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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431691/sensorimotor-activity-measured-via-oscillations-of-eeg-mu-rhythms-in-speech-and-non-speech-discrimination-tasks-with-and-without-segmentation-demands
#1
David Thornton, Ashley W Harkrider, David Jenson, Tim Saltuklaroglu
Better understanding of the role of sensorimotor processing in speech and non-speech segmentation can be achieved with more temporally precise measures. Twenty adults made same/different discriminations of speech and non-speech stimuli pairs, with and without segmentation demands. Independent component analysis of 64-channel EEG data revealed clear sensorimotor mu components, with characteristic alpha and beta peaks, localized to premotor regions in 70% of participants.Time-frequency analyses of mu components from accurate trials showed that (1) segmentation tasks elicited greater event-related synchronization immediately following offset of the first stimulus, suggestive of inhibitory activity; (2) strong late event-related desynchronization in all conditions, suggesting that working memory/covert replay contributed substantially to sensorimotor activity in all conditions; (3) stronger beta desynchronization in speech versus non-speech stimuli during stimulus presentation, suggesting stronger auditory-motor transforms for speech versus non-speech stimuli...
April 18, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431133/prediction-of-sudden-and-non-sudden-cardiac-death-in-post-infarction-patients-with-reduced-left-ventricular-ejection-fraction-by-periodic-repolarization-dynamics-madit-ii-substudy
#2
Konstantinos D Rizas, Scott McNitt, Wolfgang Hamm, Steffen Massberg, Stefan Kääb, Wojciech Zareba, Jean-Philippe Couderc, Axel Bauer
Aims: To test the value of Periodic Repolarization Dynamics (PRD), a recently validated electrocardiographic marker of sympathetic activity, as a novel approach to predict sudden cardiac death (SCD) and non-sudden cardiac death (N-SCD) and to improve identification of patients that profit from ICD-implantation. Methods and results: We included 856 post-infarction patients with left-ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤30% of the MADIT-II trial in sinus rhythm...
April 18, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410879/determination-of-reference-genes-that-are-independent-of-feeding-rhythms-for-circadian-studies-of-mouse-metabolic-tissues
#3
Reiko Nakao, Hiroki Okauchi, Chiaki Hashimoto, Naoyuki Wada, Katsutaka Oishi
Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis is a popular method for the measurement of mRNA expression level and is a critical tool for basic research. The identification of suitable reference genes that are stable and not affected by experimental conditions is a critical step in the accurate normalization of RT-PCR. On the other hand, the levels of numerous transcripts exhibit circadian oscillation in various peripheral tissues and it is thought to be regulated by feeding rhythms in addition to the molecular circadian clock...
April 5, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405929/thermodynamics-in-cancers-opposing-interactions-between-ppar-gamma-and-the-canonical-wnt-beta-catenin-pathway
#4
REVIEW
Yves Lecarpentier, Victor Claes, Alexandre Vallée, Jean-Louis Hébert
Cancer cells are the site of numerous metabolic and thermodynamic abnormalities. We focus this review on the interactions between the canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) in cancers and their implications from an energetic and metabolic point of view. In numerous tissues, PPAR gamma activation induces inhibition of beta-catenin pathway, while the activation of the canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway inactivates PPAR gamma. In most cancers but not all, PPAR gamma is downregulated while the WNT/beta-catenin pathway is upregulated...
