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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222290/chronic-organ-failure-in-adult-sickle-cell-disease
#1
REVIEW
Elliott Vichinsky
Sickle cell disease is now a chronic adult illness characterized by progressive multiorgan failure, particularly involving the brain and kidney. The etiology is multifactorial; it includes hemolysis and nitric oxide deficiency. As patients age, most experience neurologic insult. Twenty-five percent of older adults have had a clinical stroke and at least half of the population have had a silent infarct, cortical atrophy, and neurocognitive impairment. Periodic screening with neuroimaging and neurocognitive testing is recommended...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212415/effects-of-cognitive-remediation-on-cognitive-and-social-functions-in-individuals-with-schizophrenia
#2
Akihiko Katsumi, Hiroshi Hoshino, Satoshi Fujimoto, Hirooki Yabe, Emi Ikebuchi, Kazuyuki Nakagome, Shin-Ichi Niwa
Individuals with schizophrenia exhibit cognitive impairments, which are related to impairments in social functions. This study investigated the effects of cognitive remediation on cognitive, social, and daily living impairment. Participants were individuals with schizophrenia between 20 and 60 years old (N = 44). Participants were randomly assigned to two groups: a cognitive remediation intervention group and a non-intervention control group. The control group was provided with conventional drug therapy and either day care or occupational therapy...
December 7, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204259/early-development-of-infants-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1-a-case-series
#3
Anna May Kolesnik, Emily Jane Harrison Jones, Shruti Garg, Jonathan Green, Tony Charman, Mark Henry Johnson
Background: Prospective studies of infants at familial risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have yielded insights into the earliest signs of the disorder but represent heterogeneous samples of unclear aetiology. Complementing this approach by studying cohorts of infants with monogenic syndromes associated with high rates of ASD offers the opportunity to elucidate the factors that lead to ASD. Methods: We present the first report from a prospective study of ten 10-month-old infants with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a monogenic disorder with high prevalence of ASD or ASD symptomatology...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198285/evolving-notions-of-schizophrenia-as-a-developmental-neurocognitive-disorder
#4
Larry J Seidman, Allan F Mirsky
We review the changing conceptions of schizophrenia over the past 50 years as it became understood as a disorder of brain function and structure in which neurocognitive dysfunction was identified at different illness phases. The centrality of neurocognition has been recognized, especially because neurocognitive deficits are strongly related to social and role functioning in the illness, and as a result neurocognitive measures are used routinely in clinical assessment of individuals with schizophrenia. From the original definitions of the syndrome of schizophrenia in the early 20th century, impaired cognition, especially attention, was considered to be important...
October 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164824/pilot-study-of-cognitive-remediation-and-motivational-interviewing-in-youth-at-risk-of-serious-mental-illness
#5
Danijela Piskulic, Sylvia Romanowska, Jean Addington
AIM: The aim of this pilot project was to determine the recruitment feasibility for a computerized cognitive remediation treatment (CRT) for youth at-risk of serious mental illness (SMI), and treatment adherence following an adjunct treatment of motivational interviewing (MI). METHODS: Twelve youth at-risk of SMI were randomized to receive either CRT or CRT plus MI. CRT was conducted over 10 wk during which time 5 MI sessions were available for the CRT + MI group...
November 22, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161007/polymer-based-technologies-for-sensing-applications
#6
Wildemar Stefanio Pereira Carvalho, Menglian Wei, Nduka Ikpo, Yongfeng Gao, Michael J Serpe
Reports in the literature on the development of new chemical sensing technologies have been growing steadily in number for years. For example, a Web of Science topic search using the term "Chemical Sensing" revealed that over 8,000 papers were published in 2015-2017, with over 40,000 citations to those papers. In this review, we focus on highlighting recent examples of chemical sensing related to human health (e.g., disease diagnosis, health monitoring, and water/food safety), and for environmental monitoring...
November 21, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152825/feasibility-study-combining-art-therapy-or-cognitive-remediation-therapy-with-family-based-treatment-for-adolescent-anorexia-nervosa
#7
James Lock, Kathleen Kara Fitzpatrick, William S Agras, Noam Weinbach, Booil Jo
Adolescents with anorexia nervosa who have obsessive-compulsive (OC) features respond poorly to family-based treatment (FBT). This study evaluated the feasibility of combining FBT with either cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) or art therapy (AT) to improve treatment response in this at-risk group. Thirty adolescents with anorexia nervosa and OC features were randomized to 15 sessions of FBT + CRT or AT. Recruitment rate was 1 per month, and treatment attrition was 16.6% with no differences between groups...
