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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235448/how-do-the-reference-montage-and-electrodes-setup-affect-the-measured-scalp-eeg-potentials
#1
Shiang Hu, Yongxiu Lai, Pedro Antonio Valdés-Sosa, Maria Luisa Brings-Vega, Dezhong Yao
OBJECTIVE: Human scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) is widely applied in cognitive neuroscience and clinical studies due to its non-invasiveness and ultra-high time resolution. However, the representativeness of the measured EEG potentials for the underneath neural activities is still a problem under debate. This study aims to investigate systematically how both reference montage and electrodes setup affect the accuracy of EEG potentials. APPROACH: First, the standard EEG potentials are generated by the forward calculation with a single dipole in the neural source space, for eleven channel numbers (10, 16, 21, 32, 64, 85, 96, 128, 129, 257, 335)...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210884/discrepancy-between-cerebral-structure-and-cognitive-functioning-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Michael Nahm, David Rousseau, Bruce Greyson
Neuroscientists typically assume that human mental functions are generated by the brain and that its structural elements, including the different cell layers and tissues that form the neocortex, play specific roles in this complex process. Different functional units are thought to complement one another to create an integrated self-awareness or episodic memory. Still, findings that pertain to brain dysplasia and brain lesions indicate that in some individuals there is a considerable discrepancy between the cerebral structures and cognitive functioning...
December 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209192/response-of-electrical-activity-in-an-improved-neuron-model-under-electromagnetic-radiation-and-noise
#3
Feibiao Zhan, Shenquan Liu
Electrical activities are ubiquitous neuronal bioelectric phenomena, which have many different modes to encode the expression of biological information, and constitute the whole process of signal propagation between neurons. Therefore, we focus on the electrical activities of neurons, which is also causing widespread concern among neuroscientists. In this paper, we mainly investigate the electrical activities of the Morris-Lecar (M-L) model with electromagnetic radiation or Gaussian white noise, which can restore the authenticity of neurons in realistic neural network...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200477/evolutionary-algorithm-optimization-of-biological-learning-parameters-in-a-biomimetic-neuroprosthesis
#4
S Dura-Bernal, S A Neymotin, C C Kerr, S Sivagnanam, A Majumdar, J T Francis, W W Lytton
Biomimetic simulation permits neuroscientists to better understand the complex neuronal dynamics of the brain. Embedding a biomimetic simulation in a closed-loop neuroprosthesis, which can read and write signals from the brain, will permit applications for amelioration of motor, psychiatric, and memory-related brain disorders. Biomimetic neuroprostheses require real-time adaptation to changes in the external environment, thus constituting an example of a dynamic data-driven application system. As model fidelity increases, so does the number of parameters and the complexity of finding appropriate parameter configurations...
March 2017: IBM Journal of Research and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178557/theta-synchronization-over-occipito-temporal-cortices-during-visual-perception-of-body-parts
#5
Quentin Moreau, Enea Francesco Pavone, Salvatore Maria Aglioti, Matteo Candidi
Categorical clustering in the visual system is thought to have evolved as a function of intrinsic (intra-areal) and extrinsic (inter-areal) connectivity and experience. In the visual system, the Extrastriate Body Area (EBA), an occipito-temporal region, responds to full body and body part images under the organizational principle of their functional/semantic meaning. Although frequency-specific modulations of neural activity associated with perceptive and cognitive functions are increasingly attracting the interest of neurophysiologists and cognitive neuroscientists, perceiving single body-parts with different functional meaning and full body images induces time-frequency modulations over occipito-temporal electrodes are yet to be described...
November 27, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163069/notes-on-the-recent-history-of-neuroscience-in-africa
#6
REVIEW
Vivienne A Russell
Neuroscience began with neuroanatomy and neurosurgery in Egypt more than 5000 years ago. Knowledge grew over time and specialized neurosurgery centers were established in north Africa in the eleventh century. However, it was not until the twentieth century that neuroscience research became established in sub-Saharan Africa. In most African countries, clinical research focused on understanding the rationale and improving treatment of epilepsy, infections, nutritional neuropathies, stroke and tumors. Significant advances were made...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162521/intrinsic-insula-network-engagement-underlying-children-s-reading-and-arithmetic-skills
#7
Ting-Ting Chang, Pei-Hong Lee, Arron W S Metcalfe
The neural substrates of children's reading and arithmetic skills have long been of great interest to cognitive neuroscientists. However, most previous studies have focused on the contrast between these skills as specific domains. Here, we investigate the potentially shared processes across these domains by focusing on how the neural circuits associated with cognitive control influence reading and arithmetic proficiency in 8-to-10-year-old children. Using a task-free resting state approach, we correlated the intrinsic functional connectivity of the right anterior insula (rAI) network with performance on assessments of Chinese character recognition, reading comprehension, subtraction, and multiplication performance...
