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Minimum inhibitory concentration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775787/genomic-insights-of-reduced-teicoplanin-susceptible-community-acquired-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-case-of-necrotizing-fasciitis
#1
Yamuna Devi Bakthavatchalam, Boopalan Ramaswamy, Rajinikanth Janakiraman, Runal John Steve, Balaji Veeraraghavan
OBJECTIVE: Glycopeptides are being increasingly used to multi-resistant MRSA infections. We report MRSA with low level teicoplanin resistance recovered from a patient treated with teicoplanin for fatal necrotizing fasciitis. PATIENT AND METHODS: MRSA recovered from a patient with necrotizing fasciitis was treated with teicoplanin. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for vancomycin and teicoplanin was determined using E-test. Reduced glycopeptide susceptibility was screened using GRD E-test and population analysis profile (PAP) method...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774212/alkaline-peptone-water-based-enrichment-method-for-mcr-3-from-acute-diarrheic-outpatient-gut-samples
#2
Qiaoling Sun, Yanyan Hu, Hongwei Zhou, Lingbin Shu, Hanyu Wang, Zixian Huang, Rong Zhang
A third plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene, mcr-3 , is increasingly being reported in Enterobacteriaceae and Aeromonas spp. from animals and humans. To investigate the molecular epidemiology of mcr in the gut flora of Chinese outpatients, 152 stool specimens were randomly collected from outpatients in our hospital from May to June, 2017. Stool specimens enriched in alkaline peptone water or Luria-Bertani (LB) broth were screened for mcr-1, mcr-2 , and mcr-3 using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774152/acquisition-of-double-mutation-in-gyra-caused-high-resistance-to-sitafloxacin-in-helicobacter-pylori-after-unsuccessful-eradication-with-sitafloxacin-containing-regimens
#3
Hideki Mori, Hidekazu Suzuki, Juntaro Matsuzaki, Tatsuhiro Masaoka, Takanori Kanai
Background and aim: Although sitafloxacin (STFX)-containing regimens are effective rescue treatments for Helicobacter pylori infection, prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance in H. pylori has increased rapidly worldwide. The change in resistance levels and gyrA mutations, a major cause of fluoroquinolone resistance, after unsuccessful STFX-containing treatment has not been investigated. Methods: We conducted a retrospective, non-randomized study to compare the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of STFX and the location of gyrA mutations in H...
April 2018: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773506/in-vitro-activity-of-salicylamide-derivatives-against-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci
#4
Sarka Pospisilova, Hana Michnova, Tereza Kauerova, Karel Pauk, Peter Kollar, Jarmila Vinsova, Ales Imramovsky, Alois Cizek, Josef Jampilek
A series of 13 salicylamide derivatives was assessed for antibacterial activity against three isolates of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE) and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 as a quality standard. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the broth microdilution method with subsequent subcultivation of aliquots to assess minimum bactericidal concentration. The growth kinetics was established by the time-kill assay. Ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and vancomycin were used as the reference antibacterial drugs...
May 14, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773008/antimicrobial-cytotoxic-anti-inflammatory-and-antioxidant-activity-of-culinary-processed-shiitake-medicinal-mushroom-lentinus-edodes-agaricomycetes-and-its-major-sulfur-sensory-active-compound-lenthionine
#5
Kristyna Kupcova, Iveta Stefanova, Zuzana Plavcova, Jan Hosek, Pavel Hrouzek, Roman Kubec
The antimicrobial, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts of raw and culinary processed shiitake mushrooms were evaluated and compared with those of lenthionine (1,2,3,5,6-penta-thiepane), the principal aroma-bearing substance of the shiitake medicinal mushroom (Lentinus edodes). Antimicrobial activity was tested using a panel of 4 strains of bacteria, 2 yeasts, and 2 fungi. Cytotoxic properties were evaluated against 3 cell lines (HepG2, HeLa, PaTu), whereas the anti-inflammatory activity of tested samples was assayed based on their ability to attenuate the secretion of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772735/antibiofilm-peptides-and-peptidomimetics-with-focus-on-surface-immobilization
#6
REVIEW
Athina Andrea, Natalia Molchanova, Håvard Jenssen
Bacterial biofilms pose a major threat to public health, as they are associated with at least two thirds of all infections. They are highly resilient and render conventional antibiotics inefficient. As a part of the innate immune system, antimicrobial peptides have drawn attention within the last decades, as some of them are able to eradicate biofilms at sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) levels. However, peptides possess a number of disadvantages, such as susceptibility to proteolytic degradation, pH and/or salinity-dependent activity and loss of activity due to binding to serum proteins...
