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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093560/integrating-hebbian-and-homeostatic-plasticity-introduction
#1
Kevin Fox, Michael Stryker
Hebbian plasticity is widely considered to be the mechanism by which information can be coded and retained in neurons in the brain. Homeostatic plasticity moves the neuron back towards its original state following a perturbation, including perturbations produced by Hebbian plasticity. How then does homeostatic plasticity avoid erasing the Hebbian coded information? To understand how plasticity works in the brain, and therefore to understand learning, memory, sensory adaptation, development and recovery from injury, requires development of a theory of plasticity that integrates both forms of plasticity into a whole...
March 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081141/could-a-neuroscientist-understand-a-microprocessor
#2
Eric Jonas, Konrad Paul Kording
There is a popular belief in neuroscience that we are primarily data limited, and that producing large, multimodal, and complex datasets will, with the help of advanced data analysis algorithms, lead to fundamental insights into the way the brain processes information. These datasets do not yet exist, and if they did we would have no way of evaluating whether or not the algorithmically-generated insights were sufficient or even correct. To address this, here we take a classical microprocessor as a model organism, and use our ability to perform arbitrary experiments on it to see if popular data analysis methods from neuroscience can elucidate the way it processes information...
January 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076982/from-structure-to-activity-using-centrality-measures-to-predict-neuronal-activity
#3
Jack McKay Fletcher, Thomas Wennekers
It is clear that the topological structure of a neural network somehow determines the activity of the neurons within it. In the present work, we ask to what extent it is possible to examine the structural features of a network and learn something about its activity? Specifically, we consider how the centrality (the importance of a node in a network) of a neuron correlates with its firing rate. To investigate, we apply an array of centrality measures, including In-Degree, Closeness, Betweenness, Eigenvector, Katz, PageRank, Hyperlink-Induced Topic Search (HITS) and NeuronRank to Leaky-Integrate and Fire neural networks with different connectivity schemes...
November 16, 2016: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076640/frontal-lobe-alterations-in-schizophrenia-a-review
#4
Ateeq Mubarik, Hassaan Tohid
Objective: To highlight the changes in the frontal lobe of the human brain in people with schizophrenia. Methods: This was a qualitative review of the literature. Results: Many schizophrenic patients exhibit functional, structural, and metabolic abnormalities in the frontal lobe. Some patients have few or no alterations, while some have more functional and structural changes than others. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows structural and functional changes in volume, gray matter, white matter, and functional activity in the frontal lobe, but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not yet fully understood...
October 2016: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072386/main-effects-and-interactions-of-cerebral-hemispheres-gender-and-age-in-the-calculation-of-volumes-and-asymmetries-of-selected-structures-of-episodic-memory
#5
Rocio Ramirez-Carmona, Haydee Guadalupe Garcia-Lazaro, Brenda Dominguez-Corrales, Erika Aguilar-Castañeda, Ernesto Roldan-Valadez
The aim of this study was to clarify the influence of anatomical (cerebral hemisphere) and demographic (age and gender) variables on the gray matter (GM) volumes and volumetric asymmetry indices (VAIs) of selected structures involved in episodic memory. A cross-sectional study was performed in 47 healthy volunteers. Neuropsychological evaluation revealed similar IQs across the sample. Using SPM-based software, brain segmentation, labeling and volume measurements of the hippocampus, amygdala, middle temporal gyrus and parahippocampal gyrus were performed in each cerebral hemisphere...
October 2016: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032685/the-dynamics-of-memory-consolidation-of-landmarks
#6
Janneke van Ekert, Joost Wegman, Clemens Jansen, Atsuko Takashima, Gabriele Janzen
Navigating through space is fundamental to human nature and requires the ability to retrieve relevant information from the remote past. With the passage of time, some memories become generic, capturing only a sense of familiarity. Yet, others maintain precision, even when acquired decades ago. Understanding the dynamics of memory consolidation is a major challenge to neuroscientists. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we systematically examined the effects of time and spatial context on the neural representation of landmark recognition memory...
December 29, 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009272/searching-for-signatures-of-brain-maturity-what-are-we-searching-for
#7
Leah H Somerville
Evidence of continued neurobiological maturation through adolescence is increasingly invoked in discussions of youth-focused policies. This should motivate neuroscientists to grapple with core issues such as the definition of brain maturation, how to quantify it, and how to precisely translate this knowledge to broader audiences.
