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Minimum inhibitory concentration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805921/bacterial-flora-of-liver-abscesses-in-crossbred-beef-cattle-and-holstein-steers-fed-finishing-diets-with-or-without-tylosin
#1
R G Amachawadi, T J Purvis, B V Lubbers, J W Homm, C L Maxwell, T G Nagaraja
Holstein steers raised for beef production consistently have a higher prevalence and more severe form of liver abscesses than cattle of beef breeds. A study was conducted to compare bacterial flora of liver abscesses collected from multiple abattoirs from 4 groups of cattle, arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design, consisting of crossbred cattle and Holstein steers, and each group fed a finishing diet supplemented with or without tylosin. A total of 383 liver abscess samples, consisting of 94 and 81 from crossbred cattle and 89 and 119 from Holstein steers fed finishing diets with or without tylosin, respectively, were subjected for anaerobic and aerobic bacterial isolations...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805679/controlling-blown-pack-spoilage-using-anti-microbial-packaging
#2
Rachael Reid, Declan Bolton, Andrey A Tiuftin, Joe P Kerry, Séamus Fanning, Paul Whyte
Active (anti-microbial) packaging was prepared using three different formulations; Auranta FV; Inbac-MDA and sodium octanoate at two concentrations (2.5 and 3.5 times their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, the lowest concentration that will inhibit the visible growth of the organisms) against Clostridium estertheticum, DSMZ 8809). Inoculated beef samples were packaged using the active packaging and monitored for 100 days storage at 2 °C for blown pack spoilage. The time to the onset of blown pack spoilage was significantly (p < 0...
August 12, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805380/evaluating-the-antibacterial-properties-of-polyacetylene-and-glucosinolate-compounds-with-further-identification-of-their-presence-within-various-carrot-daucus-carota-and-broccoli-brassica-oleracea-cultivars-using-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-with
#3
L Hinds, O Kenny, M B Hossain, D Walsh, E Sheehy, P Evans, M Gaffney, D K Rai
Ongoing consumer concerns over using synthetic additives in foods has strongly influenced efforts worldwide to source suitable natural alternatives. In this study, the antibacterial efficacy of polyacetylene and glucosinolate compounds was evaluated against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains. Falcarinol [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 18.8-37.6 μg/mL] demonstrated the best overall antibacterial activity, while sinigrin (MIC = 46.9-62.5 μg/mL) was the most active glucosinolate compound...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804616/zinc-oxide-nanoparticle-reduced-biofilm-formation-and-antigen-43-expressions-in-uropathogenic-escherichiacoli
#4
Ali Shakerimoghaddam, Ezzat A Ghaemi, Ailar Jamalli
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-np) on biofilm formation and expression of the flu gene in uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ZnO-np was determined by agar dilution method. The effect of MIC and sub-MIC concentrations of ZnO-np on biofilm formation were determined by microtiter plate assay. The expression level of the flu gene was assessed by Real-Time PCR assay...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803607/effects-of-scutellaria-baicalensis-on-activity-and-biofilm-formation-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#5
Wei Chen, Bei Li, Shuai Li, Yi-Wen Ou, Qin Ou
Objective To explore the effects of Scutellaria baicalensis on activity and biofilm formation of Klebsiella pneumonia (Kp).Methods The broth and agar dilution Methods were carried out to determine minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of Scutellaria baicalensis for TW518. VITEK-32 system was used to assay TW518 susceptibility to antibiotics. Kp biofilms were formed in vitro and stained with BacLight Live/Dead stain. The class integron geneⅠ1 mRNA expression was analyzed with RT-PCR...
September 20, 2016: Chinese Medical Sciences Journal, Chung-kuo i Hsüeh K'o Hsüeh Tsa Chih
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802854/use-of-axenic-media-to-determine-antibiotic-efficacy-against-coxiella-burnetii
#6
K A Clay, M G Hartley, P Russell, I H Norville
The traditional methods of measuring minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antibiotics against Coxiella burnetii are time consuming and technically difficult. The discovery of axenic media for C. burnetii culture provided an opportunity to determine the feasibility of using both broth dilution and an antimicrobial gradient method (E-test) as a convenient method of measuring MICs. The MIC for a range of antibiotics that have proven or potential use in the treatment of Q-fever, namely doxycycline, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, co-trimoxazole, were measured...
August 9, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801228/identification-of-the-first-cathelicidin-gene-from-skin-of-chinese-giant-salamanders-andrias-davidianus-with-its-potent-antimicrobial-activity
#7
Hui Yang, Baoyue Lu, Dandan Zhou, Lin Zhao, Weijia Song, Lixin Wang
Cathelicidins, as effector molecules, play important roles against infections and represent a crucial component of the innate immune system in vertebrates. They are widely studied in mammals, but little is known in amphibians. In the present study, we report the identification and characterization of a novel cathelicidin from Chinese giant salamander Andrias davidianus, which is the first study in Caudata amphibian. The cDNA sequence encodes a predicted 148-amino-acid polypeptide, which composed of a 20-residue signal peptide, a 94-residue conserved cathelin domain and a 34-residue mature peptide...
