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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444488/challenges-and-opportunities-for-large-scale-electrophysiology-with-neuropixels-probes
#1
REVIEW
Nicholas A Steinmetz, Christof Koch, Kenneth D Harris, Matteo Carandini
Electrophysiological methods are the gold standard in neuroscience because they reveal the activity of individual neurons at high temporal resolution and in arbitrary brain locations. Microelectrode arrays based on complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology, such as Neuropixels probes, look set to transform these methods. Neuropixels probes provide ∼1000 recording sites on an extremely narrow shank, with on-board amplification, digitization, and multiplexing. They deliver low-noise recordings from hundreds of neurons, providing a step change in the type of data available to neuroscientists...
February 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427653/advancing-neuroscience-research-in-africa-invertebrate-species-to-the-rescue
#2
Wasiu Gbolahan Balogun, Ansa Emmanuel Cobham, Abdulbasit Amin, Azman Seeni
Neuroscience research and training in many African countries are difficult due to funding and infrastructure deficit. This has resulted in few neuroscientists within Africa. However, invertebrates such as Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans could provide the perfect answer to these difficulties. These organisms are cheap, easy to handle and offer a comparable advantage over vertebrates in neuroscience research modelling because they have a simple nervous system and exhibit well-defined behaviours. Studies using invertebrates have helped to understand neurosciences and the complexes associated with it...
February 7, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414071/sex-differences-in-behavioral-strategies-avoiding-interpretational-pitfalls
#3
REVIEW
Rebecca M Shansky
Despite ample evidence for sex differences in brain structure and function, our understanding of the neurobiological basis of behavior comes almost exclusively from male animals. As neuroscientists move to comply with recent NIH mandates that biomedical researchers include both sexes in their studies, the ways we interpret outcomes in classic rodent behavioral models deserve closer scrutiny and more nuanced evaluation. In this mini-review, we highlight recent sex differences papers in learning, decision-making, and spatial navigation paradigms that underscore the distinctions between cognitive capabilities versus behavioral strategies that may confer unique benefits to males and females...
February 1, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413516/multiple-pathways-mediate-microrna-degradation-focus-on-the-translin-trax-rnase-complex
#4
Jay M Baraban, Aparna Shah, Xiuping Fu
The discovery of the microRNA system has revolutionized our understanding of translational control. Furthermore, growing appreciation of the pivotal role that de novo translation plays in activity-dependent synaptic plasticity has fueled interest among neuroscientists in deciphering how the microRNA system impacts neuronal signaling and the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. Although we have a general understanding of how the microRNA system operates, many key questions remain. In particular, the biosynthesis of microRNAs and their role in translational silencing are fairly well understood...
2018: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413401/pawan-sinha
#5
Pawan Sinha
An interview with Pawan Sinha, a computational neuroscientist interested in vision, particularly visual object discovery, something he has been investigating via 'Project Prakash' on children in rural India born with treatable blindness.
May 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402231/the-first-international-conference-on-syngap1-related-brain-disorders-a-stakeholder-meeting-of-families-researchers-clinicians-and-regulators
#6
REVIEW
Monica Weldon, Murat Kilinc, J Lloyd Holder, Gavin Rumbaugh
BACKGROUND: Pathologic mutations in SYNGAP1 cause a genetically defined form of intellectual disability (ID) with comorbid epilepsy and autistic features. While only recently discovered, pathogenicity of this gene is a relatively frequent genetic cause of classically undefined developmental delay that progresses to ID with commonly occurring comorbidities. MAIN BODY: A meeting of 150 people was held that included affected individuals and their caregivers, clinicians that treat this and related brain disorders, neuroscientists that study SYNGAP1 biology or the function of related genes, and representatives from government agencies that fund science and approve new medical treatments...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385923/high-intensity-focused-ultrasound-past-present-and-future-in-neurosurgery
#7
Syed A Quadri, Muhammad Waqas, Inamullah Khan, Muhammad Adnan Khan, Sajid S Suriya, Mudassir Farooqui, Brian Fiani
Since Lynn and colleagues first described the use of focused ultrasound (FUS) waves for intracranial ablation in 1942, many strides have been made toward the treatment of several brain pathologies using this novel technology. In the modern era of minimal invasiveness, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) promises therapeutic utility for multiple neurosurgical applications, including treatment of tumors, stroke, epilepsy, and functional disorders. Although the use of HIFU as a potential therapeutic modality in the brain has been under study for several decades, relatively few neuroscientists, neurologists, or even neurosurgeons are familiar with it...
