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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922745/optimization-of-linezolid-treatment-regimens-for-gram-positive-bacterial-infections-based-on-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-analysis
#1
Minjie Yang, Jing Zhang, Yuancheng Chen, Xiaoyu Liang, Yan Guo, Jicheng Yu, Demei Zhu, Yingyuan Zhang
AIM: To optimize linezolid treatment regimens for Gram-positive bacterial infections based on pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis. MATERIALS & METHODS: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) distribution of 572 Gram-positive strains from patients with clinically confirmed infections was analyzed. Using the Monte Carlo simulation method, the cumulative fraction of response and probability of target attainment were determined for linezolid regimens of 600 mg q...
December 6, 2016: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919228/antimicrobial-activity-and-safety-evaluation-of-peptides-isolated-from-the-hemoglobin-of-chickens
#2
Fengjiao Hu, Qiaoxing Wu, Shuang Song, Ruiping She, Yue Zhao, Yifei Yang, Meikun Zhang, Fang Du, Majid Hussain Soomro, Ruihan Shi
BACKGROUND: Hemoglobin is a rich source of biological peptides. As a byproduct and even wastewater of poultry-slaughtering facilities, chicken blood is one of the most abundant source of hemoglobin. RESULTS: In this study, the chicken hemoglobin antimicrobial peptides (CHAP) were isolated and the antimicrobial and bactericidal activities were tested by the agarose diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) analysis, minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) analysis, and time-dependent inhibitory and bactericidal assays...
December 5, 2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917454/comparative-study-of-betacyanin-profile-and-antimicrobial-activity-of-red-pitahaya-hylocereus-polyrhizus-and-red-spinach-amaranthus-dubius
#3
Yi Yi Yong, Gary Dykes, Sui Mae Lee, Wee Sim Choo
Betacyanins are reddish to violet pigments that can be found in red pitahaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) and red spinach (Amaranthus dubius). This study investigated the impact of sub-fractionation (solvent partitioning) on betacyanin content in both plants. Characterization of betacyanins and evaluation of their antimicrobial activities were also carried out. Betanin was found in both plants. In addition, isobetanin, phyllocactin and hylocerenin were found in red pitahaya whereas amaranthine and decarboxy-amaranthine were found in red spinach...
December 5, 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917280/antifungal-activity-of-zataria-multiflora-essential-oil-loaded-solid-lipid-nanoparticles-in-vitro-condition
#4
Mahboobeh Nasseri, Shiva Golmohammadzadeh, Hossein Arouiee, Mahmoud Reza Jaafari, Hossein Neamati
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to prepare, characterize, and evaluate solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) containing Zataria multiflora essential oil (ZEO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, Z. multiflora essential oil-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (ZE-SLNs) were prepared to improve its efficiency in controlling some fungal pathogens. SLNs containing Z. multiflora essential oil were prepared by high shear homogenization and ultra sound technique...
November 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917162/activity-of-scorpion-venom-derived-antifungal-peptides-against-planktonic-cells-of-candida-spp-and-cryptococcus-neoformans-and-candida-albicans-biofilms
#5
Fernanda Guilhelmelli, Nathália Vilela, Karina S Smidt, Marco A de Oliveira, Alice da Cunha Morales Álvares, Maria C L Rigonatto, Pedro H da Silva Costa, Aldo H Tavares, Sônia M de Freitas, André M Nicola, Octávio L Franco, Lorena da Silveira Derengowski, Elisabeth F Schwartz, Márcia R Mortari, Anamélia L Bocca, Patrícia Albuquerque, Ildinete Silva-Pereira
The incidence of fungal infections has been increasing in the last decades, while the number of available antifungal classes remains the same. The natural and acquired resistance of some fungal species to available therapies, associated with the high toxicity of these drugs on the present scenario and makes an imperative of the search for new, more efficient and less toxic therapeutic choices. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a potential class of antimicrobial drugs consisting of evolutionarily conserved multifunctional molecules with both microbicidal and immunomodulatory properties being part of the innate immune response of diverse organisms...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916901/modeling-lactic-fermentation-of-gow%C3%A3-using-lactobacillus-starter-culture
#6
Bettencourt de J C Munanga, Gérard Loiseau, Joël Grabulos, Christian Mestres
A global model of the lactic fermentation step of gowé was developed by assembling blocks hosting models for bacterial growth, lactic acid production, and the drop of pH during fermentation. Commercial strains of Lactobacillus brevis and of Lactobacillus plantarum were used; their growth was modeled using Rosso's primary model and the gamma concept as a secondary model. The optimum values of pH and temperature were 8.3 ± 0.3, 44.6 ± 1.2 °C and 8.3 ± 0.3, 3.2 ± 37.1 °C with μmax values of 1.8 ± 0.2 and 1...
