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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293181/from-anomalies-to-essential-scientific-revolution-intrinsic-brain-activity-in-the-light-of-kuhn-s-philosophy-of-science
#1
REVIEW
Marek Havlík
The first step toward a modern understanding of fMRI resting brain activity was made by Bharat Biswal in 1995. This surprising, and at first rejected, discovery is now associated with many resting state networks, notably the famous default mode network (DMN). Resting state activity and DMN significantly reassessed our traditional beliefs and conventions about the functioning of the brain. For the majority of the twentieth century, neuroscientists assumed that the brain is mainly the "reactive engine" to the environment operating mostly through stimulation...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290379/deep-tendon-reflex-the-background-story-of-a-simple-technique
#2
Kalyan B Bhattacharyya
Wilhelm Erb and Carl Otto Westphal from Prussia first described the knee jerk in the same issue of the journal Archiv für Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten in January 1875. This article retraces the history of development of 'deep tendon reflex' as an integral clinical sign during every neurological examination. The history of the evolving shapes of the reflex hammer, the iconic trademark and the ultimate signature of a neuroscientist, is also presented.
March 2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284342/insights-into-ccl21-s-roles-in-immunosurveillance-and-immunotherapy-for-gliomas
#3
REVIEW
Thien Nguyen, Carlito Lagman, Lawrance K Chung, Cheng Hao Jacky Chen, Jessica Poon, Vera Ong, Brittany L Voth, Isaac Yang
Chemokine (C-C) motif ligand 21 (CCL21) is involved in immunosurveillance and has recently garnered the attention of neuro-oncologists and neuroscientists. CCL21 contains an extended C-terminus, which increases binding to lymphatic glycosaminoglycans and provides a mechanism for cell trafficking by forming a stationary chemokine concentration gradient that allows cell migration via haptotaxis. CCL21 is expressed by endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier in physiologic and pathologic conditions. CCL21 has also been implicated in leukocyte extravasation into the central nervous system...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268428/estimation-of-resting-state-effective-connectivity-in-epilepsy-using-direct-directed-transfer-function
#4
Biswajit Maharathi, Jeffrey A Loeb, James Patton
There has been an increasing demand among neuroscientists to understand the complex network of functionally connected neural assemblies in the human brain. For this purpose, computational EEG research is widely used by researchers due to its remarkable advantage in providing high temporal resolution, and ease of analysis across different frequency bands. Here we analyzed Electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals of electrodes placed on frontal-parietal neocortex brain region of 8 pediatric epileptic patients. In order to evaluate the directed causal relationship among different brain regions, we employed a Granger causality based multivariate connectivity estimator named direct Directed Transfer Function (dDTF) to identify signal propagations among the selected set of electrode in the frequency range 1-50Hz...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267565/automating-cell-detection-and-classification-in-human-brain-fluorescent-microscopy-images-using-dictionary-learning-and-sparse-coding
#5
Maryana Alegro, Panagiotis Theofilas, Austin Nguy, Patricia A Castruita, William Seeley, Helmut Heinsen, Daniela M Ushizima, Lea T Grinberg
BACKGROUND: Immunofluorescence (IF) plays a major role in quantifying protein expression in situ and understanding cell function. It is widely applied in assessing disease mechanisms and in drug discovery research. Automation of IF analysis can transform studies using experimental cell models. However, IF analysis of postmortem human tissue relies mostly on manual interaction, often subjected to low-throughput and prone to error, leading to low inter and intra-observer reproducibility...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263793/recent-progress-in-multi-electrode-spike-sorting-methods
#6
REVIEW
Baptiste Lefebvre, Pierre Yger, Olivier Marre
In recent years, arrays of extracellular electrodes have been developed and manufactured to record simultaneously from hundreds of electrodes packed with a high density. These recordings should allow neuroscientists to reconstruct the individual activity of the neurons spiking in the vicinity of these electrodes, with the help of signal processing algorithms. Algorithms need to solve a source separation problem, also known as spike sorting. However, these new devices challenge the classical way to do spike sorting...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251871/bio-physically-plausible-visualization-of-highly-scattering-fluorescent-neocortical-models-for-in-silico-experimentation
#7
Marwan Abdellah, Ahmet Bilgili, Stefan Eilemann, Julian Shillcock, Henry Markram, Felix Schürmann
BACKGROUND: We present a visualization pipeline capable of accurate rendering of highly scattering fluorescent neocortical neuronal models. The pipeline is mainly developed to serve the computational neurobiology community. It allows the scientists to visualize the results of their virtual experiments that are performed in computer simulations, or in silico. The impact of the presented pipeline opens novel avenues for assisting the neuroscientists to build biologically accurate models of the brain...
