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Minimum inhibitory concentration

Mariana Volpe Arnoni, Claudete Rodrigues Paula, Marcos Ereno Auler, Cirilo Cesar Naozuka Simões, Shirley Nakano, Maria Walderez Szeszs, Márcia de Souza Carvalho Melhem, Virgínia Bodelão Richini Pereira, Hans Garcia Garces, Eduardo Bagagli, Eriques Gonçalves Silva, Melissa Ferreira de Macêdo, Luciana da Silva Ruiz
Fusarium species have emerged as responsible for a broad spectrum of infections, including superficial, locally invasive and disseminated ones, especially in the hospital environment. Since there are few reports of invasive and disseminated fusariosis in children, the aim of this study was to report four cases of nosocomial infection caused by this microorganism in children with cancer hospitalized in a public children's hospital located in Brazil. Two of these patients were female and two were male. All patients presented febrile neutropenia, while three patients had acute lymphocytic leukemia and one patient had Wilms' tumor as underlying disease...
March 21, 2018: Mycopathologia
Francesca Pedonese, Filippo Fratini, Luisa Pistelli, Federica Maria Porta, Pierluigi Di Ciccio, Roberto Fischetti, Barbara Turchi, Roberta Nuvoloni
Essential oils (EOs) are mixtures of secondary metabolites of plant origin with many useful properties, among which the antimicrobial activity is also of interest for the food industry. EOs can exert their antimicrobial potential both directly, in food products and active packaging, and indirectly, as sanitizing and anti-biofilm agents of food facility surfaces. Aim of this research was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of four EOs (bergamot, cinnamon, manuka and thyme) against Pseudomonas fluorescens and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from milk and dairy products...
October 20, 2017: Italian Journal of Food Safety
Seyed Mostafa Hasan Nasrollahi, Mohammad Ali Ghasemzadeh, Mohammad Reza Zolfaghari
The synthesis of heterocyclic compounds has been a topic of significant interest because of their broad applications. In this research an effective and eco-friendly approach for the synthesis 1,4-dihydropyridines has been developed via the four-component reactions of arylamines, acetylenedicarboxylates, aromatic aldehydes and ethyl acetoacetate in the presence of Fe3O4@SiO2@OSO3H nanocomposite under solvent-free conditions. The advantages of this method involve the green reaction conditions, simple workup, broad substrates, excellent yields and the reuse of the nanocatalyst...
March 2018: Acta Chimica Slovenica
Timothy M Rawson, Esmita Charani, Luke Sp Moore, Mark Gilchrist, Pantelis Georgiou, William Hope, Alison H Holmes
BackgroundC-reactive protein (CRP) pharmacodynamic (PD) models have the potential to provide adjunctive methods for predicting the individual exposure-response to antimicrobial therapy. We investigated CRP PD linked to a vancomycin pharmacokinetics (PK) model using routinely collected data from non-critical care adults in secondary care.MethodsPatients receiving intermittent intravenous vancomycin therapy in secondary care were identified. A two-compartment vancomycin PK model was linked to a previously described PD model describing CRP response...
March 20, 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Irene Galani, Konstantina Nafplioti, Marianthi Chatzikonstantinou, Maria Souli
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of double-carbapenem combinations against OXA-48-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates. METHODOLOGY: Double combinations of ertapenem, meropenem and imipenem were evaluated for synergy and bactericidal activity using the time-kill methodology. All antibiotics were tested at 10 mg l-1 and at a sub-inhibitory concentration of 0.5× minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for isolates with a carbapenem MIC≤8 mg l-1 ...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Priya Kapoor, Philip Murphy
Objectives: To evaluate the effect of antibiotic combination therapy versus single therapy against cystic fibrosis strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa identified as common and rare among patient groups in different Irish hospitals. Methods: This study compares the susceptibility profiles of P. aeruginosa isolates from different cystic fibrosis (CF) clinics in Ireland, collected from 2004-2005. Strains were recovered in small numbers and typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis...
