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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719564/the-new-apgar-score-a-checklist-to-enhance-quality-of-life-in-geriatric-patients-with-hip-fracture
#1
Joseph Bernstein, Sara Weintraub, Eric Hume, Mark D Neuman, Stephen L Kates, Jaimo Ahn
For geriatric patients with hip fractures, the broken bone is the reason for admission, but only part of the overall disease. Indeed, it may be more helpful to consider the patient having geriatric hip fracture syndrome or sustaining a hip attack, as there are many associated medical, social, psychological, and other problems to which attention must be paid. To that end, we have identified a series of 10 steps, collected into a checklist, that can be undertaken for all patients with geriatric hip fracture. In homage to the maxim "we come into the world under the brim of the pelvis and go out through the neck of the femur," we defined our checklist by the acronym APGAR SCORE, named after the classic checklist of the same name used to assess a newborn child...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711810/cocaine-dependence-modulates-the-effect-of-hiv-infection-on-brain-activation-during-intertemporal-decision-making
#2
Christina S Meade, Andrea L Hobkirk, Sheri L Towe, Nan-Kuei Chen, Ryan P Bell, Scott A Huettel
BACKGROUND: Both HIV infection and chronic cocaine use alter the neural circuitry of decision making, but the interactive effects of these commonly comorbid conditions have not been adequately examined. This study tested how cocaine moderates HIV-related neural activation during an intertemporal decision-making task. METHODS: The sample included 73 participants who differed on cocaine and HIV status (18 COC+/HIV+, 19 COC+/HIV-, 19 COC-/HIV+, 17 COC-/HIV-). Participants made choices between smaller, sooner and larger, delayed rewards while undergoing functional MRI...
July 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710917/for-whom-does-interpersonal-psychotherapy-work-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Samantha L Bernecker, Alice E Coyne, Michael J Constantino, Paula Ravitz
The efficacy of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) to treat depression and other disorders is well established, yet it remains unknown which patients will benefit more from IPT than another treatment. This review summarizes 46years of clinical trial research on patient characteristics that moderate the relative efficacy of IPT vs. different treatments. Across 57 studies from 33 trials comparing IPT to pharmacotherapy, another psychotherapy, or control, there were few consistent indicators of when IPT would be more or less effective than another treatment...
July 8, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709024/neurocognition-in-patients-with-psychotic-and-non-psychotic-bipolar-i-disorder-a-comparative-study-with-individuals-with-schizophrenia
#4
Estela Jiménez-López, Ana Isabel Aparicio, Eva Maria Sánchez-Morla, Roberto Rodriguez-Jimenez, Eduard Vieta, José Luis Santos
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that patients with bipolar disorder with psychotic symptoms (BD-P) have larger neurocognitive impairment than patients with bipolar disorder without a history of psychotic symptoms (BD-NP). The objective of this study was to compare neurocognitive performance of BD-P and BD-NP relative to a group of patients with schizophrenia (SZ), and healthy controls (HC). METHODS: Neurocognitive function was examined in 100 subjects with bipolar I disorder (50 BD-P, 50 BD-NP), 50 SZ, and 51 HC...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706327/current-advances-in-transdermal-delivery-of-drugs-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
REVIEW
Thuy Trang Nguyen, Vo Van Giau, Tuong Kha Vo
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common, progressive, fatal neurodegenerative disorder, which will play an increasingly important role both socially and financially in the aging populations. Treatments for AD show modest improvements in cognition and global functioning among patients. Furthermore, the oral administration of treating AD has had some drawbacks that decrease the medication adherence and efficacy of the therapy. Transdermal drugs are proposed as an alternative remedy to overcome the disadvantages of current pharmaceutical dosage options for this chronic disorder...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703017/cpa-treatment-guidelines-on-psychosocial-treatment-of-schizophrenia-in-adults
#6
Ross Norman, Tania Lecomte, Donald Addington, Elizabeth Anderson
OBJECTIVE: It is generally recognised that psychosocial interventions are essential components of the effective treatment of schizophrenia in adults. A considerable body of research is being published regarding the effectiveness of such interventions. In the current article, we derive recommendations reflecting the current state of evidence for their effectiveness. METHODS: Recommendations were formulated on the basis of a review of relevant guidelines, particularly those formulated by the Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network (SIGN) and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)...