February 15, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243197/computer-aided-experiment-planning-toward-causal-discovery-in-neuroscience
#8
Nicholas J Matiasz, Justin Wood, Wei Wang, Alcino J Silva, William Hsu
Computers help neuroscientists to analyze experimental results by automating the application of statistics; however, computer-aided experiment planning is far less common, due to a lack of similar quantitative formalisms for systematically assessing evidence and uncertainty. While ontologies and other Semantic Web resources help neuroscientists to assimilate required domain knowledge, experiment planning requires not only ontological but also epistemological (e.g., methodological) information regarding how knowledge was obtained...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236531/neuroadaptive-bayesian-optimization-and-hypothesis-testing
#9
REVIEW
Romy Lorenz, Adam Hampshire, Robert Leech
Cognitive neuroscientists are often interested in broad research questions, yet use overly narrow experimental designs by considering only a small subset of possible experimental conditions. This limits the generalizability and reproducibility of many research findings. Here, we propose an alternative approach that resolves these problems by taking advantage of recent developments in real-time data analysis and machine learning. Neuroadaptive Bayesian optimization is a powerful strategy to efficiently explore more experimental conditions than is currently possible with standard methodology...
February 13, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229330/the-involvement-of-the-myelin-associated-inhibitors-and-their-receptors-in-cns-plasticity-and-injury
#10
REVIEW
Anthony G Boghdadi, Leon Teo, James A Bourne
The limited capacity for the central nervous system (CNS) to repair itself was first described over 100 years ago by Spanish neuroscientist Ramon Y. Cajal. However, the exact mechanisms underlying this failure in neuronal regeneration remain unclear and, as such, no effective therapeutics yet exist. Numerous studies have attempted to elucidate the biochemical and molecular mechanisms that inhibit neuronal repair with increasing evidence suggesting that several inhibitory factors and repulsive guidance cues active during development actually persist into adulthood and may be contributing to the inhibition of repair...
February 22, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226598/estimation-of-resting-state-effective-connectivity-in-epilepsy-using-direct-directed-transfer-function
#11
Biswajit Maharathi, Jeffrey A Loeb, James Patton, Biswajit Maharathi, Jeffrey A Loeb, James Patton, Biswajit Maharathi, James Patton, Jeffrey A Loeb
There has been an increasing demand among neuroscientists to understand the complex network of functionally connected neural assemblies in the human brain. For this purpose, computational EEG research is widely used by researchers due to its remarkable advantage in providing high temporal resolution, and ease of analysis across different frequency bands. Here we analyzed Electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals of electrodes placed on frontal-parietal neocortex brain region of 8 pediatric epileptic patients. In order to evaluate the directed causal relationship among different brain regions, we employed a Granger causality based multivariate connectivity estimator named direct Directed Transfer Function (dDTF) to identify signal propagations among the selected set of electrode in the frequency range 1-50Hz...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195522/source-localization-of-brain-states-associated-with-canonical-neuroimaging-postures
#12
Michael Lifshitz, Robert T Thibault, Raquel R Roth, Amir Raz
Cognitive neuroscientists rarely consider the influence that body position exerts on brain activity; yet, postural variation holds important implications for the acquisition and interpretation of neuroimaging data. Whereas participants in most behavioral and EEG experiments sit upright, many prominent brain imaging techniques (e.g., fMRI) require participants to lie supine. Here we demonstrate that physical comportment profoundly alters baseline brain activity as measured by magnetoencephalography (MEG)-an imaging modality that permits multipostural acquisition...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191033/algorithm-and-software-to-automatically-identify-latency-and-amplitude-features-of-local-field-potentials-recorded-in-electrophysiological-investigation
#13
Maria Rubega, Claudia Cecchetto, Stefano Vassanelli, Giovanni Sparacino
BACKGROUND: Local field potentials (LFPs) evoked by sensory stimulation are particularly useful in electrophysiological research. For instance, spike timing and current transmembrane current flow estimated from LFPs recorded in the barrel cortex in rats and mice are exploited to investigate how the brain represents sensory stimuli. Recent improvements in microelectrodes technology enable neuroscientists to acquire a great amount of LFPs during the same experimental session, calling for algorithms for their quantitative automatic analysis...