March 2018: Heliyon
Abigail L Goodman, Shawn R Lockhart, Colleen B Lysen, Lars F Westblade, Carey-Ann D Burnham, Eileen M Burd
We present two cases of keratitis due to Metarhizium anisopliae in geographically separated areas of the United States. The isolates were microscopically similar but morphologically different and were identified by ribosomal DNA sequencing. Both isolates had low minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values to caspofungin and micafungin, but high MIC values to amphotericin B. The morphologic and antifungal susceptibility differences between the two isolates indicate possible polyphylogeny of the group.
September 2018: Medical Mycology Case Reports
Matthew E Falagas, Tilemachos Skalidis, Konstantinos Z Vardakas, Georgios L Voulgaris, Georgios Papanikolaou, Nicholas Legakis
BACKGROUND: TP-6076 is a synthetic fluorocycline antibiotic that inhibits bacterial protein synthesis. METHODS: Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates from 13 Greek hospitals were tested for susceptibility to TP-6076 and comparator antibiotics. Broth microdilution plates were used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values. RESULTS: 121 A. baumannii non-duplicate isolates were tested. The MIC50 and MIC90 of TP-6076 were 0...
March 17, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Refilwe Given Kudumela, Peter Masoko
There is very little scientific information on indigenous plants used for medicinal purposes. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the leaves of Commelina africana, Elephantorrhiza elephantina, Dombeya rotundifolia, and the whole plant excluding the roots of Schkuhria pinnata indigenous medicinal plants from the Limpopo Province, which may be used for the treatment in humans infected with bacterial pathogens. The screening of different phytoconstituents using standard methods revealed the presence of terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins, and saponins...
January 2018: J Evid Based Integr Med
Kieu-Nhi Tran, Michael J Rybak
Background: Increasing utilization of vancomycin due to the high prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections has lead to the emergence of vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) and heterogeneous VISA (hVISA). In vitro data suggest the potential for potent synergy between several beta-lactams and vancomycin. The objective of this study is to evaluate the synergy between beta-lactams and vancomycin against MRSA that is vancomycin susceptible, vancomycin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (VSSA), hVISA, and VISA...
March 19, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Andrew M Stoessel, Cory M Hale, Robert W Seabury, Christopher D Miller, Jeffrey M Steele
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the impact of area under the curve (AUC)-based vancomycin monitoring on pharmacist-initiated dose adjustments after transitioning from a trough-only to an AUC-based monitoring method at our institution. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of patients treated with vancomycin for complicated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection between November 2013 and December 2016 was conducted. The frequency of pharmacist-initiated dose adjustments was assessed for patients monitored via trough-only and AUC-based approaches for trough ranges: 10 to 14...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
G F Dall, S-T J Tsang, P J Gwynne, S P MacKenzie, A H R W Simpson, S J Breusch, M P Gallagher
Objectives: To evaluate putative anti-staphylococcal biofilm antibiotic combinations used in the management of periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs). Methods: Using the dissolvable bead biofilm assay, the minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) was determined for the most commonly used antimicrobial agents and combination regimens against staphylococcal PJIs. The established fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index was modified to create the fractional biofilm eradication concentration (FBEC) index to evaluate synergism or antagonism between antibiotics...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Yoshinori Sato, Yuka Unno, Tsuneyuki Ubagai, Yasuo Ono
We investigated the numbers of planktonic and biofilm cells and the expression levels of genes encoding efflux pumps and biofilm-related proteins in 10 clinical isolates of multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRA) as well as in its standard strain ATCC 19606 in the presence of colistin (CST), polymyxin B (PMB), minomycin (MIN), and tigecycline (TGC) at their respective sub-MICs. The number of planktonic and biofilm cells of ATCC 19606 decreased in the presence of all aforementioned antibiotics in a dose-dependent manner...
2018: PloS One
Wen-Wen Zhao, Zan Ke, Jing-Yue Wu, Wei Gao, Yang Jie, Yin-Ying Ba, Xia Wu, Xiao-Qing Chen
One new triterpenoid (1) and seven known analogues (2-8) were isolated from the leaves of Ilex hainanensis Merr.. Their structures were established by analysis of their MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data and comparison with those in the literature. The antibacterial activity of compounds 1-8 were evaluated by determination of minimum inhibitory concentration using twofold microdilution broth method against Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 (Gram-positive) and Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 10953 (Gram-negative)...
