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Inflammatory bowel

Rikke B Holmstrøm, Ditte V Mogensen, Jørn Brynskov, Mark A Ainsworth, Jacob Nersting, Kjeld Schmiegelow, Casper Steenholdt
BACKGROUND: Interactions between thiopurines and infliximab presumably contribute to superior effect of infliximab-thiopurine combination therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We examined whether principal cytotoxic thiopurine metabolites influence adalimumab (ADL) and anti-ADL antibodies (Abs). METHODS: Ninety-eight IBD patients previously treated with infliximab (96%) in whom trough ADL and anti-ADL Abs had been assessed as part of their clinical care were included...
March 21, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Swathi Eluri, Raymond K Cross, Christopher Martin, Kevin P Weinfurt, Kathryn E Flynn, Millie D Long, Wenli Chen, Kristen Anton, Robert S Sandler, Michael D Kappelman
BACKGROUND: Aspects of sexual health, which can be adversely affected by chronic disease, have been inadequately explored in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). AIMS: We evaluated patient-reported interest in sexual activity and satisfaction with sex life in a large cohort of IBD patients. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study within the Crohn's and Colitis Foundation Partners Internet cohort. Sequential participants completed a 6-question supplemental online survey to examine sexual interest and satisfaction using the Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System® (PROMIS® ) Sexual Function and Satisfaction measures...
March 21, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Shin Nishiumi, Yoshihiro Izumi, Masaru Yoshida
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an intestinal disorder, involving chronic and relapsing inflammation of the digestive tract. Dysregulation of the immune system based on genetic, environmental, and other factors seems to be involved in the onset of IBD, but its exact pathogenesis remains unclear. Therefore, radical treatments for ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease remain to be found, and IBD is considered to be a refractory disease. AIMS: The aim of this study is to obtain novel insights into IBD via metabolite profiling of interleukin (IL)-10 knockout mice (an IBD animal model that exhibits a dysregulated immune system)...
March 21, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Krish Patel, Amee Patel, David Hawes, Janki Shah, Krishna Shah
Gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota are known to play paramount role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Innovative sequencing methods have radically expanded our ability to analyze the intestinal microbiome. However, alterations of the GI microbiome in IBD have not yet been fully evaluated. Irregular colonization of the gut has been implicated in chronic intestinal inflammation. Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a procedure which aims to restore microbial disturbances to the individual's gut microbiome...
2018: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
Richard Lord, Nicholas E Burr, Noor Mohammed, Venkataraman Subramanian
AIM: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis for the diagnostic accuracy of in vivo lesion characterization in colonic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), using optical imaging techniques, including virtual chromoendoscopy (VCE), dye-based chromoendoscopy (DBC), magnification endoscopy and confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE). METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase and the Cochrane library. We performed a bivariate meta-analysis to calculate the pooled estimate sensitivities, specificities, positive and negative likelihood ratios (+LHR, -LHR), diagnostic odds ratios (DOR), and area under the SROC curve (AUSROC) for each technology group...
March 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Shakuntala Santosh Chopade, Suneela Sunil Dhaneshwar
AIM: To design colon-targeted codrugs of mycophenolic acid (MPA) and aminosugars as a safer option to mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in the management of inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: Codrugs were synthesized by coupling MPA with aminosugars (D-glucosamine and D-galactosamine) using EDCI coupling. The structures were confirmed by infrared radiation, nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The release profile of codrugs was extensively studied in aqueous buffers, upper gastrointestinal homogenates, faecal matter and caecal homogenates ( in vitro ) and rat blood ( in vitro )...
March 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Jonas Halfvarson, Fraser Cummings, Olof Grip, Guillaume Savoye
Iron deficiency without anemia and iron deficiency anemia are common and frequently overlooked complications of inflammatory bowel disease. Despite the frequency and impact of iron deficiency in inflammatory bowel disease, there are gaps in our understanding about its incidence, prevalence and natural history and, consequently, patients may be undertreated. Medical registries have a key role in collecting data on the disease's natural history, the safety and effectiveness of drugs in routine clinical practice, and the quality of care delivered by healthcare services...
