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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636506/incidence-and-predictors-of-atrial-fibrillation-after-coronary-artery-bypass-surgery-detection-by-event-loop-recorder-monitoring-from-a-contemporary-multicentre-cohort
#1
Zainab Abdel-Salam, Wail Nammas
Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a frequent complication after cardiac surgery. We explored the incidence and predictors of post-operative AF at 30-day follow-up in an unselected multi-centre cohort of patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in contemporary practice. Methods and results We enrolled 740 consecutive patients scheduled for elective CABG with or without valve surgery. Cardiac rhythm was continuously monitored for 15 days after surgery by an ambulatory event loop recorder...
March 21, 2017: Acta Cardiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622355/anesthetic-action-on-the-transmission-delay-between-cortex-and-thalamus-explains-the-beta-buzz-observed-under-propofol-anesthesia
#2
Meysam Hashemi, Axel Hutt, Darren Hight, Jamie Sleigh
In recent years, more and more surgeries under general anesthesia have been performed with the assistance of electroencephalogram (EEG) monitors. An increase in anesthetic concentration leads to characteristic changes in the power spectra of the EEG. Although tracking the anesthetic-induced changes in EEG rhythms can be employed to estimate the depth of anesthesia, their precise underlying mechanisms are still unknown. A prominent feature in the EEG of some patients is the emergence of a strong power peak in the β-frequency band, which moves to the α-frequency band while increasing the anesthetic concentration...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620312/thermodynamics-in-gliomas-interactions-between-the-canonical-wnt-beta-catenin-pathway-and-ppar-gamma
#3
REVIEW
Alexandre Vallée, Yves Lecarpentier, Rémy Guillevin, Jean-Noël Vallée
Gliomas cells are the site of numerous metabolic and thermodynamics abnormalities with an increasing entropy rate which is characteristic of irreversible processes driven by changes in Gibbs energy, heat production, intracellular acidity, membrane potential gradient, and ionic conductance. We focus our review on the opposing interactions observed in glioma between the canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway and PPAR gamma and their metabolic and thermodynamic implications. In gliomas, WNT/beta-catenin pathway is upregulated while PPAR gamma is downregulated...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597249/differential-regulation-of-protein-phosphatase-1-pp1-isoforms-in-human-heart-failure-and-atrial-fibrillation
#4
Stefanie Meyer-Roxlau, Simon Lämmle, Annett Opitz, Stephan Künzel, Julius P Joos, Stefan Neef, Karolina Sekeres, Samuel T Sosalla, Friedrich Schöndube, Konstantin Alexiou, Lars S Maier, Dobromir Dobrev, Kaomei Guan, Silvio Weber, Ali El-Armouche
Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is a key regulator of important cardiac signaling pathways. Dysregulation of PP1 has been heavily implicated in cardiac dysfunctions. Accordingly, pharmacological targeting of PP1 activity is considered for therapeutic intervention in human cardiomyopathies. Recent evidence from animal models implicated previously unrecognized, isoform-specific activities of PP1 in the healthy and diseased heart. Therefore, this study examined the expression of the distinct PP1 isoforms PP1α, β, and γ in human heart failure (HF) and atrial fibrillation (AF) and addressed the consequences of β-adrenoceptor blocker (beta-blocker) therapy for HF patients with reduced ejection fraction on PP1 isoform expression...