March 19, 2018: Natural Product Research
Gebremedhin Romha, Birhanu Admasu, Tsegaye Hiwot Gebrekidan, Hailelule Aleme, Gebreyohans Gebru
Objective: To evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of five plant extracts which have been used as traditional medicines by local healers against three multidrug resistant bacteria, namely, Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli , and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Results: The highest mean zone of inhibition (4.66 mm) was recorded from methanol extract of Calpurnia aurea (Ait.) Benth. at a concentration of 200 mg/ml against S. aureus , followed by Croton macrostachyus Del...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Sandra C Vega, Diana A Martínez, María Del S Chalá, Hernán A Vargas, Jaiver E Rosas
Multidrug resistance of pathogenic bacteria has become a public health crisis that requires the urgent design of new antibacterial drugs such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Seeking to obtain new, lactoferricin B (LfcinB)-based synthetic peptides as viable early-stage candidates for future development as AMPs against clinically relevant bacteria, we designed, synthesized and screened three new cationic peptides derived from bovine LfcinB. These peptides contain at least one RRWQWR motif and differ by the copy number (monomeric, dimeric or tetrameric) and structure (linear or branched) of this motif...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Soumik Mitra, Krishnendu Pramanik, Anumita Sarkar, Pallab Kumar Ghosh, Tithi Soren, Tushar Kanti Maiti
Bacteria-mediated plant growth promotion and bioremediation of heavy metal containing soil is a widely accepted eco-friendly method. The present study is aimed to screen out cadmium resistant bacterial strain from metal contaminated rice rhizosphere and evaluate its effects on the growth of rice seedlings under cadmium stress. Among four different isolates (designated as S1, S2, S3 and S5), the S2 isolate was screened on the basis of different PGP traits and multi heavy metal resistance (minimum inhibitory concentration for cadmium, lead and arsenic were 3500, 2500 and 1050 µg/ml respectively)...
March 15, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Edgar Isaac Rojas-Bedolla, Jorge Luis Gutiérrez-Pérez, Mario Iván Arenas-López, Marco Martin González-Chávez, Juan Ramón Zapata-Morales, Claudia Leticia Mendoza-Macías, Candy Carranza-Álvarez, Juan José Maldonado-Miranda, Martha Alicia Deveze-Álvarez, Angel Josabad Alonso-Castro
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Celtis pallida Torr (Cannabaceae) is employed as a folk medicine for the treatment of inflammation, pain, skin infections, and diarrhea, among other diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: The purpose of this work was to assess the chemical composition, the in vitro and in vivo toxicity, the antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal, antinociceptive, locomotor, and sedative effects of an ethanolic extract obtained from Celtis pallida aerial parts (CPE)...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Hui Ye
Antimicrobial peptides are derived from the viral fusion domain of influenza virus hemagglutinin based on rational analysis of the intermolecular interaction between peptides and bacterial outer membrane. It is revealed that the isolated viral fusion domain is a negatively charged peptide HAfp1-23 that cannot effectively interact with the anionic membrane. Conversion of the native HAfp1-23 to a positively charged peptide HAfp1-23 _KK by E11K/D19K mutation can promote the peptide-membrane interaction substantially; this confers to the peptide a moderate antibacterial potency against antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains...
March 2018: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
Ghanshyam Kumar Satyapal, Santosh Kumar Mishra, Amrita Srivastava, Rajesh Kumar Ranjan, Krishna Prakash, Rizwanul Haque, Nitish Kumar
In middle Gangetic plain, high arsenic concentration is present in water, which causes a significant health risk. Total 48 morphologically distinct arsenite resistant bacteria were isolated from middle Gangetic plain. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of arsenite varied widely in the range 1-15 mM of the isolates. On the basis of their MIC, two isolates, AK1 (KY569423) and AK9 (KY569424) were selected. The analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of selected isolates revealed that they are belong to the genus Pseudomonas ...
March 2018: Biotechnology Reports
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