February 2018: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380886/the-behavioral-genetics-of-nonhuman-primates-status-and-prospects
#8
Jeffrey Rogers
The complexity and diversity of primate behavior have long attracted the attention of ethologists, psychologists, behavioral ecologists, and neuroscientists. Recent studies have advanced our understanding of the nature of genetic influences on differences in behavior among individuals within species. A number of analyses have focused on the genetic analysis of behavioral reactions to specific experimental tests, providing estimates of the degree of genetic control over reactivity, and beginning to identify the genes involved...
January 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380458/two-paths-diverged-in-the-brain-ray-guillery-chose-the-one-less-studied
#9
Jeff Hawkins
Ray Guillery profoundly affected my work as a theorist studying the neocortex. What I treasured about Ray was that he didn't just report his experimental findings, he promoted bold new interpretations of them. He challenged conventional wisdom, and, therefore, challenged all neuroscientists to think differently. In this essay, I describe one of Ray's bold ideas, the critical role of the thalamus in how information flows from region to region in the neocortex. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
January 30, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380453/when-neuroscience-met-clinical-pathology-partitioning-experimental-variation-to-aid-data-interpretation-in-neuroscience
#10
Nick D Jeffery, Simon T Bate, Sina Safayi, Matt Howard, Lawrence Moon, Unity Jeffery
In animal experiments, neuroscientists typically assess the effectiveness of interventions by comparing the average response of groups of treated and untreated animals. While providing useful insights, focusing only on group effects risks overemphasis of small, statistically significant but physiologically unimportant differences. Such differences can be created by analytical variability or physiological within-individual variation, especially if the number of animals in each group is small enough that one or two outlier values can have considerable impact on the summary measures for the group...
January 29, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374138/a-shared-vision-for-machine-learning-in-neuroscience
#11
Mai-Anh T Vu, Tulay Adali, Demba Ba, Gyorgy Buzsaki, David Carlson, Katherine Heller, Conor Liston, Cynthia Rudin, Vikaas Sohal, Alik S Widge, Helen S Mayberg, Guillermo Sapiro, Kafui Dzirasa
With ever-increasing advancements in technology, neuroscientists are able to collect data in greater volumes and with finer resolution. The bottleneck in understanding how the brain works is consequently shifting away from the amount and type of data we can collect and toward what we actually do with the data. There has been a growing interest in leveraging this vast volume of data across levels of analysis, measurement techniques, and experimental paradigms to gain more insight into brain function. Such efforts are visible at an international scale, with the emergence of big data neuroscience initiatives such as the BRAIN initiative(Bargmann et al...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371024/from-neuroscience-to-evidence-based-psychological-treatments-the-promise-and-the-challenge-ecnp-march-2016-nice-france
#12
Guy M Goodwin, Emily A Holmes, Erik Andersson, Michael Browning, Andrew Jones, Johanna Lass-Hennemann, Kristoffer Nt Månsson, Carolin Moessnang, Elske Salemink, Alvaro Sanchez, Linda van Zutphen, Renée M Visser
This ECNP meeting was designed to build bridges between different constituencies of mental illness treatment researchers from a range of backgrounds with a specific focus on enhancing the development of novel, evidence based, psychological treatments. In particular we wished to explore the potential for basic neuroscience to support the development of more effective psychological treatments, just as this approach is starting to illuminate the actions of drugs. To fulfil this aim, a selection of clinical psychologists, psychiatrists and neuroscientists were invited to sit at the same table...
