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Cognitive remediation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531307/following-instructions-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-the-benefits-of-actions-at-encoding-and-recall
#1
Simon S Y Lui, Tian-Xiao Yang, Chris L Y Ng, Peony T Y Wong, Jessica O Y Wong, Ulrich Ettinger, Eric F C Cheung, Raymond C K Chan
The ability to follow spoken instructions is important to everyday functioning but has seldom been studied in patients with schizophrenia (SZ). Recent evidence suggests that action-based processing may facilitate the ability to follow instructions, which relies largely on working memory. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that SZ patients may also benefit from action-based advantages in following instructions. Forty-eight clinically stable SZ patients and 48 demographic- and IQ-matched controls completed a following spoken instruction span task involving varied encoding and recall conditions...
May 22, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530532/the-effect-of-cognitive-remediation-therapy-on-social-skills-in-institutionalized-elderly-patients-with-schizophrenia
#2
Fatemeh Mohammadi, Yadollah Abolfathi Momtaz, Seyedeh Ameneh Motallebi, Shahnaz Boosepasi
BACKGROUND: There is limited scientific investigations on cognitive remediation in elderly patients with schizophrenia. The present study was aimed to examine the efficacy of cognitive remediation therapy on social skills in institutionalized elderly patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: The study employed a randomized clinical trial. A total of 60 institutionalized elderly patients with schizophrenia from Razi Psychiatric Hospital, Tehran were selected and randomly allocated into two equal groups (control and intervention)...
May 22, 2017: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523253/cell-therapy-products-in-alzheimer-disease
#3
REVIEW
Hyeon Jin Song, Tae-Hee Kim, Hae-Hyeog Lee, Jun-Mo Kim, Yoo Jin Park, Arum Lee, Soo Ah Kim, Hye Ji Choi
We are rapidly becoming an aging society, with the ongoing increase in challenges of the elderly. The age-related cognitive decline in accordance with aging society is of major importance in public health. Recent studies have proved the impacts of sex-steroid hormone on the brain; compliant with aging, menopause and decrease in estrogen have an effect on the occurrence and prevention of Alzheimer's disease. A new hypothesis states that Alzheimer's disease is a postmenopausal dementia, and is a negative form of estrogen deficiency...
April 2017: Journal of Menopausal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511562/a-review-of-cognitive-remediation-approaches-for-schizophrenia-from-top-down-to-bottom-up-brain-training-to-psychotherapy
#4
Michael W Best, Christopher R Bowie
Individuals with psychotic disorders experience profound impairment in neurocognition, which is consistently found to be the best predictor of independent community functioning. Several diverse behavioural treatments designed to enhance neurocognitive abilities have been developed, with subtle to stark differences among them. Various approaches, to varying degrees, have demonstrated success across diffuse outcomes: improved brain structure and function, performance on neuropsychological tests, and community activities associated with daily living...
May 16, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509081/interleukin-6-mediated-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-ipsc-derived-neural-differentiation
#5
Yanuar Alan Sulistio, Han Kyu Lee, Sung Jun Jung, Klaus Heese
In an aging society with an increasing threat to higher brain cognitive functions due to dementia, it becomes imperative to identify new molecular remedies for supporting adult neurogenesis. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a promising cytokine that can support neurogenesis under conditions of neurodegeneration, and neuron replacement is eventually possible due to its agonistic acting soluble receptor sIL-6R. Here, we report that activation of the IL-6-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) axis is neurogenic and has potential therapeutic applications for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD)...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500432/quality-and-readability-of-online-information-resources-on-insomnia
#6
Yan Ma, Albert C Yang, Ying Duan, Ming Dong, Albert S Yeung
The internet is a major source for health information. An increasing number of people, including patients with insomnia, search for remedies online; however, little is known about the quality of such information. This study aimed to evaluate the quality and readability of insomnia-related online information. Google was used as the search engine, and the top websites on insomnia that met the inclusion criteria were evaluated for quality and readability. The analyzed websites belonged to nonprofit, commercial, or academic organizations and institutions such as hospitals and universities...
