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Minimum inhibitory concentration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353377/highly-synergistic-activity-of-melittin-with-imipenem-and-colistin-in-biofilm-inhibition-against-multidrug-resistant-strong-biofilm-producer-strains-of-acinetobacter-baumannii
#1
Ali Mohammadi Bardbari, Mohammad Reza Arabestani, Manoochehr Karami, Fariba Keramat, Hossein Aghazadeh, Mohammad Yousef Alikhani, Kamran Pooshang Bagheri
The rapid increase of drug resistance and failure of available antibiotics to treat biofilm-associated infections is of great health concern. Accordingly, our study aimed to evaluate the synergistic antibacterial, biofilm inhibitory, and biofilm removal activities of melittin in combination with colistin, imipenem, and ciprofloxacin against multidrug-resistant (MDR) strong biofilm producer Acinetobacter baumannii isolates. The kinetics of biofilm formation were evaluated for the isolates for 144 h. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBICs), and biofilm removal activities for melittin and combinations with antibiotics were determined...
January 20, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353202/validation-of-a-traditional-preparation-against-multi-drug-resistant-salmonella-typhi-and-its-protective-efficacy-in-s-typhimurium-infected-mice
#2
Debprasad Chattopadhyay, Durbadal Ojha, Hemanta Mukherjee, Paromita Bag, Shatrughna Prasad Vaidya, Shanta Dutta
Shorea robusta Gaertn has been used for skin and intestinal ailments in Indian Traditional medicine; while two tribal communities used its tender leaves in 'Meyadi-bukhar' or long-term fever. This prompted us to validate the aqueous and methanol extracts of Shorea robusta tender leaves against wild- and multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), the causative agent of typhoid fever. The antibacterial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and growth inhibition were determined using disc diffusion, agar-and-broth dilution, dose- and time-response assays, along with the safety and protective efficacy in Balb/C mice, infected with S...
January 17, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353168/zinc-and-lead-detoxifying-abilities-of-humic-substances-relevant-to-environmental-bacterial-species
#3
L V Perelomov, Binoy Sarkar, O I Sizova, K B Chilachava, A Y Shvikin, I V Perelomova, Y M Atroshchenko
The effect of humic substances (HS) and their different fractions (humic acids (HA) and hymatomelanic acids (HMA)) on the toxicity of zinc and lead to different strains of bacteria was studied. All tested bacteria demonstrated a lower resistance to zinc than lead showing minimum inhibitory concentrations of 0.1 - 0.3mM and 0.3-0.5mM, respectively. The highest resistance to lead was characteristic of Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1391 and Rhodococcus RS67, while Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1391 showed the greatest resistance to zinc...
January 17, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352966/polyphyllin-g-exhibits-antimicrobial-activity-and-exerts-anticancer-effects-on-human-oral-cancer-oecm-1-cells-by-triggering-g2-m-cell-cycle-arrest-by-inactivating-cdc25c-cdc2
#4
Xiaoqing Cai, Lele Guo, Fei Pei, Xiaoyun Chang, Rui Zhang
Plant natural products have long been considered to be important sources of bioactive molecules. A large number of antimicrobial and anticancer agents have been isolated form plants. In the present study we evaluated the antimicrobial and anticancer activity of a plant derived secondery metabolite, Polyphyllin G. The results of antibacterial assays showed that Polyphyllin G prevented the growth of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 13.1 to 78 μg/ml...
January 15, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352811/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-genes-encoding-penicillin-binding-proteins-in-%C3%AE-lactamase-negative-ampicillin-resistant-haemophilus-influenzae-in-japan
#5
Kazuhisa Misawa, Norihito Tarumoto, Shinsuke Tamura, Morichika Osa, Takaaki Hamamoto, Atsushi Yuki, Yuji Kouzaki, Kazuo Imai, Runtuwene Lucky Ronald, Toshiyuki Yamaguchi, Takashi Murakami, Shigefumi Maesaki, Yutaka Suzuki, Akihiko Kawana, Takuya Maeda
OBJECTIVE: β-Lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae is a common opportunistic pathogen of hospital- and community-acquired infections, harboring multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms in the ftsI gene, which codes for penicillin-binding protein-3. The objectives of this study were to perform comprehensive genetic analyses of whole regions of the penicillin-binding proteins in H. influenzae and to identify additional single nucleotide polymorphisms related to antibiotic resistance, especially to ampicillin and other cephalosporins...