August 9, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799789/naphtho-1-2-b-furan-4-5-dione-is-a-potent-anti-mrsa-agent-against-planktonic-biofilm-and-intracellular-bacteria
#8
Shih-Chun Yang, Feng-Lin Yen, Pei-Wen Wang, Ibrahim A Aljuffali, Yi-Han Weng, Chih-Hua Tseng, Jia-You Fang
AIM: Naphtho[1,2-b]furan-4,5-dione (N12D) and naphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione (N23D) are furanonaphthoquinone derivatives from natural resources. We examined the antimicrobial activity of N12D and N23D against drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. MATERIALS & METHODS: Minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration, bacterial viability and agar diffusion assay were conducted against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and clinical isolates of vancomycin-resistant S...
August 11, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799307/guiding-principles-for-the-use-of-fluroquinolones-in-out-patient-community-settings-of-india-panel-consensus
#9
Agam Vora, K Krishnaprasad
INTRODUCTION: Respiratory tract infections have been an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide that is looming large especially in context of antibiotic resistance that is confronted both by a pulmonologist as well as a general practitioner. A reflection to this trend has been the rising phenomenon of MICs as shown the respiratory pathogens towards conventional antibiotics including macrolides or β lactam/β lactamase inhibitor combinations. Respiratory fluoroquinolones offer broad yet potent cover of respiratory pathogens leading to their obvious choice for empirical therapy for clinical persisters or high risk cases with prior history of antibiotics not-withstanding the clinical concerns in tropical countries...
August 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799218/synergy-and-mechanism-of-action-of-%C3%AE-mangostin-and-ceftazidime-against-ceftazidime-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii
#10
T Pimchan, D Maensiri, G Eumkeb
To address the resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii to β-lactam antibiotics, combination therapy between different antibiotic classes is increasingly used. The antibacterial activity of α-mangostin (AMT) alone or in combination with ceftazidime (CTZ) was investigated against ceftazidime-resistant A. baumannii DMST 45378 (CRAB). Initial screening showed that A. baumannii strains possessed AmpC β-lactamase (AmpC), Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) and metallo-β-lactamases (MBL). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of >800 μg ml(-1) against individual antibiotics...
August 11, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797834/antibiotic-susceptibility-of-probiotic-strains-is-it-reasonable-to-combine-probiotics-with-antibiotics
#11
C Neut, S Mahieux, L J Dubreuil
OBJECTIVE: The main goal of this study was to determine the in vitro susceptibility of strains collected from marketed probiotics to antibiotics used to treat community-acquired infections. METHODS: The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 16 antibiotics were determined using a gradient strip (E test) or the agar dilution method for fidaxomicin. RESULTS: The probiotics demonstrated various antibiotic patterns. Bacterial probiotics are generally susceptible to most prescribed antibiotics orally administered, whereas yeast probiotics, such as Saccharomyces boulardii, are resistant...
August 7, 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797773/methyl-propiolate-and-3-butynone-starting-points-for-synthesis-of-amphiphilic-1-2-3-triazole-peptidomimetics-for-antimicrobial-evaluation
#12
Thomas A Bakka, Morten B Strøm, Jeanette H Andersen, Odd R Gautun
A library of 29 small 1,4-substituted 1,2,3-triazoles was prepared for studies of antimicrobial activity. The pharmacophore model investigated with these substrates was based on small peptidomimetics of antimicrobial peptides and antimicrobials isolated from marine organisms from sub-arctic regions. Using methyl 1,2,3-triazole-carboxylates and 1,2,3-triazole methyl ketones prepared through "click" chemistry we were able to synthesize the different cationic amphiphiles through three steps or less. Several structural modifications to the lipopohilic side and hydrophilic sides of the amphiphiles were investigated and compared with regards to antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity in particular...
July 29, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797532/assessment-of-in-vitro-antifungal-efficacy-and-in-vivo-toxicity-of-amphotericin-b-loaded-plga-and-plga-peg-blend-nanoparticles
#13
T C Moraes Moreira Carraro, C Altmeyer, N Maissar Khalil, R Mara Mainardes
Amphotericin B (AmB) is widely applied in treatment of systemic fungal infections. However, the emergence of severe adverse effects, such as nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and hemolytic anemia, can limit its clinical use. Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) or poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PEG) blend nanoparticles containing AmB were developed with the aim to decrease AmB toxicity and propose the oral route for AmB delivery. Nanoparticles were characterized by particle size, polydispersity index, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction analyses...
