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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924903/where-will-all-the-new-neuroscientists-go
#1
Gary Stix
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 16, 2016: Scientific American
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911497/neural-plasticity-across-the-lifespan
#2
REVIEW
Jonathan D Power, Bradley L Schlaggar
An essential feature of the brain is its capacity to change. Neuroscientists use the term 'plasticity' to describe the malleability of neuronal connectivity and circuitry. How does plasticity work? A review of current data suggests that plasticity encompasses many distinct phenomena, some of which operate across most or all of the lifespan, and others that operate exclusively in early development. This essay surveys some of the key concepts related to neural plasticity, beginning with how current patterns of neural activity (e...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909400/the-demise-of-the-synapse-as-the-locus-of-memory-a-looming-paradigm-shift
#3
Patrick C Trettenbrein
Synaptic plasticity is widely considered to be the neurobiological basis of learning and memory by neuroscientists and researchers in adjacent fields, though diverging opinions are increasingly being recognized. From the perspective of what we might call "classical cognitive science" it has always been understood that the mind/brain is to be considered a computational-representational system. Proponents of the information-processing approach to cognitive science have long been critical of connectionist or network approaches to (neuro-)cognitive architecture, pointing to the shortcomings of the associative psychology that underlies Hebbian learning as well as to the fact that synapses are practically unfit to implement symbols...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900929/main-effects-and-interactions-of-cerebral-hemispheres-gender-and-age-in-the-calculation-of-volumes-and-asymmetries-of-selected-structures-of-episodic-memory
#4
Rocio Ramirez-Carmona, Haydee Guadalupe Garcia-Lazaro, Brenda Dominguez-Corrales, Erika Aguilar-Castañeda, Ernesto Roldan-Valadez
The aim of this study was to clarify the influence of anatomical (cerebral hemisphere) and demographic (age and gender) variables on the gray matter (GM) volumes and volumetric asymmetry indices (VAIs) of selected structures involved in episodic memory. A cross-sectional study was performed in 47 healthy volunteers. Neuropsychological evaluation revealed similar IQs across the sample. Using SPM-based software, brain segmentation, labeling and volume measurements of the hippocampus, amygdala, middle temporal gyrus and parahippocampal gyrus were performed in each cerebral hemisphere...
November 30, 2016: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891195/reflections-on-a-giant-of-brain-science-how-lucky-we-are-having-walter-j-freeman-as-our-beacon-in-cognitive-neurodynamics-research
#5
REVIEW
Robert Kozma
Walter J. Freeman was a giant of the field of neuroscience whose visionary work contributed various experimental and theoretical breakthroughs to brain research in the past 60 years. He has pioneered a number of Electroencephalogram and Electrocorticogram tools and approaches that shaped the field, while "Freeman Neurodynamics" is a theoretical concept that is widely known, used, and respected among neuroscientists all over the world. His recent death is a profound loss to neuroscience and biomedical engineering...
December 2016: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889578/molecular-neurobiology-of-mtor
#6
REVIEW
Katarzyna Switon, Katarzyna Kotulska, Aleksandra Janusz-Kaminska, Justyna Zmorzynska, Jacek Jaworski
Mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine-threonine kinase that controls several important aspects of mammalian cell function. mTOR activity is modulated by various intra- and extracellular factors; in turn, mTOR changes rates of translation, transcription, protein degradation, cell signaling, metabolism, and cytoskeleton dynamics. mTOR has been repeatedly shown to participate in neuronal development and the proper functioning of mature neurons. Changes in mTOR activity are often observed in nervous system diseases, including genetic diseases (e...
November 23, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885317/poetry-and-neuroscience-an-interdisciplinary-conversation
#7
James Wilkes, Sophie K Scott
Dialogues and collaborations between scientists and non-scientists are now widely understood as important elements of scientific research and public engagement with science. In recognition of this, the authors, a neuroscientist and a poet, use a dialogical approach to extend questions and ideas first shared during a lab-based poetry residency. They recorded a conversation and then expanded it into an essayistic form, allowing divergent disciplinary understandings and uses of experiment, noise, voice and emotion to be articulated, shared and questioned...
2016: Configurations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881768/considering-sex-as-a-biological-variable-will-be-valuable-for-neuroscience-research
#8
Rebecca M Shansky, Catherine S Woolley
The recently implemented National Institutes of Health policy requiring that grant applicants consider sex as a biological variable in the design of basic and preclinical animal research studies has prompted considerable discussion within the neuroscience community. Here, we present reasons to be optimistic that this new policy will be valuable for neuroscience, and we suggest some ways for neuroscientists to think about incorporating sex as a variable in their research.
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876662/-views-on-careers-in-clinical-neurosciences-amongst-neurosurgeons-and-neurologists-in-china
#9
Rimas V Lukas, Chao Ma, Jingcao Chen, Hongmei Dong, Jinxin Li, Zefen Wang, Ivy Jiang, Kai Fu, Samita Satnarayan, Dara V F Albert, Renslow Sherer
BACKGROUND: China has a large and aging population. The need for physicians with training in clinical neurosciences will grow. Currently there is little known regarding the factors which lead physicians in China to pursue careers in clinical neurosciences. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to garner a clearer understanding of the factors which impact physicians to pursue careers in neurosurgery and neurology in China. METHODS: We surveyed attendees at a national neuroscience conference on the factors which influence their pursuit of careers in clinical neurosciences...