March 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
J Scott Crowe, Kevin J Roberts, Timothy M Carlton, Luana Maggiore, Marion F Cubitt, Simon Clare, Katherine Harcourt, Jill Reckless, Thomas T MacDonald, Keith P Ray, Anna Vossenkämper, Michael R West
TNFα is an important cytokine in inflammatory bowel disease. V565 is a novel anti-TNFα domain antibody developed for oral administration in IBD patients, derived from a llama domain antibody and engineered to enhance intestinal protease resistance. V565 activity was evaluated in TNFα-TNFα receptor-binding ELISAs as well as TNFα responsive cellular assays and demonstrated neutralisation of both soluble and membrane TNFα with potencies similar to those of adalimumab. Although sensitive to pepsin, V565 retained activity after lengthy incubations with trypsin, chymotrypsin, and pancreatin, as well as mouse small intestinal and human ileal and faecal supernatants...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Scott A Waldman, Michael Camilleri
Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) and IBDs are two of the most prevalent disorders of the GI tract and consume a significant proportion of healthcare resources. Recent studies have shown that membrane-bound guanylate cyclase-C (GC-C) receptors lining the GI tract may serve as novel therapeutic targets in the treatment of FGIDs and IBDs. GC-C receptor activation by its endogenous paracrine hormones uroguanylin and guanylin, and the resulting intracellular production of its downstream effector cyclic GMP, occurs in a pH-dependent manner and modulates key physiological functions...
March 21, 2018: Gut
Devin Abrahami, Antonios Douros, Hui Yin, Oriana Hoi Yun Yu, Christel Renoux, Alain Bitton, Laurent Azoulay
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the use of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors is associated with the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: More than 700 general practices contributing data to the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink. PARTICIPANTS: A cohort of 141 170 patients, at least 18 years of age, starting antidiabetic drugs between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2016, with follow-up until 30 June 2017...
March 21, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Matthias Butter, Stefan Weiler, Luc Biedermann, Michael Scharl, Gerhard Rogler, Heike A Bischoff-Ferrari, Benjamin Misselwitz
Approximately 10-20% of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) cases are diagnosed after 60 years of age. Due to the high prevalence of conditions mimicking IBD at older age - including bowel disease associated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, diverticulitis, and microscopic colitis - differential diagnosis of IBD among older adults is frequently delayed. Late-onset IBD is characterized by a predominance of colonic disease and an overall milder disease course; disease progression and new intestinal manifestations are rare...
April 2018: Maturitas
Grażyna Janikowska, Tomasz Janikowski, Alina Pyka-Paj K, Urszula Mazurek, Marcin Janikowski, Maciej Gonciarz, Zbigniew Lorenc
BACKGROUNDS: Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in economically developed countries. Molecular studies and, in particular, gene expression have contributed to advances in the diagnosis and treatment of many cancers. Genes can be molecular and therapeutic markers, but because of the large molecular diversity in colorectal cancer the knowledge is not yet fully established. Probably one of the most crucial processes during early cancer development is inflammation. The inflammatory response in the tumor is an important indicator of molecular etiology and later of cancer progression...
March 2, 2018: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
D Franchimont, M Ferrante, E Louis, M De Vos, O Dewit, P Van Hootegem, T Moreels, C Liefferinckx, P Bossuyt, F Baert, J F Rahier, S Vermeire
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
Heitor S P de Souza, Claudio Fiocchi
Despite unquestionable progress in the management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the much improved clinical results achievable today in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, the overall therapeutic outcome remains far from optimal. The main reason of this partial success is that all current medications only block individual components of a highly complex disease process that results from the integration of multiple and incompletely identified pathogenic components. Thus, if further progress is to be achieved in IBD therapeutics and we want to move from the current success rate to nearly 100%, bold new ideas must be entertained and new approaches put into practice...