December 1, 2016: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914363/new-insights-into-the-sar-and-drug-combination-synergy-of-2-quinolin-4-yloxy-acetamides-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#7
Bruno Couto Giacobbo, Kenia Pissinate, Valnês Rodrigues-Junior, Anne Drumond Villela, Estêvão Silveira Grams, Bruno Lopes Abbadi, Fernanda Teixeira Subtil, Nathalia Sperotto, Rogério Valim Trindade, Davi Fernando Back, Maria Martha Campos, Luiz Augusto Basso, Pablo Machado, Diógenes Santiago Santos
2-(Quinolin-4-yloxy)acetamides have been described as potent and selective in vitro inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) growth. Herein, a new series of optimized compounds were found to demonstrate highly potent antitubercular activity, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values against drug-susceptible and drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in the submicromolar range. Furthermore, the most active compounds had no apparent toxicity to mammalian cells, and they showed intracellular activities similar to those of isoniazid and rifampin in a macrophage model of Mtb infection...
November 23, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914001/subtilosin-prevents-biofilm-formation-by-inhibiting-bacterial-quorum-sensing
#8
Ammar Algburi, Saskia Zehm, Victoria Netrebov, Anzhelica B Bren, Vladimir Chistyakov, Michael L Chikindas
Subtilosin, the cyclic lantibiotic protein produced by Bacillus subtilis KATMIRA1933, targets the surface receptor and electrostatically binds to the bacterial cell membrane. In this study, subtilosin was purified using ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) precipitation and purified via column chromatography. Subtilosin's antibacterial minimum and sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC and sub-MIC) and anti-biofilm activity (biofilm prevention) were established. Subtilosin was evaluated as a quorum sensing (QS) inhibitor in Gram-positive bacteria using Fe(III) reduction assay...
December 2, 2016: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912082/low-dimensional-compounds-containing-bioactive-ligands-part-viii-dna-interaction-antimicrobial-and-antitumor-activities-of-ionic-5-7-dihalo-8-quinolinolato-palladium-ii-complexes-with-k-and-cs-cations
#9
Veronika Farkasová, Sayed Ali Drweesh, Andrea Lüköová, Danica Sabolová, Ivana D Radojević, Ljiljana R Čomić, Sava M Vasić, Helena Paulíková, Stanislav Fečko, Tatiana Balašková, Mária Vilková, Ján Imrich, Ivan Potočňák
Starting from well-defined NH2(CH3)2[PdCl2(XQ)] complexes, coordination compounds of general formula Cat[PdCl2(XQ)] have been prepared by cationic exchange of NH2(CH3)2(+) and Cat cations, where XQ are biologically active halogen derivatives of quinolin-8-ol (5-chloro-7-iodo-quinolin-8-ol (CQ), 5,7-dibromo-quinolin-8-ol (dBrQ) and 5,7-dichloro-quinolin-8-ol (dClQ)) and Cat is K(+) or Cs(+). The cation exchange of all prepared complexes, K[PdCl2(CQ)] (1), K[PdCl2(dClQ)] (2), K[PdCl2(dBrQ)] (3), Cs[PdCl2(CQ)] (4), Cs[PdCl2(dClQ)] (5) and Cs[PdCl2(dBrQ)] (6) was approved using IR spectroscopy, their structures in DMSO solution were elucidated by one- and two-dimensional NMR experiments, whereas their stability in solution was verified by UV-VIS spectroscopy...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910791/effects-of-ethyl-acetate-extracts-from-the-polycephalomyces-nipponicus-isolate-cod-mk1201-ascomycetes-against-human-pathogenic-bacteria-and-a-breast-cancer-cell-line
#10
Kusavadee Sangdee, Prapairat Seephonkai, Benjaporn Buranrat, Nilawan Surapong, Aphidech Sangdee
This study aimed to identify a suitable organic solvent for extracting bioactive compounds from Polycephalomyces nipponicus and to evaluate the antibacterial and anticancer activities of the extracts obtained. Only extracts obtained with ethyl acetate exhibited antibacterial activity, so ethyl acetate was chosen for large-scale extraction. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against Gram-positive and Gram-negative human pathogenic bacteria of the 3 ethyl acetate-derived extracts-ethyl acetate extract from P...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910758/antimicrobial-coumarins-from-the-oyster-culinary-medicinal-mushroom-pleurotus-ostreatus-agaricomycetes-from-kenya