May 16, 2018: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769064/antimicrobial-and-antioxidant-activities-of-triterpenoid-and-phenolic-derivatives-from-two-cameroonian-melastomataceae-plants-dissotis-senegambiensis-and-amphiblemma-monticola
#7
Raissa Tioyem Nzogong, Fabrice Sterling Tchantchou Ndjateu, Steve Endeguele Ekom, Jules-Arnaud Mboutchom Fosso, Maurice Ducret Awouafack, Mathieu Tene, Pierre Tane, Hiroyuki Morita, Muhammad Iqbal Choudhary, Jean-de-Dieu Tamokou
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is a serious threat against humankind and the search for new therapeutics is needed. This study aims to investigate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts and compounds isolated from Dissotis senegambiensis and Amphiblemma monticola, two Cameroonian Melastomataceae species traditionally used for the treatment of fever, malaria and infectious diseases. METHODS: The plant extracts were prepared by maceration in ethanol...
May 16, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768239/antibacterial-and-catalytic-activity-of-biogenic-gold-nanoparticles-synthesised-by-trichoderma-harzianum
#8
Ravi Mani Tripathi, Braj Raj Shrivastav, Archana Shrivastav
This study reveals the antibacterial and catalytic activity of biogenic gold nanoparicles (AuNPs) synthesised by biomass of Trichoderma harzianum . The antibacterial activity of AuNPs was analysed by the means of growth curve, well diffusion and colony forming unit (CFU) count methods. The minimum inhibitory concentration of AuNPs was 20 µg/ml. AuNPs at 60 µg/ml show effective antibacterial activity as optical absorption was insignificant. The well diffusion and CFU methods were also applied to analyse the effect of various concentration of AuNPs...
June 2018: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768222/green-synthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-using-flower-extract-of-malva-sylvestris-and-investigation-of-their-antibacterial-activity
#9
Hassan Mahmoodi Esfanddarani, Abolghasem Abbasi Kajani, Abdol-Khalegh Bordbar
High-quality colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were synthesised via a green approach by using hydroalcoholic extracts of Malva sylvestris . Silver nitrate was used as a substrate ion while the plant extract successfully played the role of reducing and stabilising agents. The synthesised nanoparticles were carefully characterised by using transmission electron microscopy, atomic-force microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy. The maximum absorption wavelengths of the colloidal solutions synthesised using 70 and 96% ethanol and 100% methanol, as extraction solvents, were 430, 485 and 504 nm, respectively...
June 2018: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768099/the-mcr-1-gene-has-no-effect-on-colistin-resistance-when-it-coexists-with-inactivated-mgrb-gene-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#10
Huichuan Zhang, Dongdong Zhao, Qiucheng Shi, Jingjing Quan, Xi Li, Yunsong Yu
The inactivated mgrB gene and the mcr-1 gene are important mechanisms of colistin resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae and they are threats to the clinical use of colistin. In this study, mcr-1 gene was cloned into K. pneumoniae strains (XH209 and KP10) and their derived strains (XH209 M and KP10 M), which showed high-level resistance to colistin. The acquisition of the mcr-1 gene led to colistin resistance in XH209 and KP10, but the addition of mcr-1 gene did not cause change of colistin minimum inhibitory concentrations in the XH209 M and KP10 M...
