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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405929/thermodynamics-in-cancers-opposing-interactions-between-ppar-gamma-and-the-canonical-wnt-beta-catenin-pathway
#1
REVIEW
Yves Lecarpentier, Victor Claes, Alexandre Vallée, Jean-Louis Hébert
Cancer cells are the site of numerous metabolic and thermodynamic abnormalities. We focus this review on the interactions between the canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) in cancers and their implications from an energetic and metabolic point of view. In numerous tissues, PPAR gamma activation induces inhibition of beta-catenin pathway, while the activation of the canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway inactivates PPAR gamma. In most cancers but not all, PPAR gamma is downregulated while the WNT/beta-catenin pathway is upregulated...
December 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398338/the-histamine-h3-receptor-antagonist-thioperamide-rescues-circadian-rhythm-and-memory-function-in-experimental-parkinsonism
#2
D Masini, C Lopes-Aguiar, A Bonito-Oliva, D Papadia, R Andersson, A Fisahn, G Fisone
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by motor impairment and a wide range of non-motor symptoms, including sleep disorders and cognitive and affective deficits. In this study, we used a mouse model of PD based on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to examine the effect of thioperamide, a histamine H3 receptor antagonist, on circadian activity, recognition memory and anxiety. A partial, bilateral 6-OHDA lesion of the striatum reduces motor activity during the active phase of the 24 h cycle...
April 11, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396398/selective-entrainment-of-gamma-subbands-by-different-slow-network-oscillations
#3
Weiwei Zhong, Mareva Ciatipis, Thérèse Wolfenstetter, Jakob Jessberger, Carola Müller, Simon Ponsel, Yevgenij Yanovsky, Jurij Brankačk, Adriano B L Tort, Andreas Draguhn
Theta oscillations (4-12 Hz) are thought to provide a common temporal reference for the exchange of information among distant brain networks. On the other hand, faster gamma-frequency oscillations (30-160 Hz) nested within theta cycles are believed to underlie local information processing. Whether oscillatory coupling between global and local oscillations, as showcased by theta-gamma coupling, is a general coding mechanism remains unknown. Here, we investigated two different patterns of oscillatory network activity, theta and respiration-induced network rhythms, in four brain regions of freely moving mice: olfactory bulb (OB), prelimbic cortex (PLC), parietal cortex (PAC), and dorsal hippocampus [cornu ammonis 1 (CA1)]...
April 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364174/primate-beta-oscillations-and-rhythmic-behaviors
#4
REVIEW
Hugo Merchant, Ramón Bartolo
The study of non-human primates in complex behaviors such as rhythm perception and entrainment is critical to understand the neurophysiological basis of human cognition. Next to reviewing the role of beta oscillations in human beat perception, here we discuss the role of primate putaminal oscillatory activity in the control of rhythmic movements that are guided by a sensory metronome or internally gated. The analysis of the local field potentials of the behaving macaques showed that gamma-oscillations reflect local computations associated with stimulus processing of the metronome, whereas beta-activity involves the entrainment of large putaminal circuits, probably in conjunction with other elements of cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuit, during internally driven rhythmic tapping...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349959/organization-of-prefrontal-network-activity-by-respiration-related-oscillations
#5
Jonatan Biskamp, Marlene Bartos, Jonas-Frederic Sauer
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) integrates information from cortical and sub-cortical areas and contributes to the planning and initiation of behaviour. A potential mechanism for signal integration in the mPFC lies in the synchronization of neuronal discharges by theta (6-12 Hz) activity patterns. Here we show, using in vivo local field potential (LFP) and single-unit recordings from awake mice, that prominent oscillations in the sub-theta frequency band (1-5 Hz) emerge during awake immobility in the mPFC...
March 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348646/complexity-of-resting-state-eeg-activity-in-the-patients-with-early-stage-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Guo-Sheng Yi, Jiang Wang, Bin Deng, Xi-Le Wei
To investigate the abnormal brain activities in the early stage of Parkinson's disease (PD), the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals were recorded with 20 channels from non-dementia PD patients (18 patients, 8 females) and age matched healthy controls (18 subjects, 8 females) during the resting state. Two methods based on the ordinal patterns of the recorded series, i.e., permutation entropy (PE) and order index (OI), were introduced to characterize the complexity of the cortical activities for two groups. It was observed that the resting-state EEG of PD patients showed lower PE and higher OI than healthy controls, which indicated that the early-stage PD caused the reduced complexity of EEG...
