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Ryuta Koyama, Yuji Ikegaya
The question of whether mossy fiber sprouting is epileptogenic has not been resolved; both sprouting-induced recurrent excitatory and inhibitory circuit hypotheses have been experimentally (but not fully) supported. Therefore, whether mossy fiber sprouting is a potential therapeutic target for epilepsy remains under debate. Moreover, the axon guidance mechanisms of mossy fiber sprouting have attracted the interest of neuroscientists. Sprouting of mossy fibers exhibits several uncommon axonal growth features in the basically non-plastic adult brain...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Wenyuan Li, Igor V Ovchinnikov, Honglin Chen, Zhe Wang, Albert Lee, Houchul Lee, Carlos Cepeda, Robert N Schwartz, Karlheinz Meier, Kang L Wang
The extreme complexity of the brain has attracted the attention of neuroscientists and other researchers for a long time. More recently, the neuromorphic hardware has matured to provide a tool to study neuronal dynamics. Here, we study neuronal dynamics using different sets of settings on a neuromorphic chip built with flexible parameters of neuron models. Our unique setting in the network of leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) neurons is to introduce a weak noise environment. We observed three different types of collective neuronal activities, each with a clear boundary separating the different types of activity (phase transition)...
June 12, 2018: Neural Computation
Andy Tay, Ali Sohrabi, Kate Poole, Stephanie Seidlits, Dino Di Carlo
Neuromodulation tools are useful to decipher and modulate neural circuitries implicated in functions and diseases. Existing electrical and chemical tools cannot offer specific neural modulation while optogenetics has limitations for deep tissue interfaces, which might be overcome by miniaturized optoelectronic devices in the future. Here, a 3D magnetic hyaluronic hydrogel is described that offers noninvasive neuromodulation via magnetomechanical stimulation of primary dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. The hydrogel shares similar biochemical and biophysical properties as the extracellular matrix of spinal cord, facilitating healthy growth of functional neurites and expression of excitatory and inhibitory ion channels...
June 10, 2018: Advanced Materials
Maurizio Pocchiari, Jean Manson
This is the first volume of the Handbook of Clinical Neurology totally devoted to prion diseases. The reason for this choice is to inform neurologists and neuroscientists about the remarkable advances that this field has made in the diagnosis of human and animal prion diseases, understanding the pathogenesis of disease, and in the development of novel in vivo and in vitro models. In recent years, the knowledge of prion replication and mechanisms of prion spreading within the brain and peripheral organs of infected people has also become important for understanding other protein misfolded diseases of the brain, such as Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Raag D Airan, Kim Butts Pauly
Many neuroscientists are excited regarding the potential of ultrasound to yield spatiotemporally precise and noninvasive modulation of arbitrary brain regions. Here, Guo et al. (2018) and Sato et al. (2018) show that applying ultrasound to rodent brains activates acoustic responses more prominently than eliciting neuromodulation directly, suggesting potential confounds of ultrasound neuromodulation experiments.
June 6, 2018: Neuron
Ivan Tochitsky, Michael A Kienzler, Ehud Isacoff, Richard H Kramer
Degenerative retinal diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) affect millions of people around the world and lead to irreversible vision loss if left untreated. A number of therapeutic strategies have been developed over the years to treat these diseases or restore vision to already blind patients. In this Review, we describe the development and translational application of light-sensitive chemical photoswitches to restore visual function to the blind retina and compare the translational potential of photoswitches with other vision-restoring therapies...
June 6, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Alison Abbott
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Nature
Sarah L Eagleman, David R Drover
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Electroencephalography (EEG) was introduced into anesthesia practice in the 1990s as a tool to titrate anesthetic depth. However, limitations in current analysis techniques have called into question whether these techniques improve standard of care, or instead call for improved, more ubiquitously applicable measures to assess anesthetic transitions and depth. This review highlights emerging analytical approaches and techniques from neuroscience research that have the potential to better capture anesthetic transitions to provide better measurements of anesthetic depth...
May 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Natasha Parikh, Luka Ruzic, Gregory W Stewart, R Nathan Spreng, Felipe De Brigard
Counterfactual thinking (CFT) is the process of mentally simulating alternative versions of known facts. In the past decade, cognitive neuroscientists have begun to uncover the neural underpinnings of CFT, particularly episodic CFT (eCFT), which activates regions in the default network (DN) also activated by episodic memory (eM) recall. However, the engagement of DN regions is different for distinct kinds of eCFT. More plausible counterfactuals and counterfactuals about oneself show stronger activity in DN regions compared to implausible and other- or object-focused counterfactuals...
May 25, 2018: NeuroImage
Filiz Onat, Medine Gülçebi İdriz Oğlu, Safiye Çavdar
Ray (Rainner) Guillery was a perfect scientist role model for the young generation. He was very generous in sharing his scientific knowledge and had an enormous sense of humor which showed his brilliant sharp intelligence. We had the privilege to work with him for four years (2006-2010) in Marmara University, Istanbul and kept in contact until he passed away in 2017. As neuroscientists, we were not the only ones to greatly benefit from his experience during his stay in the Departments of Anatomy and Pharmacology, he was also in contactwith the other departments (Public Health, Histology, Internal Medicine, etc) of the medical faculty...