May 16, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765815/in-vitro-investigation-of-antimicrobial-activities-of-ethnomedicinal-plants-against-dental-caries-pathogens
#11
Mamta Besra, Vipin Kumar
The study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of medicinal plant extracts against the bacterial pathogens prominent in dental caries. A total of 20 plant species (herbs, shrubs and trees) belonging to 18 genera and 15 families were documented for dental caries. Antimicrobial activity of solvent extracts and essential oil from plants were determined by zone of inhibition on the growth of Streptococcus mutans (MTCC 497) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (MTCC 10307) using the agar well diffusion method. The results of in vitro antimicrobial assay prove that methanol is more successful in the extraction of phytochemicals from plant samples than aqueous solvent, as methanol extracts show higher antimicrobial activity than aqueous extracts against both the test pathogens...
May 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765239/the-clinical-significance-of-silent-mutations-with-respect-to-ciprofloxacin-resistance-in-mrsa
#12
Chih-Cheng Lai, Chi-Chung Chen, Ying-Chen Lu, Yin-Ching Chuang, Hung-Jen Tang
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the genotypic differences between different sequence type MRSA isolates, especially focusing on silent rpoB 474 mutations and the relationship between such mutations and ciprofloxacin resistance. Methods: Seventy-nine MRSA isolates were obtained for antibiotic susceptibility tests and molecular study. Results: Among these isolates, we found that the MIC50 , MIC90 , and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range of ciprofloxacin were much higher for the isolates without the rpoB 474 mutation than for isolates with the rpoB 474 mutation...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763805/design-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-novel-quinazoline-2-4-diones-conjugated-with-different-amino-acids-as-potential-chitin-synthase-inhibitors
#13
Nada A Noureldin, Hend Kothayer, El-Sayed M Lashine, Mohamed M Baraka, Yanrong Huang, Bing Li, Qinggang Ji
A series of (2-(1-methyl-2,4-dioxo-1,2-dihydroquinazolin-3(4H)-yl) acetamido) acids) (6 a-m), (7) has been designed to inhibit the action of fungus chitin synthase enzyme (CHS). The synthesis of the designed compounds was carried out in four steps starting from the reaction between 1-methylquinazoline-2,4(1H,3H)-dione and ethyl chloroacetate to yield the ethyl acetate derivative. This ester was hydrolyzed to the corresponding carboxylic acid derivative that was then utilized to couple several amino acids getting the final designed compounds...
May 4, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763727/antibacterial-activity-of-flavonoid-isolated-from-trianthema-decandra-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-molecular-docking-study-of-fabz
#14
R Geethalakshmi, Jagadish Chandrabose Sundaramurthi, D V L Sarada
The natural product flavonoid demonstrates an extensive sort of pharmacological properties including antimicrobial activity. Although its Pseudomonas aeruginosa inhibition has been discovered, no target for action against flavonoid has been revealed to date. The anti - P. aeruginosa activity of the 2 - (3', 4' dihydroxy-phenyl) - 3, 5, 7-trihydroxy-chromen-4-one isolated from T. decandra was evaluated by disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. The molecular docking of the flavonoid isolated from T...
May 12, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763726/susceptibility-of-ruminal-bacteria-isolated-from-large-and-small-ruminant-to-multiple-conventional-antibiotics
#15
Abdelfattah Z M Salem, Ameer Khusro, Mona M Y Elghandour, Jaime Olivares-Pérez, Saúl Rojas-Hernandez, Régulo Jiménez-Guillén
The pivotal aim of the present context was to isolate diversified group of bacteria from the ruminants and to evaluate their antibiogram pattern against 22 antibiotics of 14 different classes. The bacterial isolates from small and large ruminant (sheep, cattle, and calves) were isolated from the rumen based on various colonies morphology, and subjected for preliminary antibiotics susceptibility assay using disc diffusion method. The most sensitive isolates (based on zone of inhibition) were selected for determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each antibiotic ranging from 1 to 256 μg/mL...