December 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405243/transcriptomic-responses-of-the-liver-and-adipose-tissues-to-altered-carbohydrate-fat-ratio-in-diet-an-isoenergetic-study-in-young-rats
#5
Mitsuru Tanaka, Akihito Yasuoka, Manae Shimizu, Yoshikazu Saito, Kei Kumakura, Tomiko Asakura, Toshitada Nagai
BACKGROUND: To elucidate the effects of altered dietary carbohydrate and fat balance on liver and adipose tissue transcriptomes, 3-week-old rats were fed three kinds of diets: low-, moderate-, and high-fat diets (L, M, and H) containing a different ratio of carbohydrate-fat (C-F) (65:15, 60:20, and 35:45 in energy percent, respectively). METHODS: The rats consumed the diets for 9 weeks and were subjected to biochemical and DNA microarray analyses. RESULTS: The rats in the H-group exhibited lower serum triacylglycerol (TG) levels but higher liver TG and cholesterol content than rats in the L-group...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400266/eeg-mu-%C3%A2%C2%B5-rhythm-spectra-and-oscillatory-activity-differentiate-stuttering-from-non-stuttering-adults
#6
Tim Saltuklaroglu, Ashley W Harkrider, David Thornton, David Jenson, Tiffani Kittilstved
Stuttering is linked to sensorimotor deficits related to internal modeling mechanisms. This study compared spectral power and oscillatory activity of EEG mu (μ) rhythms between persons who stutter (PWS) and controls in listening and auditory discrimination tasks. EEG data were analyzed from passive listening in noise and accurate (same/different) discrimination of tones or syllables in quiet and noisy backgrounds. Independent component analysis identified left and/or right μ rhythms with characteristic alpha (α) and beta (β) peaks localized to premotor/motor regions in 23 of 27 people who stutter (PWS) and 24 of 27 controls...
April 8, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398365/-digitalis-a-drug-to-be-scrapped
#7
Franco Cosmi, Barbara Tarquini, Beatrice Mariottoni, Deborah Cosmi
We performed a comprehensive review of the scientific literature on the use of digoxin in heart failure and atrial fibrillation. In congestive heart failure (CHF) there is only one randomized trial with a statistical sample sufficiently large. In this trial (DIG trial), which enrolled patients with systolic left ventricular dysfunction in sinus rhythm, digoxin had a neutral action on mortality and modestly reduced the overall need of hospitalization. The study was conducted in the pre-beta-blocker era and, therefore, it has a doubtful application to the current clinical context...
February 2017: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382759/development-of-infant-sustained-attention-and-its-relation-to-eeg-oscillations-an-eeg-and-cortical-source-analysis-study
#8
Wanze Xie, Brittany M Mallin, John E Richards
The current study examined the relation between infant sustained attention and infant EEG oscillations. Fifty-nine infants were tested at 6 (N = 15), 8 (N = 17), 10 (N = 14), and 12 (N = 13) months. Three attention phases, stimulus orienting, sustained attention, and attention termination, were defined based on infants' heart rate changes. Frequency analysis using simultaneously recorded EEG focused on infant theta (2-6 Hz), alpha (6-9 Hz), and beta (9-14 Hz) rhythms. Cortical source analysis of EEG oscillations was conducted with realistic infant MRI models...
April 5, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382017/disrupted-ultradian-activity-rhythms-and-differential-expression-of-several-clock-genes-in-interleukin-6-deficient-mice
#9
Francisco J Monje, Ana Cicvaric, Juan Pablo Acevedo Aguilar, Immanuel Elbau, Orsolya Horvath, Weifei Diao, Micaela Glat, Daniela D Pollak
The characteristics of the cycles of activity and rest stand out among the most intensively investigated aspects of circadian rhythmicity in humans and experimental animals. Alterations in the circadian patterns of activity and rest are strongly linked to cognitive and emotional dysfunctions in severe mental illnesses such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and major depression (MDD). The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6) has been prominently associated with the pathogenesis of AD and MDD. However, the potential involvement of IL-6 in the modulation of the diurnal rhythms of activity and rest has not been investigated...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367834/electroencephalographic-identifiers-of-motor-adaptation-learning
#10
Ozan Ozdenizci, Mustafa Yalcin, Ahmetcan Erdogan, Volkan Patoglu, Moritz Grosse-Wentrup, Mujdat Cetin