November 21, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146193/detection-of-relationships-among-multi-modal-brain-imaging-meta-features-via-information-flow
#8
Robyn L Miller, Victor M Vergara, Vince D Calhoun
BACKGROUND: Neuroscientists and clinical researchers are awash in data from an ever-growing number of imaging and other bio-behavioral modalities. This flow of brain imaging data, taken under resting and various task conditions, combines with available cognitive measures, behavioral information, genetic data plus other potentially salient biomedical and environmental information to create a rich but diffuse data landscape. The conditions being studied with brain imaging data are often extremely complex and it is common for researchers to employ more than one imaging, behavioral or biological data modality (e...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137922/extracellular-vesicles-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Tommaso Croese, Roberto Furlan
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are released by all neural cells, including neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia. The lack of adequate technology has not halted neuroscientists from investigating EVs as a mean to decipher neurodegenerative disorders, still in search of comprehensible pathogenic mechanisms and efficient treatment. EVs are thought to be one of ways neurodegenerative pathologies spread in the brain, but also one of the ways the brain tries to displace toxic proteins, making their meaning in pathogenesis uncertain...
November 11, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123476/multi-scale-computational-models-for-electrical-brain-stimulation
#10
REVIEW
Hyeon Seo, Sung C Jun
Electrical brain stimulation (EBS) is an appealing method to treat neurological disorders. To achieve optimal stimulation effects and a better understanding of the underlying brain mechanisms, neuroscientists have proposed computational modeling studies for a decade. Recently, multi-scale models that combine a volume conductor head model and multi-compartmental models of cortical neurons have been developed to predict stimulation effects on the macroscopic and microscopic levels more precisely. As the need for better computational models continues to increase, we overview here recent multi-scale modeling studies; we focused on approaches that coupled a simplified or high-resolution volume conductor head model and multi-compartmental models of cortical neurons, and constructed realistic fiber models using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111773/factors-to-consider-when-reviewing-and-reconciling-research-findings-methodological-statistical-and-theoretical
#11
Sally J Robinson
Neuroscience is a rapidly evolving interdisciplinary field that is changing the way research is conducted and theories are developed. However, variability between studies and apparently discrepant findings may contribute to difficulties identifying commonalities that can help inform and enhance clinical practice. This article presents a framework to consider when reviewing neuropsychological studies, such that apparent discrepancies in findings may be considered in unison to provide informed theoretical understanding...
November 7, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081422/neural-activation-patterns-and-connectivity-in-visual-attention-during-number-and-non-number-processing-an-erp-study-using-the-ishihara-pseudoisochromatic-plates
#12
Faraj Al-Marri, Faruque Reza, Tahamina Begum, Wan Hazabbah Wan Hitam, Goh Khean Jin, Jing Xiang
Visual cognitive function is important to build up executive function in daily life. Perception of visual Number form (e.g., Arabic digit) and numerosity (magnitude of the Number) is of interest to cognitive neuroscientists. Neural correlates and the functional measurement of Number representations are complex occurrences when their semantic categories are assimilated with other concepts of shape and colour. Colour perception can be processed further to modulate visual cognition. The Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates are one of the best and most common screening tools for basic red-green colour vision testing...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080022/learning-as-a-functional-state-of-the-brain-studies-in-wild-type-and-transgenic-animals
#13
José M Delgado-García, Agnès Gruart
Contemporary neuroscientists are paying increasing attention to subcellular, molecular, and electrophysiological mechanisms underlying learning and memory processes. Recent studies have examined the development of transgenic mice affected at different stages of the learning process, or have emulated in animals various human pathological conditions involving cognition and motor learning. However, a parallel effort is needed to develop stimulating and recording techniques suitable for use in behaving mice in order to understand activity-dependent synaptic changes taking place during the very moment of the learning process...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077801/introduction-to-the-special-issue-on-clinical-neuropsychology-of-movement-disorders
#14
Alexander I Tröster
The special issue on the clinical neuropsychology of movement disorders provides an overview for the non-subspecialist clinical neuropsychologist and other clinical neuroscientists of the neuropsychological features, assessment and treatment of Parkinson's disease and Lewy body dementias, atypical parkinsonian disorders (corticobasal syndrome, progressive supranuclear palsy, and multiple system atrophy), Huntington's disease, dystonia, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Additionally, articles provide overviews of neuropsychological and ethical issues related to deep brain stimulation and a discussion of non-pharamcologic and non-invasive treatment of cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson's disease...