August 7, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796877/conjunctival-bacteria-flora-of-glaucoma-patients-during-long-term-administration-of-prostaglandin-analog-drops
#14
Shinichiro Ohtani, Kimiya Shimizu, Ryohei Nejima, Fumie Kagaya, Makoto Aihara, Takuya Iwasaki, Nobuyuki Shoji, Kazunori Miyata
Purpose: To investigate the effects of the long-term use of prostaglandin analogs for glaucoma treatment on the indigenous flora of the conjunctiva. Methods: Bacterial isolates were collected from the conjunctival sacs of 68 patients at Miyata Eye Hospital from February to September 2014, who had been receiving continuous monotherapy with prostaglandin analogs for glaucoma for at least 1 year. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, cefmenoxime, tobramycin, chloramphenicol, and erythromycin against the isolates were measured to determine susceptibility...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796157/preparation-and-characterization-of-zno-nanoparticles-supported-on-amorphous-sio%C3%A2
#15
Ying Chen, Hao Ding, Sijia Sun
In order to reduce the primary particle size of zinc oxide (ZnO) and eliminate the agglomeration phenomenon to form a monodisperse state, Zn(2+) was loaded on the surface of amorphous silica (SiO₂) by the hydrogen bond association between hydroxyl groups in the hydrothermal process. After calcining the precursors, dehydration condensation among hydroxyl groups occurred and ZnO nanoparticles supported on amorphous SiO₂ (ZnO-SiO₂) were prepared. Furthermore, the SEM and TEM observations showed that ZnO nanoparticles with a particle size of 3-8 nm were uniformly and dispersedly loaded on the surface of amorphous SiO₂...
August 10, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795021/african-peppermint-mentha-piperita-from-morocco-chemical-composition-and-antimicrobial-properties-of-essential-oil
#16
Chraibi Marwa, Kawtar Fikri-Benbrahim, Douae Ou-Yahia, Abdellah Farah
To replace and avoid synthetic chemicals toxicity, there is a growing interest in the investigation of natural products from plant origin for the discovery of active compounds with antimicrobial properties. This work was devoted to determine chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of the EO of M. piperita harvested in the garden of the National Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of Morocco. Experiments have been conducted at the Microbial Biotechnology Laboratory at the Sciences and Technology Faculty, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, Fez, Morocco...
July 2017: Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794647/cefazolin-potency-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-a-microbiologic-assessment-in-support-of-a-novel-drug-delivery-system-for-skin-and-skin-structure-infections
#17
David P Nicolau, Barry N Silberg
INTRODUCTION: Despite aggressive medical and surgical management, the resolution of skin and skin structure infections is often difficult due to insufficient host response, reduced drug penetration, and a high prevalence of resistance organisms such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). As a result of these factors, conventional management often consists of prolonged broad-spectrum systemic antimicrobials. An alternative therapy in development, ultrasonic drug dispersion (UDD), uses a subcutaneous injection followed by external trans-cutaneous ultrasound to deliver high tissue concentrations of cefazolin with limited systemic exposure...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794307/in-vitro-antimicrobial-activities-and-mechanism-of-1-octen-3-ol-against-food-related-bacteria-and-pathogenic-fungi
#18
Chuan Xiong, Qiang Li, Shuhong Li, Cheng Chen, Zuqin Chen, Wenli Huang
1-Octen-3-ol, known as mushroom alcohol, is a natural product extracted from fungi and plants. Its antimicrobial activities against five common food-related bacteria and two pathogenic fungi were evaluated in this paper, including Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Fusarium tricinctum and Fusarium oxysporum. The results showed that 1-octen-3-ol had a strong antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria, especially against Gram-positive bacteria, and it can also inhibit fungal growth and spore germination...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793964/in-vitro-activities-of-tedizolid-and-comparator-antimicrobial-agents-against-clinical-isolates-of-staphylococcus-aureus-collected-in-12-countries-from-2014-to-2016
#19
James A Karlowsky, Meredith A Hackel, Samuel K Bouchillon, Jeff Alder, Daniel F Sahm
Clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (n=3929) collected by 54 medical center laboratories in 12 countries in 2014-2016 were tested for in vitro susceptibility to tedizolid, linezolid, and 11 comparators using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth microdilution methodology with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) interpreted by CLSI M100-S26 (2016) criteria. All isolates of S. aureus tested were susceptible to both tedizolid (MIC, ≤0.5μg/mL) and linezolid (MIC, ≤4μg/mL). The concentration of tedizolid that inhibited 90% of isolates (MIC90) was 0...
July 8, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793019/cryptococcus-neoformans-and-c-gattii-isolates-from-both-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-patients-antifungal-susceptibility-and-outcome-of-cryptococcal-disease
#20
Erika Nascimento, Lucia Helena Vitali, Marcia Regina von Zeska Kress, Roberto Martinez
One of the factors causing treatment failure in cryptococcosis is the resistance of Cryptococcus spp. to antifungal drugs, which has motivated the susceptibility assessment of isolates from patients with cryptococcosis, different clinical conditions and infections outcomes. Clinical isolates of Cryptococcus spp. from three different groups of patients were studied in the present investigation: 19 HIV-positive patients with relapsing and/or refractory meningitis (Group 1), 30 HIV-positive patients who experienced a single and limited episode of cryptococcosis (Group 2), and 19 HIV-negative patients with cryptococcosis (Group 3)...
2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
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