July 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592697/top-down-beta-enhances-bottom-up-gamma
#5
Craig G Richter, William H Thompson, Conrado A Bosman, Pascal Fries
Several recent studies have demonstrated that the bottom-up signaling of a visual stimulus is subserved by interareal gamma-band synchronization, whereas top-down influences are mediated by alpha-beta band synchronization. These processes may implement top-down control of stimulus processing if top-down and bottom-up mediating rhythms are coupled via cross-frequency interaction. To test this possibility, we investigated Granger-causal influences among awake male macaque primary visual area V1, higher visual area V4 and parietal control area 7a during attentional task performance...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583875/quantitative-profiling-of-19-bile-acids-in-rat-plasma-liver-bile-and-different-intestinal-section-contents-to-investigate-bile-acid-homeostasis-and-the-application-of-temporal-variation-of-endogenous-bile-acids
#6
Tingting Yang, Ting Shu, Guanlan Liu, Huifang Mei, Xiaoyu Zhu, Xin Huang, Luyong Zhang, Zhenzhou Jiang
Bile acid homeostasis is maintained by liver synthesis, bile duct secretion, microbial metabolism and intestinal reabsorption into the blood. When drug insults result in liver damage, the variances of bile acids (BAs) are related to the physiological status of the liver. Here, we established a method to simultaneously quantify 19 BAs in rat plasma, liver, bile and different intestinal section contents (duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum and colon) using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to reveal the pattern of bile acid homeostasis in the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids in physiological situations...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569421/autonomic-nervous-system-modulation-and-clinical-outcome-after-pulmonary-vein-isolation-using-the-second-generation-cryoballoon
#7
Shinsuke Miyazaki, Hiroaki Nakamura, Hiroshi Taniguchi, Hitoshi Hachiya, Takatsugu Kajiyama, Tomonori Watanabe, Miyako Igarashi, Sadamitsu Ichijo, Kenzo Hirao, Yoshito Iesaka
BACKGROUND: The intrinsic cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) plays a significant role in atrial fibrillation (AF) mechanisms. This study evaluated the incidence and impact of intraprocedural vagal reactions and ANS modulation by pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) using second-generation cryoballoons on outcomes. METHODS: One hundred three paroxysmal AF patients underwent PVI with one 28-mm second-generation balloon. The median follow-up was 15.0 (12.0-18.0) months...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559660/mean-platelet-volume-as-a-predictor-of-heart-failure-related-hospitalizations-in-stable-heart-failure-outpatients-with-sinus-rhythm
#8
Hakki Kaya, Mustafa Kutay Yıldırımlı, Recep Kurt, Osman Beton, Mehmet Birhan Yilmaz
BACKGROUND: In this study, we investigated the relationship between the mean platelet volume (MPV) with mortality and heart failure (HF)-related hospitalization in stable chronic HF outpatients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and with sinus rhythm (SR). METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 197 consecutive stable chronic HFrEF outpatients with SR, who were admitted to our cardiology outpatient clinics for examination between January 2014 and January 2015...
May 2017: Acta Cardiologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556462/gsk3-activity-regulates-rhythms-in-hippocampal-clock-gene-expression-and-synaptic-plasticity
#9
Rachel C Besing, Courtney O Rogers, Jodi R Paul, Lauren M Hablitz, Russell L Johnson, Lori L McMahon, Karen L Gamble
Hippocampal rhythms in clock gene expression, enzymatic activity, and long-term potentiation (LTP) are thought to underlie day-night differences in memory acquisition and recall. Glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta (GSK3β) is a known regulator of hippocampal function, and inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK3β exhibits region-specific differences over the light-dark cycle. Here, we sought to determine whether phosphorylation of both GSK3α and GSK3β isoforms has an endogenous circadian rhythm in specific areas of the hippocampus and whether chronic inhibition or activation alters the molecular clock and hippocampal plasticity (LTP)...
May 27, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551698/glucose-metabolism-during-rotational-shift-work-in-healthcare-workers
#10
Anu Sharma, Marcello C Laurenti, Chiara Dalla Man, Ron T Varghese, Claudio Cobelli, Robert A Rizza, Aleksey Matveyenko, Adrian Vella
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Shift-work is associated with circadian rhythm disruption and an increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. We sought to determine the effect of rotational shift-work on glucose metabolism in humans. METHODS: We studied 12 otherwise healthy nurses performing rotational shift-work using a randomised crossover study design. On each occasion, participants underwent an isotope-labelled mixed meal test during a simulated day shift and a simulated night shift, enabling simultaneous measurement of glucose flux and beta cell function using the oral minimal model...