January 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703016/strategies-for-preventing-cognitive-decline-in-healthy-older-adults
#7
Julie A Dumas
OBJECTIVE: Many advances have been made in the understanding of age-related changes in cognition. As research details the cognitive and neurobiological changes that occur in aging, there is increased interest in developing and understanding methods to prevent, slow, or reverse the cognitive decline that may occur in normal healthy older adults. The Institute of Medicine has recently recognized cognitive aging as having important financial and public health implications for society with the increasing older adult population worldwide...
January 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699085/laser-interstitial-thermal-therapy-for-epilepsy
#8
REVIEW
Eric Prince, Shahin Hakimian, Andrew L Ko, Jeffrey G Ojemann, Michelle S Kim, John W Miller
MRI-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (MgLiTT) uses a narrow diameter cannula to stereotactically target and heat deeper cerebral structures. This technique produces a precise lesion in the brain with great reliability because the localized tissue temperature change is monitored in real time. Because MgLiTT minimizes injury to surrounding brain, it appears to have a lower risk of affecting normal neurological function, and because it is done through a burr hole, there is less operative risk, less discomfort, and shorter hospitalizations...
September 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694097/behavioural-pharmacology-of-the-%C3%AE-5-gabaa-receptor-antagonist-s44819-enhancement-and-remediation-of-cognitive-performance-in-preclinical-models
#9
István Gacsályi, Krisztina Móricz, Gábor Gigler, János Wellmann, Katalin Nagy, István Ling, József Barkóczy, József Haller, Jeremy J Lambert, Gábor Szénási, Michael Spedding, Ferenc A Antoni
Previous work has shown that S44819 is a novel GABAA receptor (GABAAR) antagonist, which is selective for extrasynaptic GABAARs incorporating the α5 subunit (α5-GABAARs). The present study reports on the preclinical neuropsychopharmacological profile of S44819. Significantly, no sedative or pro-convulsive side effects of S44819 were found at doses up to 30 mg/kg i.p. Object recognition (OR) memory in intact mice was enhanced by S44819 (0.3 mg/kg p.o.) given before the acquisition trial. Mice treated with phencyclidine for two weeks and tested six days after the cessation of treatment failed to show OR memory...
July 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689493/hiv-associated-executive-dysfunction-in-the-era-of-modern-antiretroviral-therapy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Keenan A Walker, Gregory G Brown
OBJECTIVE: While some reports suggest that HIV+ individuals continue to display executive function (EF) impairment in the era of cART, findings have been contradictory and appear to differ based on the aspect of EF being measured. To improve the understanding of how discrete executive abilities may be differentially affected or spared in the context of HIV infection, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to (a) determine whether and to what extent HIV+ adults experience deficits in EFs, and (b) understand how demographic and clinical characteristics may modify the associations between HIV infection and executive abilities...
July 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688740/reading-deficits-in-schizophrenia-and-their-relationship-to-developmental-dyslexia-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Veronica Whitford, Gillian A O'Driscoll, Debra Titone
Although schizophrenia and developmental dyslexia are considered distinct disorders in terms of clinical presentation and functional outcome, they both involve disruption in the processes that support skilled reading, including language, auditory perception, visual perception, oculomotor control, and executive function. Further, recent work has proposed a common neurodevelopmental basis for the two disorders, as suggested by genetic and pathophysiological overlap. Thus, these lines of research suggest that reading may be similarly impacted in schizophrenia and dyslexia...
July 5, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684776/computerized-cognitive-remediation-therapy-effects-on-resting-state-brain-activity-and-cognition-in-schizophrenia
#12
Fengmei Fan, Yizhuang Zou, Yunlong Tan, L Elliot Hong, Shuping Tan
This study aimed to test how an 8-week training using computerized cognitive remediation therapy (CCRT) would modify resting brain functional activity and improve cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia. Twenty-seven patients with schizophrenia were recruited and randomized into two groups: CCRT or treatment-as-usual (TAU). The CCRT group received 40 sessions of computerized cognitive training over an eight-week period. There was a significant treatment group × time interaction on the processing speed (trail making test: F = 8...
July 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683886/-a-mobile-application-for-people-with-anorexia-and-bulimia
#13
Sophie Criquillion
The development of new technologies in the field of eating disorders should help to improve access to care and serve to complement traditional treatments, notably after hospitalisations, to prevent early relapses. Mobile applications considered appropriate by experts, all Anglo-Saxon, do not necessarily offer the expected features. A French application has been developed at Sainte-Anne general hospital in Paris. It comprises a logbook, therapeutic tools and cognitive remediation games which favour better adaptability and improve psychological functioning...