May 28, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Michael Lohse, Victoria M Bajo, Andrew J King
Ray Guillery was a neuroscientist known primarily for his ground-breaking studies on the development of the visual pathways and subsequently on the nature of thalamocortical processing loops. The legacy of his work, however, extends well beyond the visual system. Thanks to Ray Guillery's pioneering anatomical studies, the ferret has become a widely used animal model for investigating the development and plasticity of sensory processing. This includes our own work on the auditory system, where experiments in ferrets have revealed the role of sensory experience during development in shaping the neural circuits responsible for sound localization, as well as the capacity of the mature brain to adapt to changes in inputs resulting from hearing loss...
May 27, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Arielle Baker, Brian Kalmbach, Mieko Morishima, Juhyun Kim, Ashley Juavinett, Nuo Li, Nikolai Dembrow
Neocortical pyramidal neurons with somata in layers 5 and 6 are among the most visually striking and enigmatic neurons in the brain. These deep-layer pyramidal neurons (DLPNs) integrate a plethora of cortical and extracortical synaptic inputs along their impressive dendritic arbors. The pattern of cortical output to both local and long-distance targets is sculpted by the unique physiological properties of specific DLPN subpopulations. Here we revisit two broad DLPN subpopulations: those that send their axons within the telencephalon (intratelencephalic, or IT neurons) and those that project to additional target areas outside the telencephalon (extratelencephalic, or ET neurons)...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
William P Seeley
It has recently been suggested that research in neuroscience of art has failed to bring art into focus in the laboratory. Two general arguments are brought to bear in the regard. The common perceptual mechanisms argument observes that neuroscientists working within this field develop models to explain art relative to the ways that artworks are fine-tuned to the operations of perceptual systems. However, these perceptual explanations apply equally to how viewers come to recognize and understand art and nonart objects and events...
2018: Progress in Brain Research
Robert Pepperell
Recent years have seen a growing interest among neuroscientists and vision scientists in art and aesthetics, exemplifying a more general trend toward interdisciplinary integration in the arts, humanities, and sciences. However, true art-science integration remains a distant prospect due to fundamental differences in outlook and approach between disciplines. I consider two great challenges for any project designed to explain the role of the brain in art appreciation. First, scientists and artists need to identify common ground, common questions, and a shared motivation for inquiry...
2018: Progress in Brain Research
Margaret R Bell
Postnatal development includes dramatic changes in gonadal hormones and the many social behaviors they help regulate, both in rodents and humans. Parental care-seeking is the most salient social interaction in neonates and infants, play and pro-social behaviors are commonly studied in juveniles, and the development of aggression and sexual behavior begins in peripubertal stages but continues through late adolescence into adulthood. While parental behaviors are shown after reproductive success in adulthood, alloparenting behaviors are actually high in juveniles as well...
May 14, 2018: Endocrinology
Arshad M Khan, Jose G Perez, Claire E Wells, Olac Fuentes
The rat has arguably the most widely studied brain among all animals, with numerous reference atlases for rat brain having been published since 1946. For example, many neuroscientists have used the atlases of Paxinos and Watson ( PW , first published in 1982) or Swanson ( S , first published in 1992) as guides to probe or map specific rat brain structures and their connections. Despite nearly three decades of contemporaneous publication, no independent attempt has been made to establish a basic framework that allows data mapped in PW to be placed in register with S , or vice versa...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Esther T Stoeckli
During nervous system development, neurons extend axons to reach their targets and form functional circuits. The faulty assembly or disintegration of such circuits results in disorders of the nervous system. Thus, understanding the molecular mechanisms that guide axons and lead to neural circuit formation is of interest not only to developmental neuroscientists but also for a better comprehension of neural disorders. Recent studies have demonstrated how crosstalk between different families of guidance receptors can regulate axonal navigation at choice points, and how changes in growth cone behaviour at intermediate targets require changes in the surface expression of receptors...
May 14, 2018: Development
Charitha Guruge, Yannick P Ouedraogo, Richard Louis Comitz, Jingxuan Ma, Attila Losonczy, Nasri Nesnas
Glutamate is an excitatory neurotransmitter that controls numerous pathways in the brain. Neuroscientists make use of photoremovable protecting groups, also known as cages, to release glutamate with precise spatial and temporal control. Various cage designs have been developed and amongst the most effective has been the nitroindolinyl caging of glutamate. We, hereby, report an improved synthesis of one of the current leading molecules of caged glutamate, 4-carboxymethoxy-5,7-dinitroindolinyl glutamate (CDNI-Glu), which possesses efficiencies with the highest reported quantum yield of at least 0...
May 11, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Nathan J Kirkpatrick, Vengateswaran J Ravichandran, Eric J Perreault, Sydney Y Schaefer, Claire F Honeycutt
The ability of the classic startle reflex to evoke voluntarily prepared movement involuntarily has captured the attention of neuroscientists for its wide-ranging functional utility and potential uses in patient populations. To date, there is only one documented task resistant to the startReact phenomenon-index finger abduction. Previous reports have suggested the lack of startReact is due to different neural mechanisms driving individuated finger movement and more proximal joint control (e.g. elbow, wrist movement)...
2018: PloS One
Carlos Henrique Xavier, Michelle Mendanha Mendonça, Fernanda Ribeiro Marins, Elder Sales da Silva, Danielle Ianzer, Diego Basile Colugnati, Gustavo Rodrigues Pedrino, Marco Antonio Peliky Fontes
Many particularities concerning interhemispheric differences still need to be explored and unveiled. Functional and anatomical differential features found between left and right brain sides are best known as asymmetries and are consequence of the unilateral neuronal recruitment or predominance that is set to organize some function. The outflow from different neural pathways involved in the autonomic control of the cardiovascular system may route through asymmetrically relayed efferences (ipsilateral/lateralized and/or contralateral)...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
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