November 1, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076667/glutamine-augments-neuronal-network-activity-in-rat-hippocampal-slices
#15
Mujeeb Ur Rehman, Muhammad Mushtaq, Muhammad Azhar Sherkheli
BACKGROUND: In recent past, a huge number of in vitro electrophysiological techniques have been developed to explore underlying mechanisms of most complicated functions of brain. Neurophysiologist and neuroscientist use different compositions of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) usually based on ionic and energy demands of neurons but these compositions lack amino acids such as aspartic acid, taurine and glutamine. METHODS: We used in vitro electrophysiological recording technique to estimate the effects of glutamine, an amino acid and precursor of neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA, on hippocampal sharp wave ripple activity (SPW-R) in rats...
July 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074767/what-constitutes-the-prefrontal-cortex
#16
REVIEW
Marie Carlén
During evolution, the prefrontal region grew in size relative to the rest of the cortex. It reached its largest extent in the human brain, where it constitutes 30% of the total cortical area. This growth was accompanied by phylogenetic differentiation of the cortical areas. It has been argued that the human brain holds prefrontal regions that are both qualitatively and functionally unique. Present-day neuroscientists studying the prefrontal cortex increasingly use mice. An important goal is to reveal how the prefrontal cortex enables complex behavior...
October 27, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068098/dynamical-response-properties-of-neocortical-neurons-to-conductance-driven-time-varying-inputs
#17
Daniele Linaro, István Biró, Michele Giugliano
Ensembles of cortical neurons can track fast-varying inputs and relay them in their spike trains, far beyond the cutoff imposed by membrane passive electrical properties and mean firing rates. Initially explored in silico and later demonstrated experimentally, investigating how neurons respond to sinusoidally-modulated stimuli provides a deeper insight into spike-initiation mechanisms and information processing than conventional F-I curve methodologies. Besides net membrane currents, physiological synaptic inputs can also induce a stimulus-dependent modulation of the total membrane conductance, which is not reproduced by standard current-clamp protocols...
October 25, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066383/the-origins-of-the-british-neuroscience-association
#18
Edward H Reynolds
I describe the origins of the British Neuroscience Association (BNA) based on new documents which I have discovered. The foundation of the Brain Research Association (BRA) on February 23rd 1968 was influenced by IBRO, notably its two UK Council members, and by many UK neuroscientists, especially the London-based Black Horse Group. The BRA changed its name to the BNA in 1996. The documents are in the Wellcome Trust Archives.
October 21, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060061/building-wireless-implantable-neural-interfaces-within-weeks-for-neuroscientists
#19
C Bentler, T Stieglitz
The variety of "`ready-to-use'" implantable recording and stimulation systems commercially available for neuroscience is very limited and fabrication of custom made implants is commonly considered expensive and time consuming. We present a circuit design that allows cost efficient and fast translation of available components into fully wireless implants. As demonstration fully wireless implantable bidirectional neural interfaces are presented which are made of commercial off-the-shelf components (COTS) only...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058184/hyper-sumoylation-of-k-channels-in-sudden-unexplained-death-in-epilepsy-isolation-and-primary-culture-of-dissociated-hippocampal-neurons-from-newborn-mice-for-subcellular-localization
#20
Xu Chen, Shanshan Zhang, Jifang Huang, Wanying Dong, Hui Xiao, Huanjie Shao, Jinke Cheng, Hongmei Wu, Yitao Qi
The physiological characteristics of rat and murine hippocampal neurons are widely studied, especially because of the involvement of the hippocampus in learning, memory, and neurological functions. Primary cultures of hippocampal neurons are commonly used to discover cellular and molecular mechanisms in neurobiology. By isolating and culturing individual hippocampal neurons, neuroscientists are able to investigate the activity of neurons at the individual cell and single synapse level, and to analyze properties related to cellular structure, cellular trafficking, and individual protein subcellular localization or protein-protein interaction using a variety of biochemical techniques...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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