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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693604/right-median-nerve-electrical-stimulation-for-acute-traumatic-coma-the-asia-coma-electrical-stimulation-trial-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#1
Xiang Wu, Chao Zhang, Junfeng Feng, Qing Mao, Guoyi Gao, Jiyao Jiang
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become the most common cause of death and disability in persons between 15 and 30 years of age, and about 10-15% of patients affected by TBI will end up in a coma. Coma caused by TBI presents a significant challenge to neuroscientists. Right median nerve electrical stimulation has been reported as a simple, inexpensive, non-invasive technique to speed recovery and improve outcomes for traumatic comatose patients. METHODS/DESIGN: This multicentre, prospective, randomised (1:1) controlled trial aims to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of electrical right median nerve stimulation (RMNS) in both accelerating emergence from coma and promoting long-term outcomes...
July 10, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690511/neurotessmesh-a-tool-for-the-generation-and-visualization-of-neuron-meshes-and-adaptive-on-the-fly-refinement
#2
Juan J Garcia-Cantero, Juan P Brito, Susana Mata, Sofia Bayona, Luis Pastor
Gaining a better understanding of the human brain continues to be one of the greatest challenges for science, largely because of the overwhelming complexity of the brain and the difficulty of analyzing the features and behavior of dense neural networks. Regarding analysis, 3D visualization has proven to be a useful tool for the evaluation of complex systems. However, the large number of neurons in non-trivial circuits, together with their intricate geometry, makes the visualization of a neuronal scenario an extremely challenging computational problem...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690443/a-guide-for-undergraduates-to-the-society-for-neuroscience-annual-meeting
#3
Diana S José-Edwards, Neco X Johnson, Jessica Jimenez, Ya'el Courtney, Jacob O Khoussine, Erik D Herzog
The annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience (SfN) attracts over 30,000 attendees, including many of the world's most accomplished researchers. Although it can be intimidating to attend a conference of this scale, there are many rewards for undergraduates. Based on surveys of young neuroscientists, we provide planning strategies to ensure attendees maximize their exposure and retention of the breadth and depth offered by this large conference format without becoming overwhelmed.
2017: Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education: JUNE: a Publication of FUN, Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675555/rna-sequencing-in-postmortem-human-brains-of-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#4
Chun Wu, Raphael M Bendriem, Susanna P Garamszegi, Lei Song, Chun-Ting Lee
RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), a revolutionary tool for transcriptome profiling, is becoming increasingly important for neuroscientists in studying the transcriptional landscape of the human brain. Studies using this next generation sequencing (NGS) technique have already revealed novel insights into the complexity of neurons in the human brain and pathogenesis of complex neurological diseases. In clinical neuroscience, RNA-Seq provides exciting opportunities for improving diagnosis and treatment of neurological diseases by facilitating the development of pharmacotherapies able to modulate gene expression...
July 4, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664169/demonstration-and-validation-of-kernel-density-estimation-for-spatial-meta-analyses-in-cognitive-neuroscience-using-simulated-data
#5
Michel Belyk, Steven Brown, Sonja A Kotz
The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Convergence of semantics and emotional expression within the IFG pars orbitalis" (Belyk et al., 2017) [1]. The research article reports a spatial meta-analysis of brain imaging experiments on the perception of semantic compared to emotional communicative signals in humans. This Data in Brief article demonstrates and validates the use of Kernel Density Estimation (KDE) as a novel statistical approach to neuroimaging data. First, we performed a side-by-side comparison of KDE with a previously published meta-analysis that applied activation likelihood estimation, which is the predominant approach to meta-analyses in cognitive neuroscience...
August 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638896/a-scalable-cyberinfrastructure-for-interactive-visualization-of-terascale-microscopy-data
#6
A Venkat, C Christensen, A Gyulassy, B Summa, F Federer, A Angelucci, V Pascucci
The goal of the recently emerged field of connectomics is to generate a wiring diagram of the brain at different scales. To identify brain circuitry, neuroscientists use specialized microscopes to perform multichannel imaging of labeled neurons at a very high resolution. CLARITY tissue clearing allows imaging labeled circuits through entire tissue blocks, without the need for tissue sectioning and section-to-section alignment. Imaging the large and complex non-human primate brain with sufficient resolution to identify and disambiguate between axons, in particular, produces massive data, creating great computational challenges to the study of neural circuits...