#11
Lilechi D Baraza, Wekesa Neser, Korir Cheruiyot Jackson, Juma B Fredrick, Ochieno Dennis, Kamau R Wairimu, Aggrey Osogo Keya, Matthias Heydenreich
Pleurotus ostreatus has been widely used as food because of its nutritional and medicinal properties. These have been attributed to the presence of macronutrients, minerals, vitamins, and amino acids, among other secondary metabolites. There are, however, few reports on the antimicrobial activities of different classes of purified compounds from P. ostreatus. This led to the current study, the objective of which was to chemically characterize the antibiotic activities of P. ostreatus against selected human pathogenic bacteria and endophytic fungi...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909995/solithromycin-a-novel-fluoroketolide-for-the-treatment-of-community-acquired-bacterial-pneumonia
#12
REVIEW
George G Zhanel, Erika Hartel, Heather Adam, Sheryl Zelenitsky, Michael A Zhanel, Alyssa Golden, Frank Schweizer, Bala Gorityala, Philippe R S Lagacé-Wiens, Andrew J Walkty, Alfred S Gin, Daryl J Hoban, Joseph P Lynch, James A Karlowsky
Solithromycin is a novel fluoroketolide developed in both oral and intravenous formulations to address increasing macrolide resistance in pathogens causing community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP). When compared with its macrolide and ketolide predecessors, solithromycin has several structural modifications which increase its ribosomal binding and reduce its propensity to known macrolide resistance mechanisms. Solithromycin, like telithromycin, affects 50S ribosomal subunit formation and function, as well as causing frame-shift errors during translation...
December 1, 2016: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908580/antimicrobial-activity-of-novel-4h-4-oxoquinolizine-compounds-against-extensively-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-strains
#13
Seok Hyeon Na, Hyejin Jeon, Yoo Jeong Kim, Hyo Il Kwon, Gati Noble Selasi, Asiimwe Nicholas, Chang-Soo Yun, Sang Ho Lee, Je Chul Lee
The aim of this study was to screen lead compounds exhibiting potent in vitro antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii strains from a library of chemical compounds. In a high-throughput screening analysis of 7520 compounds representative of 340,000 small molecules, two 4H-4-oxoquinolizine compounds were the most active against A. baumannii ATCC 17978. Subsequent selection and analysis of 70 4H-4-oxoquinolizine compounds revealed that the top 7 compounds were extremely active against extensively drug-resistant (XDR) A...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908268/synthesis-of-new-fluoro-benzimidazole-derivatives-as-an-approach-towards-the-discovery-of-novel-intestinal-antiseptic-drug-candidates
#14
Ulviye Acar, Begüm Nurpelin Sağlık, Yusuf Özkay, Zerrin Cantürk, Juan Bueno, Fatih Demirci
In the present study, nineteen new fluoro-benzimidazole derivatives, including nifuroxazide analogues, were synthesized by microwave-supported reactions and tested against a panel of pathogenic microorganisms consisting of resistant strains. The synthesized compounds were characterised and identified by FT-IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR, mass spectroscopy, and elemental analyses, respectively. In vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of the synthesized compounds were determined by microdilution and by [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] (MTT) assay...
December 1, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907971/-interpretation-of-bacterial-susceptibility-resistance-to-antibiotics
#15
Milan Kolář
Bacterial resistance may be defined from a microbiological, clinical and pharmacological perspective. Microbiological resistance refers to the presence of genetic information coding for the relevant mechanism of resistance of a bacterium to a particular antibiotic. In case of clinical interpretation, breakpoints are of key importance as their role is to distinguish bacterial pathogens in which successful therapy is highly probable from isolates with a high likelihood of failure. However, it is questionable whether this approach is suitable for all patients, particularly those receiving intensive care for life-threatening infections...