April 2017: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348136/driving-human-motor-cortical-oscillations-leads-to-behaviourally-relevant-changes-in-local-gabaa-inhibition-a-tacs-tms-study
#7
Magdalena Nowak, Emily Hinson, Freek van Ede, Alek Pogosyan, Andrea Guerra, Andrew Quinn, Peter Brown, Charlotte J Stagg
Beta and gamma oscillations are the dominant oscillatory activity in the human motor cortex (M1). However, their physiological basis and precise functional significance remain poorly understood. Here, we employed Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) to examine the physiological basis and behavioural relevance of driving beta and gamma oscillatory activity in the human M1 using transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS). tACS was applied using a sham-controlled cross-over design at individualised intensity for 20 min, and TMS was performed at rest (before, during and after tACS) and during movement preparation (before and after tACS)...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330876/electrocorticographic-dynamics-as-a-novel-biomarker-in-five-models-of-epileptogenesis
#8
Dan Z Milikovsky, Itai Weissberg, Lyna Solomon-Kamintsky, Kristina Lippmann, Osnat Schefenbauer, Federica Frigerio, Massimo Rizzi, Liron Sheintuch, Daniel Zelig, Jonathan Ofer, Annamaria Vezzani, Alon Friedman
Post injury epilepsy (PIE) is a devastating sequela of various brain insults. While recent studies offer novel insights into the mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis and discover potential preventive treatments, the lack of PIE biomarkers hinders the clinical implementation of such treatments. Here we explored the biomarker potential of different electrographic features in five models of PIE. Electrocorticographic or intrahippocampal recordings of epileptogenesis (from the insult to the first spontaneous seizure) from two laboratories were analyzed in 3 mouse and 2 rat PIE models...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324983/the-precuneus-may-encode-irrationality-in-human-gambling
#9
P Sacre, M S D Kerr, S Subramanian, K Kahn, J Gonzalez-Martinez, M A Johnson, S V Sarma, J T Gale
Humans often make irrational decisions, especially psychiatric patients who have dysfunctional cognitive and emotional circuitry. Understanding the neural basis of decision-making is therefore essential towards patient management, yet current studies suffer from several limitations. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in humans have dominated decision-making neuroscience, but have poor temporal resolution and the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal is only a proxy for neural activity. On the other hand, lesion studies in humans used to infer functionality in decision-making lack characterization of neural activity altogether...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274820/histamine-induces-kcnq-channel-dependent-gamma-oscillations-in-rat-hippocampus-via-activation-of-the-h1-receptor
#10
Richard Andersson, Dagmar Galter, Daniela Papadia, André Fisahn
Histamine is an aminergic neurotransmitter, which regulates wakefulness, arousal and attention in the central nervous system. Histamine receptors have been the target of efforts to develop pro-cognitive drugs to treat disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. Cognitive functions including attention are closely associated with gamma oscillations, a rhythmical electrical activity pattern in the 30-80 Hz range, which depends on the synchronized activity of excitatory pyramidal cells and inhibitory fast-spiking interneurons...
March 6, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273473/lip-sync-gamma-rhythms-orchestrate-top-down-control-of-feeding-circuits
#11
Nandakumar S Narayanan, Ralph J DiLeone
Feeding involves the coordinated action of networks across many brain regions. New work recently published in Nature indicates that the prefrontal cortex, septum, and lateral hypothalamus circuits synchronize at gamma rhythms (30-90 Hz) to regulate feeding-related behaviors (Carus-Cadavieco et al., 2017).
March 7, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271390/alpha-beta-the-rhythm-of-the-attentional-blink
#12
Kimron L Shapiro, Simon Hanslmayr, James T Enns, Alejandro Lleras
Extant theories of the attentional blink propose that the most critical factor in determining second target accuracy is the time that elapses between the first and second targets. We report that this conclusion has overlooked an equally important determinant, namely, the frequency of the entraining stream in which these targets are embedded. Specifically, we show in two experiments that the signature of the attentional blink-second target accuracy that increases with intertarget lag-is significantly larger for entraining streams that are in the alpha-beta frequency range, relative to streams that are slower (theta) or faster (gamma)...