January 19, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368697/how-do-reference-montage-and-electrodes-setup-affect-the-measured-scalp-eeg-potentials
#13
Shiang Hu, Yongxiu Lai, Pedro A Valdes-Sosa, Maria L Bringas-Vega, Dezhong Yao
OBJECTIVE: Human scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) is widely applied in cognitive neuroscience and clinical studies due to its non-invasiveness and ultra-high time resolution. However, the representativeness of the measured EEG potentials for the underneath neural activities is still a problem under debate. This study aims to investigate systematically how both reference montage and electrodes setup affect the accuracy of EEG potentials. APPROACH: First, the standard EEG potentials are generated by the forward calculation with a single dipole in the neural source space, for eleven channel numbers (10, 16, 21, 32, 64, 85, 96, 128, 129, 257, 335)...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363623/a-low-cost-microwell-device-for-high-resolution-imaging-of-neurite-outgrowth-in-3d
#14
Yuan Ren, Michael J Mlodzianoski, Aih Cheun Lee, Fang Huang, Daniel Marcel Suter
<i>Objective</i>. Current neuronal cell culture is mostly performed on two-dimensional (2D) surfaces, which lack many of the important features of the native environment of neurons, including topographical cues, deformable extracellular matrix, and spatial isotropy or anisotropy in three dimensions. Although three-dimensional (3D) cell culture systems provide a more physiologically relevant environment than 2D systems, their popularity is greatly hampered by the lack of easy-to-make and -use devices...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352036/multiple-memory-systems-multiple-time-points-how-science-can-inform-treatment-to-control-the-expression-of-unwanted-emotional-memories
#15
REVIEW
Renée M Visser, Alex Lau-Zhu, Richard N Henson, Emily A Holmes
Memories that have strong emotions associated with them are particularly resilient to forgetting. This is not necessarily problematic, however some aspects of memory can be. In particular, the involuntary expression of those memories, e.g. intrusive memories after trauma, are core to certain psychological disorders. Since the beginning of this century, research using animal models shows that it is possible to change the underlying memory, for example by interfering with its consolidation or reconsolidation...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352035/using-mouse-transgenic-and-human-stem-cell-technologies-to-model-genetic-mutations-associated-with-schizophrenia-and-autism
#16
REVIEW
David St Clair, Mandy Johnstone
Solid progress has occurred over the last decade in our understanding of the molecular genetic basis of neurodevelopmental disorders, and of schizophrenia and autism in particular. Although the genetic architecture of both disorders is far more complex than previously imagined, many key loci have at last been identified. This has allowed in vivo and in vitro technologies to be refined to model specific high-penetrant genetic loci involved in both disorders. Using the DISC1/NDE1 and CYFIP1/EIF4E loci as exemplars, we explore the opportunities and challenges of using animal models and human-induced pluripotent stem cell technologies to further understand/treat and potentially reverse the worst consequences of these debilitating disorders...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352034/translational-new-approaches-for-investigating-mood-disorders-in-rodents-and-what-they-may-reveal-about-the-underlying-neurobiology-of-major-depressive-disorder
#17
REVIEW
Emma S J Robinson
Mood disorders represent one of society's most costly and challenging health burdens. The drug treatments used today were initially discovered serendipitously in the 1950s. Animal models were then developed based on the ability of these drugs to alter specific behaviours. These models have played a major role in the development of the second generation of antidepressants. However, their use has been heavily criticized, particularly in relation to whether they recapitulate similar underlying biology to the psychiatric disorder they are proposed to represent...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352033/data-driven-criteria-to-assess-fear-remission-and-phenotypic-variability-of-extinction-in-rats
#18
Jason Shumake, Carolyn Jones, Allison Auchter, Marie-Hélène Monfils
Fear conditioning is widely employed to examine the mechanisms that underlie dysregulations of the fear system. Various manipulations are often used following fear acquisition to attenuate fear memories. In rodent studies, freezing is often the main output measure to quantify 'fear'. Here, we developed data-driven criteria for defining a standard benchmark that indicates remission from conditioned fear and for identifying subgroups with differential treatment responses. These analyses will enable a better understanding of individual differences in treatment responding...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352032/the-surprising-subtleties-of-changing-fear-memory-a-challenge-for-translational-science
#19
REVIEW
Merel Kindt
Current pharmacological and psychological treatments for disorders of emotional memory only dampen the affective response while leaving the original fear memory intact. Under adverse circumstances, these original memories regain prominence, causing relapses in many patients. The (re)discovery in neuroscience that after reactivation consolidated fear memories may return to a transient labile state, requiring a process of restabilization in order to persist, offers a window of opportunity for modifying fear memories with amnestic agents...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352031/can-we-use-mice-to-study-schizophrenia
#20
REVIEW
Sarah Canetta, Christoph Kellendonk
The validity of rodent models for the study of psychiatric disorders is controversial. Despite great efforts from academic institutions and pharmaceutical companies, as of today, no major therapeutic intervention has been developed for the treatment of psychiatric disorders based on mechanistic insights from rodent models. Here, we argue that despite these historical shortcomings, rodent studies are nevertheless instrumental for identifying neuronal circuit mechanisms underlying behaviours that are affected in psychiatric disorders...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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