September 2016: Klinická Mikrobiologie a Infekc̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907875/s-substituted-3-5-dinitrophenyl-1-3-4-oxadiazole-2-thiols-and-tetrazole-5-thiols-as-highly-efficient-antitubercular-agents
#16
Galina Karabanovich, Jan Němeček, Lenka Valášková, Alejandro Carazo, Klára Konečná, Jiřina Stolaříková, Alexandr Hrabálek, Oto Pavliš, Petr Pávek, Kateřina Vávrová, Jaroslav Roh, Věra Klimešová
Two new classes of antitubercular agents, namely 5-alkylsulfanyl-1-(3,5-dinitrophenyl)-1H-tetrazoles and 2-alkylsulfanyl-5-(3,5-dinitrophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazoles, and their structure-activity relationships are described. These compounds possessed excellent activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, including the clinically isolated multidrug (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains, with no cross resistance with first or second-line anti-TB drugs. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the most promising compounds reached 0...
November 21, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907185/antioxidant-antimicrobial-and-cytotoxic-properties-as-well-as-the-phenolic-content-of-the-extract-from-hancornia-speciosa-gomes
#17
Uilson P Santos, Jaqueline F Campos, Heron Fernandes V Torquato, Edgar Julian Paredes-Gamero, Carlos Alexandre Carollo, Leticia M Estevinho, Kely de Picoli Souza, Edson Lucas Dos Santos
Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae) is a fruit tree, popularly known as mangabeira, and it is widely distributed throughout Brazil. Several parts of the plant are used in folk medicine, and the leaf and bark extracts have anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, and antimicrobial properties. In this study, we investigated the chemical composition of the ethanolic extract of Hancornia speciosa leaves (EEHS) and its antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activities as well as the mechanisms involved in cell death...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906990/surveillance-of-helicobacter-pylori-antibiotic-susceptibility-in-indonesia-different-resistance-types-among-regions-and-with-novel-genetic-mutations
#18
Muhammad Miftahussurur, Ari Fahrial Syam, Iswan Abbas Nusi, Dadang Makmun, Langgeng Agung Waskito, Lukman Hakim Zein, Fardah Akil, Willy Brodus Uwan, David Simanjuntak, I Dewa Nyoman Wibawa, Jimmy Bradley Waleleng, Alexander Michael Joseph Saudale, Fauzi Yusuf, Syifa Mustika, Pangestu Adi, Ummi Maimunah, Hasan Maulahela, Yudith Annisa Ayu Rezkitha, Phawinee Subsomwong, Nasronudin, Dadik Rahardjo, Rumiko Suzuki, Junko Akada, Yoshio Yamaoka
Information regarding Helicobacter pylori antibiotic resistance in Indonesia was previously inadequate. We assessed antibiotic susceptibility for H. pylori in Indonesia, and determined the association between virulence genes or genetic mutations and antibiotic resistance. We recruited 849 dyspeptic patients who underwent endoscopy in 11 cities in Indonesia. E-test was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of five antibiotics. PCR-based sequencing assessed mutations in 23S rRNA, rdxA, gyrA, gyrB, and virulence genes...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906556/combination-effect-of-cefuroxime-and-levofloxacin-against-bacteria-isolated-from-the-healthy-conjunctival-sac-and-endophthalmitis-cases-using-a-fractional-inhibitory-concentration-index
#19
Takashi Suzuki, Toshihiro Yamamoto, Tomohiko Torikai, Yuichi Ohashi
PURPOSE: Intracameral cefuroxime (CXM) and antibiotic eye drops such as fluoroquinolone are widely used for preventing endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. However, few reports are available regarding their interactions. This study was conducted to examine the in vitro interaction of CXM and levofloxacin (LVFX) against bacterial isolates from the healthy conjunctival sac before cataract surgery and from endophthalmitis cases. METHODS: The activity of each drug was determined using a broth dilution method...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905408/limitations-of-mic-as-sole-metric-of-pharmacodynamic-response-across-the-range-of-antimicrobial-susceptibilities-within-a-single-bacterial-species
#20
Xuesong Wen, Ronette Gehring, Andrea Stallbaumer, Jim E Riviere, Victoriya V Volkova
The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of an antimicrobial drug for a bacterial pathogen is used as a measure of the bacterial susceptibility to the drug. However, relationships between the antimicrobial concentration, bacterial susceptibility, and the pharmacodynamic (PD) inhibitory effect on the bacterial population are more complex. The relationships can be captured by multi-parameter models such as the Emax model. In this study, time-kill experiments were conducted with a zoonotic pathogen Pasteurella multocida and the fluoroquinolone enrofloxacin...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
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