March 7, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252601/-specificity-of-spatial-organization-of-evoked-eeg-rhythms-in-patients-with-paranoid-schizophrenia
#13
V K Bochkarev, A V Kirenskaya, S V Solnceva, A A Tkachenko
AIM: The study aimed at analyzing the spatial patterns of evoked event-related oscillations in patients with paranoid schizophrenia and their relationship with clinical symptoms of disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Evoked delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma rhythms in response to target auditory stimulus in an oddball paradigm were studied in 21 schizophrenic patients and 22 healthy subjects. The independent spatial patterns were revealed within each of the frequency range using the principal component analysis...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250150/delta-and-gamma-oscillations-in-operculo-insular-cortex-underlie-innocuous-cold-thermosensation
#14
Francesca Fardo, Mikkel C Vinding, Micah Allen, Troels Staehelin Jensen, Nanna Brix Finnerup
Cold-sensitive and nociceptive neural pathways interact to shape the quality and intensity of thermal and pain perception. Yet, the central processing of cold-thermosensation in the human brain has not yet been extensively studied. Here, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) in healthy volunteers, to investigate the time course (evoked fields and potentials) and oscillatory activity associated with the perception of cold temperature changes. Non-noxious cold stimuli consisting of Δ3°C and Δ5°C decrements from an adapting temperature of 35°C were delivered on the dorsum of the left hand via a contact thermode...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227248/the-precuneus-may-encode-irrationality-in-human-gambling
#15
P Sacre, M S D Kerr, S Subramanian, K Kahn, J Gonzalez-Martinez, M A Johnson, S V Sarma, J T Gale, P Sacre, M S D Kerr, S Subramanian, K Kahn, J Gonzalez-Martinez, M A Johnson, S V Sarma, J T Gale, S Subramanian, M S D Kerr, M A Johnson, J T Gale, K Kahn, P Sacre, S V Sarma, J Gonzalez-Martinez
Humans often make irrational decisions, especially psychiatric patients who have dysfunctional cognitive and emotional circuitry. Understanding the neural basis of decision-making is therefore essential towards patient management, yet current studies suffer from several limitations. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in humans have dominated decision-making neuroscience, but have poor temporal resolution and the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal is only a proxy for neural activity. On the other hand, lesion studies in humans used to infer functionality in decision-making lack characterization of neural activity altogether...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216627/layer-specific-optogenetic-activation-of-pyramidal-neurons-causes-beta-gamma-entrainment-of-neonatal-networks
#16
Sebastian H Bitzenhofer, Joachim Ahlbeck, Amy Wolff, J Simon Wiegert, Christine E Gee, Thomas G Oertner, Ileana L Hanganu-Opatz
Coordinated activity patterns in the developing brain may contribute to the wiring of neuronal circuits underlying future behavioural requirements. However, causal evidence for this hypothesis has been difficult to obtain owing to the absence of tools for selective manipulation of oscillations during early development. We established a protocol that combines optogenetics with electrophysiological recordings from neonatal mice in vivo to elucidate the substrate of early network oscillations in the prefrontal cortex...
February 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162920/how-does-general-anaesthesia-affect-the-circadian-clock
#17
REVIEW
Raewyn C Poulsen, Guy R Warman, Jamie Sleigh, Nicola M Ludin, James F Cheeseman
Post-operative patients experience sleep disturbances. Animal studies demonstrate that general anaesthesia (GA) can disrupt circadian rhythms and cause changes in the molecular clock, indicating that anaesthesia contributes to post-operative circadian disruption. Here we review the effect of anaesthesia on the circadian clock and its rhythms in order to summarise current findings outline commonalities between studies and propose mechanisms by which effects may be mediated. KEY POINTS: 1) GA has strong effects on the main neurotransmitter systems linked with circadian control (Gamma aminobutyric acid/N-methyl-D-aspartate (GABA/NMDA)) and may act by interfering with light-entrainment of the clock...
December 18, 2016: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161453/rhythms-dysregulation-a-new-perspective-for-understanding-ptsd
#18
Jacques Dayan, Géraldine Rauchs, Bérengère Guillery-Girard
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a complex syndrome that may occur after exposure to one or more traumatic events. It associates physiological, emotional, and cognitive changes Brain and hormonal modifications contribute to some impairments in learning, memory, and emotion regulation. Some of these biological dysfunctions may be analyzed in terms of rhythms dysregulation that would be expressed through endocrine rhythmicity, sleep organization, and temporal synchrony in brain activity. In the first part of this article, we report studies on endocrine rhythmicity revealing that some rhythms abnormalities are frequently observed, although not constantly, for both cortisol and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159686/frequency-specific-electrophysiologic-correlates-of-resting-state-fmri-networks
#19
Carl D Hacker, Abraham Z Snyder, Mrinal Pahwa, Maurizio Corbetta, Eric C Leuthardt
Resting state functional MRI (R-fMRI) studies have shown that slow (<0.1Hz), intrinsic fluctuations of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal are temporally correlated within hierarchically organized functional systems known as resting state networks (RSNs) (Doucet et al., 2011). Most broadly, this hierarchy exhibits a dichotomy between two opposed systems (Fox et al., 2005). One system engages with the environment and includes the visual, auditory, and sensorimotor (SMN) networks as well as the dorsal attention network (DAN), which controls spatial attention...
January 31, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154537/odor-induced-neuronal-rhythms-in-the-olfactory-bulb-are-profoundly-modified-in-ob-ob-obese-mice
#20
Yan Chelminski, Christophe Magnan, Serge H Luquet, Amandine Everard, Nicolas Meunier, Hirac Gurden, Claire Martin
Leptin, the product of the Ob(Lep) gene, is a peptide hormone that plays a major role in maintaining the balance between food intake and energy expenditure. In the brain, leptin receptors are expressed by hypothalamic cells but also in the olfactory bulb, the first central structure coding for odors, suggesting a precise function of this hormone in odor-evoked activities. Although olfaction plays a key role in feeding behavior, the ability of the olfactory bulb to integrate the energy-related signal leptin is still missing...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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