November 19, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870413/complementarity-of-sex-differences-in-brain-and-behavior-from-laterality-to-multimodal-neuroimaging
#10
REVIEW
Ruben C Gur, Raquel E Gur
Although, overwhelmingly, behavior is similar in males and females, and, correspondingly, the brains are similar, sex differences permeate both brain and behavioral measures, and these differences have been the focus of increasing scrutiny by neuroscientists. This Review describes milestones from more than 3 decades of research in brain and behavior. This research was necessarily bound by available methodology, and we began with indirect behavioral indicators of brain function such as handedness. We proceeded to the use of neuropsychological batteries and then to structural and functional neuroimaging that provided the foundations of a cognitive neuroscience-based computerized neurocognitive battery...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852028/-the-meaning-of-understanding-the-brain-peeking-into-the-brain-of-a-computational-neuroscientist
#11
Hirokazu Tanaka
What does "understanding the brain" mean? Here, I review how computational neuroscience, a theoretical approach to the brain, can aid our understanding of the brain. First, I illustrate the study of reinforcement learning and dopamine neurons and argue its success in the light of Marr's three levels of computation. Second, I discuss how Marr's program has led to a computational understanding of the brain, and present computational models of the motor cortex and of a spiking neural network as illustrative examples...
November 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845257/multi-scale-brain-networks
#12
Richard F Betzel, Danielle S Bassett
The network architecture of the human brain has become a feature of increasing interest to the neuroscientific community, largely because of its potential to illuminate human cognition, its variation over development and aging, and its alteration in disease or injury. Traditional tools and approaches to study this architecture have largely focused on single scales-of topology, time, and space. Expanding beyond this narrow view, we focus this review on pertinent questions and novel methodological advances for the multi-scale brain...
November 11, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843701/dissociable-roles-of-medial-and-lateral-pfc-in-rule-learning
#13
Bihua Cao, Wei Li, Fuhong Li, Hong Li
INTRODUCTION: Although the neural basis of rule learning is of great interest to cognitive neuroscientists, the pattern of transient brain activation during rule discovery remains to be investigated. METHOD: In this study, we measured event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during distinct phases of rule learning. Twenty-one healthy human volunteers were presented with a series of cards, each containing a clock-like display of 12 circles numbered sequentially...
November 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829654/minimally-conscious-state-evolution-of-concept-diagnosis-and-treatment
#14
Ricardo Hodelín-Tablada
The study of consciousness disorders is a scientific challenge, and clinical differentiation among the various sorts of alterations in consciousness is difficult. Persistent vegetative state was defined in 1972, but years later cases appeared in which diagnosed patients showed signs of cognitive activity, and therefore could not be considered vegetative. Minimally conscious state was defined in 2002. This article discusses minimally conscious state based on a literature review and the author's clinical experience...
October 2016: MEDICC Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826264/from-savannas-to-settlements-exploring-cognitive-foundations-for-the-design-of-urban-spaces
#15
M Gordon Brown, Charles C Lee
Urban configurations in developing countries have become the subject of urban design, with good design promoting economic benefits. Yet, the common practice of urban design lacks a principled scientific foundation. In this respect, cognitive neuroscience could provide a unique perspective and potential foundational insights regarding how embodied cognition links configuration with movement. Although the neural networks that underlie navigation abilities in the brain have been extensively studied, the manner in which these networks might best constrain urban configurations has not been examined specifically...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822666/the-top-5-neurotransmitters-from-a-clinical-neurologist-s-perspective
#16
Daniel Kondziella
Neurologists are proficient in neuroanatomy and -physiology but their understanding of neurochemistry tends to be mediocre. As a rule, we do not think in biochemical pathways and complex metabolic interactions but rather associate a few neurotransmitters with well-known brain diseases or drugs that we routinely prescribe. Most of us can hardly come up with more than a handful of relevant neurochemicals. From our point of view the most important neurotransmitters are, in alphabetical order, acetylcholine (associated with Alzheimer's disease and myasthenia gravis), dopamine (Parkinson's disease), glutamate and GABA (epilepsy and seizures), and serotonin (major depression; although this is arguably the domain of psychiatrists)...
November 8, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812329/a-brief-review-of-research-using-near-infrared-spectroscopy-to-measure-activation-of-the-prefrontal-cortex-during-emotional-processing-the-importance-of-experimental-design
#17
REVIEW
Robert C A Bendall, Peter Eachus, Catherine Thompson
During the past two decades there has been a pronounced increase in the number of published research studies that have employed near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to measure neural activation. The technique is now an accepted neuroimaging tool adopted by cognitive neuroscientists to investigate a number of fields, one of which is the study of emotional processing. Crucially, one brain region that is important to the processing of emotional information is the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and NIRS is ideally suited to measuring activity in this region...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811316/the-neuroscientist-comments
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810012/power-to-the-people-addressing-big-data-challenges-in-neuroscience-by-creating-a-new-cadre-of-citizen-neuroscientists
#19
Jane Roskams, Zoran Popović
Global neuroscience projects are producing big data at an unprecedented rate that informatic and artificial intelligence (AI) analytics simply cannot handle. Online games, like Foldit, Eterna, and Eyewire-and now a new neuroscience game, Mozak-are fueling a people-powered research science (PPRS) revolution, creating a global community of "new experts" that over time synergize with computational efforts to accelerate scientific progress, empowering us to use our collective cerebral talents to drive our understanding of our brain...
November 2, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810004/enabling-an-open-data-ecosystem-for-the-neurosciences
#20
Martin Wiener, Friedrich T Sommer, Zachary G Ives, Russell A Poldrack, Brian Litt
As the pace and complexity of neuroscience data grow, an open data ecosystem must develop and grow with it to allow neuroscientists the ability to reach for new heights of discovery. However, the problems and complexities of neuroscience data sharing must first be addressed. Among the challenges facing data sharing in neuroscience, the problem of incentives, discoverability, and sustainability may be the most pressing. We here describe these problems and provide potential future solutions to help cultivate an ecosystem for data sharing...
November 2, 2016: Neuron
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