November 20, 2017: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150816/cognitive-diagnosis-for-small-educational-programs-the-general-nonparametric-classification-method
#8
Chia-Yi Chiu, Yan Sun, Yanhong Bian
The focus of cognitive diagnosis (CD) is on evaluating an examinee's strengths and weaknesses in terms of cognitive skills learned and skills that need study. Current methods for fitting CD models (CDMs) work well for large-scale assessments, where the data of hundreds or thousands of examinees are available. However, the development of CD-based assessment tools that can be used in small-scale test settings, say, for monitoring the instruction and learning process at the classroom level has not kept up with the rapid pace at which research and development proceeded for large-scale assessments...
November 17, 2017: Psychometrika
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132624/the-value-of-ehr-based-assessment-of-physician-competency-an-investigative-effort-with-internal-medicine-physicians
#9
Kimberly Venta, Erin Baker, Cali Fidopiastis, Kay Stanney
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of developing an EHR-based model of physician competency, named the Skill Deficiency Evaluation Toolkit for Eliminating Competency-loss Trends (Skill-DETECT), which presents the opportunity to use EHR-based models to inform selection of Continued Medical Education (CME) opportunities specifically targeted at maintaining proficiency. METHODS: The IBM Explorys platform provided outpatient Electronic Health Records (EHRs) representing 76 physicians with over 5000 patients combined...
December 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128897/speed-of-processing-training-in-middle-aged-and-older-breast-cancer-survivors-soar-results-of-a-randomized-controlled-pilot
#10
Karen Meneses, Rachel Benz, Jennifer R Bail, Jacqueline B Vo, Kristen Triebel, Pariya Fazeli, Jennifer Frank, David E Vance
PURPOSE: Cognitive changes are common among breast cancer survivors. There is limited evidence to guide management of cognitive changes. This randomized controlled pilot evaluated the preliminary efficacy of a speed of processing (SOP) training among middle-aged and older breast cancer survivors. METHODS: Sixty breast cancer survivors  with self-reported cognitive changes were recruited to the SOAR study. Participants were randomized to either a home-based SOP training (n = 30) or no-contact control group (n = 30)...
November 11, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128326/cognitive-remediation-can-improve-negative-symptoms-and-social-functioning-in-first-episode-schizophrenia-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Joseph Ventura, Kenneth L Subotnik, Denise Gretchen-Doorly, Laurie Casaus, Michael Boucher, Gerhard S Hellemann, Keith H Nuechterlein
BACKGROUND: Meta-analyses have reported that the effects of cognitive remediation might go beyond improvement in cognition to include unexpected benefits for schizophrenia patients such as negative symptom reduction and improvements in functioning. In addition, some evidence indicated that these potentially beneficial effects are also present in the initial course of schizophrenia, but work in this area is still developing. METHOD: A RCT compared Cognitive Remediation (CR) to Healthy Behaviors Training (HBT) in 80 patients (78% male) with a mean age of 21...
November 8, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125494/cognitive-enhancing-and-antioxidant-effects-of-tetrahydroxystilbene-glucoside-in-a%C3%AE-1-42-induced-neurodegeneration-in-mice
#12
Miao Xie, Geng Zhang, Wei Yin, Xin-Xin Hei, Tao Liu
Polyhydroxy stilbenes have been reported to possess various biological activities, and have potential in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside is one of the major polyhydroxy stilbenes, which provides underlying therapeutic activities for neuroprotective actions in various experimental conditions. This study intends to investigate the impact of tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside remedy for cognitive disorder and oxidative stress in Aβ1-42-induced AD mice and to clarify the mechanisms of action through Keap1/Nrf2 pathway...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125015/factors-associated-with-return-to-work-in-patients-with-long-term-disabilities-due-to-neurological-and-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#13
Maura Mitrushina, Robert Tomaszewski
The current study explores factors predicting return to work in a sample of patients with neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders who have attended a prevocational readiness and social skills training programme many years after trauma. Participants were community-dwelling adults with long-term disabilities (N = 67). Results of univariate analyses followed by multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that both pre-injury (prior) and post-injury (current) factors influenced the likelihood of employment in our sample: prior employment, current employment readiness, current cognitive competence (particularly memory and executive functioning) and emotional adjustment...