OBJECTIVE: Recent brain-computer interface (BCI) assisted stroke rehabilitation protocols tend to focus on sensorimotor activity of the brain. Relying on evidence claiming that a variety of brain rhythms beyond sensorimotor areas are related to the extent of motor deficits, we propose to identify neural correlates of motor learning beyond sensorimotor areas spatially and spectrally for further use in novel BCI-assisted neurorehabilitation settings. APPROACH: Electroencephalographic (EEG) data were recorded from healthy subjects participating in a physical force-field adaptation task involving reaching movements through a robotic handle...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367108/amyloid-%C3%AE-induced-changes-in-molecular-clock-properties-and-cellular-bioenergetics
#11
Karen Schmitt, Amandine Grimm, Anne Eckert
Ageing is an inevitable biological process that results in a progressive structural and functional decline, as well as biochemical alterations that altogether lead to reduced ability to adapt to environmental changes. As clock oscillations and clock-controlled rhythms are not resilient to the aging process, aging of the circadian system may also increase susceptibility to age-related pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Besides the amyloid-beta protein (Aβ)-induced metabolic decline and neuronal toxicity in AD, numerous studies have demonstrated that the disruption of sleep and circadian rhythms is one of the common and earliest signs of the disease...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364174/primate-beta-oscillations-and-rhythmic-behaviors
#12
REVIEW
Hugo Merchant, Ramón Bartolo
The study of non-human primates in complex behaviors such as rhythm perception and entrainment is critical to understand the neurophysiological basis of human cognition. Next to reviewing the role of beta oscillations in human beat perception, here we discuss the role of primate putaminal oscillatory activity in the control of rhythmic movements that are guided by a sensory metronome or internally gated. The analysis of the local field potentials of the behaving macaques showed that gamma-oscillations reflect local computations associated with stimulus processing of the metronome, whereas beta-activity involves the entrainment of large putaminal circuits, probably in conjunction with other elements of cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuit, during internally driven rhythmic tapping...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348646/complexity-of-resting-state-eeg-activity-in-the-patients-with-early-stage-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Guo-Sheng Yi, Jiang Wang, Bin Deng, Xi-Le Wei
To investigate the abnormal brain activities in the early stage of Parkinson's disease (PD), the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals were recorded with 20 channels from non-dementia PD patients (18 patients, 8 females) and age matched healthy controls (18 subjects, 8 females) during the resting state. Two methods based on the ordinal patterns of the recorded series, i.e., permutation entropy (PE) and order index (OI), were introduced to characterize the complexity of the cortical activities for two groups. It was observed that the resting-state EEG of PD patients showed lower PE and higher OI than healthy controls, which indicated that the early-stage PD caused the reduced complexity of EEG...
April 2017: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348136/driving-human-motor-cortical-oscillations-leads-to-behaviourally-relevant-changes-in-local-gabaa-inhibition-a-tacs-tms-study
#14
Magdalena Nowak, Emily Hinson, Freek van Ede, Alek Pogosyan, Andrea Guerra, Andrew Quinn, Peter Brown, Charlotte J Stagg
Beta and gamma oscillations are the dominant oscillatory activity in the human motor cortex (M1). However, their physiological basis and precise functional significance remain poorly understood. Here, we employed Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) to examine the physiological basis and behavioural relevance of driving beta and gamma oscillatory activity in the human M1 using transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS). tACS was applied using a sham-controlled cross-over design at individualised intensity for 20 min, and TMS was performed at rest (before, during and after tACS) and during movement preparation (before and after tACS)...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337597/the-functional-role-of-post-movement-beta-oscillations-in-motor-termination
#15
Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, Max J Kurz, James E Gehringer, Tony W Wilson
Shortly after movement termination, there is a strong increase or resynchronization of the beta rhythm (15-30 Hz) across the sensorimotor network of humans, known as the post-movement beta rebound (PMBR). This response has been associated with active inhibition of the motor network following the completion of a movement, sensory afferentation of the sensorimotor cortices, and other functions. However, studies that have directly probed the role of the PMBR in movement execution have reported mixed results, possibly due to differences in the amount of total motor output and/or movement complexity...