August 2016: N Y Sci Data Summit NYSDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632897/delving-within-the-new-science-of-the-unconscious
#7
Steve Paulson, Heather A Berlin, Efrat Ginot, George Makari
What exactly is the relationship between conscious awareness and the unconscious mind? How, for example, does the brain classify and sort its different functions into conscious or unconscious processes? How has the history of human conceptualizations about the unconscious influenced current theories? Steve Paulson, executive producer of To the Best of Our Knowledge, moderated a discussion among neuroscientist Heather Berlin, psychologist Efrat Ginot, and psychiatrist George Makari to shed light on the history of the mind and the latest insights into the still emerging science of the unconscious...
June 20, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630894/next-generation-probes-particles-and-proteins-for-neural-interfacing
#8
REVIEW
Jonathan Rivnay, Huiliang Wang, Lief Fenno, Karl Deisseroth, George G Malliaras
Bidirectional interfacing with the nervous system enables neuroscience research, diagnosis, and therapy. This two-way communication allows us to monitor the state of the brain and its composite networks and cells as well as to influence them to treat disease or repair/restore sensory or motor function. To provide the most stable and effective interface, the tools of the trade must bridge the soft, ion-rich, and evolving nature of neural tissue with the largely rigid, static realm of microelectronics and medical instruments that allow for readout, analysis, and/or control...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626995/-synaptic-autocontrol
#9
José Bargas
Dalés principle, as stated by the English neuroscientist Henry Dale, posited that a presynaptic neuron will have the same chemical action on all its connections regardless of the class of target cell. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
June 19, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620293/a-manual-segmentation-tool-for-three-dimensional-neuron-datasets
#10
Chiara Magliaro, Alejandro L Callara, Nicola Vanello, Arti Ahluwalia
To date, automated or semi-automated software and algorithms for segmentation of neurons from three-dimensional imaging datasets have had limited success. The gold standard for neural segmentation is considered to be the manual isolation performed by an expert. To facilitate the manual isolation of complex objects from image stacks, such as neurons in their native arrangement within the brain, a new Manual Segmentation Tool (ManSegTool) has been developed. ManSegTool allows user to load an image stack, scroll down the images and to manually draw the structures of interest stack-by-stack...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617218/multi-scale-visual-analysis-of-time-varying-electrocorticography-data-via-clustering-of-brain-regions
#11
Sugeerth Murugesan, Kristofer Bouchard, Edward Chang, Max Dougherty, Bernd Hamann, Gunther H Weber
BACKGROUND: There exists a need for effective and easy-to-use software tools supporting the analysis of complex Electrocorticography (ECoG) data. Understanding how epileptic seizures develop or identifying diagnostic indicators for neurological diseases require the in-depth analysis of neural activity data from ECoG. Such data is multi-scale and is of high spatio-temporal resolution. Comprehensive analysis of this data should be supported by interactive visual analysis methods that allow a scientist to understand functional patterns at varying levels of granularity and comprehend its time-varying behavior...
June 6, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615985/treatment-of-movement-disorders-with-focused-ultrasound
#12
REVIEW
Paul S Fishman, Victor Frenkel
Although the use of ultrasound as a potential therapeutic modality in the brain has been under study for several decades, relatively few neuroscientists or neurologists are familiar with this technology. Stereotactic brain lesioning had been widely used as a treatment for medically refractory patients with essential tremor (ET), Parkinson disease (PD), and dystonia but has been largely replaced by deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery, with advantages both in safety and efficacy. However, DBS is associated with complications including intracerebral hemorrhage, infection, and hardware malfunction...
2017: Journal of Central Nervous System Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602920/a-stable-brain-from-unstable-components-emerging-concepts-and-implications-for-neural-computation
#13
REVIEW
Anna R Chambers, Simon Rumpel
Neuroscientists have often described the adult brain in similar terms to an electronic circuit board- dependent on fixed, precise connectivity. However, with the advent of technologies allowing chronic measurements of neural structure and function, the emerging picture is that neural networks undergo significant remodeling over multiple timescales, even in the absence of experimenter-induced learning or sensory perturbation. Here, we attempt to reconcile the parallel observations that critical brain functions are stably maintained, while synapse- and single-cell properties appear to be reformatted regularly throughout adult life...