2017: Source Code for Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182017/using-connectome-based-predictive-modeling-to-predict-individual-behavior-from-brain-connectivity
#14
Xilin Shen, Emily S Finn, Dustin Scheinost, Monica D Rosenberg, Marvin M Chun, Xenophon Papademetris, R Todd Constable
Neuroimaging is a fast-developing research area in which anatomical and functional images of human brains are collected using techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and electroencephalography (EEG). Technical advances and large-scale data sets have allowed for the development of models capable of predicting individual differences in traits and behavior using brain connectivity measures derived from neuroimaging data. Here, we present connectome-based predictive modeling (CPM), a data-driven protocol for developing predictive models of brain-behavior relationships from connectivity data using cross-validation...
March 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177260/graph-theory-at-the-service-of-electroencephalograms
#15
Nantia D Iakovidou
The brain is one of the largest and most complex organs in the human body and electroencephalography (EEG) is a non-invasive electrophysiological monitoring method that is used to record the electrical activity of the brain. Lately, the functional connectivity in human brain has been regarded and studied as a complex network using electroencephalographic (EEG) signals. This means that the brain is studied as a connected system where nodes, or units, represent different specialized brain regions and links, or connections, represent communication pathways between the nodes...
February 8, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144620/neuroscience-has-the-power-to-change-the-criminal-justice-system
#16
Cara M Altimus
As a neuroscientist working in the Department of Justice for the past year, I observed that many of the challenges of crime and justice have solutions rooted in our understanding of neuroscience. However, the neuroscience community seems absent from conversations regarding these solutions.
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139675/win-win-data-sharing-in-neuroscience
#17
Giorgio A Ascoli, Patricia Maraver, Sumit Nanda, Sridevi Polavaram, Rubén Armañanzas
Most neuroscientists have yet to embrace a culture of data sharing. Using our decade-long experience at NeuroMorpho.Org as an example, we discuss how publicly available repositories may benefit data producers and end-users alike. We outline practical recipes for resource developers to maximize the research impact of data sharing platforms for both contributors and users.
January 31, 2017: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120010/thirty-years-of-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-where-do-we-stand
#18
REVIEW
Ulf Ziemann
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been first described 30 years ago, and since then has gained enormous attention by neurologists, psychiatrists, neurosurgeons, clinical neurophysiologists, psychologists, and neuroscientist alike. In the early days, it was primarily used to test integrity of the corticospinal tract. Beyond further developments of TMS in diagnostics, mapping and monitoring of the motor system, major other applications expanded into using TMS as research tool in the cognitive neurosciences, and as therapeutic tool in neurological and psychiatric disease by virtue of inducing long-term change in excitability and connectivity of the stimulated brain networks...
April 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113724/brain-modulyzer-interactive-visual-analysis-of-functional-brain-connectivity
#19
Sugeerth Murugesan, Kristofer Bouchard, Jesse A Brown, Bernd Hamann, William W Seeley, Andrew Trujillo, Gunther H Weber
We present Brain Modulyzer, an interactive visual exploration tool for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) brain scans, aimed at analyzing the correlation between different brain regions when resting or when performing mental tasks. Brain Modulyzer combines multiple coordinated views-such as heat maps, node link diagrams and anatomical views-using brushing and linking to provide an anatomical context for brain connectivity data. Integrating methods from graph theory and analysis, e.g., community detection and derived graph measures, makes it possible to explore the modular and hierarchical organization of functional brain networks...
May 9, 2016: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107672/a-computational-model-of-conditioning-inspired-by-drosophila-olfactory-system
#20
Faramarz Faghihi, Ahmed A Moustafa, Ralf Heinrich, Florentin Wörgötter
Recent studies have demonstrated that Drosophila melanogaster (briefly Drosophila) can successfully perform higher cognitive processes including second order olfactory conditioning. Understanding the neural mechanism of this behavior can help neuroscientists to unravel the principles of information processing in complex neural systems (e.g. the human brain) and to create efficient and robust robotic systems. In this work, we have developed a biologically-inspired spiking neural network which is able to execute both first and second order conditioning...
November 23, 2016: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
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