November 10, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114992/working-memory-predicts-methamphetamine-hair-concentration-over-the-course-of-treatment-moderating-effect-of-impulsivity-and-implications-for-dual-systems-model
#14
Adam J Rubenis, Rebecca E Fitzpatrick, Dan I Lubman, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia
High impulsivity and poor executive function are characteristic of methamphetamine use disorder. High arousal in the impulsive system has been proposed to compromise the executive system's regulating ability (i.e. the dual-systems model). While interaction between these variables may partly explain poor treatment outcomes associated with methamphetamine use disorder, previous research has tended to examine each factor separately. We investigated whether high impulsivity (measured with an impulsive choice task) and poor executive function (measured with a working memory task) predict methamphetamine use (determined by hair sample) in the 6 weeks following treatment commencement...
November 8, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089914/development-and-evaluation-of-a-cognitive-training-game-for-older-people-a-design-based-approach
#15
Ming-Hsin Lu, Weijane Lin, Hsiu-Ping Yueh
In the research field of cognitive aging, games have gained attention as training interventions to remediate age-related deficits. Cognitive training games on computer, video and mobile platforms have shown ample and positive support. However, the generalized effects are not agreed upon unanimously, and the game tasks are usually simple and decontextualized due to the limitations of measurements. This study adopted a qualitative approach of design-based research (DBR) to systematically review and pragmatically examine the regime, presentation and feedback design of a cognitive training game for older adults...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075495/an-exploratory-study-of-creativity-and-eating-disorders
#16
Bruce D Burns, Yichelle Zhang, Mareike Wieth, Stephen Touyz
BACKGROUND: We examined whether cognitive rigidity associated with having an eating disorder generalized to creativity. METHOD: One hundred twelve participants from the participant pool of an Australian university were given a measure of disordered eating (EDE-Q), asked if they had ever had a diagnosis of an eating disorder (16 reported yes), and given 3 min to generate alternative uses for a paper-clip. The alternative uses task yielded measures of creative fluency, originality, elaboration and flexibility...
2017: Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069623/the-effect-of-impaired-verbal-memory-retrieval-on-autobiographical-memory-across-different-life-periods-in-schizophrenia
#17
Amalia Alexiadou, Vasilis P Bozikas, Mary H Kosmidis, Eleni Parlapani, Grigoris Kiosseoglou, Konstantinos Fokas
OBJECTIVES: Autobiographical memory (AM) involves recollection of personal events and facts about one's life. Αim of the present study was to investigate AM in schizophrenia patients, and, in particular, patients' ability to recall autobiographical memories after controlling for verbal memory and verbal fluency deficits. METHOD: Participants included 40 schizophrenia patients (23 male) and 40 healthy controls (23 male), matched for age, gender, educational level, and premorbid intellectual functioning...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063818/the-efficacy-of-a-pilot-pediatric-cognitive-remediation-summer-program-to-prepare-for-transition-of-care
#18
Donna L Murdaugh, Tricia Z King, Kathleen O'toole
This study assessed the efficacy of a time-sensitive cognitive remediation summer program (CRSP) that provided patients and their families with tools to help mitigate neurocognitive deficits and promote independence to foster precursor transition of medical care skills. A total of 38 participants (aged 9-15) were included in one of the CRSPs offered yearly from 2013 to 2016. A longitudinal design was employed and at each evaluation time point, one week before start of the CRSP (pre-testing) and within three weeks after the end of the program (post-testing)), participants were administered measures of executive functioning in addition to parent ratings of behavior, executive functioning, and adaptive skills (Year 1-Year 4)...
October 24, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053684/remotely-supervised-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-an-update-on-safety-and-tolerability
#19
Michael T Shaw, Margaret Kasschau, Bryan Dobbs, Natalie Pawlak, William Pau, Kathleen Sherman, Marom Bikson, Abhishek Datta, Leigh E Charvet
The remotely supervised tDCS (RS-tDCS) protocol enables participation from home through guided and monitored self-administration of tDCS treatment while maintaining clinical standards. The current consensus regarding the efficacy of tDCS is that multiple treatment sessions are needed to observe targeted behavioral reductions in symptom burden. However, the requirement for patients to travel to clinic daily for stimulation sessions presents a major obstacle for potential participants, due to work or family obligations or limited ability to travel...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047377/cognitive-impairment-profile-in-adult-patients-with-niemann-pick-type-c-disease
#20
Camille Heitz, Stéphane Epelbaum, Yann Nadjar
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is one of the core symptoms of Niemann Pick type C (NPC) disease, but few data concerning the neuropsychological profile of NPC patients are available. The aim of our study was to characterize cognitive impairments in NPC disease and to assess the evolution of these symptoms and the impact of miglustat on cognitive follow-up. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 21 adult patients diagnosed with NPC disease. Neuropsychological data (global cognitive efficiency, language, attention, executive functions, praxis, and visuoconstructive functions tests) were retrieved to describe the cognitive profile of patients...
October 18, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
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