December 21, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998713/dendritic-spine-classification-using-shape-and-appearance-features-based-on-two-photon-microscopy
#8
Muhammad Usman Ghani, Fitsum Mesadi, Sümeyra Demir Kanık, Ali Özgür Argunşah, Anna Felicity Hobbiss, Inbal Israely, Devrim Ünay, Tolga Taşdizen, Müjdat Çetin
BACKGROUND: Neuronal morphology and function are highly coupled. In particular, dendritic spine morphology is strongly governed by the incoming neuronal activity. The first step towards understanding the structure-function relationships is to classify spine shapes into the main spine types suggested in the literature. Due to the lack of reliable automated analysis tools, classification is mostly performed manually, which is a time-intensive task and prone to subjectivity. NEW METHOD: We propose an automated method to classify dendritic spines using shape and appearance features based on challenging two-photon laser scanning microscopy (2PLSM) data...
December 17, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965065/recurrent-themes-in-the-history-of-the-home-use-of-electrical-stimulation-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-and-the-medical-battery-1870-1920
#9
REVIEW
Anna Wexler
BACKGROUND: In recent years, neuroscientists and ethicists have warned of the dangers of the unsupervised home use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), in which individuals stimulate their own brains with low levels of electricity for self-improvement purposes. Although the home use of tDCS is often referred to as a novel phenomenon, in reality the late nineteenth and early twentieth century saw a proliferation of electrical stimulation devices for home use. In particular, the use of an object known as the medical battery bears a number of striking similarities to the modern-day use of tDCS...
November 29, 2016: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930910/the-neurobiology-of-zika-virus
#10
REVIEW
Hongda Li, Laura Saucedo-Cuevas, Sujan Shresta, Joseph G Gleeson
Zika virus (ZIVK) represents a new threat to global health, with particular relevance to neuroscientists, due to associated newborn and adult neurological disease. Consequences of vertical infection include microcephaly with brain and eye anomalies, and consequences of adult infection include Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and meningoencephalitis. Recent data suggest specific vulnerability of neural progenitors to infection, leading to cell death and brain calcification, reminiscent of other viral syndromes...
December 7, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924903/where-will-all-the-new-neuroscientists-go
#11
Gary Stix
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 16, 2016: Scientific American
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911497/neural-plasticity-across-the-lifespan
#12
REVIEW
Jonathan D Power, Bradley L Schlaggar
An essential feature of the brain is its capacity to change. Neuroscientists use the term 'plasticity' to describe the malleability of neuronal connectivity and circuitry. How does plasticity work? A review of current data suggests that plasticity encompasses many distinct phenomena, some of which operate across most or all of the lifespan, and others that operate exclusively in early development. This essay surveys some of the key concepts related to neural plasticity, beginning with how current patterns of neural activity (e...
January 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909400/the-demise-of-the-synapse-as-the-locus-of-memory-a-looming-paradigm-shift
#13
Patrick C Trettenbrein
Synaptic plasticity is widely considered to be the neurobiological basis of learning and memory by neuroscientists and researchers in adjacent fields, though diverging opinions are increasingly being recognized. From the perspective of what we might call "classical cognitive science" it has always been understood that the mind/brain is to be considered a computational-representational system. Proponents of the information-processing approach to cognitive science have long been critical of connectionist or network approaches to (neuro-)cognitive architecture, pointing to the shortcomings of the associative psychology that underlies Hebbian learning as well as to the fact that synapses are practically unfit to implement symbols...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900929/main-effects-and-interactions-of-cerebral-hemispheres-gender-and-age-in-the-calculation-of-volumes-and-asymmetries-of-selected-structures-of-episodic-memory
#14
Rocio Ramirez-Carmona, Haydee Guadalupe Garcia-Lazaro, Brenda Dominguez-Corrales, Erika Aguilar-Castañeda, Ernesto Roldan-Valadez
The aim of this study was to clarify the influence of anatomical (cerebral hemisphere) and demographic (age and gender) variables on the gray matter (GM) volumes and volumetric asymmetry indices (VAIs) of selected structures involved in episodic memory. A cross-sectional study was performed in 47 healthy volunteers. Neuropsychological evaluation revealed similar IQs across the sample. Using SPM-based software, brain segmentation, labeling and volume measurements of the hippocampus, amygdala, middle temporal gyrus and parahippocampal gyrus were performed in each cerebral hemisphere...