May 27, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546544/reproducing-infra-slow-oscillations-with-dopaminergic-modulation
#11
Toshihiro Kobayashi, Yutaka Shimada, Kantaro Fujiwara, Tohru Ikeguchi
In the human brain, billions of neurons construct a neural network via synaptic connections. Neuronal excitation and inhibition are transmitted to other neurons through synapses via neurotransmitters. Dopamine is one of these neurotransmitters that plays a number of important roles. There are a variety of rhythms in the brain, such as alpha rhythm, beta rhythm, and so on. Infra-slow oscillation, ISO, is one of the rhythms observed in the brain, and ranges below 0.1 Hz. One of the key roles of dopamine is the generation of ISO in neural networks...
May 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541596/effects-of-ivabradine-and-beta-blocker-therapy-on-dobutamine-induced-ventricular-arrhythmias
#12
Kadir Uğur Mert, Gurbet Özge Mert, Bektas Morrad, Senan Tahmazov, Fezan Mutlu, Yüksel Cavusoglu
BACKGROUND: Indirect evidences suggest that the If blocker (ivabradine) may exert an antiarrhythmic effect in ventricular myocardium in heart failure patients by inhibiting spontaneous depolarizations but the clinical relevance of this mechanism is not known. Dobutamine (DOB) has been known to increase heart rate and the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias. In this study, we evaluated the effects of ivabradine on DOB-induced ventricular arrhythmias and compared it with that of β blocker therapy...
May 25, 2017: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539912/using-brain-oscillations-and-corticospinal-excitability-to-understand-and-predict-post-stroke-motor-function
#13
Aurore Thibaut, Marcel Simis, Linamara Rizzo Battistella, Chiara Fanciullacci, Federica Bertolucci, Rodrigo Huerta-Gutierrez, Carmelo Chisari, Felipe Fregni
What determines motor recovery in stroke is still unknown and finding markers that could predict and improve stroke recovery is a challenge. In this study, we aimed at understanding the neural mechanisms of motor function recovery after stroke using neurophysiological markers by means of cortical excitability (transcranial magnetic stimulation-TMS) and brain oscillations (electroencephalography-EEG). In this cross-sectional study, 55 subjects with chronic stroke (62 ± 14 yo, 17 women, 32 ± 42 months post-stroke) were recruited in two sites...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539361/synthesis-of-the-ca-2-mobilizing-messengers-naadp-and-cadpr-by-intracellular-cd38-enzyme-in-mouse-heart-role-in-%C3%AE-adrenoceptor-signaling
#14
Wee K Lin, Emma L Bolton, Wilian A Cortopassi, Yanwen Wang, Fiona O'Brien, Matylda Maciejewska, Matthew P Jacobson, Clive Garnham, Margarida Ruas, John Parrington, Ming Lei, Rebecca Sitsapesan, Antony Galione, Derek A Terrar
Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) and cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) are Ca(2+)-mobilizing messengers important for modulating cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and pathophysiology. CD38, which belongs to the ADP-ribosyl cyclase (ARC) family, catalyzes synthesis of both NAADP and cADPR in vitro However, it remains unclear whether this is the main enzyme for their production under physiological conditions. Here, we show that membrane fractions from WT but not CD38(-/-) mouse hearts supported NAADP and cADPR synthesis...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536575/inflammatory-long-pentraxin-3-is-associated-with-leukocyte-telomere-length-in-night-shift-workers
#15
Sofia Pavanello, Mariarita Stendardo, Giuseppe Mastrangelo, Melissa Bonci, Barbara Bottazzi, Manuela Campisi, Marco Nardini, Roberto Leone, Alberto Mantovani, Piera Boschetto
Aging is an emerging worldwide threat to public health, even in the workplace, as it links with risk of illness and death. Bewildered inflammatory responses and stressful conditions associate with age-related disorders. Additionally, circadian rhythm disruption, a critical health issue in night-shift workers, correlates with premature aging. We investigated the hypothesis of a link between altered inflammatory response, detected by plasmatic long pentraxin 3 (PTX3), and biological aging, measured by leukocyte telomere length (LTL), attrition, and possibly induced by night-shift work...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527387/analysis-of-electroencephalogram-characteristics-of-anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis-patients-in-china
#16
Yan Zhang, Gang Liu, Meng Di Jiang, Li Ping Li, Ying Ying Su
OBJECTIVE: To explore the characteristics of electroencephalogram (EEG) in patients with anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis. METHODS: Anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients admitted to the Department of Neurology between January 2012 and June 2016 were enrolled. All patients underwent electroencephalogram (EEG) at least once in the disease peak stage, and received tumor screening, symptomatic therapy, and immunotherapy. Patients received outcome evaluation every 6months after the immunotherapy, and modified Rankin scale (mRS) 0-2 was defined as favorable outcome...