May 13, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493924/cognitive-function-in-multiple-sclerosis-improves-with-telerehabilitation-results-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Leigh E Charvet, Jie Yang, Michael T Shaw, Kathleen Sherman, Lamia Haider, Jianjin Xu, Lauren B Krupp
Cognitive impairment affects more than half of all individuals living with multiple sclerosis (MS). We hypothesized that training at home with an adaptive online cognitive training program would have greater cognitive benefit than ordinary computer games in cognitively-impaired adults with MS. This was a double-blind, randomized, active-placebo-controlled trial. Participants with MS were recruited through Stony Brook Medicine and randomly assigned to either the adaptive cognitive remediation (ACR) program or active control of ordinary computer games for 60 hours over 12 weeks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489700/p300-event-related-potentials-differentiate-better-performing-individuals-with-traumatic-brain-injury-a-preliminary-study-of-semantic-processing
#8
Tara M Davis, Benjamin D Hill, Kelli J Evans, Shelby Tiffin, Nicholas Stanley, Kelly Fields, Katherine Russ, Huybrechts Frazier Bindele, Susan Gordon-Hickey
OBJECTIVE: To measure the effect of traumatic brain injury on the cognitive processing of words, as measured by the P300, in a semantic categorization task. PARTICIPANTS: Eight adults with a history of moderate to severe traumatic brain injury and 8 age- and gender-matched controls. DESIGN: A pilot study measuring cognitive event-related potentials in response to word pairs that were either in same or different semantic categories. MAIN MEASURES: The P300 (P3b) component of the auditory event-related potential and neuropsychological assessment...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488608/epilepsy-surgery-in-children
#9
REVIEW
Sita Jayalakshmi, Sudhindra Vooturi, Swapan Gupta, Manas Panigrahi
Approximately 60% of all patients with epilepsy suffer from focal epilepsy syndromes. In approximately 15% of these patients, the seizures are not adequately controlled with anticonvulsive drugs, and such patients are potential candidates for surgical treatment and majority are children. Epilepsy surgery in children, who have been carefully chosen, can result in either seizure freedom or a marked (>90%) reduction in seizures in approximately two-third of children with intractable seizures. In the multimodality presurgical evaluation approach, sufficient concordance should be established among various independent investigations, thus identifying the location and extent of the epileptogenic zone with a high degree of confidence...
May 2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484666/hearing-and-balance-disorders-in-the-state-of-hawai-i-demographics-and-demand-for-services
#10
Mohsin Ahmed M Shaikh, James W Hall, Cindy McManus, Henry L Lew
Hearing and balance disorders affect people of all ages. Among children, hearing loss affects speech and language development, academic performance, and psychosocial development. Hearing loss in adults negatively impacts work productivity, cognitive function, and psychosocial status. Prevalence of hearing loss in children in Hawai'i is higher than the national average. Research indicates that hearing loss is a prevalent condition among veterans and advanced age adults. This is of particular concern in Hawai'i as the state is home to many military training facilities and has a large elderly population...
May 2017: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483271/-mindful-neuropsychology-mindfulness-based-cognitive-remediation
#11
E Bulzacka, S Lavault, A Pelissolo, C Bagnis Isnard
OBJECTIVES: Mindfulness based interventions (MBI) have recently gained much interest in western medicine. MBSR paradigm is based on teaching participants to pay complete attention to the present experience and act nonjudgmentally towards stressful events. During this mental practice the meditator focuses his or her attention on the sensations of the body. While the distractions (mental images, thoughts, emotional or somatic states) arise the participant is taught to acknowledge discursive thoughts and cultivate the state of awareness without immediate reaction...
May 5, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476213/reprint-of-using-neuroimaging-to-individualize-tms-treatment-for-depression-toward-a-new-paradigm-for-imaging-guided-intervention
#12
Bruce M Luber, Simon Davis, Elisabeth Bernhardt, Andrada Neacsiu, Lori Kwapil, Sarah H Lisanby, Timothy J Strauman
The standard clinical technique for using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with limited efficacy to date. Such limited efficacy may be due to reliance on scalp-based targeting rather than state-of-the-science methods which incorporate fMRI-guided neuronavigation based on a specific model of neurocircuit dysfunction. In this review, we examine such a specific model drawn from regulatory focus theory, which postulates two brain/behavior systems, the promotion and prevention systems, underlying goal pursuit...
May 1, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463718/computer-assisted-cognitive-remediation-therapy-in-schizophrenia-durability-of-the-effects-and-cost-utility-analysis
#13
Gemma Garrido, Rafael Penadés, Maite Barrios, Núria Aragay, Irene Ramos, Vicenç Vallès, Carlota Faixa, Josep M Vendrell
The durability of computer-assisted cognitive remediation (CACR) therapy over time and the cost-effectiveness of treatment remains unclear. The aim of the current study is to investigate the effectiveness of CACR and to examine the use and cost of acute psychiatric admissions before and after of CACR. Sixty-seven participants were initially recruited. For the follow-up study a total of 33 participants were enrolled, 20 to the CACR condition group and 13 to the active control condition group. All participants were assessed at baseline, post-therapy and 12 months post-therapy on neuropsychology, QoL and self-esteem measurements...
April 27, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457189/effects-of-cognitive-remediation-therapy-versus-other-interventions-on-cognitive-functioning-in-schizophrenia-inpatients
#14
Magdalena Linke, Konrad S Jankowski, Adam Wichniak, Marek Jarema, Til Wykes
Computerised cognitive remediation therapy (CCRT) has been shown to improve cognitive function in individuals with schizophrenia beyond effects of other forms of therapy. However, results vary between studies, and most are aimed at individuals who are living in the community. Very few studies have investigated its efficacy in psychiatric wards in order to assess whether or not this is a suitable site to start the therapy. This study evaluated CCRT efficacy among schizophrenia inpatients who received a broad range of therapeutic interventions in a psychiatric ward...
