroscientists are still trained within the traditional biology curriculum, in which computational and quantitative approaches beyond elementary statistics may be given little emphasis. Here we provide the results of an informal poll of computational and other neuroscientists that sought to identify critical needs, areas for improvement, and educational resources for computational neuroscience training...
July 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731440/challenges-and-considerations-related-to-studying-dementia-in-african-americans
#11
Eseosa T Ighodaro, Peter T Nelson, Walter A Kukull, Frederick A Schmitt, Erin L Abner, Allison Caban-Holt, Shoshana H Bardach, Derrick C Hord, Crystal M Glover, Gregory A Jicha, Linda J Van Eldik, Alexander X Byrd, Anita Fernander
Blacks/African Americans have been reported to be ∼2-4 times more likely to develop clinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared to Whites. Unfortunately, study design challenges (e.g., recruitment bias), racism, mistrust of healthcare providers and biomedical researchers, confounders related to socioeconomic status, and other sources of bias are often ignored when interpreting differences in human subjects categorized by race. Failure to account for these factors can lead to misinterpretation of results, reification of race as biology, discrimination, and missed or delayed diagnoses...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693604/right-median-nerve-electrical-stimulation-for-acute-traumatic-coma-the-asia-coma-electrical-stimulation-trial-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#12
Xiang Wu, Chao Zhang, Junfeng Feng, Qing Mao, Guoyi Gao, Jiyao Jiang
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become the most common cause of death and disability in persons between 15 and 30 years of age, and about 10-15% of patients affected by TBI will end up in a coma. Coma caused by TBI presents a significant challenge to neuroscientists. Right median nerve electrical stimulation has been reported as a simple, inexpensive, non-invasive technique to speed recovery and improve outcomes for traumatic comatose patients. METHODS/DESIGN: This multicentre, prospective, randomised (1:1) controlled trial aims to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of electrical right median nerve stimulation (RMNS) in both accelerating emergence from coma and promoting long-term outcomes...
July 10, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690511/neurotessmesh-a-tool-for-the-generation-and-visualization-of-neuron-meshes-and-adaptive-on-the-fly-refinement
#13
Juan J Garcia-Cantero, Juan P Brito, Susana Mata, Sofia Bayona, Luis Pastor
Gaining a better understanding of the human brain continues to be one of the greatest challenges for science, largely because of the overwhelming complexity of the brain and the difficulty of analyzing the features and behavior of dense neural networks. Regarding analysis, 3D visualization has proven to be a useful tool for the evaluation of complex systems. However, the large number of neurons in non-trivial circuits, together with their intricate geometry, makes the visualization of a neuronal scenario an extremely challenging computational problem...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690443/a-guide-for-undergraduates-to-the-society-for-neuroscience-annual-meeting
#14
Diana S José-Edwards, Neco X Johnson, Jessica Jimenez, Ya'el Courtney, Jacob O Khoussine, Erik D Herzog
The annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience (SfN) attracts over 30,000 attendees, including many of the world's most accomplished researchers. Although it can be intimidating to attend a conference of this scale, there are many rewards for undergraduates. Based on surveys of young neuroscientists, we provide planning strategies to ensure attendees maximize their exposure and retention of the breadth and depth offered by this large conference format without becoming overwhelmed.
2017: Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education: JUNE: a Publication of FUN, Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675555/rna-sequencing-in-postmortem-human-brains-of-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#15
Chun Wu, Raphael M Bendriem, Susanna P Garamszegi, Lei Song, Chun-Ting Lee
RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), a revolutionary tool for transcriptome profiling, is becoming increasingly important for neuroscientists in studying the transcriptional landscape of the human brain. Studies using this next generation sequencing (NGS) technique have already revealed novel insights into the complexity of neurons in the human brain and pathogenesis of complex neurological diseases. In clinical neuroscience, RNA-Seq provides exciting opportunities for improving diagnosis and treatment of neurological diseases by facilitating the development of pharmacotherapies able to modulate gene expression...
July 4, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664169/demonstration-and-validation-of-kernel-density-estimation-for-spatial-meta-analyses-in-cognitive-neuroscience-using-simulated-data
#16
Michel Belyk, Steven Brown, Sonja A Kotz
The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Convergence of semantics and emotional expression within the IFG pars orbitalis" (Belyk et al., 2017) [1]. The research article reports a spatial meta-analysis of brain imaging experiments on the perception of semantic compared to emotional communicative signals in humans. This Data in Brief article demonstrates and validates the use of Kernel Density Estimation (KDE) as a novel statistical approach to neuroimaging data. First, we performed a side-by-side comparison of KDE with a previously published meta-analysis that applied activation likelihood estimation, which is the predominant approach to meta-analyses in cognitive neuroscience...
August 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638896/a-scalable-cyberinfrastructure-for-interactive-visualization-of-terascale-microscopy-data
#17
A Venkat, C Christensen, A Gyulassy, B Summa, F Federer, A Angelucci, V Pascucci
The goal of the recently emerged field of connectomics is to generate a wiring diagram of the brain at different scales. To identify brain circuitry, neuroscientists use specialized microscopes to perform multichannel imaging of labeled neurons at a very high resolution. CLARITY tissue clearing allows imaging labeled circuits through entire tissue blocks, without the need for tissue sectioning and section-to-section alignment. Imaging the large and complex non-human primate brain with sufficient resolution to identify and disambiguate between axons, in particular, produces massive data, creating great computational challenges to the study of neural circuits...
August 2016: N Y Sci Data Summit NYSDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632897/delving-within-the-new-science-of-the-unconscious
#18
Steve Paulson, Heather A Berlin, Efrat Ginot, George Makari
What exactly is the relationship between conscious awareness and the unconscious mind? How, for example, does the brain classify and sort its different functions into conscious or unconscious processes? How has the history of human conceptualizations about the unconscious influenced current theories? Steve Paulson, executive producer of To the Best of Our Knowledge, moderated a discussion among neuroscientist Heather Berlin, psychologist Efrat Ginot, and psychiatrist George Makari to shed light on the history of the mind and the latest insights into the still emerging science of the unconscious...
June 20, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630894/next-generation-probes-particles-and-proteins-for-neural-interfacing
#19
REVIEW
Jonathan Rivnay, Huiliang Wang, Lief Fenno, Karl Deisseroth, George G Malliaras
Bidirectional interfacing with the nervous system enables neuroscience research, diagnosis, and therapy. This two-way communication allows us to monitor the state of the brain and its composite networks and cells as well as to influence them to treat disease or repair/restore sensory or motor function. To provide the most stable and effective interface, the tools of the trade must bridge the soft, ion-rich, and evolving nature of neural tissue with the largely rigid, static realm of microelectronics and medical instruments that allow for readout, analysis, and/or control...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626995/-synaptic-autocontrol
#20
José Bargas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
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