November 30, 2016: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891195/reflections-on-a-giant-of-brain-science-how-lucky-we-are-having-walter-j-freeman-as-our-beacon-in-cognitive-neurodynamics-research
#15
REVIEW
Robert Kozma
Walter J. Freeman was a giant of the field of neuroscience whose visionary work contributed various experimental and theoretical breakthroughs to brain research in the past 60 years. He has pioneered a number of Electroencephalogram and Electrocorticogram tools and approaches that shaped the field, while "Freeman Neurodynamics" is a theoretical concept that is widely known, used, and respected among neuroscientists all over the world. His recent death is a profound loss to neuroscience and biomedical engineering...
December 2016: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889578/molecular-neurobiology-of-mtor
#16
REVIEW
Katarzyna Switon, Katarzyna Kotulska, Aleksandra Janusz-Kaminska, Justyna Zmorzynska, Jacek Jaworski
Mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine-threonine kinase that controls several important aspects of mammalian cell function. mTOR activity is modulated by various intra- and extracellular factors; in turn, mTOR changes rates of translation, transcription, protein degradation, cell signaling, metabolism, and cytoskeleton dynamics. mTOR has been repeatedly shown to participate in neuronal development and the proper functioning of mature neurons. Changes in mTOR activity are often observed in nervous system diseases, including genetic diseases (e...
January 26, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885317/poetry-and-neuroscience-an-interdisciplinary-conversation
#17
James Wilkes, Sophie K Scott
Dialogues and collaborations between scientists and non-scientists are now widely understood as important elements of scientific research and public engagement with science. In recognition of this, the authors, a neuroscientist and a poet, use a dialogical approach to extend questions and ideas first shared during a lab-based poetry residency. They recorded a conversation and then expanded it into an essayistic form, allowing divergent disciplinary understandings and uses of experiment, noise, voice and emotion to be articulated, shared and questioned...
2016: Configurations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881768/considering-sex-as-a-biological-variable-will-be-valuable-for-neuroscience-research
#18
Rebecca M Shansky, Catherine S Woolley
The recently implemented National Institutes of Health policy requiring that grant applicants consider sex as a biological variable in the design of basic and preclinical animal research studies has prompted considerable discussion within the neuroscience community. Here, we present reasons to be optimistic that this new policy will be valuable for neuroscience, and we suggest some ways for neuroscientists to think about incorporating sex as a variable in their research.
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876662/-views-on-careers-in-clinical-neurosciences-amongst-neurosurgeons-and-neurologists-in-china
#19
Rimas V Lukas, Chao Ma, Jingcao Chen, Hongmei Dong, Jinxin Li, Zefen Wang, Ivy Jiang, Kai Fu, Samita Satnarayan, Dara V F Albert, Renslow Sherer
BACKGROUND: China has a large and aging population. The need for physicians with training in clinical neurosciences will grow. Currently there is little known regarding the factors which lead physicians in China to pursue careers in clinical neurosciences. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to garner a clearer understanding of the factors which impact physicians to pursue careers in neurosurgery and neurology in China. METHODS: We surveyed attendees at a national neuroscience conference on the factors which influence their pursuit of careers in clinical neurosciences...
November 19, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870413/complementarity-of-sex-differences-in-brain-and-behavior-from-laterality-to-multimodal-neuroimaging
#20
REVIEW
Ruben C Gur, Raquel E Gur
Although, overwhelmingly, behavior is similar in males and females, and, correspondingly, the brains are similar, sex differences permeate both brain and behavioral measures, and these differences have been the focus of increasing scrutiny by neuroscientists. This Review describes milestones from more than 3 decades of research in brain and behavior. This research was necessarily bound by available methodology, and we began with indirect behavioral indicators of brain function such as handedness. We proceeded to the use of neuropsychological batteries and then to structural and functional neuroimaging that provided the foundations of a cognitive neuroscience-based computerized neurocognitive battery...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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