May 1, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451631/gaba-b-agonist-baclofen-normalizes-auditory-evoked-neural-oscillations-and-behavioral-deficits-in-the-fmr1-knockout-mouse-model-of-fragile-x-syndrome
#15
D Sinclair, R Featherstone, M Naschek, J Nam, A Du, S Wright, K Pance, O Melnychenko, R Weger, S Akuzawa, M Matsumoto, S J Siegel
Fragile X syndrome is a genetic condition resulting from FMR1 gene mutation that leads to intellectual disability, autism-like symptoms, and sensory hypersensitivity. Arbaclofen, a GABA-B agonist, has shown efficacy in some individuals with FXS but has become unavailable after unsuccessful clinical trials, prompting interest in publicly available, racemic baclofen. The present study investigated whether racemic baclofen can remediate abnormalities of neural circuit function, sensory processing, and behavior in Fmr1 knockout mice, a rodent model of fragile X syndrome...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448827/dopamine-cognitive-biases-and-assessment-of-certainty-a-neurocognitive-model-of-delusions
#16
REVIEW
Annabel Broyd, Ryan P Balzan, Todd S Woodward, Paul Allen
This paper examines the evidence that delusions can be explained within the framework of a neurocognitive model of how the brain assesses certainty. Here, 'certainty' refers to both low-level interpretations of one's environment and high-level (conscious) appraisals of one's beliefs and experiences. A model is proposed explaining how the brain systems responsible for assigning certainty might dysfunction, contributing to the cause and maintenance of delusional beliefs. It is suggested that delusions arise through a combination of perturbed striatal dopamine and aberrant salience as well as cognitive biases such as the tendency to jump to conclusions (JTC) and hypersalience of evidence-hypothesis matches...
April 18, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421871/exploring-predictors-of-work-competence-in-schizophrenia-the-role-of-theory-of-mind
#17
Margherita Bechi, Marco Spangaro, Alessandro Pigoni, Elena Ripamonti, Mariachiara Buonocore, Federica Cocchi, Laura Bianchi, Carmelo Guglielmino, Antonella Rita Mastromatteo, Roberto Cavallaro, Marta Bosia
In schizophrenia employment rate is dramatically low, also among patients receiving job support interventions. Recent studies showed a direct relationship between neurocognitive deficits and work functioning, as well as proving the benefits of combined neurocognitive and work interventions. Current evidence also supports a role of Theory of Mind (ToM), on work functioning. However, the effect of integrated rehabilitation programmes including a social cognitive training on job outcome is still less explored...
April 19, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421717/cognitive-profiles-in-euthymic-patients-with-bipolar-disorders-results-from-the-face-bd-cohort
#18
Paul Roux, Aurélie Raust, Anne Sophie Cannavo, Valérie Aubin, Bruno Aouizerate, Jean-Michel Azorin, Frank Bellivier, Raoul Belzeaux, Thierry Bougerol, Iréna Cussac, Philippe Courtet, Bruno Etain, Sébastien Gard, Sophie Job, Jean-Pierre Kahn, Marion Leboyer, Emilie Olié, Chantal Henry, Christine Passerieux
OBJECTIVES: Although cognitive deficits are a well-established feature of bipolar disorders (BD), even during periods of euthymia, little is known about cognitive phenotype heterogeneity among patients with BD. METHODS: We investigated neuropsychological performance in 258 euthymic patients with BD recruited via the French network of expert centers for BD. We used a test battery assessing six domains of cognition. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the cross-sectional data was used to determine the optimal number of subgroups and to assign each patient to a specific cognitive cluster...
April 19, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420211/cognitive-remediation-therapy-for-adolescents-with-anorexia-nervosa-treatment-satisfaction-and-the-perception-of-change
#19
Camilla Lindvall Dahlgren, Kristin Stedal
Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) has recently been developed for children and adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN). It focuses on decreasing rigid cognitions and behaviors, as well as increasing central coherence. Overall, CRT has been proven feasible for young individuals with AN, but little is known regarding the specifics of its feasibility, and the perception of change associated with the intervention. Consequently, the aim of the current study was to explore service users' perspective on CRT with a specific focus on treatment delivery, treatment content, and perceived change...
April 18, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412142/early-enriched-physical-environment-reverses-impairments-of-the-hippocampus-but-not-medial-prefrontal-cortex-of-adolescent-socially-isolated-mice
#20
Min Cao, Tinglin Pu, Linmei Wang, Charles Marshall, Hongliang He, Gang Hu, Ming Xiao
Early social isolation (SI) produces a variety of emotional, behavioral and cognitive abnormalities. Conversely, environmental enrichment (EE), a complicated social and physical construct, offers beneficial effects on brain plasticity and development. However, whether or not exclusive physical EE is sufficient to reverse the adverse consequences of adolescent SI remains unclear. Here we reported that 1 month-old solitary mice housed in the EE for 8 weeks corrected spatial cognitive dysfunction, but did not ameliorate social interaction deficits and increased anxiety-like behavior...
April 12, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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