May 12, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762386/exposure-response-analysis-of-micafungin-in-neonatal-candidiasis-pooled-analysis-of-two-clinical-trials
#16
Laura L Kovanda, Thomas J Walsh, Daniel K Benjamin, Antonio Arrieta, David A Kaufman, P Brian Smith, Paolo Manzoni, Amit V Desai, Atsunori Kaibara, Peter L Bonate, William W Hope
BACKGROUND: Neonatal candidiasis causes significant morbidity and mortality in high risk infants. The micafungin dosage regimen of 10 mg/kg established for the treatment of neonatal candidiasis is based on a laboratory animal model of neonatal hematogenous Candida meningoencephalitis and pharmacokinetic (PK)-pharmacodynamic (PD) bridging studies. However, little is known about the how these PK-PD data translate clinically. METHODS: Micafungin plasma concentrations from infants were used to construct a population PK model using Pmetrics software...
June 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760962/phenotypic-and-molecular-identification-of-vancomycin-resistance-in-clinical-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-in-osogbo-nigeria
#17
Bosede Titilope Bamigboye, Olugbenga Adekunle Olowe, Samuel Sunday Taiwo
The use of vancomycin for treatment of serious infections caused by MRSA strains has resulted in emergence of vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) in clinical settings. Following our previous report of phenotypic VRSA in Nigeria, the current study attempts to determine the genetic basis underlying this resistance. Over a period of 6 months, non-duplicate clinical S. aureus isolates from 73 consecutive patients with infective conditions at Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo were tested against a panel of eight selected antibiotics by disk diffusion test...
April 2018: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760961/ctx-m-15-is-established-in-most-multidrug-resistant-uropathogenic-enterobacteriaceae-and-pseudomonaceae-from-hospitals-in-nigeria
#18
David Olusoga Ogbolu, O A Terry Alli, Mark Alexander Webber, Adeolu Sunday Oluremi, Omoboriowo Moses Oloyede
β-Lactam antibiotics are widely used to treat urinary tract infections in Nigeria. This study aimed to determine the presence and characteristics of extended spectrum β-lactamases in commonly isolated uropathogenic Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) in Nigeria. Fifty non-duplicate GNB isolates consisting of Escherichia coli , 19; Klebsiella pneumoniae , 21; and Pseudomonas aeruginosa , 10 were obtained from three tertiary hospitals in Nigeria. The antibiotic susceptibility testing of all isolates to a panel of antibiotics including minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and extended spectrum β-lactamases was determined...
April 2018: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760819/antibacterial-and-anti-inflammatory-potential-of-morus-alba-stem-extract
#19
Ichaya Yiemwattana, Niratcha Chaisomboon, Kusuma Jamdee
Background: Periodontitis, a chronic inflammatory disease, is the leading cause of tooth loss in adults. Evidence for the anti inflammatory activity of M. alba Stem Extract (MSE) in periodontal disease is limited. Objective: The study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect of MSE on the growth of periodontopathic bacteria and expression of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 in Porphyromonas gingivalis Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human Periodontal Ligament (hPDL) fibroblasts...
2018: Open Dentistry Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760548/silver-nanoparticles-induced-alterations-in-multiple-cellular-targets-which-are-critical-for-drug-susceptibilities-and-pathogenicity-in-fungal-pathogen-candida-albicans
#20
Venkatraman Srinivasan Radhakrishnan, Mohana Krishna Reddy Mudiam, Manish Kumar, Surya Prakash Dwivedi, Surinder Pal Singh, Tulika Prasad
Purpose: A significant increase in the incidence of fungal infections and drug resistance has been observed in the past decades due to limited availability of broad-spectrum antifungal drugs. Nanomedicines have shown significant antimicrobial potential against various drug-resistant microbes. Silver nanoparticles (AgNps) are known for their antimicrobial properties and lower host toxicity; however, for clinical applications, evaluation of their impact at cellular and molecular levels is essential...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
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