June 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588513/testing-separability-and-independence-of-perceptual-dimensions-with-general-recognition-theory-a-tutorial-and-new-r-package-grtools
#14
Fabian A Soto, Emily Zheng, Johnny Fonseca, F Gregory Ashby
Determining whether perceptual properties are processed independently is an important goal in perceptual science, and tools to test independence should be widely available to experimental researchers. The best analytical tools to test for perceptual independence are provided by General Recognition Theory (GRT), a multidimensional extension of signal detection theory. Unfortunately, there is currently a lack of software implementing GRT analyses that is ready-to-use by experimental psychologists and neuroscientists with little training in computational modeling...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577429/genetic-strategies-to-access-activated-neurons
#15
REVIEW
Laura DeNardo, Liqun Luo
A major goal of modern neuroscience is to understand how ensembles of neurons participate in neural circuits underlying behavior. The recent explosion of genetically-encoded circuit analysis tools has allowed neuroscientists to characterize molecularly-defined neuronal types with unprecedented detail. However, since neurons defined by molecular expression can be functionally heterogeneous, targeting circuit analysis tools to neurons based on their activity is critical to elucidating the neural basis of behavior...
May 31, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552119/an-automatic-non-invasive-method-for-parkinson-s-disease-classification
#16
Deepak Joshi, Aayushi Khajuria, Pradeep Joshi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The automatic noninvasive identification of Parkinson's disease (PD) is attractive to clinicians and neuroscientist. Various analysis and classification approaches using spatiotemporal gait variables have been presented earlier in classifying Parkinson's gait. In this paper, we present a wavelet transform based representation of spatiotemporal gait variables to explore the potential of such representation in the identification of Parkinson's gait. METHODS: Here, we present wavelet analysis as an alternate method and show that wavelet analysis combined with support vector machine (SVM) can produce efficient classification accuracy...
July 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550499/systematic-review-of-fmri-compatible-devices-design-and-testing-criteria
#17
REVIEW
V Hartwig, N Carbonaro, A Tognetti, N Vanello
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is at present one of the most used methodologies for functional brain exploration, both in clinical and research settings. fMRI can noninvasively measure neural activity by using specific experimental paradigms. Often, these paradigms require the stimulation of the subject to perform sensorimotor tasks: in the past, the stimuli have been administered manually for investigating fundamental aspects of tactile perception and somatosensory processing. Nowadays, the use of mechatronic devices to stimulate the subject during fMRI studies is growing, also to assure reproducibility, control, and monitoring of task performances...
May 26, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545629/moral-vindications
#18
Victor Kumar
Psychologists and neuroscientists have recently been unearthing the unconscious processes that give rise to moral intuitions and emotions. According to skeptics like Joshua Greene, what has been found casts doubt on many of our moral beliefs. However, a new approach in moral psychology develops a learning-theoretic framework that has been successfully applied in a number of other domains. This framework suggests that model-based learning shapes intuitions and emotions. Model-based learning explains how moral thought and feeling are attuned to local material and social conditions...
May 22, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544058/beyond-differences-in-means-robust-graphical-methods-to-compare-two-groups-in-neuroscience
#19
Guillaume A Rousselet, Cyril R Pernet, Rand R Wilcox
If many changes are necessary to improve the quality of neuroscience research, one relatively simple step could have great pay-offs: to promote the adoption of detailed graphical methods, combined with robust inferential statistics. Here, we illustrate how such methods can lead to a much more detailed understanding of group differences than bar graphs and t-tests on means. To complement the neuroscientist's toolbox, we present two powerful tools that can help us understand how groups of observations differ: the shift function and the difference asymmetry function...
May 24, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535368/unfolding-the-folding-problem-of-the-cerebral-cortex-movin-and-groovin
#20
Yasuhiro Itoh, Alexandros Poulopoulos, Jeffrey D Macklis
The development of reproducible folding in the gyrencephalic cerebral cortex is a topic of great interest to neuroscientists. In a recent paper in Cell, del Toro et al. (2017) show that changing the adhesive properties of neurons in the normally lissencephalic mouse cortex leads to the formation of stereotyped folding.
May 22, 2017: Developmental Cell
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