July 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489540/nonlinear-frequency-domain-analysis-of-the-transformation-of-cortical-inputs-by-a-motoneuron-pool-muscle-complex
#17
Renato Watanabe, Andre Kohn
Corticomotor coherence in the beta and/or gamma bands has been described in different motor tasks but the role of descending brain oscillations on force control has been elusive. Large-scale computational models of a motoneuron pool and the muscle it innervates have been used as tools to advance the knowledge of how neural elements may influence force control. Here we present a frequency domain analysis of a NARX model fitted to a large-scale neuromuscular model by means of generalized frequency response functions (GFRF)...
May 4, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488270/rest-activity-rhythm-and-sleep-characteristics-associated-with-depression-symptom-severity-in-strained-dementia-caregivers
#18
Stephen F Smagula, Robert T Krafty, Briana J Taylor, Lynn M Martire, Richard Schulz, Martica H Hall
Depression is associated with disturbances to sleep and the 24-h sleep-wake pattern (known as the rest-activity rhythm: RAR). However, there remains a need to identify the specific sleep/RAR correlates of depression symptom severity in population subgroups, such as strained dementia caregivers, who are at elevated risk for major depressive disorder. We assessed the cross-sectional associations of sleep/RARs with non-sleep depression symptom severity among 57 (mean age: 74 years, standard deviation: 7.4) strained dementia caregivers who were currently without clinical depression...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483207/usefulness-of-preoperative-transforming-growth-factor-beta-to-predict-new-onset-atrial-fibrillation-after-surgical-ventricular-septal-myectomy-in-patients-with-obstructive-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy
#19
Ying Guo, Xi Wu, Xinxin Zheng, Jie Lu, Shuiyun Wang, Xiaohong Huang
Postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF) occurs frequently after cardiac surgery and contributes significantly to mortality. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is associated with postoperative AF after coronary artery bypass grafting and valve surgery. We performed a prospective study to evaluate the role of TGF-β as a predictor of AF after myectomy. A total of 109 consecutive obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients without previous AF who underwent myectomy were identified. We measured plasma TGF-β levels before surgery, monitored heart rhythm until discharge, and followed patients for a mean of 36 ± 10 months...
April 12, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467883/heart-rate-heart-rhythm-and-prognostic-benefits-of-beta-blockers-in-heart-failure-individual-patient-data-meta-analysis
#20
Dipak Kotecha, Marcus D Flather, Douglas G Altman, Jane Holmes, Giuseppe Rosano, John Wikstrand, Milton Packer, Andrew J S Coats, Luis Manzano, Michael Böhm, Dirk J van Veldhuisen, Bert Andersson, Hans Wedel, Thomas G von Lueder, Alan S Rigby, Åke Hjalmarson, John Kjekshus, John G F Cleland
BACKGROUND: The relationship between mortality and heart rate remains unclear for patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) in either sinus rhythm or atrial fibrillation (AF). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prognostic importance of heart rate in HFrEF in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing beta-blockers and placebo. METHODS: The Beta-blockers in Heart Failure Collaborative Group performed a meta-analysis of harmonized individual-patient data from eleven double-blind RCTs...
April 5, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
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