January 20, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352469/amoxicillin-current-use-in-swine-medicine
#6
REVIEW
D G S Burch, D Sperling
Amoxicillin has become a major antimicrobial substance in pig medicine for the treatment and control of severe, systemic infections such as Streptococcus suis. The minimum inhibitory concentration 90% (MIC 90) is 0.06 μg amoxicillin/ml, and the proposed epidemiological cut-off value (ECOFF) is 0.5 μg/ml, giving only 0.7% of isolates above the ECOFF or of reduced susceptibility. Clinical breakpoints have not been set for amoxicillin against porcine pathogens yet, hence the use of ECOFFs. It has also been successfully used for bacterial respiratory infections caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351318/invasive-bacterial-disease-trends-and-characterization-of-group-b-streptococcal-isolates-among-young-infants-in-southern-mozambique-2001-2015
#7
Betuel Sigaúque, Miwako Kobayashi, Delfino Vubil, Ariel Nhacolo, Alberto Chaúque, Benild Moaine, Sérgio Massora, Inácio Mandomando, Tacilta Nhampossa, Quique Bassat, Fabiana Pimenta, Clara Menéndez, Maria da Gloria Carvalho, Eusebio Macete, Stephanie J Schrag
BACKGROUND: Maternal group B streptococcal (GBS) vaccines under development hold promise to prevent GBS disease in young infants. Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest estimated disease burden, although data on incidence and circulating strains are limited. We described invasive bacterial disease (IBD) trends among infants <90 days in rural Mozambique during 2001-2015, with a focus on GBS epidemiology and strain characteristics. METHODS: Community-level birth and mortality data were obtained from Manhiça's demographic surveillance system...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348811/disconnecting-the-estrogen-receptor-binding-properties-and-antimicrobial-properties-of-parabens-through-3-5-substitution
#8
Bridget L Bergquist, Kaelyn G Jefferson, Hailey N Kintz, Amorette E Barber, Andrew A Yeagley
Commercially utilized parabens are employed for their antimicrobial properties, but a weak binding to the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) may lead to breast cancer in some applications. Modification of the paraben scaffold should allow for a disconnection of these observed properties. Toward this goal, various 3,5-substituted parabens were synthesized and assessed for antimicrobial properties against S. aureus as well as competitive binding to the ERα. The minimum inhibitory concentration assay confirmed retention of antimicrobial activity in many of these derivatives, while all compounds exhibited decreased xenoestrogen activity as determined by a combination of competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), proliferation, and estrogen receptor binding assay...
January 11, 2018: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346850/trends-in-the-minimum-inhibitory-concentrations-of-erythromycin-clarithromycin-azithromycin-ciprofloxacin-and-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-for-strains-of-bordetella-pertussis-isolated-in-the-czech-republic-in-1967-2015
#9
Vladislav Jakubů, Jana Zavadilová, Kateřina Fabiánová, Urbášková Pavla
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Central European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346603/homologous-stress-adaptation-antibiotic-resistance-and-biofilm-forming-ability-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-heidelberg-atcc8326-on-different-food-contact-surfaces-following-exposure-to-sublethal-chlorine-concentrations
#10
Tomi Obe, Rama Nannapaneni, Chander Shekhar Sharma, Aaron Kiess
Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg (American Type Culture Collection; ATCC 8326) was examined for the ability to adapt to the homologous stress of chlorine through exposure to increasing chlorine concentrations (25 ppm daily increments) in tryptic soy broth (TSB). The tested strain exhibited an acquired tolerance to chlorine in TSB with the tolerant cells growing in concentrations up to 400 ppm. In addition, the chlorine stressed cells displayed rugose morphology on tryptic soy agar (TSA) plates at 37°C...
January 13, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346329/anti-phytopathogenic-and-cytotoxic-activities-of-crude-extracts-and-secondary-metabolites-of-marine-derived-fungi
#11
Dong-Lin Zhao, Dan Wang, Xue-Ying Tian, Fei Cao, Yi-Qiang Li, Cheng-Sheng Zhang
Thirty-one isolates belonging to eight genera in seven orders were identified from 141 strains that were isolated from several marine plants. Alternaria sp. and Fusarium sp. were found to be the predominant fungi. Evaluation of the anti-phytopathogenic bacterial and fungal activities, as well as the cytotoxicity of these 31 extracts, revealed that most of them displayed different levels of bioactivities. Due to their interesting bioactivities, two fungal strains-Fusarium equiseti (P18) and Alternaria sp. (P8)-were selected for chemical investigation and compounds 1-4 were obtained...
January 18, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344778/the-relationship-between-vancomycin-trough-concentrations-and-auc-mic-ratios-in-pediatric-patients-a-qualitative-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Stacey Tkachuk, Kyle Collins, Mary H H Ensom
BACKGROUND: In adults, the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) divided by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is associated with better clinical and bacteriological response to vancomycin in patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus who achieve target AUC/MIC ≥ 400. This target is often extrapolated to pediatric patients despite the lack of similar evidence. The impracticalities of calculating the AUC in practice means vancomycin trough concentrations are used to predict the AUC/MIC...
January 17, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343037/-mechanisms-of-fosfomycin-resistance-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamases-producing-escherichia-coli-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#13
Y J Xu, J J Quan, K R Shi, Y S Yu
Objective: To study the in vitro activity of fosfomycin to extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae and to explore the mechanisms of fosfomycin resistance. Methods: A total of 1 052 ESBLs-producing E. coli(ESBL-EC) and K. pneumoniae(ESBL-KP) isolates were collected from bloodstream infections of 28 hospitals of 22 provinces and municipalities, which were stored by our laboratory.Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of fosfomycin against these clinical isolates were determined by agar dilution methods according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI)(2015)...