July 2017: Soins. Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679478/a-prospective-analysis-of-the-role-of-cognition-in-three-models-of-aging-and-schizophrenia
#14
Carl I Cohen, Tessa Murante
OBJECTIVES: This study uses longitudinal data from a sample of older adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorder (OAS) to examine the role of cognition in 3 models of aging and schizophrenia-accelerated aging, paradoxical aging, and heterogeneity of course-and their clinical relevance. METHODS: The sample consisted of 103 community-dwelling persons aged 55 and over (mean=61years) with early-onset schizophrenia. Mean follow-up was 52.5months (range: 12-116months); 55% were men; 55% were white...
July 2, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678690/emotional-freedom-techniques-to-treat-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-veterans-review-of-the-evidence-survey-of-practitioners-and-proposed-clinical-guidelines
#15
Dawson Church, Sheri Stern, Elizabeth Boath, Antony Stewart, David Feinstein, Morgan Clond
BACKGROUND: High prevalence rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in active military and veterans present a treatment challenge. Many PTSD studies have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT). OBJECTIVES: To develop clinical best practice guidelines for the use of EFT to treat PTSD, on the basis of the published literature, practitioner experience, and typical case histories. METHODS: We surveyed 448 EFT practitioners to gather information on their experiences with PTSD treatment...
2017: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673512/ready-set-let-s-train-feasibility-of-an-intensive-attention-training-program-and-its-beneficial-effect-after-childhood-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Marilou Séguin, Annie Lahaie, Célia Matte-Gagné, Miriam H Beauchamp
BACKGROUND: Attention deficits are common after pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI); they complicate return to activities of daily living and disrupt socioacademic reintegration. Yet, clinicians in rehabilitation settings have limited access to cognitive remediation protocols for which feasibility has been demonstrated. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of intensive attention process training program Ready! Set? Let's Train! (RST), based on an adaptation of the Attention Process Training-I program...
June 30, 2017: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668215/-social-cognition-in-children-with-neurogenetic-syndromes-a-literature-review
#17
A Morel, C Demily
Social cognitive impairments may largely contribute to reduced social skills and adaptive problems in individuals with microdeletion syndromes associated with behavioral and psychiatric phenotypes. Understanding the role of social information processing deficits in the emergence of psychotic disorders is a crucial challenge in the management of these patients. Each neurogenetic disorder is characterized by a specific social cognition phenotype. Clarifying the social ability profile of each population may help adjust patient care according to their key strengths and weaknesses...
June 28, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662466/informationally-administered-reward-enhances-intrinsic-motivation-in-schizophrenia
#18
Hyeon-Seung Lee, Seon-Kyeong Jang, Ga-Young Lee, Seon-Cheol Park, Alice Medalia, Kee-Hong Choi
Even when individuals with schizophrenia have an intact ability to enjoy rewarding moments, the means to assist them to translate rewarding experiences into goal-directed behaviors is unclear. The present study sought to determine whether informationally administered rewards enhance intrinsic motivation to foster goal-directed behaviors in individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) and healthy controls (HCs). Eighty-four participants (SZ=43, HCs=41) were randomly assigned to conditions involving either a performance-contingent reward with an informationally administered reward or a task-contingent reward with no feedback...
June 17, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659832/rehabilitation-interventions-to-promote-recovery-from-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Laurent Morin, Nicolas Franck
Only one out of seven patients recovers after a first episode of psychosis despite psychiatric care. Rehabilitation interventions have been developed to improve functional outcomes and to promote recovery. We conducted a systematic review of the effectiveness of the main psychiatric rehabilitation interventions following a search of the electronic databases Pubmed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar using combinations of terms relating to cognitive remediation, psychoeducation, cognitive-behavioral therapies, and schizophrenia...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658293/green-design-of-a-paper-test-card-for-urinary-iodine-analysis
#20
Nicholas M Myers, Ivan C Leung, Sean W McGee, Kathleen Eggleson, Marya Lieberman
When young children do not receive adequate amounts of the micronutrient iodine in their diet, their growth and cognitive development can be impaired. Nearly every country in the world has programs in place to track iodine intake and provide supplemental iodine if needed, usually in the form of fortified salt. The iodine nutrition status of a population can be tracked by monitoring iodine levels in urine samples to see if the median value falls in the range of 100-300 micrograms of iodine per liter of urine (μg I/L), which indicates adequate or more than adequate iodine nutrition...
2017: PloS One
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