March 24, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323091/age-related-differences-in-functional-synchronization-of-eeg-activity-as-evaluated-by-means-of-tms-eeg-coregistrations
#16
Florinda Ferreri, Fabrizio Vecchio, Andrea Guerra, Francesca Miraglia, David Ponzo, Luca Vollero, Giulio Iannello, Sara Maatta, Esa Mervaala, Paolo Maria Rossini, Vincenzo Di Lazzaro
It was recently demonstrated that the characteristics of EEG rhythms preceding a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex (M1) influence the motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitude with a peculiar pattern, thus reflecting the M1 functional state. As physiological aging is related to a decrease in motor performance and changes in excitability and connectivity strength within cerebral sensorimotor circuits, we aimed to explore whether aging affects EEG-MEP interactions. Using MRI-navigated TMS and multichannel EEG, we compared the EEG-MEP interactions observed in healthy aged subjects with those observed in young volunteers...
March 18, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323013/electroencephalographic-sensorimotor-rhythms-are-modulated-in-the-acute-phase-following-focal-vibration-in-healthy-subjects
#17
Susanna Lopez, Fabiano Bini, Claudio Del Percio, Franco Marinozzi, Claudia Celletti, Antonio Suppa, Raffaele Ferri, Emanuela Staltari, Filippo Camerota, Claudio Babiloni
Few minutes of focal vibration (FV) on limb muscles can improve motor control in neurological (stroke, Parkinson) patients for unknown underlying neurophysiological mechanisms. Here we hypothesized that in healthy volunteers this FV would increase excitability in the primary sensorimotor cortex (S1-M1) during an isometric contraction of the stimulated muscle. The design included an initial control condition with no FV stimulation (Baseline) as well as three short experimental sessions of FV and a Sham (fake) session in a pseudo-random order...
March 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323009/investigation-of-the-effects-of-transcranial-alternating-current-stimulation-tacs-on-self-paced-rhythmic-movements
#18
Manuel Varlet, Alanna Wade, Giacomo Novembre, Peter E Keller
Human rhythmic movements spontaneously entrain to external rhythmic stimuli. Such sensory-motor entrainment can attract movements to different tempi and enhance their efficiency, with potential clinical applications for motor rehabilitation. Here we investigate whether entrainment of self-paced rhythmic movements can be induced via transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), which uses alternating currents to entrain spontaneous brain oscillations at specific frequencies. Participants swung a handheld pendulum at their preferred tempo with the right hand while tACS was applied over their left or right primary motor cortex at frequencies equal to their preferred tempo (Experiment 1) or in the alpha (10Hz) and beta (20Hz) ranges (Experiment 2)...
March 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306170/impact-of-atrial-fibrillation-on-platelet-gene-expression
#19
Waldemar E Wysokinski, Alfonso Tafur, Naser Ammash, Samuel J Asirvatham, Yanhong Wu, Izabella Gosk-Bierska, Diane E Grill, Joshua P Slusser, Jozef Mruk, Robert D McBane
AIMS: Platelets retain cytoplasmic messenger RNA and are capable of protein biosynthesis. Several diseases are known to impact the platelet transcriptome but the effect of non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) on platelet RNA transcript is essentially unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of NVAF on platelet RNA transcript by measuring platelet genes expression in consecutive NVAF patients before and 3-4 months after pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) and compared to normal sinus rhythm controls (NSR)...
March 17, 2017: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286836/intravenous-amiodarone-versus-digoxin-in-atrial-fibrillation-rate-control-a-clinical-trial
#20
Majid Shojaee, Bahareh Feizi, Reza Miri, Jalil Etemadi, Amir Hossein Feizi
INTRODUCTION: Treatment of rapid ventricular response arterial fibrillation (rapid AF) varies depending on the decision of the in-charge physician, condition of the patient, availability of the drug, and the treatment protocol of the hospital. The present study was designed aiming to compare IV digoxin and amiodarone in controlling the heart rate of patients presenting to emergency department with rapid AF and relative contraindication for first line drug in this regard. METHOD: In the present clinical trial, patients presented to the ED with rapid AF and relative contraindication for calcium channel blockers and beta-blockers were treated with either IV amiodarone or IV digoxin and compared regarding success rate and complication using SPSS version 22...
2017: Emergency (Tehran, Iran)
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