January 9, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341946/microemulgel-of-voriconazole-an-unfathomable-protection-to-counter-fungal-contagiousness
#14
Kalpesh C Ashara, Jalpa S Paun, Moinuddin M Soniwala, Jayant R Chavda
BACKGROUND: Fluconazole and ketoconazole both have poor minimum inhibitory concentration than voriconazole. Voriconazole had serious side effects in oral and intravenous doses. It has poor water solubility. The objective of the study was to prepare and optimize microemulgel of voriconazole for topical delivery. AIM: Formulation, development, and evaluation of voriconazole microemulgel for topical delivery. METHODS: Oil and emulsifi ers selected were on the basis of equilibrium solubility study and emulsification property respectively...
December 20, 2017: Folia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340465/variability-in-the-clinical-distributions-of-candida-species-and-the-emergence-of-azole-resistant-non-candida-albicans-species-in-public-hospitals-in-the-midwest-region-of-brazil
#15
Karine Mattos, Luana Carbonera Rodrigues, Kelly Mari Pires de Oliveira, Pedro Fernando Diniz, Luiza Inahê Marques, Adriana Almeida Araujo, Marilene Rodrigues Chang
INTRODUCTION: Incidence and antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. from two teaching public hospitals are described. METHODS: The minimum inhibitory concentrations of fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B were determined using Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute broth microdilution and genomic differentiation using PCR. RESULTS: Of 221 Candida isolates, 50.2% were obtained from intensive care unit patients; 71.5% were recovered from urine and 9...
November 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339382/in-vitro-susceptibility-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-strains-to-mupirocin-an-antibiotic-reformulated-to-parenteral-nano-liposomal-antibiotic
#16
Ahuva Cern, Kristie L Connolly, Ann E Jerse, Yechezkel Barenholz
Neisseria gonorrhoeae is an urgent antibiotic-resistant threat. This study determined the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of mupirocin to be 0.0039-0.0625 μg/ml for 94 N. gonorrhoeae strains Cross-resistance with other antibiotics was not detected.Mupirocin, currently limited to topical administration, demonstrated activity by injection when delivered in nano-liposomes. The nano-liposomal formulation of mupirocin is a potential treatment for drug-resistant N. gonorrhoeae.
January 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339306/morphological-changes-of-bacterial-cells-upon-exposure-of-silver-silver-chloride-nanoparticles-synthesized-using-agrimonia-pilosa
#17
Maheshkumar Prakash Patil, Yong Bae Seo, Gun-Do Kim
Facile, eco-friendly synthesis of metal nanoparticles has been proposed as a cost effective method. In the present study, we propose the facile synthesis of silver-silver chloride (Ag-AgCl) nanoparticles (NPs) using the medicinally important Agrimonia pilosa plant extract without addition of capping or stabilizing agents. The Ag-AgCl NPs synthesis was observed at 40 °C after 10 min incubation; the synthesis of Ag-AgCl NPs was indicated by color change and confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopic peak at 454 nm...
January 12, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334249/antimicrobial-activity-of-1-3-4-oxadiazole-derivatives-against-planktonic-cells-and-biofilm-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#18
Zhaojun Zheng, Qingzhong Liu, Wooseong Kim, Nagendran Tharmalingam, Beth Burgwyn Fuchs, Eleftherios Mylonakis
AIM:  Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of severe hospital-acquired infections, and biofilm formation is an important part of staphylococcal pathogenesis. Therefore, developing new antimicrobial agents against both planktonic cells and biofilm of S. aureus is a major challenge. RESULTS: Three 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives exhibited antimicrobial activity against seven S. aureus strains in vitro, with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 4 to 32 μg/ml...
January 15, 2018: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332105/the-emergence-of-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolates-producing-oxa-48-and-ndm-in-the-southern-asir-province-saudi-arabia
#19
Ibrahim A Al-Zahrani, Bander A Alsiri
To identify the prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) and the most common types of cabapenemases among CRKP in the Southern (Asir) province hospitals, Saudi Arabia. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted between late April and September in 2015. A total of 54 Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) isolates with reduced sensitivity to carbapenems were obtained from various clinical specimens of the 2 largest hospitals in the Southern province. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of carbapenems were confirmed using E-test...
January 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331636/cell-wall-damage-and-oxidative-stress-in-candida-albicans-atcc10231-and-aspergillus-niger-caused-by-palladium-nanoparticles
#20
Martha Samira Athie-García, Hilda Amelia Piñón-Castillo, Laila Nayzzel Muñoz-Castellanos, Ana Laura Ulloa-Ogaz, Perla Ivonne Martínez-Varela, Armando Quintero-Ramos, Robert Duran, José Guadalupe Murillo-Ramirez, Erasmo Orrantia-Borunda
In this work the toxic effect of Palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) was investigated in two eukaryotic cell models, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. PdNPs were synthesized by chemical reduction method, obtaining spherical NPs with a primary size ranging from 3 to 15 nm. PdNPs showed a hydrodynamic size of 1548 nm in Lee's minimum media. Minimal inhibitory concentration was determined at 200 and 250 ppm for Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger respectively, revealing a significant cell growth inhibition (ANOVA and tukey analysis, α = 0...
January 10, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
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