March 19, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Simon R Knowles, Lesley A Graff, Helen Wilding, Catherine Hewitt, Laurie Keefer, Antonina Mikocka-Walus
Background: Quality of life (QoL) is commonly assessed in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); the relationship of QoL within IBD states and relative to others has not been comprehensively evaluated. This systematic review, published across 2 papers, evaluates 5 key QoL comparisons. Part I, presented here, examines between-disease comparisons: (1) IBD/healthy(general) population and (2) IBD/other medically ill groups. Part II examines within-disease comparisons: (3) active/inactive disease, (4) ulcerative colitis/Crohn's disease, and (5) change over time...
March 19, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Wan-Ju Lee, Todd A Lee, Gregory S Calip, Katie J Suda, Leslie Briars, Glen T Schumock
Background: Prior studies evaluating the relationship between tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors (TNFI) and infection were conducted in adults and had conflicting findings. We sought to examine the risk of serious infection associated with TNFIs compared with nonbiologic immunomodulators in children and young adults with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and to compare the risk among individual TNFIs. Methods: We conducted a cohort study using the Truven MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters database of patients age <30 years with a diagnosis of IBD who initiated treatment with a TNFI or immunomodulator (thiopurines or methotrexate) between 2009 and 2013...
March 19, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Xu-Tao Lin, Xiao-Bin Zheng, De-Jun Fan, Qiu-Qiong Yao, Jian-Cong Hu, Lei Lian, Xiao-Jian Wu, Ping Lan, Xiao-Sheng He
Background: Dysfunctional autophagy is recognized as a contributing factor in many chronic inflammatory diseases, including Crohn's disease (CD). Genetic analyses have found that microRNA (miRNA) levels are altered in the intestinal tissues of CD patients. Methods: The Sequencing Alternative Poly-Adenylation Sites (SAPAS) method was used to compare the 3' end of the total mRNA sequence of 3 surgical specimens of CD patients (including inflamed tissues and corresponding noninflamed tissues in each case)...
March 19, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Nghia H Nguyen, Lucila Ohno-Machado, William J Sandborn, Siddharth Singh
Background and Aims: Prevalence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in older patients is increasing. Risk-benefit trade-offs of therapy are poorly understood in older patients, who may be at higher risk of nonIBD and/or treatment-related complications, rather than disease-related complications. We conducted a nationally representative cohort study to estimate and compare annual burden, costs, and causes for hospitalization in older versus younger patients with IBD. Methods: Using the Nationwide Readmissions Database 2013, we created a cohort of 47,402 patients with IBD who had been hospitalized at least once between January-June 2013 and followed for rehospitalization until December 2013...
March 19, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Britt Christensen, Ruben J Colman, Dejan Micic, Peter R Gibson, Sarah R Goeppinger, Andres Yarur, Christopher R Weber, Russell D Cohen, David T Rubin
Background: Vedolizumab is approved for moderate to severe Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). We present prospective, 1-year data of the real-world effectiveness and safety of vedolizumab in inflammatory bowel disease. Methods: Consecutive patients receiving vedolizumab for treatment of UC or CD with at least 14 weeks of follow-up, regardless of outcome, were included. Patients had clinical activity scores (Harvey-Bradshaw Index [HBI] or Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index [SCCAI]) and inflammatory markers prospectively measured at baseline and weeks 14, 30, and 52...
March 19, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Eugene Vortia, Victor E Uko, Belinda Yen-Lieberman, Jill Frawley, Sarah E Worley, Lara Danziger-Isakov, Barbara Kaplan, Lori Mahajan
Background: Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors are linked with increased risk of reactivation of active tuberculosis. The QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test is approved for screening latent tuberculosis infection in children and adults. There are limited data on the test performance in children on long-term treatment with TNF-α inhibitors. The objective of this study was to assess the proportion of indeterminate results for the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) on long-term infliximab treatment and to evaluate the range of interferon-γ responses to mitogen...
March 19, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
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